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Chapter 15: Development of Political Parties

Section 1: Sources of American Law

law defines the inviduals rights and obligations the wa citi!ens and government
"arl Sstems of Law
Code of #ammurabi is the ealierst collection of laws assembled b #ammurabi
$%ing of &ablonia' spelled out punishments
1( commandments found in the bible is another set of earl laws $some parts are
reflected in our own law'
)ur Legal #eritage
laws that govern our lives*protect rights are conational law+ statutor law+
administrative law+ common law+ and e,uit come from man sources
$federal*state*administrative agencies*court decisions'
Constitutional Law
establishes our countr as a representative democrac+ outlines structure of our
government and set forth basic rights applies to all americans*is supreme law of the
land $standard which all other laws are -udged both federal*state appl use provisions
from constitution to ma%e decisions
state constitions were firt written spell out governmental arranegements*rights of
citi!ens because state constitutions are easier to amend than ./S consittiion the
relfect popular concerns easier
0state courts loo% at cases involving state constition $usuall adopt ./S supreme court
rulings on ./S as a guide to interpert their own constition 1do not have to2' State
courts ruling on their own state constition ma be appealed to ./S supreme court if the
state constition*court violates the ./S constition
Constitional law deals w* branch of law w* formation+ construction+ and interperation
of consittions decide the limits of the governments power and the rights of individuals
./S supreme court decisions are the mian sources of information about the
meaning*intepertation of the ./S*state constition $ma deal w* civil law or criminal law'
Statutor Law
Statute is a law written b a legislative branch of government $congress*state and local
legislative bodies write such laws'
0ma limit citi!ens behaviors $set speed limits' also source of rights*benefits $social
securit chec%*drivers license'
man federal court decisions deals w* statutor law and supreme court interpert
stautor laws $determines what a statue means or if deprives a person of a constitional
Stautor law is based off the ancient romans $idea of written law'
Administrative Law
administrative law spells out the authorit and procedures to be followed b
administrative agencies that run the government programs*provide services as well as
man distractive laws deal w* problems of fairness and due process $man agencies
regulate peoples behaviors or provide*den government benefits' disputes arise
wehter agencies have acted fairl
Common Law
3case law4 law made b -udges in the process of resolving individual cases
when ou use past cases or earlier precedents to interpert laws $origin of stare decisis 3let
the decision stand4'
sstem of rules b which disputes are resolved on the ground of fairness in
medieval tiems rivaled common law+ officie of oal official $the chancellor' became a
court that represented a %ings consioicness and evelope the theor of e,uit would
re,uire action beong the pament or even stop a wrong doing because it occurred $can
prevent an action li%e a neighbor building a fence across our propert' e,uit and
common large have merged and a single court can admisnter both sstems
Legal Sstem Principles
5 ma-or princiapls undelier the operation of both federal*state courts: e,ual -ustice
under the law+ due process of law+ the adversar sstem of -ustice+ and the presumption of
",ual 6ustice .nder the Law
goal of the american court sstem to treat all persons ali%e grants all americans
right to a trial b a -ur of ones peers $5 to 7
amendment show specific guarantees'
Due Process of Law
realted to e,ual -ustice has a substantive and a procedural part
Substantive Due Process
shorthard for certain rights $some specified in constition li%e free speech' $and other
not specified b right of privac in personal decisions' 5
and 5
amendment contain due
process principals
0laws that have been found to violate substantive due process are: 1' law that limits
dwelling to onl single families $no grandparents' 8' law that prevents female teacher
from returner to wor%er sooner than 9 months after the birth of her child 9' law that
re,uires all children to go to public school and not private school
Procedural Due Process
involes cases about the wa a law is administrated involves procedural due procress
prohibits arbitrar enforcement of the law gives safeuards intended to ensure that
constitional*statutor rights are protected b law enforcement at basic level procedural
due process re,uires 1' notice to a person he*she is doing something wrong and that the
governmet intends to ta%e specific action that will affect the person 8' giving the affected
person the right to respond or to be heard concerning the accusation of wrong doing
:he Adversar Sstem
courtroom is an 3arena4 in which lawers for the opposing sides tr to preent their
strongest ases e;pected to do all that is legall permistaable to advnce the cause of
his*her client -udge has an impartial role and is to be fair
Presumption of <nnocence
accused is innocent until proven guilt burden of proving an accusation against a
defendant falls onto the prosecution $defedent does not have to prove his*her innocence
until prosecutionn proves the accusation the court must declare defendant not guilt'

Section 8: Civil Law
deals with disputes amount two or more individuals*between individual and
government arise if one part believes it has suffered an in-ur b another part $or to
prevent a harmful action form occurring'
:pes Civil Law
civil law affects everthing
=our most important: contracts+ propert+ famil relations+ and civil wrongs that
causes phsical in-ur or in-ur to propert $torts'
is a set of voluntar promoses enforceable b law between parties who agree to do*not
do something
0in e;pressed contract terms are specificall stated b the parties $usuall in writing'
0implied contract stated bu can be tinferre from the actions of the people involved and
the circumtances
in a valid contract all parties to a contract must be mentall competent and generall
of legal age cant be illegal must include an offer+ acceptance+ and a consideration
0a offer is a promise that something will*will not happen li%e one part+ the auto shop
will repair our car for >5(( the other part must accpt the offer made b the auto shop to
fi; the car+ which is an acceptance parties must give some form of consideration
must give+ e;change+ perform+ or promise each other something of value $man civil suits
over this'
Propert Law
deals with the use and ownership of propert
real propert is defined b the court to be land and whatever is attached to or growing
on it $house*trees'
personal propert includes moveable items $-ewelr*clothes' and intangible items
=amil Law
deals w* relationships amoung famil members $marriage*divorce and custod issues'
each state has individual famil law in america marriage is a civil contract entered
b both parties
:orts and Civil ?rongs
tort is an wrongful act other than a brach of contract in which the in-ured part has
the right to sue for damages in civil court those responsible for damages cuased to
someones propert ma be sued b the part suffering the damage*in-ur $who ma also
see% punitive damages 1mone2 and also punish part for causing the in-ur'
two ma-or categories of torts intentional torts involves a deliberate act that results
in the hard to a person*propert $li%e assault' personal ma be liable for actions $li%e
practical -o%e' that wasnt meant to cause harm but did
negligence is another %ind of tort w* careless and rec%less behavior
0a person is negligent when he*she fails to do something a reasonable person would have
Steps in Civil Case
civil cases are lawsuits plaintiff is a person who brings charges in a lawsuit $called
the complaint' person that the suit is brought against is the defendant
plaintiff in a civil case usuall see%s damages and if court decides in the favor of the
plaintiff the defendant must pa the damages to the plaintiff defendant is also re,uired
to pa court fees if court decides in favor of the defendant the plaintiff must pa all the
court costs and of course receives nothing from the defendant
in casing involving e,ui the plaintiff ma as% the court to put an in-unction $court
order that forbits a defendant to ta%e*contrinue a certain action
lawsuits are used to settle such disputes time consuimg*e;pensive*has certain steps
#iring a Lawer
a person needs a lawer to start a lawsuit ma wor% for a contingenc fee $1*5
@ of total mone won or wor% of an hourl fee' no fee is paid if the plaintiff loses
the cases but the paintif pas for the cost of the suit $coping charges*fees for
invesitagors*special e;perts'
=iling the Complaint
plaintiff sets forth the charges against the defendant in a complaint $legal document
filed w* the court that has -uridiction over the problem' it tells what the issue is to the
defendant $what he*she did wrong' so a defense can be mounted
defendant gets a summons $official notice of lawsuit w* date*time*place of initial court
appeareance' defendants lawers ma file a motion to dismiss $as%ing court to end
the suit' if court denies this motion the defendant must file an answer $formal response
to charges in complaint within a time limit' defendant might also file a counterclaim
$lawsuit against the plainstiff in which the defendant pas plaintiff did something wrong'
Pretrial Discover
occurs when both sides prepare for trial b chec%ing facts*gathering evidence to
support their case
0attornes and private invesgtiatiors in ma-or cases ma interview witnesses*e;amine
records*photos*file motions against the other side
Aesolution ?ithout :rial
most civil lawsuis are settled before trial
0 either part in lawsuit ma propose a settlement during the trial at a pretrial
confereance parties can tal% things over court ma re,uire*encourage parties to settle
their dispute outside of courts
in mediation each side is given the opportunit to e;plain its side of the dispute*listen
to the other side
0trained mediator conducts the session b acting as the nuetral part*promotes
communication does not decide issue parties does this w* mediators help
parties ma submit their dispute to arbitration process is conducted b a
professional artbitator who acts li%e a -udge b reving evidence*deciding how the
problem will be settles $usuall binding'
:he Award
courts have man options in resolving cases*-udges have more power to ad-ust
decisions made b -uries when plaintiff wins the court awards damages+ in-unctive
relief+ or both
0in-unctive releif $from idea of e,uit' is a court order to prevent a future act damages
awarded can be more or less than what plaintiff re,uested the loser ma appeal*refuse
to pa damages if defendant refuses to pa the plantiff must get a court order to
enforce the pament of damages in one of deveral was $ta%ing mone out of defendants
pachec%*sei!ing and selling defendants assets'
Small Claims Court
these courts hear civil cases dealing w* collecting small debts*propert damage
$randing from >1+((( to >5+(((' depending onstate
plaintiffs w* larger claims can waive the amount of their claim and stiff use these
courts $cannot recover more than the limit'
most courts have simple forms to complete in order to file a complain no lawers
are re,uired plaintiffs bring evidence of their claim to court*are as%ed to e;plain their
case in nonlegal terms evidence ma include testimon from witnesses or their
affidavits $written testimon from witnesses to prove statements of fact that have vee
signed b the witness under oath before a magistrate or notar'
-udge hears case and gives a legall binding decision $if defendant fails ot appear the
plaintiff usuall wins b default for amount of claim'

Section 9: Criminal Law
government charges someone w* a crime and is alwas the prosecutoin defendant is
the one accused of a crime
crime is an act that brea%s a cirminal law*cause sin-ur to people*societ
criminal -ustice sstem is the sstem of state and federal courts+ -udges+ lawers+ police
and prisons responsible for enforcing criminal law
:pes of Crime
each state has its own penal code*written laws that spell out what constitutes a crime
and the punishments that go with it crimes ma be classified as pett offenses+
misdemeanors or fealonies
Pett )ffenses
involves minor crimes $par%ing illegall*literring*brea%ing speed limit' people
people commit pett offenses the receive a tic%et*citation $not arrested' if not
challenged the ma onl have to pa a fine
more serious crimes $vandalism+ simple assault+ stealing e;pensive items+ being
drun%*disorderl' ma be fined*sentences to -ail $a ear or less'
serious crimes $burgarl+ %idnapping+ rape+ fraud ect' are punishable b
imprisonment for a ear or more in case of murder it could be death ma also lose
certain civil rights $right to vote*posses firearm*serve of -ur' also loose emploment
Steps in Criminal Cases
man steps involved at each step defendants are entitled to protections of due
process guaranteed in the bill of rights
prosecurtor+ government lawer w* the responsibilit for bringing*proving cirminal
charges against a defendant $must prove beond a reasonable doubt to -udge*-ur the
defendant violated a law'
<nvestigation and Arrest
criminal cases ma behin when police believe a crime has been commited aand start
an investiagtion to gather enough evidence to convince a -udge to give them a warrant to
aresst someone a valid arrest warrant must list suspects name*alleged crime $ma
occur without a warrant is police catch someone in the act of cmmiting a crime*have
reasonable suspicion' arrested person is ta%en to a police station where charges are
<nitial Appearance
whenever someone is arrested he*she must be brought before a -udge as ,uic%l as
possible $before 85 hours' to be formall carged with a crime' -udge e;plains the
charges to defendants*reads persons rights if charge is a misdemeanor the defendant
ma plead guil and -udge will decide a penalt if defendant pleads not guilt a date is
set for a trial
if a crime is a felon the defendant is as%ed not to enter a plear -udge sets a date for
a pleminar hearing and a process debating merits of charges starts
a suspect can be relased or 3held to answer4 ma be relased if th e-udge thin%s the
person is a good ris% to return to court for trial or -udge ma re,uire bail $sume of mone
the accused leaves with the court until he or she returns to trial' according to 7

amendment the amount of bail must match severit of the charge $cannot be e;cessive'
Preliminar #earing or Crand 6ur
ne;t step varies from state to state and federal government
in federal courts* man state courts+ cases will go to grand -ur $group of citi!ens who
review the prosecutions allegations in order to determine if theirs enough evidence to
given an indictments 1formal criminal charge2'
grand -ur hearings are conducted in secret and ma consider trpes of evidence not
allowed in trials $defendants are not entitled to have an attorne to represent them' if
a preliminar hearing is used instead the procesution presents its case to the -udge and the
defendants lawer ma also present certain %inds of evidence on behalf of the defendant
if enough probabl cuase it will move to the ne;t step $if not enough evidence chargs
will be dropped'
toda in midneanor cases*felone cases coruts use an information rather than a grand
-ur indicement information is a sworn statement b the prosecution aseeting that
there is sufficient evidence to go to trial
Plea &argaining
most criminal cases comes to an guilt plea w* plea bargaining in pretrial process
the prosecutor+ defense lawer+ and police wor% out an agreement through which
defendants plead guilt to a lesser crime in return for the government not prosecuting the
more serious crime w* which the defendant was originall charged in Santobello v/
Dew Eor% court said plea bargaining was allowed
Arraignment and Pleas
after indictment b a grand -ur*preminar hearing*information ne;t step is
arraignment where the -udge reads the formal charge against the defendant in an open
courtroom defendant is represented b an attorne $-udge ma as% ,uestion to ma%e
sure person understands the charges*the process'
-udge as%s if the defendant pleads guilt or not gult
defendant can enter one of four pleads $1' not guilt $8' not guilt b reason of
insanit $9' gult and in some states $5' no contest $nolo contendere' in pleaning this
the defendant indirectl admits guilt does not go on the records as a guilt plea if
defendant pleads guiltl or nolo contendere he*she has given up right to a defense $-udge
then decides a punishment' is plea is not gult there must be a trial*court date is set

:he :rial
the F
amenemnt guarantes defendants should not have to wait a long time before their
trial starts courts are crowded and long delas are common defendants accused of a
felon have a right to choose between a -ur trial or one head onl b a -udge $bench
trial' in a bench trial the -udge hears all the evidence and determines guilt*innocence
e;perience shows that -udges are more li%el to find defendants guilt than -uries
-ur is a group of citi!ens who hear evidence during a trial in order to decide
prosecuting*defense attornis selec -uors from a large pool of residents within the
courts -urisdiction both sides avoid -urors who might tbe unfavorable to their side
when -ur*alternate -urors have been selected the prosecution present sits case against
the defendant withness are claled*evidence is presented defense attorne has the
right to crossGe;amine prosecution witnesses*also can ob-ect to statements*actions b the
other side
ne;t defense has its turn and ma call witnesses $prosecuting attorne has right to
crossGe;amine them' under the 5
amendment defendants do not need to restif and
refusal to testif cannot be ta%en as an admission of guilt attornes for both sides
present closing arguments that summari!e their cases*repond to oppositions case
:he Decision
after closing arguments -udge gives the -ur a set of insticitons of proper elgal
procesures and e;plains the law that the -ur is re,uired to appl to the facts brought out
at trial -ur members then go to a -ur room to decide if he defendant is guilt or not
guilt -ur selects a forperson to lead their discussions*serve as their spo%esperon
-ur deliberations are secret*have not set time limit to decide a person guilt the -ur
must find ecidence convicning 3beond a reasonable doubt4 nearl all convictions
re,uire a unanimous vote for a verdict $decivion of gult' if -ur cannot agree on a
verdict $hung -ur' court declares a mistrial and a new trial w* another -ur ma be
scheduled later
if verdict is not guilt defendant is released immediatel w* few e;ceptions cannot be
tried for the ame crime
if verdict is guilt the -udge determines the setences $punishment to be imposed on
offender' ma be fine*imprisonment
toda victem of crimes can ma%e statements about the sentence which can be ta%en
into acount law usuall sets liminum and ma;imum penalties for various crimes and
-udges chooses a punishment from within those ranges w* a serious rime -udge ma
hold hearings in order to consider a defendants bac%ground*other circumantances
$re,uired in death penalt cases' people convicted of misdeameanors*felonies have
right to appeal to a higer court

Chapter 1F: Development of Political Parties

Section 1: Parties and Part Sstems
Parties and Part Sstems
a political part is a group of people w* broad common interests who organi!e to win
elections+ control government+ and thereb influence government policies
)ne Part Sstems
<n this sstem the part is basicall the government deicsions of part leaders set
government polic in oneGpart nations political differences arise onl within the part
itself $government doesnt allow opposition' usuall found in nations w* autoritarian
governments such parties come into power through force
such in communicst countries also e;ists outside communist nations $li%e iran'
where religious leaders dominate government $%nown as a theocrac'
Bultipart Sstems
in nations that allow more than one part parties in this sstem represent a widel
differing ideologies $basic beliefs about government'
in this sstem one part rarel gets enough support to control the government
several parties combine forces to obtain a ma-orit and form a coalition government
when parties w* different ideologies share power coalitions often brea% down w* disputes
:woGPart Sstems
two parties mainl compete for power $minor parties e;ist' li%e in .nited States
Crowth of American Politics
man founders didnt li%e the idea of political parties $li%e Badison*?ashington'
$federalist H called for a central government while democraticGrepublics believed that
states should have more power than the central government'
Parties &efore the Civil ?ar
after federalist elected 6ohn Adam the ,uic%l faded+ 6efferson $democraticG
republican' led the wa in 17(( and the part dominated for a while $conflicts over
ban%ing+ tariffs+ and slaver occurred' when 6ac%son won 1787 presidenc the
democraticGrepublicans were splitting into 8 parties 6ac%son became the what is
%nown as the democracts while the other called itself the Dational Aepublicans $?higs'
175(s debate over slaver created divsions in both parties democrats split between
northern and soutern factions whigs -oined a new part that opposed the spread of
slaver $republican part'
Parties After the Civil ?ar
b the end of the civil war $8' parties dominated $republicans remained th ma-orit
part from civil war into 8(
centur+ democrats held office for 5 terms from 17F(G1I98'
Parties in the Creat Depression and After
1I98 democrats won white house and control og congress for about F( ears
democrats were th ma-or part+ starting from 1IF7 republicans control the white house for
F of the ne;t I presdeital terms/ after their loss to Clinton the too% both houses of
congress for 1
time in 58 ears
:he Aole of Binor Parties
a third part is an part other than the two ma-or parties in an elections there
ma be more than one part against the ma-or parties $each is named a third part since
the rarel win' third part runs because the believe neither ma-or aprt is meeting
certain needs
:pes of :hird Parties
0minor parties usuall fall into one of the three categories
0usuall focuses e;clusivel on one ma-or social+ economic+ or moral issue
$</e: libert part*free soil part formed to ta%e a stronger stand against slaver than ether
ma-or part' short lived $fade awa w* issue or if a ma-or part adopts the issue'
focuses on overal change in societ rather than an issue $li%e socialist labor
part*communist part*libertarian part'
splits awa from one of the ma-or part because of some disagreement usuall
results from the failure of a popular figure to gain the ma-or parts presidential
nominaton $tpicall fade awa w* the defeat of their candidate'
:he <mpact of :hird Parties
minor parties influence the outcome of national elections some third parties
promote unpopular*hotl debated ideas which ma be later adopted b a ma-or part
)bstacles to :hird Parties
minor parties face difficulties getting on the ballot in all 5( states names of
republicans and democrats are automaticall on the ballot in man states but 9
candidates are re,uired to obtain a large J of voter signatures in a short term
another problem is that most elected officials in ./S are selected b a singleGmember
Single Bember Districts
under this sstem no matter how man candidates compete in a distirct onl one will
win because most voters support a ma-or part the winner will generall be a democrat or
a republicans
Proportional Aepresentation
man nations use this sstem+ where several officials are elected to represent voters in
an area officers are filled in proportion to the votes that each parts candidates receive
$encourages minor parties'
another problem is financing third part campaigns $need a lot of mone'
americans do not fund such parties $less li%el to win' third parties tr to appeal to
voters in certain regions of the countr*certain groups in societ $must plant political
roots in all parts of the countr'

Section 8: Part )rgani!ation
political parties need volunteers to suceed at the local+ state+ and national level to deal
with the daGtoGda wor%ings of the part
Bembership and )rgani!ation
Part Bembership
in man states citi!ne smust declare their part preference when the register to vote
-oining a political part is not re,uired $ma be listed as an independent' when
people -oin a part the do so because the support its idea*scandidates
the two ma-or parties are open and welcome whoever wishes to belong*accepts
whatever degree of involvement these individuals choose members have no
obligations*duties beond voting some citi!ens can become more involved in the
political process ma support a part b contributing mone or b doing volunteer
wor% for the part*its candidates one must be a part member in order to hold office in
a part*be its candidate for public office
part memberships gives citi!ens a wa to increase their influence on government
parties depend on citi!en involvement
Local Part )rgani!ation
basic local unit is the precinct a voting district $from a few voters to thousands'
all whom cast balots at the same polling place
in a precinct each part has a volunteer precinct captain who organi!es part wor%ers
to distribute information about part*candidates to attract voters to the polls several
ad-oining precincts comprise a larger district $ward' part members in each ward
select a person to present the ward at the ne;t part organi!ation $parts count
count committee selects a chairperson to handle count parts affairs part
countr chairperson has great political power in the count $determines which candidate
gets parts support' $if states governor or .nited States senators is from the same part
the se% recommendation from countr chairpersons when appointing
-udges*administrative officials'
local partes due to nature of memberships is the wea%est lin% in the organi!ational

State Part )rgani!ation
composed largel of representatives from the parts countr organi!ation state
central committee chooses the part state chairperson committee generall follows the
wishes of the govnorer+ a ./S senator or some other part leader powerful in state politics
0main function of state central committee is to help elect parts candidates for state
government oficers
Dational Part )rgani!ation
has two main parts national convention and the national committee
0national convention is a gathering of part members*local and state part officials
$meets ever 5 ears' to nominate the parts presidential*vice presidential candidates
0between conventions the national committee is a large group made up of representatives
from the 5( state part organi!ations runs the part
0some members of congress and some state*local elected officials ma sit on the national
committee $as other selected part members'
part national chairperson is elected b the national committee manages the dail
operation of the national part usuall person selected is the choice of the parts
presidential candidate national chairperson also raises mone for the part*touts
achievements*promotes nationa*state*local part cooperation
both democrats*republicans also have independent campaign committees for congress
the provide assisatance to senators*representatives running for reelection each
parts committee also provides resources to help challenegers defeat senators and
representatives from the other part
Political Part =unctions
political parties are an essential part of americas democratic sstem through
election process people select the officials who will governm them political parties
perform several important functions
Aecruiting Candidates
political parties see% people who have a good chance of bening elected+ selecting
candidates for public office and presenting them to voters for approval is the ma-or
function of political parties 3election oriented4
"ducating the Public
part publishes its position on important issues from
inflation*ta;es*energ*enviroment in phamlets*press*radio
0republican*democratic part national organi!ations as well as third parties have websites
to raise mone for candidates*%eep supporters informed
sometimes ma-orit part candidates feel safer attac%ing opponents views than stating
their own
man americans are not well informed about importna tissues*bac%ground of
candidate but political parties simplif elections b helping people decide how to vote
$support a candidate -ust because he*she is a democrat*republican and voter %nows how
the candidate will stand on %e issues'
)perating the Covernment
political parties pla a %e role in running*staffing government congress*state
legislatures are organi!ed and carr on wor% based on part affiliation
part leaders in legislature ma%e ever effort to see their members support the parts
position when considering legislation part lin%s legislature and chief e;ecutive who
wor%s through his*her part leaders in the legislature to promore the administrations
Dispensing Patronage
political parties give patronage+ favors to reward part loalt to other members
$-obs*contracts*appointments to government positions' business interest donate and
e;ptect the government to be smphathetic to their problems if the part comes into power
:he Loal )pposition
part out of power in legislative*e;ecutive branch assumes role of 3?atchdog4 over
government observes the part in power+ criti!es it+ and offers solutions to political
Aeduction of Conflict
conflicts are inevitable to win an election political part must attact support from
man different groups part encourages groups to compromise*wor% together $not
anmore' parties encourage government to adopt moderate policies w* mass appeal
also peacefull transfer of power from one part to another

Section 9: Dominating Candidates
#ow Candidates Are Selected
four ma-or modes 1' caucus 8' nomination convention 9' primar election 5' petition
are private meetings of part leaders chose nearl all candidates for office in
modern caucuses the part rules re,uire openeess w* selection process starting at the local
level selecting delegates starts at local level to state level $used in 1I states'
Dominating Conventions
is an official public meeting of a part to choose candidates for office local part
organi!ations send represenatives to a countr nominating convention that selects
candidates for count oficers*chooses delegates who will go to state nominating
convention which select candidaties for statewide office*choose delegates who will go to
the national convention
power flows upward from the people became increasingl undemocratic
powerful part leader $bosses' chose deletgates*controlled conventions led to a
primar election as the method fo selection at state*local levels
Primar "lections
Direct Primar
)pen and Closed Primaries
most commonl used method an election in which part members select people to
run in the general election
0two tpes of primar elections are held most states hold closed primar n which onl
members of a political part can vote
in an open primar all voters ma participate even if the do not belong to the part
but the can vote in onl one parts primar
primar elections are conducted according to state law*held at regular polling places
-ust as general elections
each state sets the date*provides balotss and people to supervise election*counts votes
most states candidates need more votes than another candidate to win $pluralit'
some states if no candidate receives a ma-orit a runoff primar is held runoff is
with two candidates who had the most votes in the firs primar person who wins
becomes parts candidate in the general election

a person can announce his*her candidac and files a peittion that a specified J of
voters have signed in order to be placed on the ballot some states re,uire all
candidates to file a peittion
in primar contest partGbac%ed candidate has an advantage because part wor%ers can
circulate petitions $part also sues financial*organi!ational resources to bac% its choice'
Presidential Dominations
each ma-or part gathers in -ul*augut for a national convention+ elected*appoint
delegates from the states and territories attend the convntion and select a tic%et $candidate
for president*vice president' that will win in the Dovember general election
:he #istor of Presidential Dominations
before national nominating conventions congressional caucuses chose presidential
candidates+ 17((G1785 congressional leaders from each part met in secret and selected
their parts tic%et in 1785 6ac%son made causus sstem an issue he discredited the
caucus sstem and led to the eventual adoption of the nominating convention
0antiGmason part held the first national convention in 1791 since 1798 a convention
of part members has chosen ma-or part presidential candidates b 1I1F almost @ of
tates were choosing convention delegates in presidential primar elections
0for ears citi!ens voted in a presidential primar the reall chose amoung groups of
part members pledged to support specific candiates $the group pledged to the winning
candidate became the states delegation to the national convention'
b 1IIF presidential primaries e;isted in 55 states and were part of the selection
process for about 9*5
of the delegates to the two national conventions

Presidential Primaries :oda
operate under a wide varit of state laws each part fre,uentl changes its rules
regarding delegate selection even in the same state each parts primar ma operate
under different procedures
0follow $9' gnerali!ations can be made
1' the ma be a delegate selection process or a presidential preference poll
8' either the candidate who wins the primar gets all the states convention delegates
$3winner ta%es all4' or each candidate get delegates based on how man popular votes he
or she receives in the primar
9' delegates selected on the basis of the popular vote ma be re,uired to spport a certain
candidate at the national convention or the ma be uncommitted
man presidential primaries were winner ta%e all but democrats now use proportional
representations in which a states delegates must represent the candidates in proportion to
the popular vote each receives in the primar once a certain threshhold is reached
$republican allows winnerGta%eGall and proportional'
some states hold 3beaut contst4 where preference polls show which candidates voters
li%e to be a nominee and caucuses later choose the actual delegates
Criticisms of Presidential Primaries
primaries e;tend over too long a time in an election ear 1
primar held in
=ebruar and the last in -une $see%ing a parts nomination is long*costl*e;hausting'
ma%es the image of the candidate more important than the issues
few people vote in primaries if ou win earl primaries it helps
some states have created regional primaries $if ou lost on these ou had almost no
chance of becoming our parts nominee'
primaries eliminat man oppoents and ma result in oneGsided conventions
:he Dational Convention
national commiteee staff prepares for convention held in late summer
PreGConvention Planning
national comitte of each ma-or part chooses the site*date after choosen the
national committee tells each state part organi!ation how man votes the state will have
at the convention
Assembling the Convention
from across the countr thousands of delegates assemble in the convention cit
when delegates arrive man have alread pledged to a candidate $others not'
candidates activel woo these uncommitted delegates candidates hold news
conferences part chairperson cals the opening session to order evening of open
da mar%s the %enote speech an address b an important part member intended to unite
the part for the coming campaign delegates then approve the conventions four
standing committees $rules and order of business+ credentials+ and platofrm*resolutions'
conflicts arise w* committee reports
Aules Committee
governs the wa its convention is run proposes rules for convention procedure and
sets the convnetions order of business
0delegates must approve an proposed changes in the rules of the last convention
Credentials Committee
must pprove the delegations from each state disputes arise over who the proper
delagtes are it is up to the creditals commite to determine which delegates should be
Committee on Permanent )rgani!ation
selects the permanet chairperson and other officials for th econvention after it
reports the delegates elect the permanent convention officials hwo ta%e daGtoda control
of the convention from temporar officials
Platform Committee
is assigned to writing the parts platform $statement of its principles+ beliefs+ and
positions on vital issues and what the part intends on doing on thee issues'
individual parts of the platform $called plan%s' ma divide delegates
Dominating the Candidates
after each committee report is adopted it is time to select the parts candidate for
president nominating speech for each candidate sets up demonstration after
speechs are made balloting starts the convention chairperson instructs the cler% to read
the alphabetical roll call of the states and the chairperson of each state delegation calls
out the delegates votes candidate w* ma-orit votes becomes the parts nominee if
not candidate does then further roll calls must be ta%en until one candidate wins a
:he KiceGPresidential Domination
normall ta%es place on the last da of the concention creates suspense usuall
parts presidential nominee selects a running mate and the convention automaticall
nominates the person chosen sometimes is chosen to balance the tic%et $he*she has a
personal*political*geographic bac%ground different from the presidential nominee'
w* nomination of the presidential*vice presidential candidates convention is almost
done ma-or nominees appear before deleates and ma%e their acceptance speech GG/
<ntended to bring the part together $attac% oposition and ot sound a theme for the
upcoming campaign*appeal to a national television audience'

Chapter 1L: "lections and Koting
national elections select all represenatatives and 1*9 of senators ever two ears
0senators*representatives must raise funds candidates for the highest office must have
access to hundred of millions of dollars to run their campaigns
Section 1: "lection Campaigns
"lecting the President
candidates for president begin organi!ing a ear before the election primar races
in spring narrow the field of candidates following the national convention the
presidential campaigns become intense and end on election da $first :uesda after the
first Bonda of Dovember' $note final 7 wee%s for a presidential campaign is fren!ied'
"lectoral Kotes and the States
to be elected president a candidate must win atleast 8L( of the 597 available electoral
votes total electoral vote H number of represenatives and senators from all the states M
9 votes from washingtom $each states electoral vote is the total J of its senators M
candidate who wins greater J of popular votes in an state usuall receives all of that
states electoral votes candidate must pa attention to state w* large poplations $larger
the population the more electoral votes' $11 largest states has 0 8L( electoral votes'
Campaign Strateg
plan how to capture %e states $attac% opponent or a more low %e campaign*sloganN
Campaign )rgani!ation
heading the organi!ation is a campaign manage who is responsible for overal strateg
and planning in the national office individuals handle relations w*
televisions*radio*print media and manage finances*ads*polls
on state*local levels the state part chairperson coordinates a campaign local part
officials*field wor%ers contact voters*hold rallies*distribute camapign literature
.sing :elevision
main wa man citi!ens find out how a campaign is progressing
image voters have of a candidate is e;tremel important political
commercials*television appearances help shape a candidates image also used in
.sing the <nternet
used to raise mone and a campaign website to inform potential voters
=inancing "lection Campaigns
ver e;pensive to run candidates need mone for manthings $candidates ma need
to give special favors to contrubutors rather than represent all voters'
Aegulating Campaign =inancing
federal election campaign act $="CA' and its aemndments provide the framewor%
governing campaign financing re,uire public disclosure of each candidates
spending*provide federal finding for presidential elections*prohibit labor unions and
business organ!iations from ma%ing direct contributions and limit how much
individuals*groups can contribute
:he ="C
1IL5 amendment to ="CA created the =ederal "lection Commission $="C'
independent agenc of the e;ecutive branch to admisnter federal election laws records
of camapaign contributions must be %ep and al contibutions over >1(( must be reported
to ="C 1ILF supreme sourt ruled individuals ma have restrictions in contributing an
overal limit on the total cost of a ampaign was unconstitutional
Public =unding
1IL5 campaign finance law established public funding presidential candidates ma
accept federal funding from the presidential election campaign fund for the primar
camapigns*general election but must agree to limit their total campaign spending from
1ILFG8((5 ma-or part candidates accepted these funds for general election $third part
candidates can receive federal funds if their part received atleast 5O of the vote in the
previous election'
Private =unding
bul% of campaign funding comes from private sources ="CA limited direct
donations to a candiate b an individual to >1+(((
direct donations to candidates ma come rom political action commiteers $PACs'
established b interest groups to collect mone*providde financial support to favored
candidates or political parties PACs are limited b ="CA in how much the an donate
directl to an single candidate*one election ccle
political parties have found loopholes in ="CA one method to bpass limits on
campaign spending is issue advocac advertising paid for b interest groups urges
voters to support a particular position on isues $gun control*healt cre' do not as%
people to vote for or against a candidate but often contain a candidates name or image
used to support someone*target others ="CA placed no limits on this
.nder BcCain and =eingold who spondered :he &ipartisan Campaign Aeform Act
$&ACA' targeted the use of issue advocac adveritsing and the use of soft mone to
national political parties soft mone dontions were contributions given directl to a
political part b PACs or individuals for generla purposes $voter registration drives*part
mailings*ads' mone used to benefit campaigns of candidates $without ever giving
mone diecl to the candidate' ="CA placed no limits but &ACA banned all softG
mone donations to political aprties $&ut raised limit for individuals to >8+((('
prohibited unions*corporations*non profit groups from running ads aimed at a candidate
within 9( das of a primar election $F( das witin general election'
Campaign Law and the <nternet
="C ruled that the election web site operators must identif themselves online
website operating interdentall of official campaigns must be registered w* the ="C if
the spend >85( or more on the site $including cost of computer*software*internet
connection' ma receive contributions electronicall but must follow established
reporting procedures

Section 8: ";panding Koting Aights
voting is a right and is needed for a democrac
right to vote is suffrage 17 earsM general can vote but this right to vote is not
absolute and is sub-ect to regulations*restrictions
"arl Limitations on Koting
before the american revolution womena nd msot African americans could not vote and
neither could white males who did not own propert*pa ta;es also some members
hwo were not part of the dominant religious group $so 5GFO of population voted'
educated men did not believe in a mass democrac during first @ of 17((s state
legislatures abolished the propert re,uirement*religious restrictions for voting and b
mid 17((s the countr had achieved universal white male suffrage
?omanPs Suffrage
fight for woman suffrage dates to mid 17((s and these groups grew in J as time
passed b 1I15 the won the right to vote 11 states $all west of missimmpi' not after
??< was the 1I
amendment ratified and woman suggrage put into effect nationwide
African American Suffrage
at the signing of the constition both enslaved*free Africans americans were 8(O of the
population enslaved were not permitted to vote and free were in some states
:he =ifteenth Amendment
amendment provided that no state can deprive an citi!en the right to vote 3on account
of race+ color+ or previous condition of servitude4 first time national government set
rules for voting
Crandfather Clause
southern states set up roadbloac%s to limit*discourage participation of African
american voters grandfather clause provided that onl voters whose grandfathers had
voted before 17FL were eligible to vote without paing a poll ta; or passing a literarc tet
since the grandfathers of most southern Africans americans were slaves it prevented
them from voting declared unconstitional in 1I15
Literac :est
southerns used literac test to %eep africna americans from the polls most white
voters were -udged literate if the could write their name but man African american
voters were re,uired to do more Koting rights Act of 1IF5*1IL( outlawed literac test
Poll :a;
poll ta; was an amount of mone that a citi!en had to pa before he or she could vote
had to be paid not onl for the current ear but also for previous unpaid ears
$financial buden for poor citi!ens of all ethnic bac%grounds' ta; had to be paid before
election da and had to present reciept showing pament before being allowed to vote
amendment outlawed poll ta; in national elections $1IFF supreme court eicsions
outlawed state poll ta;'
Koting Aights Act
1IF5 voting rights act was one the most effective suggfrage laws ever passed this
and later voting rights laws $1IL(*1IL5*1I78' brought federal government into the
electoral process in the states
1IF5 law empowered the federal government to register voters in an distirct where
5(O of afican americans were on the voting list government could register voters in
districts where local officials were discriminating African americans
voting right laws forbade unfair division of election district to diminish the influence
of minorit groups law provided for the appointment of poll watchers to ensure the
voters of all ,ualified voters were counterd literac test were abolished law
re,uired ballots be printed in Spanish and other minorit groups were given the same
this act increased African american voter registration giving them a more important
role in politics
:he 8Fth Amendment
if ou are 17 ears or older ou can vote

Section 9: <nfluences on Koters
$5' ma-or factors influence voter decisions
1' person bac%ground of the voter 8' degree of voter loal to one of he political parties
9' issues of the campaign 5' voters image of the candidate 5' proporaganda
to whether to vote on election da
Personal &ac%ground of Koters
voters personal bac%ground affect their descisions $li%e upbringing+ famil+ age+
occupation+ income level+ or general outloo% of life'
a senior citi!en would probabl favor a candidate who promised an increase in social
securit paments while a ounger voter ma be against $more pa cut from pachec%'
and vote against the candidate
)ther &ac%ground <nfluences
voters education+ religion+ and racial*ethnic bac%ground also affect their attitudes
towards candidates African american voter ma support a candidate against
discrimination while a -ewish voter ma not vote for a candidate who has resevations
about american support of isreal
bac%ground is important but not ultimate deicsion ma%er
CrossGPressured Koters
a reason wh bac%grounds do not lwas forecast how the will vote is crossGpressure
crossGpresure voter is one who is caught between conflicting elements in his*her own
life $religion*income level*peers' other areas important to voter deicsion ma%ing are
campaign issues*personalit of the candidate
Loalt to Political Parties
loalt to a part influence voting decision ma-orit of americans vote according to
their part affiliations
Strong v/ ?ea% Part Koters
not all voters who consider themselves republicans*democrats support their parts
candidates w* same strenght
strong part voters are those who select their parts candidates in election after
election see part as more important than the issues or candidates in voting booth
the usuall vote a straightGpart tic%et $select candidates onl in their part'
wea% part voters are more li%el to switch their voters to the rival parts candidates
from time to time more influenced b issues*the candidates than the are b part
<ndependent Koters
thin% for themselves $neither republican*democrat' has increased over the ears and
are ver important for elections
<ssues in "lection Campaign
man voters are not wellGinformed about issues discusse in election campaigns are
becoming better informed
0television has brought the issues into almost ever home voters are also better
educated current issues seem to have a greater impact on the personal lives of man
:he CandidatePs <mage
-ust as important as the issues if the wa voters precieve the issue and its handling
if the believe administration is effectivel dealing with the econom the might
reward it with votes $coverse is true'
americans want a president the can trust man voters select candidates on image
alone candidates must conver the impression of the ,ualitied voters e;pect in a
involves using ideas*information*rumors to influence opions not ling*deception
but it is not ob-ective uses information in a wa to support a predetermine ob-ective
originall used b commericial advetisers but adopted for political camapgins on
telvision 3plain fol%s4 is a popular techni,ue since 6ac%son as%s a person to 3-ump
on the bandwagon4 followed close behind celeberties give endorsements
03liberal4 and 3conservative4 were first negative terms
in a debate cnadiates might 3card stac%4 ,uote onl statistics that support his*her
problems arise when propganda because obviousl misleading can reduce voter
Profile of Aegular Koters
citi!ens who vote regularl have positive attitudes towards government*citi!enship
aducation*age*income are important more educated will be more li%el to vote
voter regularit also increases w* income
Profile of Donvoters
some citi!ens do not vote because the do not meet state voting re,uirements all
states have $9' basic re,uirements: .nited States Citi!enship+ residenc+ and registrationn
all states limit voting rights even if ouve lived in this countr for man ears but
not formall ./S citi!ens ou cannot vote most states re,uire voters to be resident of
the state for a certain period of time before he are allowed to vote before 1IL(
residenc was generall 8G9 ears but after voting rights act of 1IL( it became 9( das
before an election $some have no period'
all states $e;cept Dorth Da%ota' re,uire voters to register*record their names of
officiall w* local board of elctions on elction da an election official must chec%
voters names voters whose names are on the list sign in b writing their names on the
form $used to prevent fraud*dishonest elections' all voter registration is permanent if a
voter once registered remains on the list until he*she dies or fails to vote within a J of
americans are ver mobile and problem arise since the might forget to register to vote
0voter particpation trends have varied $declined from 1IF( to 8((' fewer americans
voted in congressional*state*local elections also in 8((5 voter participation umped
0people want to increase voter turnout suggest shifting voting from :uesda to
Sunda another is to allow voters to register on election da some li%e national
registration sstem $voter registration follows voter to a new state when the move'

Section 5: Donvoters
Current Koting Ae,uirements
?h Citi!ens Do Dot Kote
Aesidenc and Aegistration Ae,uirements
Profile of Aegular Koters
Profile of Donvoters
<ncreases in DonGvoting
?as of <ncreasing Koter :urnout

Also+ as alwas+ ou should be familiar with all the "conomists we have read up to this
point along with an other articles/