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WELCOME TO TRAINING ON

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)


&
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA)

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CONTENTS
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
SPC Description
Variations & types of variations
Data & Types of Data
Control charts & types
Process Capability
Measurement System Analysis(MSA)
Measurement System Analysis Description
Measurement System Variations & Descriptions
Gauge R & R study



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WHAT IS SPC
SPC - Statistical Process Control, is a
process that was designed to describe the
changes in process variation from a standard.
It can be used for both attribute and variable
data

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WHAT IS SPC
Statistical - The collection of data and the arrangement
of those data in clear pattern to allow predictions to be
made on performance.

Process A process is considered as an any activity
involving combination of people, equipment and
materials working together to produce an output.

Control Comparing actual performance against a
target and identifiying when and what corrective action
is necessary to achieve the target.
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STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL
In statistics, when we look at groups of numbers, they are
centered in three different ways
Mode
Median
Mean

Mode
Mode is the number that occurs the most frequently in a
group of numbers
7, 9, 11, 6, 13, 6, 6, 3,11
Put them in order
3, 6, 6, 6, 7, 9, 11, 11, 13

The mode is 6

5
Median
Median is like the geographical center, it would be the middle number
7, 9, 11, 6, 13, 6, 6, 3,11
Put them in order
3, 6, 6, 6, 7, 9, 11, 11, 13
7 is the median

Mean
Mean is the average of all the numbers .The mean is derived by adding all
the numbers and then dividing by the quantity of numbers
X
1
+ X
2
+ X
3
+ X
4
+ X
5
+ X
6
+ X
7
++X
n
n

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL
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1 2 3 6 8
VARIATION
No two products or characteristics are exactly alike because any process
contains many sources of variability.
The differences among products may be large or may be immeasurably
small, but they are present.
For instance the diameter of a machined shaft would be susceptible to
potential variation from:
Machine - Clerances,bearing wear
Tool - Strength, rate of wear
Material - Hardness, strength
Operator - Part feed, accuracy of centering
Maintenance - Lubrication, replacement of worn out parts
Environment - Temperature, consistency of power supply
The numbers that were not exactly on the mean are considered
variation
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TYPES OF VARIATION
There are two types of variation
Common cause variation
Special cause variation

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COMMON CAUSES
Common cause variation is that normal variation
that exists in a process when it is running exactly
as it should.
Eg. In the production of that Shaft, variation even;
When the operator is running the machine
properly
When the machine is running properly
When the material is correct
When the method is correct
When the environment is correct
When the original measurements are correct

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As we have just reviewed, common cause variation
cannot be defined by one particular characteristic.
It is the inherent variation of all the parts of the
operation together
Eg.
Voltage fluctuation
Looseness or tightness of machine bearings
Common cause variation must be optimized and
run at a reasonable cost.
If only common causes of variation are present ,the
output of a process is predictable.

COMMON CAUSES
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SPECIAL CAUSES
Special cause is when one or more of the process
specifications/conditions change
Temperatures
Tools dull
Voltage drops drastically
Material change
Bearings are failing
Special cause variations are the variations that
need to be corrected immediately since it affect
the process output in unpredictable ways.

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WHY DO WE NEED DATA?
Assessment
Assessing the effectiveness of specific process or corrective actions
Evaluation
Determine the quality of a process or product
Improvement
Help us understand where improvement is needed
Control
To help control a process and to ensure it does not move out of control
Prediction
Provide information and trends that enables us to predict when an
activity will fail in the future
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TYPES OF DATA
Data can be grouped into two major categories
Attributes data
Variable data


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TYPES OF DATA ATTRIBUTE DATA
Attributes data
Non-measurable characteristics
Can be very subjective
Blush
Scratched
Color, etc.
Observations are counted
Yes/No
Present/Absent
Meets/Doesnt meet
Visually inspected
Go/no-go gauges
If color happens to be an attribute that is being inspected for
Typically meet the expected color sample is given
Maybe a light and dark compared to sample given
The acceptable range is in between.
A reject is not measured, just counted as one


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Collected through measurement
Is very objective
Can be temperature, length, width, weight, force, volts,
amps, etc.
Uses a measuring tool
Scale
Meters
Inspection should not be done to sort but for data collection
and correction of the process
This will allow for quick response and rapid correction,
minimizing defect quantities

TYPES OF DATA VARIABLE DATA
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PARETO CHARTS
Vilfredo Pareto
Italys wealth
80% held by 20% of people
Used when analyzing attributes
Based on results of tally numbers in specific categories
What is a Pareto Chart used for?
To display the relative importance of data
To direct efforts to the biggest improvement opportunity
by highlighting the vital few in contrast to the useful
many


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CONSTRUCTING A PARETO CHART
Determine the categories and the units for
comparison of the data, such as frequency, cost, or
time.
Total the raw data in each category, then determine
the grand total by adding the totals of each category.
Re-order the categories from largest to smallest.
Determine the cumulative percent of each category
(i.e., the sum of each category plus all categories that
precede it in the rank order, divided by the grand total
and multiplied by 100).
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CONSTRUCTING A PARETO CHART
Draw and label the left-hand vertical axis with the unit
of comparison, such as frequency, cost or time.
Draw and label the horizontal axis with the categories.
List from left to right in rank order.
Draw and label the right-hand vertical axis from 0 to
100 percent. The 100 percent should line up with the
grand total on the left-hand vertical axis.
Beginning with the largest category, draw in bars for
each category representing the total for that category.
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CONSTRUCTING A PARETO CHART
Draw a line graph beginning at the right-hand
corner of the first bar to represent the
cumulative percent for each category as
measured on the right-hand axis.
Analyze the chart. Usually the top 20% of the
categories will comprise roughly 80% of the
cumulative total.
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PARETO CHART - EXAMPLE
Lets assume we are listing all the rejected products that
are removed from a candy manufacturing line in one week
First we put the rejects in specific categories
No wrapper - 10
No center - 37
Wrong shape - 53
Short shot - 6
Wrapper open - 132
Underweight - 4
Overweight 17
Get the total rejects - 259


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Develop a percentage for each category
No wrapper 10/259 = 3.9%
No center 37/259 = 14.3%
Wrong shape 53/259 = 20.5%
Short shot 6/259 = 2.3%
Wrapper open 132/259 = 51%
Underweight 4/259 = 1.5%
Overweight 17/259 = 6.6%

PARETO CHART - EXAMPLE
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Now place the counts in a histogram, largest to smallest
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Wrapper
Open
No Center No Wrapper Underweight
70
80
90
100
51%
20.5%
14.3%
6.6%
3.9%
2.3% 1.5%
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Finally, add up each and plot as a line diagram
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Wrapper
Open
No Center No Wrapper Underweight
70
80
90
100
71.5%
51%
20.5%
14.3%
85.8%
6.6%
92.4%
3.9%
96.3%
2.3%
98.6%
1.5%
100.1%
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Wrapper
Open
No Center No Wrapper Underweight
70
80
90
100
71.5%
51%
20.5%
14.3%
85.8%
6.6%
92.4%
3.9%
96.3%
2.3%
98.6%
1.5%
100.1%
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CONTROL CHARTS

Control charts are one of the most commonly used methods of Statistical Process Control (SPC), which
monitors the stability of a process.
The main features of a control chart include the data points, a centreline (mean value), and upper and
lower limits (bounds to indicate where a process output is considered "out of control").They visually
display the fluctuations of a particular process variable that easily determine whether these variations
fall within the specified process limits.
Control charts
a graphical method for detecting if the underlying distribution of variation of some measurable
characteristic of the product seems to have undergone a shift
monitor a process in real time
Map the output of a production process over time.
A control chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a
lower line for the lower control limit. These lines are determined from historical data.
By comparing current data to these lines, you can draw conclusions about whether the process
variation is consistent (in control) or is unpredictable.



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CONTROL CHART - PURPOSE
The main purpose of using a control chart is to monitor, control, and improve
process performance over time by studying variation and its source. There are
several functions of a control chart:
It centres attention on detecting and monitoring process variation over time.
It provides a tool for on-going control of a process.
It differentiates special from common causes of variation in order to be a guide for
local or management action.
It helps improve a process to perform consistently and predictably to achieve higher
quality, lower cost, and higher effective capacity.
It serves as a common language for discussing process performance.

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TYPES OF CONTROL CHARTS
The basic tool used in SPC is the control chart
There are various types of control charts

Variable Control Chart
- Averages and range chart (X-Bar and R Bar Chart)
- X bar and s chart
- Moving Range Chart
- Moving AverageMoving Range chart (also called MAMR
chart)


- p chart (also called proportion chart)
- c chart (also called count chart)
- np chart
- u chart

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POPULARITY OF CONTROL CHARTS


Control charts are a proven technique for
improving productivity.
Control charts are effective in defect prevention.
Control charts prevent unnecessary process
adjustment.
Control charts provide diagnostic information.
Control charts provide information about process
capability
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PROCEDURE FOR X BAR AND R BAR CHART
1. Randomly sample n units throughout the day (can be every 5
minutes, every 30 minutes, etc. - whatever is appropriate for your
case)
2. For each sample, calculate X-BAR to estimate the mean and R
(range) to estimate variability. NOTE: THE RANGE CAN BE USED TO
ESTIMATE THE STANDARD DEVIATION.
3. After collecting the 20-25 samples, calculate X-BAR-BAR (the
average of all the X-BARs) and R-BAR (the average of all the ranges)
4. Using X-BAR-BAR and R-BAR, calculate the control limits for your X-
BAR and R Control Charts.


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X-BAR CONTROL LIMITS:
Upper Control Limit (UCL) = (X-BAR-BAR) + A
2
(R-BAR)
Lower Control Limit(LCL) = (X-BAR-BAR) - A
2
(R-BAR)

R CONTROL LIMITS:
Upper Control Limit - D
3
(R-BAR)
Lower Control Limit - D
4
(R-BAR)








PROCEDURE FOR X BAR AND R BAR CHART
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CONTROL CHART CONSTANTS
sample size constant constant constant constant constant constant constant
n d
2
A
2
A3 B3 B4 D
3
D
4
2 1.128 1.88 2.659 0 3.267 0 3.267
3 1.693 1.023 1.954 0 2.568 0 2.574
4 2.059 0.729 1.628 0 2.266 0 2.282
5 2.326 0.577 1.427 0 2.089 0 2.114
6 2.534 0.483 1.287 0.03 1.97 0 2.004
7 2.704 0.419 1.182 0.118 1.882 0.076 1.924
8 2.847 0.373 1.099 0.185 1.815 0.136 1.864
9 2.97 0.337 1.032 0.239 1.761 0.184 1.816
10 3.078 0.308 0.975 0.284 1.716 0.223 1.777
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5. For the R Control Chart, plot all R values on the R Control Chart
to see if all the Ranges are between the control limits. If they are,
then your process is considered to be in a state of statistical control
(as far as the variability of the process is concerned)
6. For the X-BAR Control Chart, plot all the X-BARs on the X-BAR
control chart to see if all the X-BARs are between the control
limits. If they are, then your process is considered in a state of
statistical control (as far as the average of the process is
concerned).

PROCEDURE FOR X BAR AND R BAR CHART
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SAMPLE DATA FOR X BAR R CHART
Sub Group 1 2 3 4 5 X -Bar Range
1 11.95 11.91 12.11 12.03 11.98 12.00 0.2
2 12.01 11.98 11.98 11.97 12 11.99 0.04
3 11.93 12.06 11.98 11.96 12.02 11.99 0.13
4 12.05 11.98 12.05 12.06 11.98 12.02 0.08
5 11.98 12.03 12.06 12.01 11.99 12.01 0.08
6 12.02 12.05 11.96 12.01 11.95 12.00 0.1
7 11.99 12.06 12.01 12.04 12.01 12.02 0.07
8 12.01 11.97 11.98 12.04 11.98 12.00 0.07
9 11.98 12.04 11.98 12.04 12.04 12.02 0.06
10 12.05 11.95 11.98 12.04 11.96 12.00 0.1
` X Bar-Bar 12.00 0.09
X Bar Chart


UCL = X BAR-BAR + A2 * R Bar

12.00 +(0.577*0.09) 12.05


LCL= X BAR-BAR - A2 * R Bar

12.00 - (0.577*0.09) 11.95

R Chart

UCL = D4*R Bar 2.11 *0.09 0.21


LCL = D3* R Bar 0*0.09 0

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PLOT DATA ON CONTROL CHARTS
11.93
11.94
11.95
11.96
11.97
11.98
11.99
12.00
12.01
12.02
12.03
12.04
12.05
12.06
12.07
12.08
12.09
12.10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

(
X

b
a
r
)

X Bar Chart
UCL
LCL
X Bar
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PLOT DATA ON CONTROL CHARTS
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
R Chart
UCL
LCL
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PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE IF PROCESS IS IN A STATE OF
STATISTICAL CONTROL
7. If process is determined to be NOT STABLE, then stop and find out what
an assignable cause might be, fix, and then repeat the complete process of
collecting new data.
8. If the process is determined to be STABLE, then you may use the
control charts you developed to monitor future production to ensure that the
process REMAINS stable.



More Samples for Control charts
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READING OF CONTROL CHART
Control charts can determine whether a process is behaving in an "unusual" way.
The quality of the individual points of a subset is determined unstable if any of the
following occurs:

Rule 1: Any point falls beyond 3 from the centreline(this is represented by the upper and
lower control limits).
Rule 2: Two out of three consecutive points fall beyond 2 on the same side of the
centreline.
Rule 3: Four out of five consecutive points fall beyond 1 on the same side of the
centreline.
Rule 4: Nine or more consecutive points fall on the same side of the centreline.

(Ref Next page for sample)

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READING THE CONTROL CHART
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CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES P-CHARTS & C-CHARTS
Attributes are discrete events: yes/no or pass/fail


Use P-Charts for quality characteristics that are discrete and involve
yes/no or good/bad decisions
Eg.
Number of leaking caulking tubes in a box of 48
Number of broken eggs in a carton

Use C-Charts for discrete defects when there can be more than one
defect per unit
Eg.
Number of stains in a carpet sample cut from a production run
Number of complaints per customer at a hotel
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P-CHART EXAMPLE: A PRODUCTION MANAGER FOR A TIRE COMPANY HAS INSPECTED THE NUMBER OF
DEFECTIVE TIRES IN FIVE RANDOM SAMPLES WITH 20 TIRES IN EACH SAMPLE. THE TABLE BELOW SHOWS THE
NUMBER OF DEFECTIVE TIRES IN EACH SAMPLE OF 20 TIRES. CALCULATE THE CONTROL LIMITS.
Sample Number
of
Defective
Tires
Number of
Tires in
each
Sample
Proportion
Defective
1 3 20 .15
2 2 20 .10
3 1 20 .05
4 2 20 .10
5 2 20 .05
Total 9 100 .09
( )
( ) 0 .102 3(.064) .09 z p LCL
.282 3(.064) .09 z p UCL
0.64
20
(.09)(.91)
n
) p (1 p

.09
100
9
Inspected Total
Defectives #
p CL
p
p
p
= = = =
= + = + =
= =

=
= = = =
Solution:

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P- CONTROL CHART
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C-CHART EXAMPLE: THE NUMBER OF WEEKLY CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS ARE
MONITORED IN A LARGE HOTEL USING A C-CHART. DEVELOP THREE SIGMA CONTROL
LIMITS USING THE DATA TABLE BELOW.
Week Number of
Complaints
1 3
2 2
3 3
4 1
5 3
6 3
7 2
8 1
9 3
10 1
Total 22
0 2.25 2.2 3 2.2 c c LCL
6.65 2.2 3 2.2 c c UCL
2.2
10
22
samples of #
complaints #
c
c
c
= = = =
= + = + =
= = =
z
z
Solution:

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C- CONTROL CHART
43
The ability of a process to meet product design/technical specifications
Assessing capability involves evaluating process variability relative to
preset product or service specifications

Process Capability Cp and Cpk
Cp assumes that the process is centered in the specification range
Cpk helps to address a possible lack of centering of the process

PROCESS CAPABILITY
6
LSL USL
width process
width ion specificat
Cp

= =
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
LSL
,
3
USL
min Cpk
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GRAPHING THE TOLERANCE AND A MEASUREMENT
Its useful to see the tolerance and the part measurement on a graph.
Suppose that:

.512 .513 .514 .515 . 516 .517 .518 .519 .520 .521 .522 .523 .524 .525 .526 .527 .528
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GRAPHING THE TOLERANCE AND A MEASUREMENT
Its useful to see the tolerance and the part measurement on a graph.
Suppose that:
--the tolerance is .515
Specification
Limit MIN
.512 .513 .514 .515 . 516 .517 .518 .519 .520 .521 .522 .523 .524 .525 .526 .527 .528
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GRAPHING THE TOLERANCE AND A MEASUREMENT
Its useful to see the tolerance and the part measurement on a graph.
Suppose that:
--the tolerance is .515 to .525

Specification
Limit MAX
Specification
Limit MIN
.512 .513 .514 .515 . 516 .517 .518 .519 .520 .521 .522 .523 .524 .525 .526 .527 .528
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GRAPHING THE TOLERANCE AND A MEASUREMENT
Its useful to see the tolerance and the part measurement on a graph.
Suppose that:
--the tolerance is .515 to .525
--and an individual part is measured at .520.

Specification
Limit MAX
Specification
Limit MIN
.512 .513 .514 .515 . 516 .517 .518 .519 .520 .521 .522 .523 .524 .525 .526 .527 .528
X
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GRAPHING THE TOLERANCE AND MEASUREMENTS
Suppose we made and measured several more
units, and they were all EXACTLY the same!

We wouldnt have very many part problems!
Specification
Limit MAX
Specification
Limit MIN
.512 .513 .514 .515 . 516 .517 .518 .519 .520 .521 .522 .523 .524 .525 .526 .527 .528
X
X
X
X
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GRAPHING THE TOLERANCE AND MEASUREMENTS
In the real world, units are NOT EXACTLY the same.
Everything VARIES.

The question isnt IF units vary.
Its how much, when, and why.

Specification
Limit MAX
Specification
Limit MIN
.512 .513 .514 .515 . 516 .517 .518 .519 .520 .521 .522 .523 .524 .525 .526 .527 .528
XX
XXX
XXXXX
XXXXXXX
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The normal bell curve
Widths, heights, depths, thicknesses, weights, speeds, strengths,
and many other types of measurements, when charted as a
histogram, often form the shape of a bell.*

A perfect bell, like a perfect circle, doesnt occur in nature, but
many processes are close enough to make the bell curve useful.

(*A number of common industrial measurements, such as flatness and straightness, do NOT tend
to distribute in a bell shape; their proper statistical analysis is performed using models other than
the bell curve.)

XX
XXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXXX
XXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
XX
XXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXXX
XXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
51
What is a standard deviation?
If we measure the DISTANCE from the CENTER of the bell
to each individual measurement that makes up the bell curve,
we can find a TYPICAL DISTANCE.

The most commonly used statistic to estimate this distance is the
Standard Deviation (also called Sigma).

Because of the natural shape of the bell curve, the area of +1 to 1
standard deviations includes about 68% of the curve.

XX
XXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXXX
XXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
XX
XXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXXX
XXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
Typical distance
from the center: +1
standard deviation
Typical distance
from the center: -1
standard deviation
52
How much of the curve is included in how many standard
deviations?
From 1 to +1 is about 68% of the bell curve.
From 2 to +2 is about 95%
From 3 to +3 is about 99.73%
From 4 to +4 is about 99.99%

(NOTE: We usually show the bell from 3 to +3 to make it easier to draw, but in
concept, the tails of the bell get very thin and go on forever.)

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 0
53
A
B
What is Cpk? It is a measure of how well
a process is within a specification.
Cpk = A divided by B
A = Distance from process mean to closest spec limit
B = 3 Standard Deviations (also called 3 Sigma)

A bigger Cpk is better because fewer units will be beyond spec.
(A bigger A and a smaller B are better.)
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
Cpk =
A divided by
B

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A
B
Process Capability is the ability of a process
to fit its output within the tolerances.
a LARGER A
and a SMALLER B
means BETTER Process Capability
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
Cpk =
A divided by
B

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A
B
An Analogy
Analogy:
The bell curve is your automobile.
The spec limits are the edges of your garage door.
If A = B, you are hitting the frame of your garage door with your car.
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
Cpk =
A divided by
B

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A
B
How can we make Cpk (A divided by B) better?
1. Design the product so a wider tolerance is functional (robust design)
2. Choose equipment and methods for a good safety margin (process capability)
3. Correctly adjust, but only when needed (control)
4. Discover ways to narrow the natural variation (improvement)
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
Cpk =
A divided by
B

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A
B
What does a very good Cpk do for us?
This process is producing good units with a good safety margin.

Note that when Cpk = 2, our process mean is 6 standard deviations from
the nearest spec, so we say it has 6 Sigma Capability.
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
This Cpk is
about 2.
Very good!
Mean
58
A
B
What does a problem Cpk look like?
This process is in danger of producing some defects.
It is too close to the specification limits.

(Remember: the bell curve tail goes further than B
we only show the bell to 3-sigma to make it easier to draw.)
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
This Cpk is just
slightly greater
than 1. Not good!
59
A
B
What does a very bad Cpk look like?
A significant part of the tail is hanging out beyond the spec limits.
This process is producing scrap, rework, and customer rejects.
Notice that if distance A approaches zero
the Cpk would approach zero, and
the process would become 50% defective!
Specification
Limit
Specification
Limit
This Cpk is less
than 1. We desire
a minimum of 1.33
and ultimately we
want 2 or more.
60
-


Q & A
61
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA)
An MSA is a statistical tool used to
determine if a measurement system
is capable of precise measurement.
What is It?
Objective or Purpose
To determine how much error is in
the measurement due to the
measurement process itself.
Quantifies the variability added by
the measurement system.
Applicable to attribute data and
variable data.
When to Use It
On the critical inputs and outputs
prior to collecting data for analysis.
For any new or modified process in
order to ensure the quality of the
data.
Measurement System Analysis is
an analysis of the measurement
process, not an analysis of the
people!!
IMPORTANT!
Who Should be Involved
Everyone that measures and makes
decisions about these measurements
should be involved in the MSA.
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA)
Process
Variation
Measurement
System
Variation
Observed
Variation
The observed variation in
process output
measurements is not
simply the variation in the
process itself; it is the
variation in the process
plus the variation in
measurement that results
from an inadequate
measurement system.
Conducting an MSA reduces the likelihood of
passing a bad part or rejecting a good part
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA)
Process
Variation
Measurement
System
Variation
Observed
Variation
The output of the process
measured by:

Cycle time
Dimensional data
Number of defects
and others
Observed
Variation
Process
Variation
Measurement
System
Variation
Reproducibility
Precision
(Variability)
Linearity
Bias
Stability
Resolution
Repeatability
Accuracy
(Central
Location)


OBSERVED VARIATION
Calibration addresses accuracy
Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ERRORS
Accuracy: difference between the observed
measurement and the actual measurement.

Precision: variation that occurs when
measuring the same part with the same
instrument.
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ERROR
Precise but not
accurate
Accurate but not
precise
Not accurate or
precise
Accurate and
precise
ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT
Broken down into three components:
a.Stability:
The consistency of measurements over time.
b.Bias:
A measure of the amount of partiality in the system.
c.Linearity:
A measure of the bias values through the expected
range of measurements.
OBSERVED VARIATION
Observed
Variation
Process
Variation
Measurement
System
Variation
Precision
(Variability)
Linearity
Bias
Stability
Resolution
Repeatability
Reproducibility
Accuracy
(Central
Location)


Calibration Addresses Accuracy
Lets take a closer look at
Precision
Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Measurement System Analysis (MSA)

Error in Resolution
The inability to detect small
changes.

Possible Cause
Wrong measurement device
selected - divisions on scale
not fine enough to detect
changes.

Resolution
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA)

Error in Repeatability
The inability to get the same
answer from repeated
measurements made of the
same item under absolutely
identical conditions.

Possible Cause
Lack of standard operating
procedures (SOP), lack of
training, measuring system
variablilty.


Repeatability
Equipment Variation
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA)

Error in Reproducibility
The inability to get the same
answer from repeated
measurements made under
various conditions from
different inspectors.

Possible Cause
Lack of SOP, lack of training.

Reproducibility
Appraiser Variation
VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R STUDY
Gage R&R is the combined estimate of
measurement system Repeatability and
Reproducibility
Typically, a 3-person study is performed
Each person randomly measures 10 marked parts per trial
Each person can perform up to 3 trials
There are 3 key indicators
EV or Equipment Variation
AV or Appraiser Variation
Overall % GRR

1. Select 10 items that represent the full range of long-term process variation.
2. Identify the appraisers.
3. If appropriate, calibrate the gage or verify that the last calibration date is valid.
4. Open the Gage R&R worksheet in the PPAP Playbook to record data.
5. Have each appraiser assess each part 3 times (trials first in order, second in reverse order, third
random).
6. Input data into the Gage R&R worksheet.
7. Enter the number of operators, trials, samples and specification limits
8. Analyze data in the Gage R&R worksheet.
9. Assess MSA trust level.
10. Take actions for improvement if necessary.

VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R STEPS
Step 1
Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9
Step 10
Step 2
STEPS 1 AND 2: VARIABLE MSA - GAGE R&R
Select 10 items that represent
the full range of long-term process
variation.

Step 1
Identify the appraisers.

Should use individuals that actually do the
process being tested.
Can also include other appraisers
(supervisors, etc.).
Should have a minimum of 3 appraisers.
Step 2
STEPS 3 AND 4: VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R
If appropriate, calibrate the gage
or verify that the last calibration
date is valid.


Step 3
Enter the data Gage R&R worksheet

Step 4
STEP 5: VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R
Step 5
Have each appraiser assess each item 3 times.
Each appraiser has to work independently.
Items should be evaluated in random order.
After each appraiser completes the first evaluation of
all items repeat the process at least 2 more times.
Do not let the appraisers see any of the data during
the test !!
STEPS 6 AND 7: VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R
Collect data into the Gage R&R
worksheet
Enter the number of operators, trials,
samples and specification limits in
same work sheet

Step 6
Step 7
STEPS 8 AND 9: VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R
Assess MSA Trust Level.


Red: > 30% (fail)
Yellow: 10-30% (marginal)
Green: < 10% (pass)


Step 9
Step 8
Calculate & Analyze data in the Gage R&R worksheet
% Tolerance*
10%
30%
STEP 10: VARIABLE MSA GAGE R&R
If the Measurement System needs improvement:

Brainstorm with the team for improvement solutions.
Determine best practical solution (may require some
experimentation).
Pilot the best solution (PDSA)
Implement best solution train employees.
Re-run the study to verify the improvement.





Step 10
GAUGE R & R FORMULAS
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Repeatability - Equipment Variation (EV) = (R bar bar) X K1
Reproducibility Appraiser Variation(AV) = Sqrt{(X bar diff X K2)2-
(EV/[(# parts) X (# Trials)]}
Repeatability & Reproducibility (GRR) = Sqrt((EV2) +(AV2))
Part Variation (PV) = Rp X K3
Total Variation(TV) = Sqrt{(GRR2) + (PV2)}
% Equipment Variation(%EV) = 100(EV/TV)
% Appraiser Variation(%AV) = 100(AV/TV)
% Gauge R & R(%GRR) = 100(GRR/TV)
% Part Variation(%PV) = 100(PV/TV)

SAMPLE EXCERCISE
Sample for Gauge R & R
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Important: An MSA is an analysis of the process, not an analysis of the people. If
an MSA fails, the process failed.
A Variable MSA provides more analysis capability than an Attribute MSA. For this
and other reasons, always use variable data if possible.
The involvement of people is the key to success.
Involve the people that actually work the process
Involve the supervision
Involve the suppliers and customers of the process
An MSA primarily addresses precision with limited accuracy information.
Tips and Lessons Learned
FINALLY


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