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Emily Jones

AP Biology - 1st Block

Unit Two: Cellular Energetics Study Guide
1. The most random form of energy is heat because it is the most difficult to use for work to
convert to another form of energy
2. They become: + H, - S, and + G.
3. Enzyme catalyse reactions occur in an active site. Chemical reactions generally require
energy called "activation energy" to get started. Enzymes lower the activation energy
required for a reaction to proceed.
4. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never
decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic
equilibrium - the state of maximum entropy.
5. It can also be described as an endergonic reaction - that is a chemical reaction in which
the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
6. List of properties of enzymes:
-Enzymes are proteins that are biological catalysts
-They reduce the activation energy required for a reaction to occur & thus speed up a
-Temperature above a certain point causes them to break down & they are gradually
-Work best at a particular pH; they are destroyed by greater or lower pH.
-Have a specific shape, w/active site *specific to substance by speed of the reaction*
7. It provides energy coupling between exergonic & endergonic reactions
8. As a reaction continues to reach equilibrium, the free energy of the reactants and products
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
9. A competitive inhibitor binds the enzyme in the location the substrate is supposed to bind
to (the active site), thus making the substrate unable to bind to that location. If more
substrates are added, the chance of the substrate getting to that location before the
competitive inhibitor is higher, and so increasing the substrate concentration weakens the
chances of a competitive inhibitor doing its job of inhibition.
10. The first law of thermodynamics states that in any thermodynamic process, when heat Q
is added to a system, this energy appears as an increase in the internal energy stored in
the system plus the work done by the system on its surroundings.
*energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can change from one form to
11. Generally, entropy increases during the transformation of energy, which reduces the
amount of energy available. Note that this does not reduce the amount of total energy
(due to the conservation of energy law); it just decreases the amount of energy available
for use.
12. Free energy is the portion of a systems energy that is able to perform work when
temperature and pressure is uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.
13. If the reactants contain more free energy than products, the reaction is exergonic
14. Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways which break down molecules into smaller
units and release energy. In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, fatty
acids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as
monosaccharaides, fatty acids, nucleotides and amino acids, respectively. eg.respiration,
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
15. The free energy released by ATP is stored in the high energy phosphoanhydride bonds,
but this energy does not directly energize the cell.
16. The reaction rate will decrease
17. Metabolic
18. If an enzyme has two or more subunits, a substrate molecule causing induced fit in one
subunit can trigger the same favorable conformational change in all the other subunits of
the enzyme. Essentially, enzyme cooperativity is a mechanism of amplification regarding
the response of enzymes to substrates: One substrate molecule primes an enzyme to
accept additional substrate molecules more readily. "Allo" means other, and "steric"
refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule. An allosteric site is another
important site on an enzyme, other than the active site. When a molecule binds to the
allosteric site, the activity of the enzyme is altered (some enzymes can be activated and
others inhibited).
19. The Induced-fit model describes the formation of the E-S as a result of the interaction
between the substrate and a flexible active site. The substrate produces changes in the
conformation on the enzyme, aligning properly the groups in the enzyme. It allows better
binding and catalytic effects.
20. Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic property that was defined in 1876 by Josiah
Willard Gibbs to predict whether a process will occur spontaneously at constant
temperature and pressure. Gibbs free energy G is defined as G = H - TS where H, T and S
are the enthalpy, temperature, and entropy.
21. The process by which photosynthetic organisms such
as plants turn inorganic carbon (usually carbon dioxide) into organic compounds (us.
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
Carbohydrates) In CAM plants the photosynthesis and initial carbon fixation occurs at
night and a 4-carbon acid is stored in the cell's vacuole. During the day, the Calvin cycle
operates in the same chloroplasts.
22. Basically photorespiration prevents the formation of PGA, decreasing the rate of G3P
production (the output of the Kelvin Cycle) and ultimately slowing the synthesis of
glucose (or other organic compounds).
23. A protein gradient
24. they use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO

25. The green pigments of Chlorophyll in plant cells absorb sunlight for photosynthesis.
26. ATP
27. The products of the light reaction are NADPH and ATP, energy molecules to run the
Calvin Cycle.
In the light reaction because sunlight hits the water and busts it apart, water is broken
down into H+, 2 electrons and oxygen as a waste product.
Imagine that, a vital gas being a waste product of photosynthesis which helps organisms
goes through cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide goes into the Calvin Cycle, and takes
the H+ from NADPH, uses ATP, and makes glucose. To make that Calvin Cycle "churn"
run, you need energy from the light reaction, NADPH and ATP. Glucose is a
carbohydrate used for energy for organisms.
29. No. Calvin cycle is the cycle in plants that makes glucose, not requires them.
30. This compound is an intermediate of photosynthesis and
of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. It also is a byproduct in the biosynthesis
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
pathway of tryptophan, an essential amino acid. It also occurs as a reactant in
the biosynthesis pathway of thiamine (vitamin b1)
31. Red
32. The dark stage
33. Proton Gradient
34. RuBp - RuBisCo
35. Mesophyll Cells
36. Chlorophyll A
37. Required - Carbon Dioxide; Not Required - O2
38. The Sun
39. Kinases/Phosphorylases
40. The stroma
41. CAM plants
42. It occurs during the day because in order to run the Calvin cycle NADPH and ATP are
needed from the light reaction.
43. Green
44. Cyclic electron flow is a process that ultimately helps the production of ATP. The
cyclical flow is that electrons cycle back to a photosystem rather than traveling between
the two photosystems. This way, NADP and NADPH levels remain in balance and
photosynthesis can take place.
45. Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
46. Photosynthesis is driven by solar energy. It turns water and carbon dioxide into simple
carbohydrates and oxygen gas. This reaction takes place in structures called chloroplasts.
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
Respiration is driven by chemical energy. It turns carbohydrates back into carbon dioxide
and water. This reaction takes place in structures called mitochondria. The chemical
energy comes from a substance known as ATP.
47. They are found in mitochondria and in chloroplasts.
In mitochondria, the ATP synthase complexes are embedded in the inner membrane.
In chloroplasts, the ATP synthase complexes are embedded in the thylakoid
48. Light Reaction
49. Yes.
50. Photosystem II
51. Aerobic respiration
52. Combustion
53. Lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and ATP.
ATP only for certain organs, such as the brain and the heart. Also, another by product of
dissociation of lactic acid is hydrogen ions, lowering the pH, resulting in a more acidic
54. An agent that closely mimics structure of glucose but is not metabolized is poison would
most directly interfere with glycolysis.
55. No, its NADH and Pyruvate
56. NADH
57. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner membrane of the cell mitochondria. It is
basically the terminal stage of cell respiration which generally takes place in the
mitochondria. This process generally occurs in eukaryotes.
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
58. Glucose, since bonds are broken and a net production of 2 ATP occurs in glycolysis when
glucose is converted to 2 pyruvates
59. ATP
60. The actual production of ATP in cellular respiration takes place through the process of
chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis involves the pumping of protons through special channels
in the membranes of mitochondria from the inner to the outer compartment. The pumping
establishes a proton gradient. After the gradient is established, protons pass down the
gradient through particles designated F1. In these particles, the energy of the protons
generates ATP, using ADP and phosphate ions as the starting points.
61. Human Cells
62. In the electron transport chain, the main molecules for removing electrons from
substrates are NADH Dehydrogenase, Cytochrome C Coenzyme Q reductase and
Cytochrome Oxidase
63. ATP
64. Glycolysis occurs outside of the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of cells. Without oxygen
lactic acid will be formed. With oxygen it will form pyruvate which then enters the
mitochondria and eventually forms CO2
65. ATP
66. In the cytosol of the cytoplasm
67. 4
68. In substrate level phosphorylation, the ADP is phosphorylated directly by the transfer of
phosphate group from substrate. If we consider glucose, then we get four substrate level
Emily Jones
AP Biology - 1st Block
phosphorylated ATPs, net gain of two in glycolysis and other two are formed when the
two pyruvate molecules formed after glycolysis enter the TCA cycle.
69. Released into the atmosphoere ~
70. The terminal electron acceptor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Oxygen, O2.
After going through the electron transport chain, the electrons are used to reduce oxygen
to water in Complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase
71. ATP
72. Cellular respiration
73. CO2, pyruvic acid
74. NAD and FAD
75. H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.
76. 2
77. acetyl CoA
78. The electrons from from NADH and FADH2 flow through the electron transport chain in
the inner mitochondrial membrane generating a H+ buildup in the inner membrane space.
This proton gradient (gradient of H+) flowing through the membrane enzyme complex
ATP synthetase is the direct energy source for producing ATP.
79. 6
80. Skeletal Muscle