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Department of Fashion Technology

National Institute Of Fashion Technology


New Delhi









ARVIND LIMITED | DENIM DIVISION
ARUSHI SRIVASTAVA
VAISHALI RAI


TEXTILE INTERNSHIP
REPORT
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CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that Arushi Srivastava and Vaishali Rai of BFT-V, National
Institute Of Fashion Technology, New Delhi did their internships at
Arvind Limited | Denim Division, Naroda, Ahemdabad from
May 26, 2013 to June 15, 2013 towards the partial fulfillment of the program
B.F.Tech (Apparel Production).

This project report has been created and compiled by them under the guidance of
Ms. Girija Jha and is their authentic work.



Arushi Srivastava

Vaishali Rai

Ms. Girija Jha
Mentor

Certificate of Authenticity
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At the outset, we wish to express our gratitude to everybody who has
assisted in the formulation of this report. There are many to whom
expression of gratitude is inevitable, but there some special people who
have to be given prominence, without whom we would not have reached
the conclusion of this project so quickly and so efficiently.
We are grateful to Dr. Senthil Kumar for guiding us throughout the internship.
We would like to thank our Course Coordinator and mentor Ms. Girija Jha and
Mr. N.A. Khan, who has always added to our buoyancy with her tremendous
efforts and for her constant support.
At Arvind Limited, we would like to thank the HR manager, Ms. Richa Ahuja; our
industry mentor, Mr. Diwaker Tiwari, Chief Manager- Manufacturing and Mr.
Mahesh Ramakrishnan, head of the Agribusiness Department. Also, we would like
to express a special gratitude to the company for being excellent hosts.
We take this opportunity to express our affection towards our parents
for their consistent faith and support.

Arushi Srivastava
Vaishali Rai

Acknowledgement
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1. About the Company
1.1. Introduction 07
1.2. Journey 09
1.3. Company's vlslon 11
1.4. Divions
1.4.1. Denim 12
1.4.2. Woven Fabrics 13
1.4.3. Knits 16
1.4.4. Garment Export 17
1.4.5. Advanced Materials 18
1.4.6. Arvind Brands 19
1.4.7. Mega Mart Reta 20
1.4.8. The Arvind Store 21
1.5. Executive Leaders 22
1.6. Board of Directors 24
1.7. Denim Division 28
1.8. International buyers 30
1.9. Own Brands 31
2. Production Process
2.1. Process Flow Chart 32
2.2. Spinning
2.2.1. Process Flow 33
2.2.2. Blow Room 34
2.2.3. Carding 38
Contents
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2.2.4. Drawing 40
2.2.5. Spinning 42
2.3. Warp Dyeing
2.3.1. Introduction 46
2.3.2. Rope Dyeing 48
2.3.3. Slasher dyeing 54
2.4. Weaving 59
2.5. Finishing & Processing
2.5.1. Introduction 61
2.5.2. Wet Finishing 62
3. Denim Incubation Department
3.1. Design Team 66
3.2. Design Line 69
3.3. Innovation Pipeline Denims 70
3.4. Technical Team 71
4. Quality Assurance & Standardization
4.1. Introduction 74
4.2. Process Defects 76
4.3. Testing
4.3.1. Physical 79
4.3.2. Chemical 80
4.3.3. Shade 82
4.4. Packaging & Shipping 83
4.5. Accreditations 84

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5. Project Report-
5.1. Better Cotton Initiative 87
5.1.1. Introduction 89
5.1.2. Features 90
5.1.3. The Better Cotton System 91
5.1.4. Production Principles 92
5.1.5. Criteria For Assessment 92
5.1.6. Audit Information 93
5.1.7. Products Traceability Along The Supply Chain 93
5.1.8. Support 94
5.1.9. Costs 94
5.1.10. Countries & Regions 96
5.1.11. Overview of Requirements 98
5.2. BCI at Arvind Limited
5.2.1. Introduction 101
5.2.2. Farm Projects 102
5.2.3. Contract Farming 103
5.2.4. Benefits
5.2.4.1. Economical Benefits 105
5.2.4.2. Environmental Benefits 106
5.2.4.3. Social Benefits 106
5.2.5. Quality Assessment 107
5.2.6. Results & Analysis 108
5.2.7. Conclusion 109
6. References 110
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Arvind Limited started with a share capital of Rs 2,525,000 ($55,000) in the
year 1931. With the aim of manufacturing the high-end superfine fabrics Arvind
invested in very sophisticated technology. With 52,560 ring spindles, 2552
doubling spindles and 1122 looms it was one of the few companies in those days
to start along with spinning and weaving facilities in addition to full-fledged
facilities for dyeing, bleaching, finishing and mercerizing. The sales in the year
1934, three years after establishment were Rs 45.76 lakh and profits were Rs 2.82
lakh. Steadily producing high quality fabrics, year after year, Arvind took its place
amongst the foremost textile units in the country.
ln Lhe mld 1980's Lhe LexLlle lndusLry faced anoLher ma[or crlsls. WlLh Lhe
power loom churning out vast quantities of inexpensive fabric, many large
composite mills lost their markets, and were on the verge of closure. Yet that
period saw Arvind at its highest level of profitability. There could be no better
time, concluded the Management, for a rethink on strategy. The Arvind
management coined a new word for it new strategy Reno vision. It simply
meant a new way of looking at issues, of seeing more than the obvious and that
became the corporate philosophy.
The national focus paved way for lnLernaLlonal focus and Arvlnd's markeLs
shifted from domestic to global, a market that expected and accepted only quality
goods. An in-depth analysis of the world textile market proved an eye opener.
People the world over were shifting from synthetic to natural fabrics. Cottons
were the largest growing segments. But where conventional wisdom pointed to
popular priced segments, Reno vision pointed to high quality premium niches.
About the Company | Introduction
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Thus in 1987-88 Arvind entered the export market for two sections -Denim for
leisure & fashion wear and high quality fabric for cotton shirting and trousers. By
1991 Arvind reached 1600 million meters of Denim per year and it was the third
largest producer of Denim in the world.

In 1997 Arvind set up a state-of-the-art shirting, gabardine and knits facility,
Lhe largesL of lLs klnd ln lndla, aL anLe[. WlLh Arvlnd's concern for envlronmenL a
most modern effluent treatment facility with zero effluent discharge capability
was also established.

Year 2005 was a watershed year for textiles. With the muliti-fiber
agreement getting phased out and the disbanding of quotas, international textile
trade was poised for a quantum leap. In the domestic market too, the
rationalizing of the cenvat chain and the growth of the organized retail industry
was likely to make textiles and apparel see an explosive growth.

Arvind has carved out an aggressive strategy to verticalize its current
operations by setting up worldscale garmenting facilities and offering a one-stop
shop service, by offering garment packages to its international and domestic
customers. With Lee, Wrangler, Arrow and Tommy Hilfiger and its own domestic
brands of Flying Machine, Newport, Excalibur and Ruf & Tuf, Arvind set its vision
of becoming the largest apparel brands company in India.
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1931
The inception of Arvind Mills Limited at the hands of three brothers - Kasturbhai,
Narottambhai and Chimanbhai Lalbhai

1934
Arvind establishes itself amongst the foremost textile units in the country.

1980
Arvind records highest levels of profitability. The new strategy 'eno vlslon',
points at changing the business focus from local to global, towards a high-quality
premium niche market.

1987-88
Arvind enters the export market for Denims with a dual focus - Denim for leisure
and Denim for fashion wear.

1991
Arvind emerges as the third largest manufacturer of denim in the world.
About the Company | Journey
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1997
lndla's largesL sLaLe-of-the-art facility for shirting, gabardine and knits is set up at
Santej.
2005
Arvind creates a unique one-stop shop service on a global scale, offering garment
packages to reputed national and international customers.

2007
Arvind expands its presence in the brands and retail segment by establishing
MegaMart Cne of lndla's largesL value reLall chalns.

2010
Arvlnd launches 1he Arvlnd Lore, a concepL puLLlng Lhe company's besL fabrlcs,
brands and bespoke styling and tailoring solutions under one roof. Arvind
launches lLs flrsL ma[or eal LsLaLe pro[ecLs. Arvlnd becomes one of lndla's largesL
producers of fire protection fabrics.

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The underlying theme running across the broad spectrum
of all business activities at Arvind is that of enhancing
lifestyles of people, across all diversities and
demographics.
OUR PHILOSOPHY
WE BELIEVE
In people and their unlimited potential; in content and in
focus on problem solving; in teams for effective
performance, in the power of the intellect.

WE ENDEAVOUR
To select, train and coach people to obtain higher
responsibilities; to nurture talent, and to build leaders for
the corporations of tomorrow; to reward, celebrate and
activate all intellectual business contributions.

WE DREAM
Of excellence in all endeavors; of mutual benefit and
prosperity; of making the world a better place to live in.

About the Company | Companys Vision
We will enable
people to
experience a
better quality of
life by providing
enriching and
inspiring lifestyle
solotloos.

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1he laLe 1980's saw Arvlnd ploneer Lhe manufacLure of denlm ln lndla. 1oday wlLh
an installed capacity of over 110 million meters per annum, Arvind is a leading
producer of denim worldwide. Design, Innovations and Sustainability have been
Arvlnd's core compeLency and have played a key role ln Arvlnd's success. 1he use
of sophisticated ultramodern technology under the guidance of world-renowned
designers has enabled Arvind to deliver many firsts in the international markets.
All Arvlnd's producLs are deslgned and modeled on Lhe basls of experL deslgn
lnpuLs comlng from Arvlnd's deslgners based ouL of lndla, !apan, lLaly and Lhe
United States. All Arvind Denim products come with the hallmark of
distinctiveness and quality.
Some Examples:

Shuttle looms for Selvedge denim
Name selvedge and Stretch selvedge
Unique Fibers like Excel, Jute, Silk, Linen
Natural Indigo and Vegetable dyes
Unique concept products like Indigo voiles & Handspun denim
Organic, BCI & Sustainable denim

The denim facility at Arvind is accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OEKOTEX 100,
CC1, and Crganlc exchange sLandard. Arvlnd's labs are cerLlfled by nA8L (lC
17025 cerLlflcaLlon) and cusLomers llke Levl's, Lee, and Wrangler eLc.
About the Company | Divisions
Denim
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Shirting & Bottom weights

Arvlnd's experLlse ln new age shlrLlng fabrlc and boLLom welghLs ls unparalleled.
Arvlnd's shlrLlng fabrlcs have conslsLenLly feLched a premlum in the local and
lnLernaLlonal markeLs. Arvlnd's sLaLe of Lhe arL faclllLy ls capable of produclng a
total of 65 million meters per annum of Shirting and bottom weight fabrics. This
capacity is set to increase reaching a total of 84 million meters by the next
financial year.

We have a dedicated in-house design team constantly working on product
innovation and fashion forecasts for the domestic and international markets. We
also boast of the largest yardage and sampling mill in India.

Arvlnd's splnnlng seLup can produce a variety of counts for yarn types like
compacLs, slubs, slgned yarn eLc. Arvlnd's weavlng capablllLles lnclude hlgh-speed
Alr[eL looms and apler looms. Arvlnd's flnlshlng capablllLles lnclude conLlnuous
bleaching and dying ranges, caustic mercerization, and machinery for various
chemical and mechanical finishes.

Woven Fabrics
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A sophisticated and supremely flexible package dying facility complete with
vessels ranging from 1 Kg to 750 Kgs and state of the art printing facilities are also
in place.

In addition to cotton we now work with a variety of fibers incuding Modal,
Tencel, Excel, Viscose, Bemberg, Lycra, Silk, Linen, Polyester and Nylon.
We are hosL Lo lndla's flrsL Ammonla MercerlzaLlon lanL
We use patented technology to impart structural stability and superior
hand-feel for the difficult-to-handle firbers like Modal, Tencel, Excel and Viscose
Cver Lhe years, Arvlnd's lnhouse &u deparLmenL has sucessfully developed
and perfected a number of finishes addlng value Lo Arvlnd's producLs and
unlqueness Lo Arvlnd's range.
CLher Chemlcal llnlshes: Wrlnkle free, repress, Lverfresh, Lasy Lo lron,
Stain Repellant, Nano Care, Anti-Bacterial, Permawhite etc.
Mechanlcal llnishes: Aero, Peach, Brush, Diamond Emery and Carbonium

Arvlnd's producL range ls cerLlfled by CekoLex, Arvlnd's processes are cerLlfled by
GOTS for producing Organic products, we're certified producers of Lycra and
1eflon based varleLles, whlle Arvlnd's laboratory is accredited by Marks and
Spencers, Next, Gap Inc., Levi's, DuPont and INVISTA.


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Voiles

Arvind has been well poised as a leading manufacturer of super fine fabrics in
India. An uncontested market-leader in the manufacture of voiles, Arvind still
continues to manufacture the traditional fabric for both domestic and
international markets. The legacy of Arvind transcends from the olden days into a
golden fuLure wlLh a producLlon capaclLy of 36 mllllon meLers per annum. Arvlnd's
voiles are primarily used as blouse material and are sold in the domestic market
through an impressive network of around 150 dealers, reaching over 5000 retail
outlets throughout India. High quality Swiss voiles are exported to Switzerland, Sri
Lanka and countries in the Middle East.

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Arvlnd's knlLs deparLmenL has an annual knlLLlng capaclLy of 3,000 Lons. 1he knlLs
vertical has a fabric dyeing capacity of 5000 tons per annum and yarn dyeing
capacity of 1800 tons per annum. It has the ability to process both tubular and
open-width fabrics and offers specialty fin+ishes like mercerization, singeing and
various forms of brushing and peaching.

Basic knits:

Jersey, Pique, Rib, and Interlock
Specialty knits: Yarn-dyed, Auto stripers, Jacquards, and Stretch fabric
Fibers: Cotton, Excel, Viscose, Modal, Polyester
Finishes: Mercerization, Brushing, Peaching, Aero-finish.

Marks & Spencer Eddie Bauer Zara Josepha Banks

Knits
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A world without boundaries is a promise of a global marketplace. At Arvind, our
range of fabrics is universal in appeal. We aim to inspire a diverse mix of
customers enriching lifestyles globally. We have successfully established ourselves
as a one-stop shop for apparel solutions catering to an array of national and
international clients.

Bottoms: 7.2 million pieces of jeans per annum
Formal & Casual tops: 6 million pieces per annum
Knit tops: 3.6 million pieces per annum
Our specialized capabilities for adding value to our products include:
Automated Placement Printing Machinery
lndla's largesL washlng facility with Tonello machines for wet
proesses
Bohemian machines and Laser tech for unique and automated dry
processes
Skilled artisans for hand processes

Gap Inc Patagonia Tommy Hilfiger Quicksilver Brooks Brothers Silver
Jeans Calvin Klein FCUK Pull & Bear Jack & Jones Energie Esprit
S.Oliver Mexx Sisley Benetton Coin

Garment Exports
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We envision world leadership in the field of advanced materials offering
high-tech textile solutions for critical and composite applications.
Arvind Ltd., A US $ 1.3 billion Lalbhai Group company has created the
Advanced Textiles Business. Building further on our legacy of innovation, we have
brought a new level of sophistication to manufacturing fabrics. Our Pro1 range of
branded fabrics and composite textiles includes solutions for growing industrial
sectors like Personal Protection, Industrial Filtration, Wind Energy, Defense, Auto
Components, Transportation, and Housing & Infrastructure.
Products in the Pro1 range include:
Fire Protection Fabrics
Chemically treated Flame Retardant Fabrics
Proban
Pyrovatex

Inherent Fire Resistant Fabrics
Nomex
Protex (Modacrylic)
High Tech Applications
Filtration Fabrics
Anti-Ballistic Fabrics
Nylon Fabrics
Carbon-Glass-Aramid Fabrics
Advanced Materials
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Arvind is amongst a few organizations worldwide with a portfolio of brands that
are as distinctive and relevant across diverse consumers. At Arvind, brands work
across multiple channels, price points and consumer segments. The expanse of
the Arvind brandscape is spread across the Indian market with around 273
standalone brand stores in addition to 975 counters selling through key accounts
and multibrand outlets across India.
Own Brands Licensened Brands Joint Venture Brands
Mainstream Bridge to Luxury Bridge to Luxury
Excalibur Gant U.S.A. 1949 Tommy Hilfiger
Flying Machine Lnergle'


Popular

Premium

Premium
Ruf & Tuf USPA Lee
New Port University Arrow Wrangler

Izod



Popular


Cherokee


Mossimo

Arvind Brands
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Arvind runs India's largest Value Retail Chain - Megamart. The MegaMart format
offers a unique and differentiated proposition to the consumers. It offers mega
brands at amazingly low prices and provides a retail experience of a high-end
department store.

The Megamart stores range in size from 2000 sq ft to 65000 sq ft. The larger
stores are called Big Megamart and there are 6 such stores across Bangalore,
Chennai, Pune and Mumbai. The smaller formats spreads across the country are
205 in number. Megamart is expanding rapidly and is expected to be a Rs. 1000 cr
chain within the next two years.

The brands sold exclusively in Megamart include:

RUGGERS - SKINN - ELITUS - DONUTS - KARIGARI - MEA CASA - AUBURN HILL -
BAY ISLAND - COLT - LEISHA- EDGE


Mega Mart Retail
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After decades of ruling the national and international fabric markets, Arvind has
now introduced The Arvind Store, a unique concept in fabrics and apparel retail.
The Arvind Store bring together, under one roof, the best that Arvind has to offer.
lL ls a convergence of Lhree of Arvlnd's sLrongesL capablllLles, Lhe besL of fabrlcs
from Arvlnd's LexLlles dlvlslon, leadlng apparel brands from Arvlnd 8rands and
bespoke styling solutions based on the latest garment styles from Arvind Studios.
In a world where bespoke tailoring meets cutting edge fashion, The Arvind Store
will create a shopping experience to rival the best in the Indian Marketplace.


Over a 1000 different fabric styles across shirting, suiting and denim
Leading apparel brands such as Arrow, US Polo & Flying Machine
Arvind Denim Labs (ADL), a bespoke denim concept offering customized
washed denim - a first of its kind in India and perhaps the world
Arvind Studio A styling and tailoring solution to rival the best brands in the
world

The Arvind Store
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Corporate
Jayesh Shah
Director & CFO
Anang Lalbhai
MD - Arvind Products

Lifestyle Fabrics
Aamir Akhtar
CEO, Lifestyle Fabrics - Denim
Susheel Kaul
CEO, Knits & Woven Fabrics
PD Chavda
President, Voiles

Lifestyle Apparel
Ashish Kumar
CEO, Lifestyle Apparel - Jeans & Shirts


About the Company | Executive Leaders
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Brands & Retail
J.Suresh
Managing Director - Brands & Retail

Knowledge Academy
Milan Shah
CEO, Knowledge Academy

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MR. SANJAY S. LALBHAI
(CHAIRMAN AND MANAGING DIRECTOR)
Mr. Sanjay S. Lalbhai, 58 years, is the Chairman and Managing Director of the
Company. He is a Science Graduate with a Master's degree in Business
Management and has been associated with the Company for more than 33 years.
He also holds directorships in Arvind Lifestyle Brands Limited, Arvind Retail
Limited, Arvind Brands & Retail Limited, Amol Decalite Limited, Torrent
Pharmaceuticals Limited, Arvind Worldwide Inc., USA, Arvind Worldwide (M) Inc.,
Arvind Overseas (M) Ltd. Arvind Spinning Ltd., Mauritius and Arvind Textile Mills
Limited, Bangladesh.

MR. JAYESH SHAH
(DIRECTOR AND CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER)
Mr. Jayesh K. Shah, 52 years, is the Wholetime Director with the designation of
Director and Chief Financial Officer of the Company. He is a Commerce Graduate
and a Chartered Accountant and has been with the company since 1st July, 1993.
He has a distinguished academic career and extensive administrative, financial,
regulatory and managerial expertise. He also holds directorships in many other
companies.


About the Company | Board of Directors
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MR. PUNIT LALBHAI
(EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR)
Mr. Punit Lalbhai, 30 years, is an MBA from INSEAD (France) specializing in
Strategy and General Management, along with Post-Graduate degree in Masters
of Environmental Science from Yale University, and a Bachelors degree in Science
(Conservation Biology) from University of California, USA. He has several awards
and honors during his career including Research Grants, Presidential Fellowship
Grant, J.M. Long-Lndowed cholarshlp and lncluslon ln uean's LlsLs for conslsLenL
Academic Excellence.

MR. KULIN LALBHAI
(EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR)
Mr. Kulin Lalbhai, 27years, is an MBA from Harvard Business School (USA), along
with a Bachelors degree in Science (Electrical Engineering) from Stanford
University, USA. He has held several leadership positions during his academic role
including serving as Co-President of Family Business Club at Harvard, Associate
Director for Stanford Asia Technology Initiative and also serving as Conference Co-
Chair for the Harvard-India Conference.


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OTHER DIRECTORS

Mr. Sudhir Mehta
(Non-executive and Independent Director)
Mr. Sudhir Mehta is a Science Graduate from Gujarat University. He was
instrumental in the growth and progress of Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., the
flagship Company of the Torrent Group. He systematically expanded the power
business of Torrent Group by acquiring significant stakes in the Torrent Power
AEC Ltd. and Torrent Power SEC Ltd. and Torrent Power Generation Limited, now
merged with Torrent Power Limited and one among the few successful
independent power projects in India.

Dr. Bakul H. Dholakia
(Non-executive and Independent Director)
Dr. Bakul H. Dholakia is a Gold Medalist from Baroda University and he has a
Doctorate in Economics. He has 41 years of professional experience including 33
years at IIM, Ahmedabad. He has been a consultant to various national and
international organizations. He was awarded many awards including Padma Shri
by the Government of India in recognition of his distinguished services in the field
of education in 2007, Bharat Asmita National Award for his contribution to
managemenL educaLlon and Leachlng by Lhe Pon'be Chlef !usLlce of lndla ln 2008
etc.
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Mr. Munesh Khanna
(Non-executive and Independent Director)
Mr. Munesh Khanna, 50 years, is a Chartered Accountant from ICAI. He has been
with the Company since 27th October, 2007. He has over 20 years of experience
in the financial, regulatory and taxation domain. He has an extensive network of
relationships with Indian Corporates.

Ms. Renuka Ramnath
(Non-executive and Independent Director)
Ms. Renuka Ramnath is the Founder and Managing Director of Multiples
Alternate Asset Management Pvt. Ltd. which seeks to manage circa $450 million
of Indian and International capital.

Mr. Prabhakar R. Dalal
(Nominee Director of EXIM Bank of India)
Mr. Prabhakar R. Dalal is the Executive Director of EXIM Bank of India having
qualifications of M.Com, LL.B, CAIIB and PGDFERM and a fellow of the Indian
Institute of Banking and Finance (FIIBF).
Pe has slx years' experlence ln commerclal banklng afLer [olnlng as C and 28
years' experlence ln lnLernaLlonal 1rade llnanclng, ro[ecLlng llnanclng,
Institutional Relations, Corporate Banking and Corporate Finance.
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Arvind is a pioneer in the manufacture of denim in India. Today with an
installed capacity of over 110 million meters per annum, The Naroda plant
accounts for 89% of the company's total denim fabric capacity of 108 million
meters.

CEO of the Arvind denim division is Mr. Aamir Akhtar.

Arvind denim holds the position of 3rd largest producer of denim in the
world; and an export network of 70 countries worldwide. Prominent products in
this category include ring denim, indigo voiles, organic denim, bi-stretch denim
and fair trade certified denim. This is apart from regular light, medium and heavy
weight denims. They come in various shades of indigo, sulfur, yarn-dyed, in 100%
cotton and various blends.

Arvind is a leading producer of denim worldwide. Design, Innovations and
Sustainability have been their core competency and have played a key role in
their success in producing the highest quality of denim and being the market
leaders.

About the Company | Denim Division
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They have a huge DNTG department that is Development and New
technology that is the hub of innovation for denims. The use of sophisticated
ultramodern technology under the guidance of world-renowned designers has
enabled Arvind to deliver many firsts in the international markets. The facilities of
Arvind Denim are accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OEKOTEX 100, GOTS,
Organic exchange standard, FLO for fair trade and Lycra Assured. As one of the
largest denim producers in the world, Arvind caters to quality markets of Europe,
US, West Asia, the Far East and the Asia Pacific. Labs are certified by NABL (ISO
17025 certification) The labs are accredited by Dupont, Levi Strauss, GAP.

All the products are designed and modeled on the basis of expert design
inputs coming from our designers based out of India, Japan, Italy and the United
States. All Arvind Denim products come with the hallmark of distinctiveness and
quality.

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About the Company | International Buyers
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z


About the Company | Own Brands
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Production Process | Process Flow Chart
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PROCESS FLOW OF SPINNING DEPARTMENT:

LAY OUT

Blow Room
[Blending]
Carding
Drawing
Spinning
Packaging

FILTER
SLEEVE ROOM

BLENDOM
AT
FILTER
ROOM
YARN STORAGE AREA
COTTON GODOWN
BLOW ROOM
DRAW FRAME
CARDING
EXTENSION CARDING

AUTO CORO
Production Process | Spinning
AUTO
CORO
STORE
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BLOW ROOM

Input Cotton Bales
-Full of trashes or impurities i.e. leaves, seed, chaff, metallic
particle, dusts etc.
Purpose Opening
Cleaning
Mixing or blending
Dust removal
Uniform feed to the carding machine
Output Clean & open small tufts
No. of Machines 2 Lines with 12 machines
Machine make Trtzschler
No. of Operators 2 Operators ( 1op/mc)




To open the compressed layer of
bale of cotton or any staple
fibres.
To convert the mass of cotton
fibres in to a uniform thick sheet
of cotton both longitudinally
and transversely in the form of
compactly built lap.
To blend different varieties of
cotton in the desired
proposition to prepare the raw
material for the spinning
process.
To extract the impurities like
broken seeds, leaves, sand,
stone & iron particles, short
fibres, immature fibres, dust,
dirt by opening and beating.
OBJECTIVES
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PROCESS FLOW OF BLOW ROOM:

Blendomat
GBR
AFC
MPM-8
ASTA
BE-961
SRS-6
RN
BE-981
RSK
DUST-EX
FBK 533
CARDING
GBR
AFC
MPM-8
ASTA
BE-961
SRS-6
RN
BE-981
RSK
DUST-EX
FBK 533
CARDING
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Blendomat
o Blending of different types of cotton to maintain consistency

GBR
o Cotton Opener
o Converts bales into small tufts

AFC
o Axi-Flow Cleaner
o Separation of heavy parts (impurities) from cotton

MPM-8
o Multiple Mixer with 8 Chambers
o Sorts the cotton fibers & is used for homogenous mixture of fibers

ASTA
o Heavy trash separation from

BE-961
o Reservoir trunk with opening & cleaning

SRS-6
o Cleaning


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RN
o Cleaning

BE-981
o Reservoir trunk with opening & cleaning

RSK
o Cleaning

DUST-EX
o Removal of Dust & Micro dust

FBK 533
o Enables continuous feeding from Blow Room to Carding




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CARDING

Input Clean & open small tufts
Purpose To open the flocks into individual fibers
Cleaning or elimination of impurities
Reduction of neps
Elimination of dust
Elimination of short fibers
Fiber blending
Fiber orientation or alignment
Sliver formation
Output Sliver
No. of Operators 2 Operators ( 1op/10mc)
No. of Machines 20 machines
Machine make Trtzschler
Model DK 803
Production 18,000 kg/day
Card cleaning efficiency 62-67%
CV% 1.2-1.7%
Front Delivery speed 325 Pascal




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Carding is the process of removing impurities from fibers and producing a carded
sliver of parallelized and straightened fibers
Before the raw stock can be made into yarn, the remaining impurities must
be removed, the fibers must be disentangles, and they must be
straightened.
The straightening process puts the fibers into somewhat parallel CARDING.
The work is done by carding machine.
The lap is passed through a beater section and drawn on rapidly revolving
cylinder covered with very fine hooks or wire brushes slowly moves
concentrically above this cylinder
As the cylinder rotates, the cotton is pulled by the cylinder through the
small gap under the brushes; the teasing action removes the remaining
trashes, disentangles the fibers , and arranges them in a relatively parallel
manner in form of a thin web.
This web is drawn through a funnel shaped device that molds it into a
round rope like mass called card sliver.
Card sliver produces carded yarns or carded cottons that are serviceable to
produce denim fabrics.

After carding, the carded slivers go to the draw frame.

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DRAW FRAME

Input Slivers
Purpose 6 Slivers are converted into 1
Parallelization of fiber
Enhancement of Density
Blending
Auto-leveler maintains absolute sliver fineness
Output Sliver
No. of Operators 3 Operators ( 1op/4mc)
No. of Machines 6 Breakers + 6 finishers
Machine make Trtzschler
Model HSR 900
Production 3.5 ton/day

Drawing is the process where the fibers are blended, straightened and the
number of fibers in the sliver increased in order to achieve the desired linear
density in the spinning process. The drawing process also improves the uniformity
or evenness of the sliver. The number of drawing passages utilised depends on
the spinning system used and the end products


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In arvind mills, the sliver is drawn through the draw frame twice.

1ST PASSAGE:
Parallel alignment of fibers, 6 slivers are converted into one sliver.

2nd PASSAGE:
Output of the second passage of draw frame goes into open end
spinning.

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SPINNING
The plant at Naroda works entirely on open end spinning technology
spinning.
Ieh|afharfts AU1CCCkC spinning machine.
No. of Machines installed - 24 (in all 3 units) 11+7+6
Total number of rotors in each Spinning Unit:
AML Section 2376 rotors
EOU Section 1680 rotors
RDP Section 1440 rotor.
Twist produced: Z twist only.
Yarn length on creel: 64800 meters.
Automatic piecing: Corolap automatic splicer
Count: 5.3 to 20 count.
6 slub forming machine
The yarn formed is rolled in form of cheese, cone and bobbin.
The speed of the rotor roll varies from 80,000 rpm to 130,000 rpm.

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Open end spinning:

Rotor Spinning is a more recent method of yarn formation compared
to Ring Spinning.
This is a form of open-end spinning where twist is introduced into the
yarn without the need for package rotation. Allowing higher twisting
speeds with a relatively low power cost.
In rotor spinning a continuous supply of fibers is delivered from
delivery rollers off a drafting system or from an opening unit.
The fibers are sucked down a delivery tube and deposited in the
groove of the rotor as a continuous ring of fiber. The fiber layer is
stripped off the rotor groove and the resultant yarn wound onto a
package.
The twist in the yarn being determined by the ratio of the rotational
speed of the rotor and the linear speed of the yarn.
Sliver is fed into the machine and combed and individualized by the
opening roller.
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The fibers are then deposited into the rotor where air current and
centrifugal force deposits them along the groove of the rotor where
they are evenly distributed.
The fibers are twisted together by the spinning action of the rotor,
and the yarn is continuously drawn from the center of the rotor. The
resultant yarn is cleared of any defects and wound onto packages.
The production rates of rotor spinning is 6-8 times higher than that of
ring spinning and as the machines are fed directly by sliver and yarn
is wound onto packages ready for use in fabric formation the yarn is
a lot cheaper to produce.
Rotor spun yarns are more even, somewhat weaker and have a
harsher feel than ring spun yarns.
Rotor spun yarns are mainly produced in the medium count (30 Ne,
20 tex) to coarse count (10 Ne, 60 tex) range.
The yarn is wound on a big package of about 4 kg.
The use of this system has two basic advantages. It is fed by sliver,
not as with the ring frame by roving, and so eliminates the speed
frame from the process line. It can also be modified to remove any
remaining trash, thereby improving the yarn quality.

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Ring Spinning Open-end Spinning


Bobbin rotates constantly for insertion
of twist
Spool does not need to be rotated to
insert twist

Cannot handle spools of bigger size Much larger spools can be wound
Can spin finer yarns 3-5 times faster than ring spinning
Uniform and strong yarn Uniform but flexible yarn with better
dye ability

Combed yarns (finer) Carded yarns (coarser)
Yarns for varied applications Yarns for heavier fabrics such as
denims, towels and poplins
Stronger 20% more twisted but 15-20% weaker
as the yarn is coarser
Suitable for all staple fibers Not suitable for man-made staple fiber
spinning


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Warp Dyeing-
Normally the process of dyeing dictates the technology of Denim manufacturing.
The dyeing for Denim Fabric happens at the yarn stage. Generally there are two
most popular methods of dyeing Denim followed. They are:
1. Rope Dyeing
2. Slasher/Sheet Dyeing
Process flow of each of the above mentioned processes are discussed in detail
below.
Warping is transferring many yarns from creel of single-end package forming
parallel sheet of yarn wound on to be a beam or section beam. Warping
machines can process all type of materials including coarse and fine filament and
staple yarns, monofilament, textured and smooth yarns, silk and other synthetic
yarn such as glass.
A warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is known as weaver beam. A
weaver beam contain thousand of ends, but in denim production a beam obtain
from warping is known as section beam because denim is made from dyed yarn
LhaL's why flrsL secLlon beam can be obLalned and Lhen Lhese secLlon beam are
combined on the stage dyeing and sizing to get required number of ends for
weaving process. In denim production initially the yarns are first dyed and then
weaving process is carried out .

Warp Dyeing | Introduction
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There are two method of yarn dyeing in denim production
Rope dyeing.
Slasher dyeing.

Warping method used for both method of dyeing are different. The process
used for rope dye|ng |s known as "8ALL WAkING" and for s|asher dyeing
"8LAM WAkING" method |s used.
BEAM WARPING BALL WARPING

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1. ROPE DYEING
Believed to be the best possible indigo dyeing method for yarn, the threads
of denim yarn are initially twisted into a rope, and then undergo a
repetitive sequence of dipping and oxidization. The more frequent the
dipping and oxidizing, the stronger the indigo shade.
1 rope = 350-460 ends
Process Flowchart-


1) Ball Warping- the process of winding warp in rope form onto
balls.
Balls are cross wound packages and warp is form of rope.

Technical Details as per the company-
- 5 Machines in total for the process
- 1 operator is required per machine
- Machine setup time/creel changing time is 20 min
- Stop Motion / Defect sensor
- 444 ends per creel
- 320 meLes/mln creel's rpm
- 4 hour cycle time
Ball Warping
Rope Dyeing
Re-Beaming
Sizing
Warp Dyeing | Rope Dyeing
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2) Rope Dyeing- the process of dyeing the yarn in rope form.
Morrison Rope dyeing range is installed at Arvind, Naroda.

Machine passage- 800 meters; 5 rolls are used per chamber run.
Machine Units for the process-
i) Pre Wetting
Zone
Temp- 70+/- 30 C / 83C for ulphur 8oLLomq.
Pressure PSI- 70
Dancer Weights- 3
ii) Pre
Washing
Zone
Tank 2 is cold wash after sulphur bottoming I done
to prevent color slippage and then tank 3 and 4 hot
wash.
iii) Dyeing Zone Ph range- 12.45,
Redox potential -820mv to -860mv
Sq. Pressure- 85 +/- 3 PSI
Dancer Weight- 6
*For indigo dyeing dip time: air time is 1:6
iv) Wash
Zone
Temp- 50+/- 3 C
Sq. Pressure PSI- 90
Dancer Weights- 6
Ash flow- 100+/-5
v) Hot Wash
Zone
Temp- 85C
Ph range- 12.60 12.85
Redox- -810 to -660
Sq- 75 PSI
Dancer Weight- 6
Drying Cans 48 cylinders in total
5 bar pressure
Coiling Units Litter waste and final collected separately
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*Shade Checking System- Spectrophotometer is also present in the
machine
In this method a warp beams first converts into rope beamers and then transfer
to the Rope Dyeing machine for the further process.
Rope-dye ranges enable to produce pure indigo, sulfur bottom, sulfur top, and
colored denim yarn. The yarn goes through scour/sulfur dye, wash boxes, indigo
dye vats, over a skying device (to allow oxidation to occur), through additional
wash boxes, over drying cans and then is coiled into tubs which are transferred to
the Re- Beaming process.
The speed range of this machine is 0 to 30m/min with the production capacity of
2 sets in same time.
Production per day is 36000x2=72000m; at the speed of 25m/min
Count range in rope dyeing is (16s to 6/s) OE and Slub both.


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3) Re-Beaming - Re-opening the rope and winding it on beams so that they
can be sized on next step.
Technical Details as per the company-
- 13 Machines in total for the process
- 1 operator is required per machine
- Machine setup time is 25 min
- 441 combs per machine
- 96000 meter/ day/ machine

4) Sizing To cover the yarn with size material in order to prevent breakage
during the weaving process due to the tension it undergoes.
Technical Details as per the company-
- 3 Machines in total for the process, for regular sizing and
third for experiments and tests.
- 2 creels set at a time lodged in the machine, one spare
and one running
- 1 operator per machine & 2 assistant operator per
machine required

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Process-
- Each sheet separated by the guide roll (10 sheets, 10 guide roller)
- Passes through the size box/Sow box at a temp of 90C and any of the 4
recepies mentioned as
per the requirement
64 reed, 43" waLer, 600gm n powder/blnder, 100kkg wlLh sLarch
Anilose E starch, mutton tallow 4 kg
800gm NSC, 64+60 stretch reed ( everything else same)
1500g binder, 68+72 reed ( everything else same)
125 DN size, no binder, 48 water- 4 Count: Special Slot
- Drying slot- approx. 125C temp and 4 cylinders
- Accumulator- 2 accumulator beams with 120 m capacity each

5) Recepie (SBIT Mix)
*SBIT stands for Sulphur Bottom Indigo Topping

Chemical Box(gpl) Feed(gpl)
S. Black X 170/480
Caustic 1 1.5
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Sulphide 10 35
Xekol SNS 1.5 1.9
Setamol WL 0.57 1.9
Primasol NF 1 1.9



Condition Indigo Sulphur
Ph +/- 0.2 12.45-12.70 12.55-12.85
Redox +/-
20
820-860 610-660
Wetability Instant to 3 seconds


Type of Bath for BOX MIX
Dark INDIGO
Conductivity at the start
50 o 60 ms
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2. SLASHER DYEING
In continuous slasher / sheet dyeing and sizing machine, direct warping
beams are used, instead of ball warping logs in case of Indigo rope dyeing
system. At the back end of the slasher / sheet dyeing range, the direct
warping beams are creeled. The yarns sheet from each beam is pulled over
and combined with the yarns from the other beams so that multiple sheets
of yarns can be made.
In sheet dyeing range, the total No of required ends for a weavers beam are
dyed, dried, sized and dried simultaneously. This continuous slasher dyeing
range eliminates a few intermediate processes of the rope dyeing, such as
re-beaming, sizing.
Process Flowchart-

Pre wetting
Washing
Dyeing
Washing
Drying
Sizing
Drying
Warp Dyeing | Slasher Dyeing
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Machine Units for the process-
i) Pre Wetting
Zone
(Dyeing tank)
Temp- 70+/- 30 C / 83C for ulphur 8oLLom
Nip Pressure- 50 +/- KN
Dancer Pressure- 2.5 kg/cm
3

ii) Dyeing Nip pressure= 55+/-3
Temp= room temp
Dyeing capacity= 10,000 l /6 tanks
iii) Washing 1500 l
iv) Drying 8 cylinders
6 bar pressure in total
v) Sizing 2 squeezing rolls and 2 immersion rolls of 15m
depth
vi) Drying
Cans
12 cylinders in total
5 bar pressure
vii) Accumulator 220m capacity
viii) Compensator
and leasing
Winding tension 3000/ KN


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Recipe
Sulphur Indigo
Decol- 2 gpl Septamol WS- 3 gpl
Sodium sulphite- 15 gpl Indigo- 75 gpl
Caustic- 5 gpl Caustic- 75 gpl
Sulphur- X gpl Hydrosulphite- 115 gpl
Penitrol- 7 .5 gpl Denim HS (leveling agent)- 7.5 gpl
Anti oxidant- 3 gpl -

Machine Setting Specification- SBIT mix
Machine spec
Machine speed 28 +/- 1 meter/min
Head stock press 6+/- 1 Bar
Creel tension 110 +/- 100 N


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Pre wet
d.p 3 +/- .5 bar
2.5 +/- .5 bar
2.5 +/- .5 bar
Squeezing pressure 50 +/- 3 bar
55 +/- 3 bar
PW temp 85 +/- 4
Washing Flow rate 2000 +/- 500 lit/hr

Dyeing
D.P. 3 +/- .5 bar
2.5 +/- .5 bar
2.5 +/- .5 bar
2.5 +/- .5 bar
2.5 +/- .5 bar
3 +/- .5 bar

Squeezing Pressure
(i) (ii) 45 +/-3 bar

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Washing Zone
D.P. 2.5 +/- .5
2.5 +/- .5
3.0 +/- .5

Squeezing Pressure
(i) 5-0 +/-3 bar

Temp 50 +/- 4 C


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WEAVING is interlacement of the warp (length-wise indigo or sulphur dyed yarn)
and the filling (grey yarn cross wise yarn) producing denim in a variety of weights
and styles.

Input Warp Beam and Weft yarn
Output Woven Denim Fabric
No. of Operators 6 Operators ( 1op/9mc)
No. of Machines 54
Machine make Tsudakoma
Model ZAX 9100
Production 95000m/day
Max. Fabric Width 71.3"


Full Weaver's
Beam
Tension Roll Drop Pins Heald Wires
Reed
Upper Press
Roll
Friction Roll
Lower Press
Roll
Bottom Guide
Roll
Batching
guide Roll
Batching Roll Cloth Roll
Weaving | Introduction
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AUTHENTIC DENIM
A heavy weight fabric
Made of cotton yarn with no yarn characteristics
3/1 right hand twill
100% natural indigo dyed
Weft and warp count 7 & 6 respectively with 36 picks per inch

TYPES OF YARNS USED
Warp: Organic, Conventional
Weft- Open end, Ring spun, Slub, Lycra, Polyester, Poly lycra




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Finishing and Processing
Arvind Mill, Naroda boasts of 2 integrated finishing ranges and 2 other finishing
departments. In integrated denim finishing range, the singeing and shrinking is
carried out in a single range. This reduces the process time, material handling,
cost of production and labour cost.
Finishing of grey denim fabric normally carried out after weaving. It takes an
important role infabric properties, appearance, softness and residual fabric
shrinkage.

The department churns out 300000 meters of finished denim cloth a day.
The main purposes of applying various finishes may be summarised as under.
1. HIGH SALES APPEAL: To impart properties of attractive appearance, supple
handle, softness and good drape.
2. HIGH WEAR QUALITY: This refers to adequate tensile and abrasion strengths,
dimensional stability, crease recovery and freedom from pilling.
3. BODY PROTECTION AND COMFORT: This relates to proper heat insulation,
moisture absorption and air permeability.
4. SPECIAL EFFECTS: These include water-repellency, reduced flammability,
mildew and moth-proofing, anti-static behaviour and soil release property.
Finishing & Processing | Introduction
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1) Wet Finishing Department

Process Flow Chart:



I. Singeing Unit

Singeing Unit
Mercerizing Unit
Stentering Unit
Wet Finishing Unit
Craddle Unit
Inlet J Unit
Brushing Unit
Singeing Unit
Nip Unit
Outlet J Unit
Batching & Plaiting Unit
Finishing & Processing | Wet Finishing
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Unit Specification-
Capacity: 40-50 m/min
Production: 41000-45000 m/ day
15000-17000 m/shift
CNG Gas Burner
90 Flame Interaction
3 operator per machine
II. Mercerizing Unit

Inlet J Unit
Brushing Unit
Caustic Impregnatorr
Stablizer Unit
Washing Unit
Acid Unit
Drying Zone
Outlet J Unit
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III. Stentering Unit


Inlet J Unit
Brushing Unit
Chemical Padder
Foam Coating Unit
Cliping Unit
Chamber
CNG Fire
Blower
Heat Setting
Coling Drum
Outlet J Unit
Batching Unit
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Wet Finishing Unit


Inlet J Unit
Brushing Unit
Chemical Padding
Nip
Width Adjusting line
Skew line
Mahalo Unit
Dry Stack Section 1 & 2
Rubber Unit
Palmer Unit
Outlet J Unit
Batching Unit
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DID is a critical unit for the innovation and creativity that Arvind mills projects.
The department has been constituted in such a manner that it has 2 parts-
The Design Team
The Technical Team

Design Team:
The design team has a constant responsibility of re-innovating denims.
It consists of fashion consultants from Europe and other countries along
with the textile experts and textile designers.
The team works together to create a completely different denim design.
Though it seems like innovation in design in denims has limited scope,
this group of professionals use their creativity and constant thinking
skills to come up with unprecedented designs.
They follow trends, customer feedback and various trends in the various
parts of the world, research it and come up with innovative ideas.
These new designs are featured in fashion shows across the globe, for
top fashion experts to see and review, and hence maintain the
exclusiveness of denim produced by Arvind Mills.
Top designers like Calvin Klien, Chanel etc. and brands like Zara,
Abercrombie and Fitch, Mango, Gap and many others, select these
designs and order them to be produced in mass.
The designs can be created by changing one of the following
characteristics of the fabric:
Denim Incubation Department | Design Team
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Weave of the fabric:
o (denim is usually 3 x 1 twill)- variations are made in twill weave
or by changing the nature of the weave all together. Like 2X1
or other variations


1he dy|ng procedures output:
o (usually done with indigo and sulphur dyes) the dying can
give colour effects to the fabric. Different compositions of
dyes are used and innovations and creativity in the use of
colors, produces more number of designs. Sometimes the
weft and the warp are of different dyes, creating an
iridescent effect. Though traditionally blue or black, many
other colours of denims are created

Fiber Used:
o Authentic denim uses cotton fiber, but for design variations
cotton blends are used. Light weight yarns like polyester are
used to manufacture denim used in garments like jeggings
and lighter weight denim requirements. Most popular
addition to denim fabric is Lycra for streatchability as that is
a prominent feature of jeans. Most recent type of denim
added to the denim family of Arvind is Lxce| den|m(wor|ds
softest denim)*.

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Finishes Applied:
o Fabrics can be re-innovated in terms of the type of finish
applied, Now-a-days, there are a variety of finishes that can
be applied to any fabric and same goes for denim. Usually
mercerization is a process not done for denims, as it does
not require very soft and smooth fibers, but inclusion of
finished like mercerization or resin finish, can completely
change the look and feel of the fabric. Other aesthetic
finishes, like partial napping or emerization, anti-crease
finish, permanent creases by resin finish can be given.
*1he fabrlc, 'Lxcel uenlms', would be manufacLured ln Arvlnd Croup's producLlon
facility in Ahmedabad, which has a capacity of 120 million metres of fabric per annum.
While Birla Cellulose would be involved in the R&D to create the fibre made of super
refined wood pulp, Arvind would be manufacturing the fabric and selling them both in
the domestic and international markets.


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The following are a few lines of denim that have been developed and new
products are added to it every day:

Kato (Japanese denim line):
o Kato brings in the authentic attributes of denim in collections, fabrics
mostly made on the shuttle loom and with selvedge.
ADL (Arvind Denim Lab):
o The ADL line is specifically for the US brands. The s/s 2014 collection
has special attractions in the form of colour denims, indigos with
colour fills andsummer lights in excel along with the authentic core
line
Euroline (European denim line):
o The Euroline is specifically for the brand needs inEurope. The s/s
2014 collection has an introduction of shades like pink, sky blue but
in a grading of color.
Metro (Indian denim line):
o 1he meLro llne ls deslgned by Arvlnd's ln-house design team
specifically for Indian brands. The collection has the flavor of a true
Indian denim. We have also recently launched a collection in Excel
called Excel Denim in collaboration with Birla Cellulose. It will be the
world's sofLesL denlm.


Denim Incubation Department | Design Lines
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Arvlnd's ueslgn deparLmenL ls always hlgh on new developmenLs ln Lhe denlm
world and always has number of projects under the innovation pipeline which are
yet to be tested and finalized for the season breaks accordingly. Few of those
projects are-

SPIES
o Ecru fabric with only warp dyed yarns which are chemically
treated during spinning.
NEO
o Richer. Deeper denim shade for wash explorations.
KHADI
o Premium line of denim. Hand spun, hand woven. Fantastic look,
drape, fall. On the principle of sustainability.
JACQUARD
o Various shades of denims and fabric types brought in together for
one fabric and different look.
RING

LINEN
o 100% linen in 3x1 weave for better sheen, drape etc. Again a
premium line

Denim Incubation Department
-- Innovation Pipeline Denims
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The technical team of the development and new technology team aims
at developing the fabric as per customer requirements.
They have technicians and fabric experts who constantly work together
and collaborate with each of the processing units to get the desired
output of the fabric.
Then, they calculate/concur and document the exact procedures and
processes to be followed to create the fabric exactly matching customer
requirements.
Once the processes have been determined by the DNTG department,
they are delegated to the individual units for mass production.
The DID DEPARTMENT at Arvind mills has a database of more than
8000 fabrics, that have been created for all kinds of uses. The designs
range from all kinds of usage of yarn, to differentiation based on any of
the factors mentioned above.
Customers and designers may choose out of this data base to order in
bulk, The data then goes to PPC department, that is production Planning
and Control and the mass production of fabrics start.
Collection development is done at least one year in advance and
presented on a road show/ramp show for the buyers to see and order.
These shows contain 30-35 pieces each o the type of fabric
characteristic being showcased.

Denim Incubation Department | Technical Team
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There are basically two ways this whole process works:
Collection Development
Customer Development
Technical department takes care of the re production and du-pro problems of the
ongoing batches also.
Consistency/Reproducibility
Feed/Stock
Machines Used
Process Followed
All of the above mentioned factors are taken care by the DID right from the
beginning of the collection development till the marketing stage.
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DID
Innovation and Process Upgradation
Approval/Confirmmation from the CEO
Testing of Physical Properties
Washing
Spinning (Yran slub characteristics etc)
Dye Stuf (dye style, shade etc)
Weaving (Constrction and Selevedge)
Finishing (Process and Sequence, OD,
printing/coating)
Inspection
QA for Testing- Sampling
Comercialisation of the fabric chart
prepared
Cost Upgradation- Final Costing
Marketting
Customer
Development
Collection
Development
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Arvind is committed at providing the best quality of fabric to the consumers for
over 80 years now. The quality control is an integrated process that starts when
the customer gives the order, and the DNTG develops the samples accordingly, it
is checked for quality assurance measures and compliances with customer needs.
At later stages the fabric is inspected and testing of parameters of fabric is done.
Essentially there are 2 major parts of quality assurance:

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND STANDARDISATION
Inspection department uses 13 Kitamura Machine to find such defects
in fabrics.
The inspection frame is aligned at an angle between 45 and 60
degrees.
Speed of fabric on inspection m/c : 25m/min
Light : 100 Lux
Inclination : 57
0

Cost of inspection : Rs. 0.65/mtr
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Arvind follows 100 percent inspection procedures. The acceptance level of the
fabric depends on the customer preferences.
There are two inspectors to keep continuous watch on fabric for finding the
defects. The 4-point grading system indicates that as per customer requirement
defects are allowable upto their levels. We have observed that in VF brand the 4-
point allowable are only 4 that is total 16 defects per 135-meter roll.
4-point grading system is used for inspection of fabrics and this includes:
Size of defect Penalty Points
3" or less 1 Point
3.1" Lo 6 "

2 Points

6.1" Lo 9"

3 Points
More Lhan 9"

4 Points
Holes or Openings(Largest Dimension)


1" or less

2 Points
More Lhan 1"

4 Points

No penalty points are recorded for minor defects.

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Major Defects are classified as follows:-
Major woven fabric defects such as slubs, holes, missing yarn, conspicuous
yarn variation, end out, soiled yarn, and wrong yarn.
Major knitted fabric defects are mixed yarn, yarn variation, runner, needle
line, barre, slub,hole, press off.
Major dyeing or printing defects are print out, dye spots, machine stop,
color smear or shading.



Fabric containing more than 40 points per 100 square yards is considered as
SECONDS .
At the beginning of the month the inspection department gets the production
plan for the entire month and they plan their procedures accordingly. The
finishing department gives the material transfer note to the inspection
department where the material is checked for the following defects:

QUALITY ASSURANCE & STANDARDISATION | DEFECTS
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Spinning related Defects:
Warp Slub
Weft Slub
Thick end
Coarse/fine weft
Weft bar

Weaving preparatory related defects
Knot
Slack end
Ball formation
Size patches

Weaving related defects
Starting mark
Tight end
Weft float
Knot
Moir
Repaired warp
Double end

Bowing and Skewing

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Check for skewed, bowed and biased fabric. For this purpose check the bowing
and s skewing at every 10 meters.
The bowing and skewing are calculated as follows:
Bow: A bow is an uneven deviation of a weft from a line drawn perpendicular to
the selvedge of the fabric.
A bow may have different forms:

If the average Bowing or Skewing for a roll is more than 2-3%, reject the roll.

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Physical Testing:
The samples are tested for/by:
Yarn evenness: USTER TESTER 5
Statex CSP(cascade strength tester) system:
Yarn count and strength
Single yarn tester
Instron 4465:
Tensile Test for fabric
Elemendorf Tearing Strength:
Tearing strength check by application of 9000g force
Chatillon Stiffness Tester
Resistance to bending
Paramount humidity checker
For humidity control
Stretch/elongation test
Weight of 1.35 kg applied on a designated swatch sample for
half an hour
Dimensional Stability and skew movement test
Shrinkage test
Measure shrinkage after washing thrice + conditioning
Ozone test chamber by USA inc.
Snarl indicator
Twist tester
Statex (14.4 tpi)
TESTING
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Chemical testing
Tests requested by preferred customers:
LEVIs Test method
Ph ISO-3071
Crocking AATCC-8 SPOT TEST SI 1005
Water Repellency ISO 105-E01
Acid ISO 105-E02
Alkali ISO 105-E04

POLO method
Ph ISO-3071
Crocking ISO 105*12
WATER repellency ISO 105-E01
Acid ISO 105-E02
Alkali ISO 105-E04
Washing C06-AIM
SPOT TEST SI 1005
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Chemical Tests Conducted in the lab:
o Raw Material checking like dyeing/finishing auxhillaries
Basic chemical.
Percentage of purity of Hydros, Caustic acid, peroxides etc
Purity performance of dyes like indigo, vat sulphur
Auhilaries like wetting agents, sizing, finishing etc
o Stock Weight of indigo (gpl)
Brandsbender moisture tester (105 degree c. for 4 hrs)
o Weighing balance
Mettler Toledo
o Crockmeter
AATCC
o Formldehyde content in dye/stock bath
o Thermo orion pH meter
o Launder-O-meter
o ATLAS crockmeter
o Genesys 10 spectrophotometer
o Muffle furnace
o Cintex incubator
o EEC beaker dyeing machine
o USA ozone test chamber
o Flamability tester

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Shade testing:
The software used for shade testing is EASY MATCH.
HunterLab's EasyMatch QC software gives unprecedented flexibility to
process, display, analyze and report color measurement results.
Color measurement and analysis software reports absolute and color
difference data in all widely used color scales, for various lighting and
observing conditions. Pass/Fail functions provide fast go/no-go decisions.
Data can be reported numerically in tabular or spreadsheet form.
Data can also be graphically displayed as color difference plots, trend plots
and spectral curves.
All results can be viewed, stored, printed or imported into your database
programs.
The software uses a spectrophotometer to record observations, and plots
deviations from avg and perfect sample for each roll.
It also provides pass and fail options for rolls that deviate too much from
normal value making it very easy for the operator to assure quality and
minimize shade variation.
It also helps in shade wise differentiation and categorization of rolls. So that
the consumer may be able to easily distinguish between lots of various
shades

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* The final step is now to OK the batch/lot for shipping and send to the packaging
dept so as to put on the required details and ship the consignment.
The details that need to be present on the packaging are:
Shipment no.
Date
Sort no
F.M.C
Code no
Meters
Flags/points
Opt no.


PACKAGING AND SHIPPING

Rolls of approximately 135m each is sealed by polythene.
Spec. of polythene cover: Plastic bags of 23 micron used

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ISO 9001:2000 by BVQI (India) Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai-India, for Manufacture
and Supply of Denim Fabrics.

The ISO 9000 family of standards is related to quality management systems
and designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of
customers and other stakeholders [1] while meeting statutory and
regulatory requirements related to the product.

The ISO 9001:2000 version sought to make a radical change in thinking by
actually placing the concept of process management front and center
("Process management" was the monitoring and optimisation of a
company's tasks and activities, instead of just inspection of the final
product).

IS0 14000:
Provides environment management standards to help organisations
minimize their negative impact on the environment
Environment Management System (EMS) mandatory
Certification carried out by third party
Focuses on process as in case of ISO 9000

ACCREDITATIONS
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Oeko-Tex Standard 100 by Shirley Technologies Ltd., UK, for Black and
Indigo dyed denim fabrics, black / indigo printed denim fabric including
stretch denims.
The Oeko-Tex Standard 100 is a globally uniform testing and certification
system for textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all
stages of production.
The tests for harmful substances comprise substances which are prohibited
or regulated by law, chemicals which are known to be harmful to health,
and parameters which are included as a precautionary measure to
safeguard health.

"ka| Internat|ona| tandards for usta|nab|e 1ext||e roduct|on" by
Control Union Certifications, The Netherlands, for Processing of organic
cotton.

"G|oba| Crgan|c 1ext||e tandards", Control Union Certifications, The
Netherlands, for Processing of fibres from certified organic agriculture.

Lev|s strauss Laboratory Certification by Levi Strauss & Co., Test Methods
and conditions set forth, Denim Laboratory, The Arvind Mills Ltd.

ISO-17025 NABL National Accreditation Board for Laboratories, Delhi,
India, for Chemical & Mechanical disciplines of testing.

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Premier Accreditation Scheme by Marks & Spencer, Test Methods and
conditions set forth, Laboratory, Shirting Division Business, The Arvind Mills
Ltd.

Llz Clalborne lnL'l LLd., 1esLlng audlL performance, LaboraLory, hlrLlng
Business Division, The Arvind Mills Ltd.

Labs are certified by DUPONT (LYCRA).
.


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Project Title
o Arvlnd's lnvolvemenL ln 8eLLer CoLLon lnlLlaLlves

Objective
o Introduction to BCI
o Arvlnd's lmplemenLaLlon of 8Cl norms
o Quality Analysis of BCI-Bunny Brahma & Bunny Brahma
Cotton

Project Report | Brief
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Methodology
o Secondary research
Understanding of BCI and its Norms.
o Primary Research
Data Collection
Quality Analysis of BCI bunny Brahma Cotton
Quality Analysis of Bunny Brahma Cotton
o Analysis of the differences between BCI-Bunny Brahma &
Bunny Brahma Cotton
o Conclusion


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INTRODUCTION

The Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) is primarily focusing on the following :
To demonstrate the inherent benefits of BC production, particularly the
financial profitability for farmers.
To reduce the impact of water and pesticide use on human and
environmental health.
To improve soil health and biodiversity.
To promote Decent Work for farming communities and cotton farm
workers.
To facilitate global knowledge exchange on more sustainable cotton
production.
To increase the traceability along the cotton supply chain.


Better Cotton Initiative | Introduction
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KEY FEATURES
Producers need to meet the Minimum
Production Criteria which are the initial core
requirements, to receive a license to produce
BC.
Minimum Production Criteria (MPC) are the
starting point in a cycle of continuous
improvement required by BCI. Once MPC are
met, producers have to address Progress
Requirements.
BCI aims to transform cotton production
worldwide by developing BC as a sustainable
mainstream commodity. There is not BC label
on final products.
A major partner speeding up the production
of BC is the BC Fast Track Program. Leading
BCI brands as well as a number of public
sector funders contribute to the BC Fast Track
program, which channels funds directly to
farmer training and improvement programs,
all designed around the BC standard. This
allows BCI and its partners to reach more
regions, train more farmers and produce
more cotton.
BCI membership focuses on enabling positive
change in the field, supporting supply
creation, building public support and
demonstrating market place demand for BC as
a mainstream commodity.

FACTS & FIGURES
490,000 Mettlc 1oos of
Better Cotton was
produced on 435,000
hectares by 90,000
farmers in 2011-12.
8cl membets tepteseots
ovet 5X of tbe wotlJs
total consumption.
246 membets by tbe
end of 2012.
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The Better Cotton System
The Production Principles and Criteria cannot operate in isolation, and form part
of the BC System. This BC System is made up of the following inter-dependent
components, each as important as the other in making the system effectively
deliver its objectives:
Production Principles and Criteria to provide a global definition of BC
Farmer Support to promote enabling mechanisms at a local and global level,
working with experienced implementing partners, and stimulating public-private
partnership funds to implement these mechanisms
Farm Assessment to encourage farmers to continuously improve, through
measuring results and seasonal learning cycles
Supply Chain connecting supply with demand through an identifiable bale of
100% BC lint
Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning mechanisms to measure progress and
change and to ensure the BC System has the intended impacts on its direct
beneficiaries
Tools, guidelines and learning forums to facilitate the exchange of best practices
and knowledge to encourage the scaling up of collective action


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PRODUCTION PRINCIPLES
BC is produced by farmers who minimize the harmful impact of crop
protection practices
BC is produced by farmers who use water efficiently and care for the
availability of water
BC is produced by farmers who care for the health of the soil
BC is produced by farmers who conserve natural habitats
BC is produced by farmers who care for and preserve the quality of the
fiber
BC is produced by farmers who promote decent work
CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT
Pass and fail:
Producer need to respect Better Cotton Minimum Production Criteria in
order to get a license to produce BC. The BC system aims at continuous
improvement. It is not organized as a simple pass or fail system but goes
beyond by integrating elements of capacity building, data management,
and progress.

What happens if non-conformity is found?
At least 80% of the farmers in Learning Group must comply with all relevant
BC criteria in order for the group to get a license to produce BC. Where a
systematic breach of a Minimum Production Criteria is observed, the whole
Producer Unit may be disqualified.
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Does the initiative offer incentives for continuous improvement?
After meeting the Minimum Production Criteria, BC farmers have to meet
'rogress equlremenLs'. These progress requirements are presented in the
Landards Map daLabase as 'Medlum-Lerm requlremenLs'.

AUDIT INFORMATION
1st, 2nd, 3rd party certification:
The BC assurance system is a combination of self-assessment, second party
credibility checks and third party verification.
Frequency of audits: Yearly
Validity of audit certificate: One year.

PRODUCTS TRACEABLITY ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN
One of the key elements of the supply chain for BC is the creation of 100% BC
bales, meaning that BC is segregated from farm to gin.
Chain of Custody standard
BCI will create a 100% BC bale, and connect the supply of BC to demand,
putting in place a supply chain system that facilitates the procurement of
BC.
USE OF LOGO ON THE FINAL PRODUCT?
No

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SUPPORT
To help farmers adopt practices consistent with the BCI Production Principles, BCI
coordinates a program of farmer support activities delivered through experienced
Implementing Partners.
Farmers support covers knowledge sharing and skills development and effective
producer organization For Implementing Partners, three of the BC System
components focus on support. BCI provides a Step by Step Guide to
Implementation for both smallholders and large farms and annual workshops that
help companies understand and implement the BCI program. Applications for
financial grants can be submitted twice a year through an online form. The
funding contribution matches up to a maximum of 50% of the total project cost.
Members receive supply chain support from dedicated supply chain coordinators,
as well as Secretariat and Council support through Caucus calls, BCI hosted events
and webinars.
COSTS
Membership fee: The membership fee is based on member category, size
and either annual lint cotton consumption, annual turnover/income, or
whether the organization is based in an OECD Country or a non-OECD
country.
Certification costs: Third party verification costs are born by large farms or
by BCI in the case of smallholders.
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THE BCI STANDARD SYSTEM IS APPLICABLE TO PRODUCERS IN THE FOLLOWING
COUNTRIES AND REGIONS:
ASIA China, India, Pakistan, Tajikistan
AFRICA Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali, Senegal, Togo
SOUTH AMERICA Brazil


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Areas Covered by BCI standard system:
Immediate Requirement:
1he 8Cl Mlnlmum roducLlon CrlLerla" form Lhe lnlLlal core requlremenLs
for farmers Lo grow 8eLLer CoLLon". These criteria are presented in the
Landards Map daLabase as lmmedlaLe requlremenLs".

Medium-term requirement:
1he 8Cl rogress equlremenLs" form an addlLlonal seL of requlremenLs
LhaL farmers, afLer meeLlng Lhe Mlnlmum roducLlon CrlLerla" must
complete with a minimum number of additional benchmarks within the
following 3 growing seasons, while of course maintaining compliance to the
Mlnlmum roducLlon CrlLerla". 1hese progress requlremenLs are
presenLed ln Lhe Landards Map daLabase as Medlum-term
requlremenLs".
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OVERVIEW OF REQUIREMENTS:

EXPLANATION:
Critical:
1he 8Cl 'Mlnlmum roducLlon CrlLerla' form Lhe lnlLlal core requlremenLs
for farmers Lo grow '8eLLer CoLLon'. 1hese crlLerla are presenLed ln Lhe
Landards Map daLabase as 'crlLlcal requlremenLs'.

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Medium term:
After meeting the Minimum Production Criteria, Better Cotton farmers
have Lo meeL 'rogress equlremenLs'. 1hese progress requlremenLs are
presenLed ln Lhe Landards Map daLabase as 'Medlum-Lerm requlremenLs'.


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As the leader of Indian textile industry, Arvind has taken it upon itself to develop
models that make production of its most valued and most extensively used raw
material more sustainable. Which is why, Arvind Agribusiness has initiated
contract farming projects in Akola district of Maharashtra State & Nizar Taluka in
Tapi district of Gujarat State.

Aims of the Initiative

Improve the farmer's productivity and income
Develop environmentally sustainable business models
Enhance the region's biodiversity
Promote decent work ethics
Develop a lasting social infrastructure & support system


BCI at Arvind Limited | Introduction
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Details of Project Akola
(Maharashtra)
Nizar
(Gujarat)
Total
Project Since
2010 2011
No. of Villages
131 58 189
Total area covered (Ha)
15,000 10,400 25,400
No. of farmers benef|tted
3,000 2,600 5,600
No. of farm family members
benefitted
15,000 13,000 28,000
Employment generated (Farm workers)
45,000 40,000 85,000
Capacity (Bales of 165kgs)
35,000 40,000 75,000
Cotton Type
Bunny/Brahma Sankar-6(SUP)

BCI at Arvind Limited | Farm Projects
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From the farm to the fashion industry, Arvind's approach to contract farming is extensive and
thorough.
Arvind plays a key role in every single process involved in this initiative.
Infrastructure and capacity building:
This includes research, collaborations with national & international organizations,
research institutions, etc. strong HR policies, capacity building for extension activities.
Building the right team:
A team of 105 field experts including agronomists, soil scientists, pest and disease
specialist and MSW (for carrying out decent work activities) are put in place.
Training:
Highly qualified agronomists train and educate farmers about crop, nutrient, pest and
disease management, decent work ethics (no child labor, discrimination, gender issues,
etc.) and business models to improve productivity. Guidance material on better
management practices based on Better Cotton Production criteria is developed.
Technology and skill development:
Participatory Technology Development in collaboration with project farmers helps in
finding location-specific solutions.
Monitoring:
Regular farm visits are made. Detailed farm records, soil tests, and constant monitoring
ensure a healthy crop. Validation work on better management practices is carried out.
Elimination:
Middle men are eliminated. Farmers are also introduced to dependable farm input
suppliers.
Assured buy back:
Arvind buys the crop at market prices and guarantees Minimum Support Price. A 'Farm
Gate' payment policy ensures that payments are made within seven working days.

BCI at Arvind Limited | Contract Farming
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Managing the supply chain:
Arvind Agribusiness maintains a fully tracebale supply-chain and an extensive
management information system. It is involved in establishing an effective producer
organization, the segregation of better cotton, chain of custody procedures and
engagement with ginners and other organizations.





BCI at Arvind Limited | Benefits

A HOLISTIC APPROACH
TO CONTRACT
FARMING WHERE THE
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
BENEFITS NOT ONLY
CO-EXIST BUT ALSO
AUGMENT EACH
OTHER.


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Economic benefits

Reduced cost of production: The cost of production is reduced through the
collective purchase of farm inputs and better, economical deals from
suppliers.
Better profitability: The need for middle men has been eliminated as
Arvind ensures that the produce is bought at the farmer's door step.
Better access to affordable finance: Dependence on local moneylenders
has also been reduced as farmers are encouraged to deal with reliable
financial institutions.
Better nutrient, pest and disease management: Better management
practices ensure reduced use of inputs (like synthetic pesticides & fertilizers
), untimely reducing the risk taken in synthetic pesticides handling and
application.
Knowledge sharing and skill development: Farmers receive practical
knowledge on production principles that can decrease the cost of
production and increase profitability.
Quality of fibre: From soil preparation to harvesting and segregating better
quality cotton at the farm gate, our agronomist are involved in every
process to ensure better quality cotton.


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Environmental benefits

Water efficiency: The learning forums provide know how on using water
efficiently through micro irrigation.

Soil health: Reduced use of pesticides, micro irrigation and regular soil
tests ensure better soil health.

Habitat conservation: The initiative helps to conserve their natural habitat
by minimizing the harmful effects of crop protection by reducing use of
pesticides.

Social benefits

Decent work ethics: The initiative gives men, women and backward classes
equal employment and income opportunities (equal and approved wages).

Abolishing social evils: Social and cultural programmes are regularly
organized in order to create awareness about child labour and gender
discrimination. Presently, both the projects put together employs 85000
farm workers both men and women.

Building a healthy community: Internationally recognized health and safety
standards are followed. The initiative also works towards building a strong
social structure based on mutual cooperation and understanding.
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Quality Parameters Akola (Maharashtra) Nizar (Gujarat)
Length (Staple in mm) 29.0 + 29.0 +
Strength (Grams per tex) 29.0 + 29.0 +
Micronaire 3.5 - 4.3 3.7 - 4.4
Grade Strict Middling Strict Middling
UBI Codes Upon Lifting Upon Lifting
Advantage Arvind 5% HVI Results 5% HVI Results
BCI at Arvind Limited | Quality Assessment
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UHML Upper half Mean Length (mm) (CV%)
Str Strength (g/tex) (CV%)
MIC Micronaire (mg/inch) (CV%)
UI Uniformity Index (Avg.)
SFI Short Fiber Index (Avg.)
Elg Elongation (Avg.)
+b Yellowness (Avg.)
Rd Reflectivity (Avg.)
Lint% Lint Percentage (Avg.)
Inv% Invisible Trash Percentage (Avg.)
Trash% Trash Percentage (CV%)
M% Moisture Percentage (CV%)
Nep Neps Length (CV%)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
UHM
L
STR MIC UI SFI Elg (+b) Rd Inv% Trash
%
M% Nep
BB Cotton 4.12 5.28 8.62 81.6 7.9 6.7 8.1 76.6 1.94 23.7 9.43 31.48
BCI-BB Cotton 1.31 1.77 3.37 82.8 7 6.7 9 78.8 2.09 12.58 7.31 19.86
Comparison of BCI-BB and BB Cotton
BCI at Arvind Limited | Results & Analysis
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As the leader of Indian textile industry, Arvind has taken it upon itself to
develop models that make production of its most valued and most extensively
used raw material i.e. Cotton more sustainable.

Application of BCI Norms by Arvind has not only uplifted the lifestyle of the
workers under the BCI project but has also enhanced the overall quality level of
Cotton yarns since its quality is based on the uniformity level of Cotton fibers.

The BCI Cotton has a much lower Coefficient of Variance despite being
manufactured in different areas than the normally procured cotton from the
same areas.

The uniformity index of BCI-BB is 88.8 as compared to the uniformity index
of BB i.e. 81.6 which is significantly lower than the BCI-Cotton and affects its
quality greatly.

BCI at Arvind Limited | Conclusion
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WEB-REFERENCES
www.arvindmills.com

http://arvind-agri.com/bci.php

http://www.bettercotton.org/

www.garmento.org

www.denimology.com

www.cottoninc.com

BOOKS
Fabric science Glock and Kunj

Fabric Finishing J T Marsh

Textile Science - B P Corbman

Textile Science Tortora

REFERENCE