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RUNNNING HEAD: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Instructional Design and Educational Technology


Stacie Barker
Boise State University
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Abstract
This research paper will look at instructional design theories and models and how they relate to
educational technology. irst! it will give background in"ormation on what instructional design
is. #e$t! it will discuss the di""erent models that are used "or instructional design. inally! it will
discuss how instructional design connects with technology in the classroom along with the
di""erent models.
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Instructional Design and Educational Technology
Overview of Instructional Design
Instructional design is the process o" teaching that is enhanced through assessment and
organi%ed learning materials. According to &'man! (instruction is a systematic process in which
every component )i.e. teachers! students! materials! and learning environment* is crucial to
success"ully learning( )&'man! +,--*. During the instructional design method there are several
"actors that need to be written in the design steps. There are "our standards that important "or
instructional designs.
The "irst part o" instructional design is distinguishing your goals and ob.ectives. This is
important because it you need an ending goal and set o" ob.ectives that you want your learner to
know by the end o" the lesson/class. 0ou need to make sure the goals and ob.ectives are
obtainable and that they are measureable.
The second step in the process is deciding what instructional activities you will use in
order to reach those goals. In order "or the learner to gain knowledge o" the sub.ect you have to
have certain activities that will help the learner succeed. Activities could be in the "orm o"
pro.ects! discussions! or a combination o" various tasks.
The third part o" the process o" instructional design is to create an assessment that will be
used to determine i" your leaner reached the goals. This step is very important because it allows
you to see i" the learner has mastered the goals and ob.ectives that you established in the
beginning.
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The "inal step in the instructional design theory is to ad.ust and modi"y according to the
needs o" the learner. These steps are crucial because the "irst time you do this instructional design
process it will be not be per"ect. 0ou need to get "eedback "rom the di""erent people! such as1
teachers! e$perts in that speci"ic content area! and students in order to get enough "eedback about
your pro.ect. eedback "rom an e$pert in the area that you will be teaching will help you make
sure you have the correct ob.ectives and that they are attainable. 2etting advice "rom the learner
will help you know what areas or activities were high 3uality and which ones were not. Teachers
have to be able to adapt their teaching according to their learners needs. According to Spector
(constructivists are right in suggesting that learners! especially more advanced learners! should
be allowed some control o" the instructional design and modeling. As learners progress towards
higher levels o" e$pertise! they are 3uite naturally better situated to make decisions about what is
appropriate to learn ne$t! what is lacking with regard to their understanding o" a particular
concept! and so on( )Spector! -445*. During this step! testing out your initial lesson with a trial
run with a "ew learners will also give you important and valuable "eedback on what to keep and
what parts o" the pro.ect need to be changes.
Instructional Design Models and Methods
This section is about the di""erent models and methods that are used and can be used
when doing instructional design. Some o" the models are more popular than others but each o"
the models can be e""ective "or the right person or pro.ect. I will discuss 6 di""erent instructional
design models1 2agn7 Theory o" Instruction! the A.D.D.I.E. model! Dick and 8arey 9odel! and
"inally the A:8S model.
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Gagns Theory of Instruction. 2agn7 ac3uires his ideas "rom the behaviorism theory
and cognitivisim theory. ;e has nine di""erent events o" instruction. The "irst event is to gain the
attention o" the learner. The instructor/teacher gives the student something about the sub.ect that
engages the learner and makes them interested on what is going to be taught. The second event is
telling the learner the ob.ectives that they will be learning. The learner will know what is
e$pected o" them and they will know what they are going to learn at the conclusion o" the lesson.
The third event is discussing with the learner their background knowledge o" the sub.ect. <hat
in"ormation they already know about the topic be"ore starting the lesson. The "ourth event is
presenting the in"ormation to the learner. The "i"th event the teacher provides sca""olding "or the
learner. The teacher helps with their understanding o" the topic and helps to sort out the
in"ormation. The si$th event is the teacher having the students answer and respond about their
learning so that they know that the student is learning what is being taught. The seventh step is
when the teacher provides comments and advice to the learner. The eighth step is when the
teacher is assessing the learner. The ninth step gives di""erent tasks or practice to the learner to
make sure they maintain the in"ormation that they have learned )2agn7! -454*.
A.D.D.I.E Model. The A.D.D.I.E. model re"ers to "ive di""erent elements. irst is the
analysis phase= during this step the designer does an analysis to determine the needs o" the target
audience. It is important to identi"y the audience and their characteristics o" their learning. It is
also important to determine how long your timeline is "or completing the pro.ect. Deciding what
are some o" the methods o" delivery that can be used "or your learner. Second is design phase=
the designer will conduct research and preparation on the sub.ect. They will decide what
ob.ectives will need to be met and what type o" approach will be used to reach the ob.ectives that
have been set. Third is the development phase= during this step they will design a product on how
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to deliver the in"ormation the learner. ourth is implementing phase= during this phase designers
have to try out the product "or any bugs or glitches that might be in the program or lesson. They
have to decide what works and what does not work. The designer needs to make sure all the
books! e3uipment and technology is properly working "or the learner. >ast is the evaluation
phase= during this stage the designer will make necessary changes to the product so that it can be
a success"ul pro.ect. ;aving an assortment o" multimedia options allows you to meet the needs
o" all the learners and lets them discover how it can be signi"icant and important to them. (The
original goal o" ADDIE was to increase the e""ectiveness and e""iciency o" education and training
by "itting instruction to .obs?eliminating peripheral knowledge "rom courses while ensuring
that students ac3uired the necessary knowledge and e$pertise to do the .ob( )Allen! +,,@*.
Dick and arey Model. This model contains ten ma.or process components. The "irst
stage is to identi"y the goal o" the learner when the instruction has been completed. The second
step is doing a step by step o" how the learner is going to reach their goal and what in"ormation is
necessary when they are trying to reach their goal. The third step is to e$amine the learner and
"ramework. It is important to see what background knowledge they have prior to the learning and
what types o" behaviors do they show. Another signi"icant "actor is their motivation on the
sub.ect and academics in general. The "ourth step is to write the ob.ectives that the learner will
meet. The "i"th step is to build assessment tools that will help you to see what ob.ectives the
learner has "ul"illed during the course or lesson. The si$th step is to develop and improve
di""erent strategies "or presenting the in"ormation. 9aking sure that the learner is active and
involved in the learning. ;aving activities that they can complete "ollowing the lesson. The
seventh step is to design and choose instructional strategies. The eighth step is to collect
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in"ormation on how to better help with the instruction. The "inal step is to ad.ust and modi"y the
instruction according to the data that was collected )Dick! -44@*.
A!" Model. The A:8S model was created in -4A4 and Bincludes a systematic design
process. It can be separated into steps o" de"ine! design! develop! and evaluateC )Deller! -45A*.
The A:8S model (assumed that people will be motivated to engage in the activities i" they
perceive there is a positive e$pectancy to be success"ul and i" the activities are linked to the
satis"action o" their needs( )8heng! +,,4*. The model was made to increase the interest o"
instructional resources! instructor per"ormance! and how the instruction is designed. BThe A:8S
9odel de"ines "our ma.or conditions )Attention! :elevance! 8on"idence! and Satis"action* that
have to be met "or people to become and remain motivatedC )Deller! -45A*. The motivation can
be intrinsic or e$trinsic. This model relates to connectivism and how important it is to have
rewards while learning. :ewards are important because it makes the learner want to continue to
learn! it is what keeps them motivated )Deller! -45A*.
Instructional Design and Educational Technology
Teachers are being very motivated to learn and develop new ways to use and incorporate
technology due to new technology that is becoming available. Due to these advances in
technology! teachers are able to spend less time presenting in"ormation to their students and more
time preparing the in"ormation "or their students. (In classrooms where students engage in
learning! teachers are more than in"ormation givers. Teachers are "acilitators! guides! and coE
learners. As "acilitators! teachers provide rich learning environments! e$periences! and activities=
create opportunities "or students to work collaboratively! to solve problems! do authentic tasks!
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and share knowledge and responsibility. Teachers play comple$ and varied roles as guides. They
mediate! model! and coach( )Fones! Galde%! #owakoski! H :asmussen! -44I*.
Instructional design has emerged in response to the pressing need "or an e""ective!
e""icient and reliable educational system. Instructional design involves things such as task
analysis! behavioral ob.ectives! criterion re"erence testing! individuali%ed instruction )2illespie!
-445*. Instructional design helps with di""erent online teaching models. BJnEline courses are the
latest in a long series o" applications o" in"ormation technology to support teaching and learningC
)2illespie! -445*. These models are not only used in higher education! but are 3uickly becoming
more common in high school and home schooling programs. Karents are able to home school
their students like never be"ore with due to access o" hundreds o" online learning programs. 9ore
and more colleges are reali%ing that students do not have the time to sit in traditional college
settings. Keople need the "le$ibility to be able to work and attend college courses at the same
time. Jnline teaching is also gaining more creditability than it once had. BJnline teaching helps
students to gain easier and earlier access to use"ul in"ormation and a better method "or
dissemination o" this in"ormation to studentsC )2illespie! +,,5*. Jnline learning is great "or
learners who have busy schedules and time constraints that would otherwise prevent them "rom
attending a traditional school type setting. It helps students make better use o" their time and
makes them become proactive about their learning. <hen using online learning (the learning
environment is essentially unlimited! and e$ploration and learning "rom mistakes is accepted and
even encouraged. >earners can proceed through a vast amount o" content in an o"ten
unstructured or even random manner! and "or two learners to have the same e$periences would
be highly unlikely )2illespie! +,,5*.
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<ith online learning students are being held more responsible "or their own learning than
the traditional way o" teaching. Discussions are used to interact with not only their pro"essors!
but also other classmates that are around the world. According to 2illespie! Bmicrocomputer
technology would soon allow more time "or addressing studentsL special concerns! diagnosing
learning problems! developing appropriate learning strategies! and monitoring the e""ects o"
instructionC )2illespie! -445*. Students are becoming more engaged with online learning. They
no longer sit in the back o" a classroom without talking! they are re3uired to participate and be
engaged in the learning. (In engaged learning settings! students are responsible "or their own
learning= they take charge and are sel"Eregulated. They de"ine learning goals and problems that
are meaning"ul to them= have a big picture o" how speci"ic activities relate to those goals=
develop standards o" e$cellence= and evaluate how well they have achieved their goals( )Fones!
Galde%! #owakoski! H :asmussen! -44I*.
Students would bene"it by becoming more Bactively involved in the learning process!
receiving immediate "eedback about their per"ormance! and being able to proceed at their own
paceC )2illespie! -445*.
(Engaged learners become energi%ed by learning. They derive e$citement and pleasure
"rom learning. >earning is its own motivator and results in a li"elong passion "or solving
problems! understanding! and taking the ne$t step in their thinking and activities( )Fones! Galde%!
#owakoski! H :asmussen! -44I*.
Instructional design is also bene"icial "or a teacher when trying to implement new
technology tools into their classroom. <hen incorporating technology tools! such as the iKad into
a classroom it is important to think o" the big picture. <hat goal do you want to accomplish with
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the toolM 0ou simply canLt .ust bring a new technology in and think it is going to teach your
students "or you. 0ou need to have a goal and a set o" ob.ectives that you wish to accomplish.
This is where the instructional design process comes into play. 0ou need to understand the entire
process o" instructional design in order to success"ully be able to use the technology more
e""ectively.
<hen I created my very "irst instructional design pro.ect! I used the A.D.D.I.E model. I
wanted to incorporate iKads in my classroom! but I was unsure how. I knew that they were such a
great educational tool that my students would be able to bene"it "rom! but I needed a starting
place. I didnNt know what steps I would need to do "irst or where to begin. The whole process
was very di""icult and overwhelming. Using the instructional design model A.D.D.I.E. I was able
to break down the pro.ect into more manageable steps. I could step back "rom time to time and
make ad.ustments. By the end o" my pro.ect I had a well thought out instructional design pro.ect
that I would be able to use to implement iKads into my own classroom productively. By using an
instruction design model I was not only able to use technology in my classroom! but use it more
e""ectively to promote learning.
onclusion
Educational technology is very essential in the classroom. <ith new computer state
testing being implemented in di""erent states! students need to be prepared "or a whole new way
o" testing strategies rather than the old paper and pencil way. I" a student is not e$posed to this
type o" technology prior to taking these types o" tests! than they are at a real disadvantage.
Teachers need to do a better .ob o" getting technology into the hands o" our students starting at a
young age. Instructional design models are .ust a "ew ways to better integrate technology in a
classroom success"ully to promote learning and higher level thinking. By incorporating more
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educational technology theories and strategies we are giving students a .ump start and are
helping to level the playing "ield. (>earning is its own motivator and results in a li"elong passion
"or solving problems! understanding! and taking the ne$t step in their thinking and activities(
)Fones! Galde%! #owakoski! H :asmussen! -44I*.
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:e"erences
Allen! <. )Fanuary ,-! +,,@*. Jverview and evolution o" the ADDIE training system.
Advances in Developing Human Resources, 8, 6! 6O,E66-.
8heng! 0. )+,,4*. rom concepts o" motivation to its application in instructional design1
:econsidering motivation "rom an instructional design perspective. British Journal of
Educational Technology! 4)6*! I4AE@,I.
Dick! <. )-44@*. The Dick and 8arey model1 <ill it survive the decadeM. Educational
Technology Research and Development! 44)O*! IIE@O.
2agn7! :. 9.! H 2agn7! :. 9. )-45I*. 8onditions o" learning and theory o"
instruction.
2illespie! . )-445*. Instructional design "or the new technologies. !e" Directions for Teaching
# $earning! %&&8)A@*! O4.
&'man! A. )+,--*. Instructional design in education1 #ew model. Tur'ish (nline Journal of
Educational Technology! %)-*! -O@E-6+.
Deller! F. 9. )-45A*. Development and use o" the A:8S model o" instructional design. Journal
of )nstructional Development! %)O*! +E-,.
Fones! B. .! Galde%! 2.! #owakowski! F.! H :asmussen! 8. )-44I*. Klugging in1 8hoosing and
using educational technology. :etrieved "rom
http1//"iles.eric.ed.gov/"ullte$t/ED6-I5OA.pd"
#ichols! <. D.! H :upley! <. ;. )+,,6*. 9atching instructional design with vocabulary
instruction. Reading Hori*ons, 4+)-*! IIEA-. :etrieved "rom
http1//search.pro3uest.com/docview/+O@6AO4,6MaccountidP4@64
JN#eil! A. )+,,5*. The current status o" instructional design theories in relation to todayNs
authoring systems. British Journal (f Educational Technology! ,&)+*! +I-E+@A.
Keterson! 8. )+,,O*. Bringing ADDIE to li"e1 Instructional design at its best. Journal of
Educational -ultimedia and Hypermedia. -+ )O*! pp. ++AE+6-. #or"olk! GA1 AA8E
Kliner! S. 9.! H Fohnson! F. :. )+,,6*. ;istorical! theoretical! and "oundational principles o"
universal instructional design in higher education. E/uity # E0cellence )n Education,
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Spector! F. 9. )-445*. The role o" epistemology in instructional design. )nstructional 1cience,
23)OE6*! -4OE+,O. http1//d$.doi.org/-,.-,+O/A1-,,O,+OA,-@OI