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QUESTIONS FOR CKT DEBUGGING TEST

SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY AND DEVICES

1. Why is Silicon not used as a substrate in Light emitting diodes?
a. Si is tetravalent in nature.
b. Si has high temperature and mechanical stability.
c. Si is a direct band gap semiconductor, with momentum commensurate between
valence band and conduction band.
d. Si is an indirect band gap semiconductor involving a metastable energy state that causes
its electrons to produce heat energy while transition to valence band from the
conduction band.

2. Design an analog circuit using diodes and DC sources ONLY, to convert a sine wave of peak
amplitude 20V to a square wave of peak amplitude 15V. Assume the diodes are ideal, need of
protective resistance can be neglected and suitable approximation in the output waveform
shape is allowed.

3. A semiconductor diode starts to conduct exponentially in forward bias condition when the input
DC bias exceeds its cut in voltage because
a. A small voltage is present inherently in the semiconductor material of the diode.
b. With high DC input bias, the holes and electrons gain kinetic energy and large current is
initiated
c. The barrier potential due to the depletion region is overcome by the increasing input
bias voltage, resultig in huge current flowing in the diode.
d. None of these

4. A zener diode regulator in figure, is to be designed to meet the specifications: I
L
=10mA, V
0
= 10
volts, and V
in
varies from 30 volts to 50 volts. The zener diode has V
z
= 10 volts, and I
zk
(knee
current) = 1mA.

For satisfactory operation,
a. R 1800 ohms
b. 2000 ohms R 2200 ohms
c. 3700 ohms R 4000 ohms
d. R > 4000 ohms

5. For a sinoidal input of 50V amplitude, the circuit shown in the following fig can be used as

a. Regulated DC power supply
b. Square wave generator
c. Half wave rectifier
d. Full wave rectifier

ANALOG ELECTRONICS

1. In the circuit shown below, voltage at the point A is: (assume = 100)

a. 0V
b. 2V
c. 3.1V
d. 3.9V

2. Introducing a resistor in the emitter of a common amplifier stabilizes the DC operating point
against variations in
a. Only the temperature
b. Only the of the transistor
c. Both temperature and
d. None of the above

3. Which of the following regions of operation are mainly responsible for transistor heating when
working as a switch?
I. Saturation region II. Cut off region III. Transition from saturation to cut off
IV. Transition from cut off to saturation
a. I and II
b. II, III and IV
c. I and III
d. I, III and IV
4. In the case of BJT amplifier, bias stability is achieved by
a. Keeping the bias current constant
b. Changing the bias current in order to keep I
C
and V
CE
constant
c. Keeping the temperature constant
d. Keep the temperature and bias current constant

5. The gain of a transistor amplifier falls at high frequencies due to
a. Internal capacitances of the device plus stray wiring capacitances
b. Coupling capacitors at input, output and feedback paths
c. Skin effect
d. None of these

6. The circuit shown below implements what kind of filter? (assume opamp is ideal)

a. Low pass filter
b. High pass filter
c. Band pass filter
d. Band elimination filter

7. Consider the following statements regarding a common emitter transistor amplifier. It can be
converted into an oscillator by:
I. providing adequate positive feedback
II. phase shifting the output by 180 degrees and feedbacking
III. using only a series tuned circuit as a load on the amplifier
IV. using a negative resistance device as a load on the amplifier

Which of the above statements are correct?
a. I, II, III and IV
b. I and II
c. I, III, and IV
d. III and IV
8. A circuit is shown in the following fig. The largest value of R
L
that can be used, is

a. 100 ohms
b. 400 ohms
c. 2 kilo ohms
d. 20 kilo ohms

9. An opamp is
a. A direct coupled amplifier
b. An indirect coupled amplifier
c. RC coupled amplifier
d. Transformer coupled amplifier

10. Consider the Schmidt trigger circuit shown below. A triangular wave which goes from -12V to
12V is applied to the inverting input of the opamp. Assume that the output of the opamp swings
from +15V to -15V. The voltage at the non-inverting input, swings between

a. -12V and +12V
b. -7.5V and +7.5V
c. -5V and +5V
d. 0V and 5V

11. The input resistance of the circuit shown in the fig, assuming an ideal opamp, is

a. R/3
b. 2R/3
c. R
d. 4R/3

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
12. Draw the analog circuit of 2-input 1-output NAND gate using BJTs and resistors only.

13. The initial output of the following circuit is 1. If we apply 010101 at input A (first bit is zero),
then bit pattern generated at the output Y is,

a. 010101
b. 101010
c. remains at 0
d. remains at 1

14. In the fig, the LED

a. emits light when both S1 and S2 are closed
b. emits light when both S1 and S2 are open
c. emits light when only S1 or S2 are closed
d. Does not emit light, irrespective of the switch positions

15. All the logic gates in the circuit shown below have finite propagation delay. The circuit can be
used as a clock generator, if

a. X=0
b. X=1
c. X=0 or 1
d. X=Y

16. If X1 and X2 are the inputs to the circuit shown in the fig, the output Q is

a. (X1+X2)'
b. (X1*X2)'
c. (X1)' * X2
d. X1 * (X2)'

17. The figure of merit of a logic family is given by
a. Gain bandwidth product
b. Propagation delay and Power dissipation product
c. Fan out and Propagation delay product
d. Noise margin and Power Disspation product
18. Majority of digital voltmeters are built with a Dual-slope ADC because they are
a. less complex than other types of ADCs
b. faster than other ADCs
c. Can be designed to be insensitive to noise and interference
d. provide BCD outputs

COMMUNICATIONS
1. An AM signal and a narrowband FM signal with identical carriers, modulating signals and
modulation indices of 0.1 are added together. The resultant signal can be closely approximated
by
b. SSB with carrier
c. DSB-SC
d. SSB without carrier

2. A fully charged mobile phone with a 12 volt battery is good for a 10 min talktime. Assume that,
during the talk-time, the battery delivers a constant current of 2A and its voltage drops linearly
from 12V to 10V. How much energy does the battery deliver during this talktime?
a. 220J
b. 12kJ
c. 13.2kJ
d. 14.4J

3. Four independent messages have bandwidths of 100Hz, 100Hz, 200Hz and 400Hz, respectively.
Each is sampled at the Nyquist rate, and the samples are time division multiplexed and
transmitted. The transmitted sample rate(samples/sec) is
a. 1600
b. 800
c. 400
d. 200

4. Consider a signal x(t) of bandwidth 7kHz in the range 7 to 14kHz. Then the signal x
3
(t) will not
contain which of the following frequencies
a. 15kHz
b. 25kHz
c. 30kHz
d. 40kHz

5. H(z) is a discrete rational transfer function. To ensure that both H(z) and its inverse are stable,
its
a. Poles must be inside the unit circle and zero must be outside the unit circle
b. poles and zeros must be inside the unit circle
c. poles and zeros must be outside the unit circle
d. poles must be outside the unit circle and zeros must be inside the unit circle