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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

09.06.2014 to 09.07.2014
ON
765/400KV & 400/220KV SUBSTATION, LUCKNOW
POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED
SUBMITTED BY
MOHAMMAD AMIR
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (6th SEM)
ROLL NO 1100167023
INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY,
LUCKNOW (U.P)
UNDER GUIDANCE OF
Mr.RAMESH KUMAR RAWAT (M.Tech. in Microelectronics, IT-BHU Varanasi)
Sr. Engineer,
765/400KV & 400/220KV SUBSTATIONS, LUCKNOW(UP)
POWERGRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LTD
NORTHERN REGION-1




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my adwiser and mentor, superwiser Mr. Ramesh Kumar
Rawat,Senior Engineer,765/400 kV & 400/220 kV substation Lucknow for the endless
hours of help, suggestion and advise during the training and development of this report. I am
highly indebted to him for giving me an opportunity to work under himand for his
wholehearted support and suggestions.

I would like to thank Mr. RPS Rana, Manager O&M (T&C),765/400 kV & 400/220 kV
substation Lucknow and I am gratefull to Mr. Santosh Kumar Singh, Cheif Manager,
Head and Inchargeof 765/400 kV & 400/220 kV substation Lucknow,Powergrid
Corporation of India limited for providing the neccessary facilities for completing the
training in the substation.
I express my spacial thanks to HR department staff, O&M staff of 765/400kV & 400/220kV
substation Lucknow, who helped me one way or other in successfully completing my
summer training.



MOHAMMAD AMIR
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (6th SEM)
ROLL NO 1100167023
INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY,
LUCKNOW (U.P)










INDEX
Abstract
About PWERGRID
765KV /400KV Remote operated Sub Station
765 kV Major Equipmentsand Switchyard diagrams
SCADA System ( Supervisory Control And Data Aquisition/ SAS(Substation Automation System)
Protection Relays
Single Line Diagram of 765/400kV
400KV /220KV Sub Station
400kV Charged Lines
220kV Charged and Future Lines
Power Line Carrier Communication PLCC
Auxiliary Supplies
Sub Station Equipment
Current Transformer (CT)
Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT)
Inter Connecting Transformer (ICT)
Bus Reactor
Line Reactor
Isolator
Circuit Breaker (CB)
Wave Trap
Lightening Arrestor
Conclusion





ABSTRACT

The 765/400 kV new substation is full automatic Remote Operated substation which is being
operate from 400/220 kV Lucknow substation Control Room. This is the first substation in
NR-1 which started Remote Operation very first in the region.
In this substation total 9 Bays of 765 kV side. 765kV Lucknow-Balia Line-1(Connected bay
nos 701 & 702) is in commercial operation from 1st March 2012. Second is Lucknow-
Bareilly Line which is presently chrged through 400 kV level (Connected bay nos 408 &
409) and in the work completion which will be connect to bay nos 707 & 708. Last is future
line which yet to come.
In 765kV side one is single phase 3x80=240 MVAR line reactor connected to Balia Line,
one is single phase 3x80 MVAR bus reactor which is connected to 765 kV Main Bus-II in
bay no 709. There are two ICT of (single phase) 1500 MW each capacity and one is spare
transformer single phase of 500 MVA capacity. In this substation 400 kV side total 12 bays
and provision of max four lines. Two lines are in commercial operation (Lko-Lko line-1 &
Lko-Lko Line -2) and two are future line which yet to come. In this side also a 125 MVAR
bus reactor which is connected to bay no 407.

About 400/220 kV old substation have 27 nos of bays and 14 lines of 400 kV and 2 lines of
220 kV. Also the bays are ready for 4 future lines of 220 kV leve. In this substation two
working Bus Reactors 125 & 80 MVAR, four working line reactors in which 2 are of 50
MVAR each and 2 are of 63 MVAR each. These four are connected to Roza line(50
MVAR), Shahjahapur line(50 MVAR),, Gorakhpur line-3 (63 MVAR), and Gorakhpur line-
4 (63 MVAR), respectively.
There are two ICT of 3-phase, one has rating of 315 MVA (CGL make) and second has
rating of 500 MVA (Alstom make)




POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED

Establishment and operation of Regional and National Power Grids to facilitate
transfer of electric power within and across the regions with Reliability, Security
and Economy, on sound commercial
POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED (POWERGRID), The Central Transmission Utility
(CTU) of the country under Ministry of Power is one amongst the largest Power Transmission utilities in the
world. POWERGRID is playing a vital role in the growth of Indian power sector by developing a robust
Integrated National Grid and associating in the flagship programme of Govt. of India to provide Power for
all. An innovation in Technical & Managerial fields has resulted in coordinated development of power
transmission network and effective operation and management of Regional and National Grid.
VISION World Class, Integrated, Global Transmission Company with Dominant Leadership in
Emerging Power Markets Ensuring Reliability, Safety and Economy.
MISSION We will become a Global Transmission Company with Dominant Leadership in Emerging
Power Markets with World Class Capabilities by:
World Class: Setting superior standards in capital project management and operations for the
industry and ourselves
Global: Leveraging capabilities to consistently generate maximum value for all stakeholders in India
and in emerging and growing economies.
Inspiring, nurturing and empowering the next generation of professionals.
Achieving continuous improvements through innovation and state of the art technology.
Committing to highest standards in health, safety, security and environment




OBJECTIVES: The Corporation has set following objectives in line with its mission and its status
central Transmission Utility to:
Undertake transmission of electric power through Inter-State Transmission System.
Discharge all functions of planning and coordination relating to Inter-State Transmission System
with-
o State Transmission Utilities
o Central Government
o State Government
o Generating Companies
o Regional Power Committees
o Authority
o Licensees
o Any other person notified by the Central Government in this behalf.

To ensure development of an efficient, coordinated and economical system of inter-state transmission
lines for smooth flow of electricity from generating stations to the load centers.
Efficient Operation and Maintenance of Transmission Systems.
Restoring power in quickest possible time in the event of any natural disasters like super-cyclone,
flood etc. through deployment of Emergency Restoration Systems.
Provide consultancy services at national and international levels in transmission sector based on the
in-house expertise developed by the organization.
Participate in long distance Trunk Telecommunication business ventures.
Ensure principles of Reliability, Security and Economy matched with the rising / desirable
expectation of a cleaner, safer, healthier Environment of people, both affected and benefited by its
activities.










765/400kV REMOTE OPERATED SUB-STATION - LUCKNOW




POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED
NORTHERN REGION - I
765 KV/ 400 KV REMOTE 0PERETED SUB-STATION
(SCADA), IN LUCKNOW

765/400kV Lucknow S/S is 23Km away from Lucknow City at Agasand Village, Post Office
Kursi, Tahsil-Fatehpur, Distt.-Barabanki 2Kms interconnecting road Lucknow-Kursi Road.
POWERGRID, NR-1 has successfully commissioned the 765kV/400kV Lucknow S/S along
with 765kV Balia-Lucknow S/C Line from Balia 765/400kV S/S and Extension of
400/220kV Lucknow S/S along with 400kV Lucknow (New)-Lucknow (Old) D/C Line
associated with DVC &Maithon Right Bank Project
This was the first 765kV Line energized on 28.02.2012in the Northern Region
and second line in POWERGRID.

CAPACITY OF LUCKNOW 765/400kV LUCKNOW S/S

TOTAL CAPACITY
ICT-1 & ICT-2 1500 MVA Each
YEAR OF ADDITION
3000 MVA 2012

TRANSMISSION LINES
ASSOCIATED WITH 765/400kV LUCKNOW SUBSTATION

S.
No.
Name of the Transmission Line
Line Length
(in Kms)
1 765kV S/C Ballia-Lucknow Line 319
2 400kV D/C Lucknow ( Existing 400kV
S/S) -Lucknow (new 765kV S/S )
03
3. 765kV S/C Lucknow- Bareilly Line
(NowCharged at 400 KV Level)
270

MAJOR EQUIPMENTS
AT 765/400 KV LUCKNOW SUB-STATIONAND EXTN. OF 400kV
LUCKNOW S/S

SR.
No.
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION MAKE QTY
765KV EQUIPMENT
1 500 MVA, 1-Ph 765/400kV AUTO
TRANSFORMER
M/s Hyosung, Korea 7 No.
2 80 MVAR, 1-Ph BUS REACTOR M/s TBEA, China 3 Nos.
3 80 MVAR, 1-Ph LINE REACTOR

M/s TBEA, China 4 Nos.
4 SF-6 CIRCUIT BREAKER (3Ph.) M/s AREVA India France 8 Sets.
5 CURRENT TRANSFORMER
(1Ph)
M/s AREVA India France
21 Nos.
6 CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TR
(1Ph)
M/s AREVA India&USA
9 Nos.
7 C & R PANELS M/s AREVA India
47 Nos.
8 ISOLATORS M/s AREVA, Italy
21 Set
9 SURGE ARRESTORS M/s SIEMENS, GERMANY
17 Nos.
10 WAVE TRAPS M/s AREVA India
2 Nos.
400 KV EQUIPMENT
11 125 MVAR BUS REACTOR M/s BHEL 2 Nos.
12 SF-6 CIRCUIT BREAKER (3Ph.) M/s AREVA India 13 Set
13 CURRENT TRANSFORMER
(1Ph)
M/s AREVA India 18 Nos.
14 CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TR
(1Ph)
M/s AREVA India 24 Nos.
15 ISOLATORS (3Ph) M/s GR Power 36 Set
16
SURGE ARRESTORS
M/s AREVA India 25 Nos.
17
WAVE TRAPS
M/s AREVA India 4 Nos.
COMMON EQUIPMENT
18 S/S AUTOMATION M/s AREVA
1 Set
19
PLCC, TELECOM & EPBAX
M/s ABB/ MATRIX 9 Nos.
20
500 KVA D.G. SET
M/s JACKSON 1 Set
21
LT TRANSFOEMERS
M/s TESLA 2 Nos.
22
BATTERY & BATTERY CHARGER
M/s HBL NIFE/CHABI 4 Sets
23 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
M/sTECHNICO
1 Set



















Supervisery Control and Data Aquisetion) System SCADA
/SAS ( Substation Automation System )
The Substation Automation System (SAS) installed to control and monitor all the sub-station equipment
from remote control centre (RCC) as well as from local control centre. The SAS contain the following
main function : -
Bay Control Unit for control and monitoring.
Station Human Machine Interface (HMI) for working and monitoring .
Redundant managed switched Ethernet Local Area Network communication infrastructure with hot
standby.
Gateway for remote control through IEC60870-5-101 protocol.
The communication gateway l facilitates the information flow with remote control centres. The bay
level intelligent electronic devices (IED ) for protection and control provide the direct connection to
the switchgear without the need of interposing components and perform control, protection, and
monitoring functions.
The Substation Automation System (SAS) suitable for operation and monitoring of the complete
substation.
At bay level, the BCU provide all bay level functions regarding control, monitoring and protection,
inputs for status indication and outputs for commands.
The IEDs directly connected to the switchgear without any need for additional interposition or
transducers. Each bay control IED independent from each other and its functioning not be affected
by any fault occurring in any of the other bay control units of the station.
The GPS time synchronising signal for the synchronization of the entire system BCUs and IEDs

REMOTE MODE: Control authority in this mode is given to a higher level (Remote Control
Centre) and the operation can be controlled only remotely. Control operation from lower levels shall
not be possible in this operating mode.

BCUFunctions: BCU is capable of acquiring analog input values like, Active power, Reactive Power,
Current, Voltage and frequency, power factor, KWh , kvarh( having output as 4-20 mA, 0-10 mA, 0-+10
mA using analog input modules.Acquiring analogy values from the status inputs of devices from the
substation, processing and transmitting to substation control centre and remote end control centre. Receiving
and processing digital commands from the control centre . The operation of BCU ) Bay Control Unit ( high-
voltage apparatus within the station is possible from different places:
Remote control centers
Station HMI.
Local Bay controller IED (BCU)
Only one operator at a time can operate the BCU. In EMERGENCY Operation It is be possible to close or
open the selected Circuit Breaker with ON or OFF push buttons even during the outage of bay IED ) BCU ( .
Bay protection functions The protection functions are independent of bay control function. The
protection is provided by separate protection IEDs numerical relays and other protection devices Relay &
ProtectionIEDs . All IEDs connected to the communication infrastructure for data sharing and meet the real-
time communication requirements for automatic functions. The data presentation and the configuration of
the various IEDs are compatible with the overall system communication and data exchange requirements
The position of each switchgear, e.g. circuit breaker, isolator, earthing switch, transformer tap changer etc.,
ssupervise continuously. Every detected change of position immediately displayed in the single-line diagram
on the station HMI screen, recorded in the event list and Alarms initiated in the case of spontaneous position
changes.

Remote Control Centre ) SCADA (








Gatewae PC







SBUS IEDs

SYSTEM IS : A set of devices with specific functions that interact one to/with other with common rules.
System is COMMUNICATION & CONFIGURATION
SBUS Station BUS (system federal network)
TBUS Tele control BUS (Remote Control Point or SCADA)
LBUS Legacy BUS (Field BUS to IED)
In the above digram different IEDs are connected in FO Cable ring. OI Server collect information from IEDs
and provide to OI Client for display/view to operator workstation


PROTECTION RELAYS:
(Numerical Multifunction Protection Relays)
A-Auto Transformer Protection Panel.
1. Differential Protection. 2. REF Protection.
Fast Ethernet IEC 61850
Station Bus 100 Mbps
BCU
PACiS OI Client
PACiS OI Server

IEC 60870-5-101
S-BUS
FO Cable Ring
3. HV Directional O/C Protection. 4. LV Directional O/C Protection.
5. HV over Fluxing Protection. 6. LV Over Fluxing Protection.
7. Neutral Over current Protection.
B- BusReactor Protection Panel
1. Differential Protection. 2. TEED Differential Protection.
3. REF Protection. 4. Backup Impedance Protection.

C- Line with Reactor Protection Panel.
1. Main-1 Distance Protection.
Zone-1, 2, 3 Distance Protection DEF Protection
SOTF Protection STUBBUS Protection
Over Voltage Protection
2. Main-2 Distance Protection.
Zone-1, 2, 3 Distance Protection DEF Protection
SOTF Protection STUBBUS Protection
Over Voltage Protection
3. Differential Protection.
4. REF Protection.
5. Backup Impedance Protection.
D-BusBar Protection
1.LBB Protection.
2.Bus bar Pprotection
NOTE: DEF-Directional Earth Fault, REF-Rectricted Earth Fault, SOTF-Switch On To Fault. LBB-Local Breaker
Backup


SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF 765KV/400KV

Main SLD of 765/400 kV: Upper portion of SLD is 765 kV side. Total Bays are 9 from 701 to 709.
701(Main) & 702(TIE) Bays are of Lucknow-Balia Line, 707(Main) & 708(TIE) Bays are of Lucknow-
Bareilly Line and 704(Main) & 705(TIE) Bays are for future line.Total TIE Bays are 702, 705 & 708
Lower portion of the SLD is of 400 kV side. Total Bays are 12 from 401 to 412. Bay no. 402(TIE) &
403(Main) of Lucknow-Lucknow line-2, Bay no. 405(TIE) & 406(Main) of Lucknow-Lucknow Line-1, Bay
nos 408(TIE), 409(Main) & 411(TIE), 412(Main) are for future lines.Total TIE Bays are 402, 405, 408 &
411.



System Architecture of 765/400 kV provide the information of connected relays in the whole substation.
Green Relays/BCU indicate healthy position of its. Red indication of its means Relay/BCU is not
communicating with SCADA. Upper portion of this architecture is of 765kV and divided in three parts/kiosk
and lower portion of its is of 400kV and divided in four parts means four kiosk system. All kiosks are
connected to each other with Fibre Optical (FO) cable ring.
FO Cable start from 765kV Control Room to 765 kiosk-1 to 765kV kiosk-2 to 765kV kiosk-3 to 400kV
kiosk-1 to 400kV kiosk-2 to 400kV kiosk-3 to 400kV kiosk-4 to 765kV Control Room. In the kiosks FO
cable is connected with the help of LIU (Line Interface Unit). LIU communicate with EFS (Ethernet Fibre
Switch).


In 765/400kV S/S, 400kV Lucknow-Lucknow Line-2: Bay no 403 is main Bay and 402 is TIE Bay. Bay
no 401 is for future bus reactor.



In 765/400kV S/S, 400kV Lucknow-Lucknow Line-1: Bay nos 406 is main Bay and 405 is TIE Bay. Here
404 is main Bay of ICT-1





400/220 kV SUBTATION- LUCKNOW
400KV CHARGED LINES
S. NO. NAME OF LINES LENGTH (KM) TYPE OF CONDUCTOR
01. 400 KV LUCKNOW -UNNAO-1 73.8 TWIN MOOSE
02. 400 KV LUCKNOW -UNNAO-II 73.8
Twin Moose
03. 400 KV LUCKNOW - GORAKHPUR-I 245.9
Twin Moose
04. 400 KV LUCKNOW - GORAKHPUR-II 245.9
Twin Moose
05. 400 KV LUCKNOW - GORAKHPUR-III 262.26
Twin Moose
06. 400 KV LUCKNOW - GORAKHPUR-IV 262.26
Twin Moose
07. 400 KV LUCKNOW -ROJA 177
Twin Moose
08. 400 KV LUCKNOW -SOHAWAL-I 98.2
Twin Moose
09. 400 KV LUCKNOW -SOHAWAL-II 98.2
Twin Moose
10. 400KV LUCKNOW SHAHJAHAPUR 169.72
Twin Moose
11. 400KV LUCKNOW -SAROJNINAGAR 63.2
Twin Moose
12. 400KV LUCKNOWLUCKNOW-1 3 QUAD MOOSE
13. 400KV LUCKNOWLUCKNOW-2 3 QUAD MOOSE
14. 400KV LUCKNOW -SULTANOPUR 163.6 TWIN MOOSE






220 KV CHARGED LINES




220 KV FUTURE LI NES
S.
NO.
NAME OF LINES LENGTH (KM) TYPE OF
CONDUCTOR
01. 220 KV LUCKNOW - .................. .........................
02. 400 KV LUCKNOW -
.....................
..........................
03. 400 KV LUCKNOW -
.....................
........................
04. 400 KV LUCKNOW - ....................
.........................









S.NO
NAME OF LINE LINE LENGTH (KM)
TYPE OF
CONDUCTOR
1.
220KV LUCKNOW-CHINHAT 24.5
Twin Moose
2.
220KVLUCKNOW-SITAPUR 82.59
Twin Moose



400kV SLD Part-2




400kV Side SLD Part-1: In this substation 400 kV side total Bays are 27 from 401 to 427. In
the above diagram Bay are drafted from 401 to 418 only. The remaining Bay are in SLD part-2



220Kv Single Line Diagram

220Kv Single Line Diagram: 220kV side total Bays are Ten in which Bay no 204 for Sitapur Line, Bay no
205 for Chinhat Line, Bay nos 207 to 210 for Future Lines



400/220 kV SUB-STATI ON SWI TCH YARD EQUI PMENTS
a) ICTs: There are two ICT of each 3-phase. One ICT is 315 MVA of CGL Make and
another ICT is 500 MVA of Alstom Make.
b) Bus Reactors: Two bus reactors are present in 400kV switchyard
80 MVAR with respective bay nos 425 and 426
125 MVAR.with respective bay nos 420 and 421
c) Line Reactors- Total four line reactors are in service with respective linesgiven
50 MVAR connected to 400KV Lucknow-Roja Line,
50 MVAR Connected to 400kV Lucknow- Shahjahapur Line,
63 MVAR connected to Lucknow-Gorakhpur Line-3
63 MVAR connected to Lucknow-Gorakhpur line-4
d) FSC: The connected FSC with respective Lines are
Lucknow-Gorakhpur Line-1 FSC
Lucknow-Gorakhpur Line-2 FSC
Lucknow-Gorakhpur Line-3 FSC
Lucknow-Gorakhpur Line-4 FSC







Power Line Carrier CommunicationPLCC
The power line carrier communication equipment required is to provide primarily efficient, secure and
reliable information link for carrier aided distance protection and direct tripping of remote-end breaker and
also for speech communication between 765 / 400 / 220 kV sub-stations. It includes carrier terminals of
multipurpose type for speech and protection. All carrier terminals including those for protection, suitable for
point to point speech communication also.
PLCC use Amplitude Modulation and has single side band transmission mode.
Mode of transmission Amplitude Modulation single side band with suppressed carrier or reduced
carrier frequency 40to 500kHz range.
Nominal carrier frequency 4.0 kHz band in either direction of transmission
Supply voltage48 V DC +15%, -10% Positive pole earthed
SPEECH COMMUNICATIONPLC equipment provide telephone communication between the
stations where the transmission lines are terminating. It is possible for subscriber at any of the
stations to contact the subscriber at all other stations connected in the system by dialing his call
number.

A) High Frequency Cable: High frequency cable connects to the PLC terminal installed indoorto the
coupling device which installed in the switchyard.
B) Line trap/ wave trap
Cconform to latest IEC 60353 fulfilling all the technical requirements.
The rated short time current for 1Second should be 31.5 / 40 / 50 / 63 kA as per requirement.
The mH. Rating should be 0.25 / 0.5 / 1.0 mH depending on frequency plan.
The Line Trap shouldbe suitable for outdoor pedestal or suspension mounting andshould be
mechanically strong enough to withstand the stresses due to maximum wind pressure of 260
kg/square meter
For pedestal mounting, each line trap mounted on a tripod structure formed by three insulator
stacks arranged in a triangular form. All the accessories and hardware, mounting stool
including bolts for fixing the line trap on insulatorsshould be of non-magnetic material.
C) Lime Matching Unit(LMU)The modular coupling device MCD80, tchyard near it is mounted in swi
CVT together with the coupling capacitor and line trap basically fulfill the following functions:
Insertion and extraction of PLC signals on high voltage overhead lines and cables.
Through connection and distribution of PLC signals in intermediate stations.
Impedance matching between transmission path and PLC equipment.
Potential separation of high voltage equipment and PLC equipment.
In addition to reliable protection of personnel and communication equipment, maximum
emphasis was also placed on low insertion loss for the coupling of the PLC signals on the
transmission line.

The main part of LMU is given below
PLC coupling filter A9BS : The tunable drain coil and the coupling capacitor together with
a tunable series capacitance and shunt inductance form a programmable high pass filter.
Potential separation of the line side from the equipment side is provided by a transformer with
taps. This ensures a proper matching of the line impedance to the equipment impedance and
can be programmed for two values of both line and equipment impedance. The drain coil
diverts the power frequency current flowing through the coupling capacitor to earth. A
lightning arrester connected in parallel with the drain coil limits voltage peaks coming from
the line to a value harmless for the circuit. The coupling can be earthed during servicing by
the earthing switch

PLC coupling filter A9BTThe basic filter units A9BS are supplemented by A9BT to provide a
two phase or inter-system coupling. The Supplementary unit differs from the relevant basic units
only by the built-in hybrid transformer A1AC, which distributes the PLC signal in push-pull
operation to the two phases. This ensures that the additional attenuation is not greater than
approx. 4dB with single-phase faults close to the station. The impedance transformer module
A1AE is one of the optional modules which can be mounted inside of the MCD80 enclosure. The
highpass coupling filter A9BS/A9BT is program
amiable for secondary equipment side impedance of 75 mho unbalanced or 125
mhounbalanced. The module A1AE is used for matching to other equipment such as
150 mho balanced and is individually manufactured.
ADVANTAGES OF POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION
Uses existing Power Lines
Very long distances w/o repeaters
Shortest link for Tele-protection
Reliable
Fully under control of the Power Utility
Cost effective from distance point of view



Phase To Phase Coupling





AUXILIARY SUPPLIES
AC SOURCE:
Source-1 (33kv /415v) from Khurram Nagar substation Lucknow
Source -2 (33kv /415v) from ICT-1 as a T-3
Emergency Power Backup (Diesel-Generator Set)
In case of loss of auxiliary supply, the emergency power backup system, which is a diesel-generator set,
starts automatically. This generator can provide power continuously for 5 hours.
At 400/220 kV substation a DG set of 250 KVA(CUMMINS) is installed.
At 765/400 kV substation a DG set of 500 KVA (CUMMINS) is installed.

DC SOURCE:

There are two DC source of the auxiliary supply
220 Volt Two number of set of 220 Volt
48 Volt Two number of set of 48 Volt
Each DC Source charged by separate chargerby 220V and 48 volt separate chargerrespectively.
In the Battery room Battery Banks are installed which provide D.C. supply for the sub-station
DC. Equipment operation D.C. Supply is required for the operation of the relay in the control
panel and for the operation of PLCC. There are four battery banks, two for 220 V supply (one
primary and other backup) and for 48 V supply. Each 220 V Lead - Acid battery bank comprises
110 cell of 2.2 V each. Capacity of the battery banks is 600AH. Float or trickle charging is used
for the batteries i.e. batteries are charged under no load at a ratio equal to their self-discharge
rate. Any battery or cell is allowed to discharge to value 80% of the full charge , i.e., the
cell is allowed to discharge only of 20% of its maximum voltage.







Aux Power Supply SLD






CONTROL ROOM (400/220kv)
Different equipment in the control room are listed below:
Metering and control panels
Protection / Relay panels
GPS Receiver &Clock
Remote Top Changer for Transformers (ICTs)
PLCC panel
SCADA Monitors
CCTV Camera Monitor





Current Transformer
CT provide 1 Ampere at secondry with respect to primary of 3000A or 2000A or 1000A
In electrical engineering, a current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current
transformers are also known as instrument transformers. When current in a circuit is too high to directly
apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to
the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A
current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the
primary circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical
power industry.

NAME PLATE:CT400kVSIDE:
Manufacturer: Crompton and Greaves Type: I OSK: 420/630/1425
I .L: 630kV/1425kVp STRENGTH: 40kA for 1 sec.
I dyn: 100kAg Frequency: 50Hz
Rated primary current=2000A Rated secondary current=2400A
Total weight: 1450kg10% Oil weight: 375kg10%
CT 220kV Side:
Manufacturer: Crompton and Greaves Type: I OSK: 1/800/1600
STRENGTH: 20kA for 1sec I dyn: 100kAg
Frequency: 50Hz Total weight: 1450kg10%
Oil weight: 375kg10%
Usage Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current


Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT )
CVT provide 110 Volt at secondry with respect to primary of 765kV or 400kV or 220kV


A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is
a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low
voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of
three parts: two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune
the device to the line frequency, and a transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the
instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four terminals: a terminal for connection to the
high voltage signal, a ground terminal, and two secondary terminals which connect to the instrumentation
or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one
hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice, capacitor C
1
is
often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. This provides a large voltage drop
across C
1
and a relatively small voltage drop across C
2
.
The CVT is also useful in communication systems. CVTs in combination with wave traps are used for
filtering high frequency communication signals from power frequency. This forms a carrier communication
network throughout the transmission network


NAME PLATE:
CVT400kVSIDE:
Manufacturer: W.S. I ndustries I ndia Ltd., Bangalore
Intermediate Voltage: 22/3kV Total Output Simultaneous: 2000VA
Output Maximum: 750VA Operating Voltage: 400/3kV
Voltage Factor: 1.5 Test Voltage: 1 min.
I mpulse to withstand voltage: 1.2/20s Frequency: 50Hz
HF Capacitance: 4400pF Primary Capacitance: 4000pF
Secondary Capacitance: 60000pF
CVT220kV SIDE:
Manufacturer: Asia Brown Boveri Ltd. Vadodra (ABB)
1 phase capacitor voltage Transformer Highest system voltage=245kV
Rated frequency=50Hz HV(Primary) Capacitance=4840pFI nt.
(Secondary) Capacitance=48400pF Total Thermal Burden=1000VA
Class of Insulation=A Single Phase Solidy Earth Connection
Voltage Divider Ratio: 220000/20000
Voltage Factor: 1.2 for continuous/ 1.5 for 30 seconds
Rated Voltage=220kV Weight of oil=100(kg/ltr.)
Total weight=450kg.








Interconnecting Transformer (I C T)
In 400/220 kV Lucknow substation, two ICT are in service. First is 315 MVA CGL make and second is 500
MVA Alstom make.



A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively
coupled electrical conductors. A changing current in the first circuit creates a changing magnetic field; in
turn, this magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit. By adding a load to the secondary
circuit, one can make current flow in the transformer, thus transferring energy from one circuit to the other.
The secondary induced voltage V
S
, of an ideal transformer, is scaled from the primary V
P
by a factor equal
to the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings. By appropriate selection of the
numbers of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up by making N
S
more
than N
P
or stepped down, by making it less.




NAME PLATE:315 MVA ICT-1
Manufacturer: C G L Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
Rating HV &LV(M.V.A.): 189/252/315 60%/80%/100%
Rating LV(MVA) kV: 105/105/105 No load Voltage HV (kV): 400
No load Voltage I V(kV): 220 No load Voltage LV (kV): 33
Line Current HV(A): 454.6 Line Current I V (A): 826.6
Line Current LV(A): 1837.0
Temp. Rise oil (C)- 50 over ambient of 50C
Temp. Rise Winding (C) - 55 over ambient of 55 C
Core & Winding: 144390kg Weight of oil: 72970kg
Total weight: 307770kg Oil Quantity: 83870 litres
Phase: 3 Frequency: 50 Hz
I mpedance Voltage at 315 MVA base:
HV position 9/LV=60(MI N)%
HV position 9/I V=12.510%
I V/LV=45(MI N)%











SULPHUR HEXAFLUORIDE(SF6) CIRCUIT BREAKER


400kV SF6 Circuit Breakers
SF6 has excellent insulating strength because of its affinity for electrons (electro negativity) i.e. whenever a
free electron collides with the neutral gas molecule to form negative ion, the electron is absorbed by the
neutral gas molecule. The attachment of electron with the neutral gas molecule occurs in two ways:


ADVANTAGES OF SF6 BREAKERS:
1. The current chopping tendency is minimized by using the gas sf6 at low pressure and low
velocity.
2. The closed circuit gas cycle and low velocity operation eliminates the moisture problem and
gives noiseless operation of the breaker.
3. Because of the outstanding arc quenching properties of sf6, the arcing time is small, and,
therefore, contact erosion is less.
4. No carbon particle is formed during arcing and, therefore, there is no reduction in the dielectric
strength of the gas.
5. The circuit breaker performance is not affected by the atmospheric conditions.
6. Electrical clearances are drastically reduced due to high dielectric strength of SF6.

NAME PLATE:
CB400kVSI DE:
Manufacturer: ABB Rated Voltage: 420kV
Rated Normal Current: 3150A Rated Frequency: 50Hz
Breaking Capacity: SYM: 50KA
ASYM: 61KA
Minimum Opening Time: 18.5ms Maximum Total Break Time: 40ms
Out of phase switching: 10kA rms First Pole to clear factor: 1.3
Operating Duty: 0-0.3sec-CO-3min-CO Making Capacity: 100kVAp
Short Time Current: 40kA rms 100kAp
Rated Pressure of SF6: 7 bars gauge at 20C
CB220kV SI DE:
Manufacturer: ABB Voltage: 245kV
Normal Current: 1600/2500A
Lightning I mpulse Withstand Voltage: 1050kv,
Power Frequency Withstand Voltage: 460kV
Short Circuit Breaking Current: 40kA
Short Time Withstand Current and Duration: 40kA and 1 sec
Line Charging Breaking Current: 125A
Operating Sequence: 0-0.3s-CO-3min.-CO
First pole to clear factor: 1.3,
Gas Pressure=7.0bar at 20C
Closing and Opening device Supply Voltage: 220kV d.c.
Auxiliary Circuit Supply Voltage: 240V a.c.
Air Pressure: 20.5 bar,
Frequency: 50Hz
Mass(approx.)(for 3 poles): 3800kg

ISOLATOR


An isolator switch is part of an electrical circuit and the switch isolates circuits that are continually
powered or is a key element which enables an electrical engineer to safely work on the protected circuit.
In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated circuit thereby providing
additional safety. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter-connect power distribution
systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated.
The major difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is that an isolator is an off-load device,
whereas a circuit breaker is an on-load device.
NAME PLATE:

I SOLATER220kV:
Manufacturer: Elpro International Ltd.Voltage (kV) : 245
BIL(kVp): 105STC(kA/sec): 40/ISCE
Motor Voltage(A): 415Type of Drive: MOM
Weight of Isolator(kg): 100Frequency(Hz): 50
Current(A): 1600Control Voltage: 220kV




I SOLATER 400kV:

Manufacturer: HI VELM INDUSTRIES, CHENNAI.Type: DBRB
Voltage (kV) Ur. 420BIL(kV): 1425
Frequency(Hz): 50Current (A) Ir: 2000
Switching Impedance(kV)Us:1050/1245Type of Drive: Motor Operated
Motor Voltage(A.C.): 415kVControl Voltage(D.C.):220kV
Weight of Isolator(kg): 900/pole(approx.)Weight of Drive(kg):1000











Lightning Arrestor

Lightning has been a source of wonder to mankind for thousands of years. Some of the accepted facts about
thunder cloud and lightning phenomenon:
1. The height of the cloud base above the surrounding ground level may vary from 500 to 30000 ft. the
charged centers which are responsible for lightning are in the range of 1000 to 5000 ft.
2. The maximum charge on a cloud is of the order of 10 coulombs which is built up exponentially over a
period of perhaps many second or even minutes.
3. The maximum potential of a cloud lies approximately within the range of 10 MV to 100 MV.
4. The energy in the lightning stroke may be of the order of 250 KWHR.

The current in the streamer is of the order of 100 ampere and the sped of the streamer is 0.5ft./microsecond.
This streamer is known as pilot streamer because this leads to the lightning phenomenon. Depending upon
the state of ionization of the air surrounding the streamer, it is branched up to several paths and this is
known as a stepped leader. The leader steps are of the order of 50 m in length and are accomplished in
about a microsecond. The charge is brought from the cloud through the already ionized paths to these
pauses. The air surrounding these pauses is again ionized and the leader in this way reaches the earth.




The action of the lightning arrester or surge diverter is as under:
(i) Under normal operation, the lightning arrester is off the line i.e. it conducts no current to earth or the
gap is non-conducting
(ii) On the occurrence of over voltage, the air insulation across the gap breaks down and an arc is formed
providing a low resistance path for the surge to the ground. In this way, the excess charge on the line due to
the surge is harmlessly conducted through the arrester to the ground instead of being sent back over the line.

WAVE TRAP :It is connected in series with the power (transmission) line. It blocks the
high frequency carrier waves (24 KHz to 500 KHz) and let power waves (50Hz - 60Hz) to
pass through. It is basically an inductor of rating in millihenry.




REACTORS

REACTORS:Two types of reactor installed in Lucknow Substation:
Bus Reactor 125 MVAR, & 80 MVAR
Line reactor 63 MVAR ( 2 Nos) , & 50 MVAR(2 Nos)
NAME PLATE:
Manufacturer: BHEL. Type: SSLR
Phase: 3 Type of cooling: ONAN
Frequency (Hz): 50 Rated Voltage: 420kV
Rated Current: 110A Type of Reactor: Air Core with Magnetic Shield
I mpedance: - Positive Sequence: 2.168
Zero Sequence: 2.168
Maximum Temp rise (at 420kV): Oil: 50C Winding: 55C
Oil: Reactor: 22500litreRadiator unit: 4000litre
Weights:
Shield & Windings: 63000kg.
Tank & Fittings: 19500kg
Radiator unit: 7500kg
Oil: 24000kg
Total: 114000kg


CONCLUSI ON
Transmission systems have a force multiplier effect on the electricity sector. Apart from
increasing reliability of the electricity grids, they help in harnessing the diversity available
over the vast interconnection on account of weather, festivals, culture, lifestyle, growth
disparities etc. This diversity helps in economy exchanges of electricity leading to very low
payback periods (less than three years) on investment as well as a high benefit-cost ratio
even without considering its impact on emissions. Strong cross-border international
connections would further help in reaping the benefit of this diversity. Further the
enlargement of the grid also increases the interdependence between regions and calls for
building of institutions, increasing professionalism and exploiting technology at the
international, national and regional level to cope with the increased complexity of grid
operation.


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