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Comp||ed by: Musa kamaw|


________of ________

8y successfully managlng our mulLlllngual Lermlnology, noL only we are proLecLlng our
organlzaLlon's global brand ldenLlLy, we are also creaLlng a foundaLlon for conslsLenL
communlcaLlon and knowledge sharlng LhroughouL our organlzaLlon. WlLh every conLenL
creaLor and LranslaLor uslng Lhe rlghL Lerm, organlzaLlons can achleve remarkable
lmprovemenLs ln brand conslsLency and conLenL quallLy.
Conslderlng Lhe needs of Lhe organlzaLlon for havlng a successful mulLlllngual Lermlnology, l
have complled Lhls glossary of buslness and managemenL Lerms from (Ceneral ManagemenL,
P8, MarkeLlng, 8esearch MeLhodlzes, CrganlzaLlon 8ehavlor and ubllc AdmlnlsLraLlon) Some
of Lhese Lerms can have dlfferenL meanlngs ln slLuaLlons ouLslde of buslness and managemenL,
and some can even have dlfferenL meanlngs ln dlfferenL areas of buslness. Cenerally Lhls
glossary llsLs Lhe mosL common uses and meanlngs and lL may be helpful and resource maLerlal
for Lhose purslng Lhe buslness school or fellowshlp programs.
lf you hear or read a Lerm whlch does noL make sense accordlng Lo Lhe deflnlLlon ln Lhls
glossary, check elsewhere or ask Lhe person whaL he/she meanL. eople do noL always use
Lermlnology correcLly, whlch means lL's very lmporLanL Lo seek clarlflcaLlon when you hear a
sLrange Lerm.
Pope Lhls publlcaLlon would meeL mosL of ManagemenL SLudenL & offlcer who look for such
glossary LhaL meeL Lhelr demand ln day Lo day funcLlons and add lnformaLlon.
Musa kamaw|
P8 ulrecLor MlnlsLry of llnance, lslamlc 8epubllc of AfghanlsLan
unl1A8 Ponorary laculLy Member(unlLed naLlons lnsLlLuLe for 1ralnlng & 8eseach)
Lmall: mkamawl[

Absentee|sm Any fallure of an employee Lo reporL for or Lo remaln aL work as scheduled, regardless of
Abso|ute kat|ng Systems 8aLlng formaLs LhaL evaluaLe each employee ln Lerms of performance sLandards, wlLhouL
reference Lo oLher employees
Acceptance Samp|e An operaLlon managemenL monlLorlng Lool ln whlch a sample of maLerlals or producLs ls
measured agalnsL a benchmark
Act|on Learn|ng A process ln whlch parLlclpanLs learn Lhrough experlence and appllcaLlon
A Lralnlng Lechnlques by whlch managemenL Lralnees are allowed Lo work full Llme
analyzlng and solvlng problems ln oLher deparLmenLs
Act|ng L|sten|ng LlsLenlng ln whlch flve Lhlngs are done well: Laklng Llme Lo llsLen, communlcaLlng verbally
and nonverbally, noL lnLerrupLlng or argulng, waLchlng for verbal and nonverbal cues, and
summarlzlng whaL was sald and whaL was agreed Lo
Act|on rograms rograms, lncludlng Lhe acLlvlLles of recrulLmenL, selecLlon, performance appralsal, Lralnlng,
and Lransfer LhaL help organlzaLlon adapL Lo change ln Lhelr envlronmenL
Adaptab|||ty screen|ng A process LhaL alms Lo assess Lhe asslgnee's (and spouse's) probable success ln handllng a
forelgn Lransfer
ADLA Age ulscrlmlnaLlon ln LmploymenL AcL of 1967 (AuLA) 1he acL prohlblLlng arblLrary age
dlscrlmlnaLlon and speclflcally proLecLlng lndlvlduals over 40 year old
Adm|n|strat|on Lhe sysLemaLlzed orderlng of affalrs and Lhe calculaLed use of resources, almed aL maklng
Lhose Lhlngs happen whlch we wanL Lo happen and slmulLaneously prevenLlng
developmenLs LhaL fall Lo square wlLh our lndusLrles, generally Lhe word admlnlsLer means
Lo serve Lo manage Lhe affalrs of Lhe people
Adm|n|strat|ve Contro| whlle Lhe admlnlsLraLlon ls supposed Lo enforcemenL Lhe governmenL pollces ad lmplemenL
lLs programmes for Lhe welfare and developmenL of Lhe sLaLe sub[ecLs a need arlse Lo
monlLor and keep a check on Lhe publlc admlnlsLraLlon
1he managemenL approach LhaL examlnes an organlzaLlon from Lhe perspecLlve of Lhe
managers and execuLlves responslble for coordlnaLlng Lhe acLlvlLles of dlverse groups and
unlLs across Lhe enLlre organlzaLlon
Adverse Impact 1he overall lmpacL of employer pracLlces LhaL resulL ln slgnlflcanLly hlgher percenLage of
members of mlnorlLles and oLher proLecLed groups belng re[ecLed for employmenL,
placemenL, or promoLlon
A|ternat|ve staff|ng 1he use of non-LradlLlonal recrulLmenL sources
Annua| 8onus lans LhaL are deslgned Lo moLlvaLe shorL-Lerm performance of managers and are Lled Lo
company proflLablllLy
App||cat|on Iorm 1he form LhaL provldes lnformaLlon on educaLlon, prlor work, record, and skllls
App||cant Group lndlvlduals who are ellglble for and lnLeresLed ln selecLlon or promoLlon
Arb|trator A Lhlrd parLy Lo a negoLlaLlon who has Lhe auLhorlLy Lo dlcLaLe an agreemenL
Appra|sa| |nterv|ew An lnLervlew ln whlch Lhe supervlsor and subordlnaLe revlew Lhe appralsal and make plans
Lo remedy deflclencles and relnforce sLrengLhs
Apprent|cesh|p 1ra|n|ng A sLrucLure process by whlch people become skllled workers Lhrough a comblnaLlon of class
room lnsLrucLlons and on-Lhe [ob Lralnlng
Arb|trat|on 1he mosL deflnlLlve Lype of Lhlrd-parLy lnLervenLlon, ln whlch Lhe arblLraLor usually has Lhe
power Lo deLermlne and dlcLaLe Lhe seLLlemenL Lerms
At r|sk var|ab|e pay p|ans lans LhaL puL some porLlon of Lhe employee's weekly pay a rlsk, sub[ecL Lo Lhe flrm's
meeLlng lLs flnanclal goals
Assessment centre
A process LhaL evaluaLes a candldaLes poLenLlal for managemenL on Lhe basls of mulLlple
assessmenL Lechnlques, sLandardlzed meLhods of maklng lnference from such Lechnlques,
and pooled [udgemenLs from mulLlple assessors
Attach mosL [unlor dlplomaLlc ranks, noL Lo be confused wlLh mlllLary aLLache, or speclal aLLache
December 2011
e.g. Lconomlc aLLache
Att|tudes An lnLernal sLaLe LhaL focus on parLlcular aspecL of or ob[ecLs ln Lhe envlronmenL
Attr|butes data uaLa LhaL ls counLed ln dlscreLe unlLs such as dollars, hours, lLems, and yes/no opLlons. 1he
alLernaLlve Lo aLLrlbuLes daLa ls varlables daLa, whlch ls daLa LhaL ls measured on a
conLlnuous and lnflnlLe scale such as LemperaLure or dlsLance. CharLs LhaL use aLLrlbuLe
daLa lnclude bar charLs, ple charLs, areLo charLs and some conLrol charLs
Author|ty lor Managers aL all levels Lhe organlzaLlonally granLed rlghL Lo lnfluence Lhe acLlons and
behavlour of Lhe workers Lhey managed
Author|zat|on Cards ln order Lo peLlLlons for a unlon elecLlon, Lhe unlon musL show LhaL aL leasL 30 of
employees may be lnLeresLed ln belng unlonlzed. Lmployees lndlcaLe Lhls lnLeresL by slgnlng
auLhorlzaLlon cards
Automated 1e||er Mach|ne
a machlne LhaL allows use of speclal cards by consumers Lo make deposlLs, wlLhdraws cash,
or Lransfer funds among accounLs vla elecLronlc funds Lransfer
Autonomy 1he degree Lo whlch Lhe [ob provldes subsLanLlal freedom and dlscreLlon Lo Lhe lndlvldual ln
schedullng Lhe work and ln deLermlnes Lhe procedure Lo be used ln carry ouL lL
Ava||ab|||ty A producL or servlce's ablllLy Lo perform lLs lnLended funcLlon aL a glven Llme and under
approprlaLe condlLlons. lL can be expressed by Lhe raLlo operaLlve Llme/LoLal Llme where
operaLlve Llme ls Lhe Llme LhaL lL ls funcLlonlng or ready Lo funcLlon

8aby-boom generat|on eople born beLween 1946 and 1964, currenLly 33 percenL of Lhe workforce, who belleve
LhaL Lhe
8ar chart A charL LhaL compares dlfferenL groups of daLa Lo each oLher Lhrough Lhe use of bars LhaL
represenL each group. 8ar charLs can be slmple, ln whlch each group of daLa conslsLs of a
slngle Lype of daLa, or grouped or sLacked, ln whlch Lhe groups of daLa are broken down
lnLo lnLernal caLegorles
8arga|n|ng un|t 1he group of employees Lhe unlon wlll be auLhorlzed Lo represenL
8AkS 8ehavlorally Anchored 8aLlng Scale (8A8S) An appralsal meLhod LhaL alms aL comblng Lhe
beneflLs of narraLlve crlLlcal lncldenLs and quanLlfled raLlngs by anchorlng a quanLlfled scale
wlLh speclflc narraLlve examples of good and poor performance
8ase Compensat|on 1he flxed amounL of money Lhe employee expecLs Lo recelve ln a pay Check weekly or
monLhly or as an hourly wage
8ehav|our Mode||ng A Lralnlng Lechnlques ln whlch Lralnees are flrsL shown good managemenL Lechnlques ln a
fllm are asked Lo play roles ln a slmulaLed slLuaLlon, and are Lhen glven feedback and pralse
by Lhelr supervlsor
8ehav|oura| Interv|ew A serles of [ob-relaLed quesLlons LhaL focus on how Lhey reacLed Lo acLual slLuaLlons ln Lhe
8enchmark|ng A Lechnlque LhaL lnvolves comparlng one's own processes Lo excellenL examples of Slmllar
rocesses ln oLher organlzaLlons or deparLmenLs. 1hrough benchmarklng, rapld learnlng can
occur, and processes can undergo dramaLlc lmprovemenLs
8enchmark|ng A sLraLeglc managemenL approach LhaL assess capablllLles by comparlng Lhe flrms, acLlvlLles
or funcLlons wlLh Lhose of oLher flrms
8enchmark Iobs !obs LhaL are characLerlzed by sLable Lasks and sLable [ob speclflcaLlons also known as key
A [ob LhaL ls used Lo anchor Lhe employer's pay scale and around whlch oLher [obs are
arranged ln order of relaLlves worLh
8enef|ts A compensaLlon componenL LhaL accounLs for almosL 40 percenL of Lhe Lyplcal LoLal
compensaLlon package and lncludes healLh lnsurance, penslon plans, unemploymenL
lnsurance, vacaLlons, slck leave and Lhe llke
8|as 1he Lendency Lo allow lndlvldual dlfferences such as age, race, and sex Lo affecL Lhe
appralsal raLlngs employee recelve
8IC 8ond llde CccupaLlonal CuallflcaLlon (8lCC) 8equlremenL LhaL an employee be of a cerLaln
rellglon, sex, or naLlonal orlgln where LhaL ls reasonably necessary Lo Lhe organlzaLlon's
normal operaLlon. Speclfled by Lhe 1964 Clvll 8lghL AcL
8ottom-Up-Change organlzaLlonal change LhaL orlglnaLes wlLh employees
8oycott 1he comblned refusal by employees and oLher lnLeresLed parLles Lo buy or use Lhe
employer's producL
8rand A name, Lerm, deslgn, symbol, or any oLher feaLure LhaL ldenLlfles one seller's good or
servlce as dlsLlncL from Lhose of oLher sellers. 1he legal Lerm for brand ls Lrademark. A
brand may ldenLlfy one lLem, a famlly of lLems, or all lLems of LhaL seller. lf used for Lhe flrm
as a whole, Lhe preferred Lerm ls Lrade name. See also: adverLlsed brand, brand exLenslon,
brand generlc, brand lmage, brand name, brand personallLy, branded merchandlse,
brandlng, lndlvldual, brandlng, llne famlly, compeLlLlve brands, dlsLrlbuLor\'s brand, famlly
llghLlng brand, flanker
8rand Manager A managemenL role LhaL coordlnaLes Lhe on-golng acLlvlLles of markeLlng branded
consumer producLs
8road 8and|ng ConsolldaLlng salary grades and ranges lnLo [usL a few wlde levels or bands each of whlch
conLalns a relaLlvely wlde range of [obs and salary levels.
8ra|nstorm|ng A Lechnlque Lo generaLe creaLlve ldeas for solvlng problems by reduclng crlLlcal and
[udgemenL reacLlons Lo ldeas from group members. (8) A group meLhod of problem solvlng,
used ln producL concepL generaLlon. lL ls someLlmes LhoughL Lo be an open, free-wheellng
ldea sesslon, buL more correcLly ls a speclflc procedure developed by Alex Csborn, wlLh
preclse rules of sesslon conducL
8reak Lven Va|ue 1he lengLh of Llme an observed Lralnlng effecL would need Lo be malnLalned ln order Lo
recover Lhe cosL of Lhe Lralnlng program
8reakthrough th|nk|ng A managemenL Lechnlque whlch emphaslzes Lhe developmenL of new, radlcal Approaches
Lo LradlLlonal consLralnLs, as opposed Lo lncremenLal or mlnor changes ln LhoughL LhaL bulld
on Lhe orlglnal approach
8ureaucracy A sLrucLure wlLh hlghly rouLlne operaLlng Lasks achleved Lhrough speclallzaLlon very
formallzed, rules and regulaLlons Lask, LhaL are grouped lnLo funcLlonal deparLmenLs
cenLrallzed auLhorlLy narrow span of conLrol and declslon maklng LhaL flows Lo chaln of
8ureaucrat|c Management 1he managemenL approach LhaL examlnes Lhe enLlre organlzaLlon as a raLlonal enLlLy, uslng
lmpersonal rules and procedures for declslon maklng
ueLalled procedures LhaL deLermlne who wlll be lald off lf no work ls avallable, generally
allow employees Lo use Lhelr senlorlLy Lo remaln on Lhe [ob.
8urnout 1he LoLal depleLlon of physlcal and menLal resources caused by excesslve sLrlvlng Lo reach
an unreallsLlc work-relaLed goal
8us|ness Speclfles Lhe presenL and/or prospecLlve scope of a sLraLeglc buslness unlL's acLlvlLles ln
Lerms of Lhe boundarles of Lhe arena ln whlch Lhe buslness elecLs Lo compeLe. 1he
deflnlLlon also serves Lo dlrecL aLLenLlon Lo Lhe Lrue funcLlon of Lhe buslness-LhaL ls, Lhe way
LhaL Lhe buslness meeLs Lhe needs of lLs LargeL cusLomers. A compleLe deflnlLlon requlres
cholces abouL Lhe buslness poslLlon a long four dlmenslons: (1) cusLomer funcLlons-
addresslng Lhe beneflLs belng provlded, (2) cusLomer segmenLs-speclfylng Lhe cusLomer
groups seeklng slmllar beneflLs and sharlng characLerlsLlcs LhaL are sLraLeglcally relevanL, (3)
Lechnology--speclfylng Lhe alLernaLlve ways ln whlch a parLlcular funcLlon can be
performed, and (4) verLlcal buslness sysLem--speclfylng where Lhe buslness chooses Lo
parLlclpaLe ln Lhe sequence of sLages ln Lhe verLlcal buslness sysLem (or value-added
8us|ness Game A slLuaLlon LesL ln whlch candldaLes play Lhemselves, noL an asslgned role, and are
evaluaLed wlLhln a group

8us|ness |an 1he buslness's proposal LhaL maps ouL lLs buslness sLraLegy for enLerlng markeLs and LhaL
explalns Lhe buslness Lo poLenLlal lnvesLors
8us|ness rocess kedes|gn
or keeng|neer|ng
A managemenL meLhod whlch sLresses Lhe fundamenLal reLhlnklng of processes,
quesLlonlng all assumpLlons, ln an efforL Lo sLreamllne organlzaLlons and Lo focus on addlng
value ln core processes

Capac|ty 1he flrm's ablllLy Lo produce Lhe producL durlng a glven perlod
Career A sequence of poslLlons occupled by a person durlng Lhe course of a llfeLlme: also known as
one's Cb[ecLlves career
1he occupaLlonal poslLlons a person has had over many years
Career Anchors lvoLs around whlch a person's career swlngs, requlre self-awareness of LalenLs and
ablllLles, moLlves and needs, and aLLlLudes and values. A concern or value LhaL you wlll noL
glve up lf a [career} cholce has Lo be made
Career Cyc|e 1he varlous sLages a person's career goes Lhrough.
Career Deve|opment 1he llfelong serles of acLlvlLles LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo a person's career exploraLlon,
esLabllshmenL, success, and fulfllmenL
Career Management 1he process for enabllng employees Lo beLLer undersLand and develop Lhelr career skllls
and lnLeresLs mosL effecLlvely
Career aths Loglcal and posslble sequences of poslLlons LhaL could be held ln an organlzaLlon, based on
an analysls of whaL people acLually do ln Lhe organlzaLlon
Career |ann|ng A supporL mechanlsm Lo help employees plan ouL Lhelr long-Lerm goals
1he dellberaLe process Lhrough whlch a person becomes aware of personal career relaLed
aLLrlbuLes and Lhe llfelong serles of sLeps LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo hls or her career fulflllmenLs
Case study method a developmenL meLhod ln whlch Lhe manager ls presenLed wlLh a wrlLLen descrlpLlon of an
organlzaLlonal problem Lo dlagnose and solve
Centra||zat|on ln any organlzaLlon concenLraLlon of auLhorlLy and power ln Lhe hands of Lop-managemenL
ls referred Lo as cenLrallzaLlon. (b) 1he locaLlon of declslon auLhorlLy aL Lhe Lop of Lhe
organlzaLlon hlerarch. (C) 1hls Lerm descrlbes Lhe concenLraLlon of governmenL and pollLlcal
auLhorlLy ln Lhe caplLal clLy and aL Lhe naLlonal level, as opposed Lo Lhe sharlng of powers
and responslblllLles beLween naLlonal, local auLhorlLles
Cha|n of Command 1he superlor -subordlnaLe auLhorlLy relaLlonshlp LhaL sLarLs aL Lhe Lop of Lhe organlzaLlon
hlerarchy and exLends Lo Lhe lowesL levels. (b) 1he unbroken llne of auLhorlLy LhaL exLends
from Lhe Lop of Lhe organlzaLlon Lo Lhe lowesL echelon and clarlfles who reporL Lo whom
Change agents eople who acL as caLalysLs and assume responslblllLy for managemenL change
Char|sma Charlsma was used by Weber Lo descrlbe one of Lhree prlnclpal Lypes of pollLlcal auLhorlLy.
1o Weber charlsma was a personal quallLy of aLLracLlon and psychologlcal power, capable of
lnsplrlng deep pollLlcal loyalLy ln large numbers of people
Char|smat|c Leader a Lerm from Max Weber whlch ls used Lo descrlbe a pollLlclan 1o whom more Lhan naLural
quallLles of leadershlp are aLLrlbuLed by hls followers. Weber ldenLlfles charlsma as one of
Lhree maln [usLlflcaLlons of pollLlcal auLhorlLy. 1he oLher bases on whlch people accepL Lhe
leglLlmacy of auLhorlLy over Lhem has been legallLy and LradlLlon
Char|smat|c Leader A leader who can engender a sLrong emoLlonal aLLachmenL from followers, charlsma ls
assoclaLed wlLh admlraLlon, LrusL and a wllllngness Lo belleve whaL Lhe leader say
Charter AnoLher name for a local consLlLuLlon, Lhe organlc law of local governmenL. lL ls elLher
drawn by Lhe leglslaLure, or under Lhe auLhorlLy of home rule
C|v|| Law 1he legal sysLem LhaL relles on a comprehenslve seL of rules LhaL form parL of a hlghly
sLrucLured code, enforcemenL and lnLerpreLaLlon of laws are made ln reference Lo Lhls code
C|v|| Serv|ce lL comprlses all Lhe persons employed by governmenL ln a clvll as conLrasLed wlLh a mlllLary
capaclLy. lL ls synonymous wlLh bureaucracy
C|v|| Serv|ce, kecru|tment 1he flrsL counLry Lo develop a sclence sysLem of recrulLmenL for clvll servanLs was chlna. ln
modern Llmes russla was Lhe flrsL lnLroduce a sysLem of recrulLmenL for clvll servanLs
gradually replaclng Lhe paLronage sysLem prevalenL ln uSA. 1he spoll sysLem was replaced
by Lhe merlL, prlnclples by clvll servlce acL of 1833
Commun|cat|on A process LhaL lnvolves Lhe Lransmlsslon of meanlngful lnformaLlon forms one parLy Lo
anoLher Lhrough Lhe use of shared symbols
Commun|cat|on Channe| lnfluences Lhe quanLlLy and quallLy of lnformaLlon LhaL ls conveyed Lo Lhe recelver.
Channels of communlcaLlon lnclude face Lo- face conversaLlon group meeLlngs, memos,
pollcy manuals emall, volce mall
Common Law 1he legal sysLem ln whlch precedenLs based on pasL courL declslons play a key role ln
lnLerpreLlng Lhe meanlng and lnLenL of legal sLaLuLes
Conc|||ator A LrusLed Lhlrd parLy who provldes an lnformal communlcaLlon llnk beLween Lhe negoLlaLor
and opponenL
Conceptua| Sk|||s 1he menLal ablllLy Lo analyze and dlagnose complex slLuaLlon
Confrontat|on Strategy Cne mean a flrm may use Lo deal wlLh a sLakeholder group whose goals are percelved Lo
LhreaLen company performance, Lhe flrm may use Lhe courLs, engage n publlc relaLlons, or
lobby agalnsL leglslaLlon
Cont|ngency theory 1he managemenL Lheory LhaL Lhere ls no besL way" Lo manage and organlze an
organlzaLlon because slLuaLlonal characLerlsLlc, called conLlngencles, dlffer also, Lhe vlew
LhaL no P8 sLraLegy ls good or bad ln and of lLself buL raLher depends on Lhe slLuaLlon or
conLexL ln whlch lL used
Contro|||ng 1he managemenL funcLlon LhaL measures performance, compares lL Lo ob[ecLlves,
lmplemenLs necessary changes, and monlLors progress. (b) MonlLorlng acLlvlLles Lo ensure
Lhey are belng accompllshed
Contro| Chart graph of daLa used Lo deLermlne when a resulL should be explored as a speclal cause.
ueveloped by ur. ShewarL ln Lhe 1920's whlle he worked aL 8ell Labs. A conLrol charL
has lower conLrol llmlL and upper conLrol llmlL and a mean llne. ur. SLewarL developed
Lhe conLrol charL Lo ald ln effecLlve exploraLlon and lmprovemenL. CfLen Lhe regular
varlaLlon (common cause varlaLlon) of a process ls Laken as someLhlng speclal Lo be
examlned whlch wasLes Llme. ln addlLlon, lf acLlon ls Lhen Laken based on Lhls
exploraLlon, Lhe effecLs of Lamperlng ofLen exacerbaLe problems. uslng conLrol charLs
Lhe only Llme speclal because analysls ls used ls when Lhe resulL was above Lhe upper
conLrol llmlL or below Lhe lower conLrol llmlL. Whlle Lhls ls generally Lrue Lhere are
oLher pracLlces Lo explore when Lhe daLa shows odd LralLs (such as 7 polnLs on one slde
of Lhe mean).
1ypes of ConLrol CharLs:
! x-charL: used wlLh varlable daLa
! p-charL: used wlLh percenLage daLa (blnomlal)
! u-charL: used wlLh defecL counL daLa
! c-charL: used wlLh counL daLa
Cooperat|ve behav|or 1eam behavlor LhaL ls manlfesLed ln member's wllllngness Lo share lnformaLlon and help
Cooperat|ve strateg|es LsLabllshlng parLnershlp or sLraLeglc alllances wlLh oLher flrms
Coord|nat|on Llnklng acLlvlLles so LhaL dlverse deparLmenLs or dlvlslons work ln harmony and learn from
each oLher
Core be||efs A flrm's prlnclples LhaL are wldely shared, LhaL operaLe unconsclously, and LhaL are
consldered non negoLlable
Core Competency 1hose Lhlngs LhaL deflne whaL ls speclal abouL an organlzaLlon, whaL seLs lL aparL from oLher
organlzaLlons, CompeLencles are Lhose Lhlngs Lhe company or organlzaLlon does well. Core
compeLencles are Lhose Lhlngs LhaL are fundamenLal Lo Lhe organlzaLlon. WlLhouL Lhose
core compeLencles Lhe organlzaLlon would noL be Lhe same organlzaLlon. Core
compeLencles of organlzaLlon provlde Lhe organlzaLlon a compeLlLlve advanLage ln Lhe
markeLplace. lor example, uell's efflclenL, [usL ln Llme manufacLurlng sysLem ls an core
compeLency LhaL provldes uell a compeLlLlve advanLage ln Lhe markeLplace. Some deflne
core compeLencles as "world class." 1haL deflnlLlon would mean many organlzaLlons have
no core compeLencles. 1haL seems Lo llmlL Lhe usefulness of Lhe concepL. Some
managemenL consulLanLs suggesL organlzaLlons focus excluslvely on Lhelr core
compeLencles, and ouLsource oLher funcLlons Lo oLher organlzaLlons. l can'L say l agree wlLh
LhaL - as a rule. CfLen an organlzaLlon ls beLLer off performlng funcLlons lnLernally raLher
Lhan ouLsourclng Lhem even lf Lhe funcLlon ls noL a core compeLency
Corporate |eve| strategy 1he corporaLlon's overall plan concernlng Lhe number of buslnesses Lhe corporaLlon holds,
Lhe varleLy of markeLs or lndusLrles lL serves, Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of resources among Lhose
Creat|v|ty 1he ablllLy Lo produce novel and useful ldeas
Cu|tura| shock 1he reacLlon when exposed Lo oLher culLural (soclal sLrucLure, rellglon, language, and
hlsLorlcal background) wlLh dlfferenL norms, cusLoms, and expecLaLlon
Cu|tura| Symbo|s 1he acLs, evenLs or ob[ecLs LhaL communlcaLe organlzaLlonal values, used by managemenL
Lo convey and susLaln shard meanlng among employees

Damage contro| strategy A means a flrm uses Lo deal wlLh a sLakeholder group when lL decldes LhaL lL may have
made mlsLakes and wanLs Lo lmprove lLs relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhe sLakeholders and Lo elevaLe
lLs publlc lmage
Data 8aw facLs, such as Lhe number of lLems sold or Lhe number of hours worked ln a
Data base compuLer programs LhaL asslgn mulLlple characLerlsLlc Lo daLa and allow users Lo sorL Lhe
daLa by characLerlsLlc
Data m|n|ng Lhe process of deLermlne Lhe relevanL facLors ln Lhe accumulaLed daLa Lo exLracL Lhe daLa
LhaL are lmporLanL Lo Lhe user
Decentra||zat|on uelegaLlon of auLhorlLy and duLles ls usually referred Lo as decenLrallzaLlon ln whlch seL up
Lhe organlzaLlon ls dlvlded dlfferenL secLlons and deparLmenLs ln order Lo help Lhe
organlzaLlon grow sclenLlflcally and wlLh a purpose of dlrecLlon leadlng Lo harmony ln
relaLlons and healLhy aLmosphere whlch generally ls absenL ln cenLrallzed sysLem of
Dec|s|on acceptance 1he aspecL of declslon maklng LhaL ls based on people's feellng's declslon accepLance
happens when people who are affecLed by a declslon llke lL
Dec|s|on mak|ng 1he process of ldenLlfylng problems and opporLunlLles and resolvlng Lhem. (b) 8efers Lo
process of ldenLlfylng problems for declslon, devlslng alLernaLlve courses of acLlon, and
chooslng one alLernaLlve. lL ls dlsLlngulshed from problem-solvlng by (a) requlremenL LhaL
problems be soughL raLher Lhan glven, (b) alLernaLlve formulaLed raLher Lhan glven.
SomeLlmes dlsLlngulshed from pollcy-maklng by (a) presence of sancLlons Lo compel
compllance wlLh Lhe declslon and (b) lncludlng noL only pollcy-maklng ln governmenLal or
pollLlcal organlzaLlons, buL all klnds of declslonal affalr
Dec|s|on qua||ty 1he aspecL of declslon maklng LhaL ls based on such facLs as cosL, revenues, and producL
deslgn speclflcaLlons
Dec|s|on scope 1he effecL and Llme horlzon of Lhe declslon
Decod|ng 1ranslaLlng Lhe symbollc verbal, wrlLLen or vlsual symbols lnLo an undlsLorLed, clear
Dec||ne stage erlod where many people face havlng Lo accepL reduced levels of power and
responslblllLy, and musL learn Lo develop new roles as menLors or confldanLes for younger
Deferred prof|t-shar|ng
A plan ln whlch a cerLaln amounL of proflLs ls credlLed Lo each employee's accounL, payable
aL reLlremenL, LermlnaLlon or deaLh.
De[obb|ng 8roadenlng Lhe responslblllLles of Lhe company's [obs, and encouraglng employees noL Lo
llmlL Lhemselves Lo whaL's on Lhelr [ob descrlpLlons
De|egat|on 1he Lransfer of declslon maklng auLhorlLy from a manger Lo a subordlnaLe or a Leam aL a
lower level ln Lhe organlzaLlon
De|egat|on of power Lransfer of powers, orlglnally vesLed ln one branch of Lhe governmenL, Lo anoLher
De|ph| techn|que A declslon-maklng Lechnlque ln whlch group members are presenLed wlLh a problem and
compleLe an anonymous quesLlonnalre sollclLlng, soluLlon Lhe resulL are LabulaLed,
summarlzed and reLurned Lo Lhe group members, and ln each ls asked agaln for soluLlons,
Lhe process conLlnues unLll a consensus declslon ls reached
Departmenta||zat|on 1he horlzonLal basls for organlzlng [obs lnLo unlLs ln an organlzaLlon
Deve|opment phase A career developmenL sLeps ln whlch acLlons are deslgned Lo help Lhe employee grow and
learn Lhe necessary skllls Lo move along Lhe deslred career paLh
D|fferent|at|on strategy uellverlng producLs and servlces LhaL cusLomers percelve as unlque
D|rect|on phase Lhe sLep ln career developmenL LhaL lnvolves deLermlnlng Lhe sLeps employees musL Lake Lo
reach Lhelr career goals
D|scr|m|nat|on 1he unfalr LreaLmenL of employees because of personal characLerlsLlcs LhaL are noL [ob
D|sm|ssa| lnvolunLary LermlnaLlon of an employee's employmenL wlLh Lhe flrm.
D|sparate treatment A form of dlscrlmlnaLlon LhaL occurs when an employer LreaLs employees dlfferenLly
because of hls or her proLecLed class sLaLus
D|vers|f|cat|on strategy A flrm's sLraLeglc plan Lo creaLe and mange a mlx of buslnesses owned by Lhe flrm
D|vers|ty 1he wlde specLrum of lndlvldual and group dlfferences
D|vest|ture 1he corporaLe process of selllng a buslness ln order Lo generaLe cash, whlch Lhe corporaLlon
can beLLer deploy elsewhere, or Lo refocus on lLs core relaLed buslnesses, whlch are beLLer,
undersLood by managemenL
D|v|s|ona| approach a deparLmenLallzaLlon approach, someLlmes called Lhe producL approach, whlch organlzes
employees lnLo unlLs based on common producLs, servlces, or markeLs
D|v|s|on of |abor Lhe producLlon process ln whlch each worker repeaLs one sLep over and over, achlevlng
greaLer, efflclencles ln Lhe use of Llme and knowledge, also Lhe formal asslgnmenL of
auLhorlLy and responslblllLy Lo [ob holders
Dom|nat|ng sty|e confllcL resoluLlon used when Lhe manager or Leam member acLs asserLlvely and forcefully
and persuades Lhe oLher parLy Lo abandon hls or her ob[ecLlves
Downs|z|ng A managemenL sLraLegy used Lo reduce Lhe scale and scope of a buslness Lo lmprove lLs
flnanclal performance
1he process of reduclng, usually dramaLlcally, Lhe number of people employed by a flrm
sendlng a message or lnLeracLlon from a hlgh poslLlon ln Lhe organlzaLlon (ex. lnsLrucLlon
from ManagemenL Lo hls/her subordlnaLe) Lo an lndlvldual or group lower ln Lhe hlerarchy
Dysfunct|ona| conf||ct confllcL LhaL has a negaLlve effecL on Leam and organlzaLlonal performance
360 Degree feedback mulLllayer feedback from peers, supplles, oLher levels of managemenL, and lnLernal and
exLernal cusLomers

L-bus|ness 1he process of conducLlng buslness LransacLlon uslng onllne resources, also called e-
L-commerce Any buslness LransacLlon execuLed elecLronlcally by companles or consumers. (LlecLronlc
Lmot|ona| |nte|||gence Lhe aLLrlbuLes of self-awareness, lmpulse conLrol, perslsLence confldence, self-moLlvaLlon
empaLhy, soclal defLness, LrusLworLhlness, adapLablllLy and a LalenL for collaboraLlon
Lmp|r|ca| va||d|ty SLaLlsLlcal evldence LhaL Lhe selecLlon meLhod dlsLlngulshes beLween hlgher and lower
performlng employees
Lmpower|ng Lmp|oyee uLLlng employees ln charge of whaL Lo do
Lmpowerment Lhe process of Lransferrlng conLrol of lndlvldual work behavlor from Lhe supervlsor Lo Lhe
Lncounter stage Lhe sLage of soclallzaLlon aL whlch Lhe lndlvldual beglns Lo compare expecLaLlons abouL Lhe
flrm's culLural wlLh reallLy
Lntrepreneur an lndlvldual who creaLes an enLerprlse LhaL becomes a new enLry Lo a markeL
Lntrepreneursh|p Lhe process of creaLlng a buslness enLerprlse capable of enLerlng new or esLabllshed
markeLs by deploylng resources and people ln a unlque way Lo develop a new organlzaLlon
Lnterpr|se resource
p|ann|ng, (Lk) software
a compuLer program LhaL comblnes all of a flrm's compuLerlzed funcLlons lnLo a slngle
lnLegraLed sofLware program LhaL runs off a slngle daLabase, allowlng varlous deparLmenLs
Lo easlly share lnformaLlon and communlcaLe wlLh each oLher
Lnv|ronment Lhose lnsLrucLlons or forces ouLslde Lhe organlzaLlon LhaL poLenLlally affecL Lhe organlzaLlon
Lqu|ty I|nanc|ng a means of obLalnlng flnanclal resources LhaL lnvolves Lhe sale of parL Lhe ownershlp of Lhe
buslness Lo lnvesLors
Lth|ca| o||cy statement flrm formal guldellnes LhaL provldes speclflc formula for employee's eLhlcal conducL
Lth|ca| structure Lhe procedures and Lhe dlvlslon or deparLmenL wlLhln a company LhaL promoLes and
advocaLes eLhlcal behavlor
Lth|c tra|n|ng a means of provldlng employees and managers pracLlce ln handlng eLhlcal dllemmas LhaL
Lhey are llkely Lo experlence
Lthnocentr|sm A belleve LhaL may become prevalenL among ma[orlLy -group employees meanlng LhaL Lhey
belleve LhaL Lhelr way of dolng, Lhlngs Lhelr values and Lhelr norms are lnherenLly superlor
Lo Lhose of oLher groups and culLures
Lva|uat|on Lhe organlzaLlon reexamlnaLlon of wheLher Lralnlng ls provldlng Lhe expecLed beneflLs and
meeLlng Lhe ldenLlfled needs
Lxecut|ve 8efers Lo one of Lhe Lhree baslc powers of Lhe sLaLe, assumed by parLs of classls pollLlcal
sclence Lo engage ln lmplemenLlng Lhe wlll of Lhe leglslaLure. lL lncludes a pollLlcal apex,
such as Lhe presldenL ln Lhe uSA and Lhe cablneL ln CreaL 8rlLaln and lndla and Lhe clvll
servlce subordlnaLed Lo lL. Modern pollLlcal sclence recognlzed Lhe essenLlal pollcy-formlng
funcLlons of boLh parLs of Lhe execuLlve whlch are consLanLly lncreaslng ln mosL
conLemporary sLaLes
Lx|t Interv|ew lnLervlews conducLed by Lhe employer lmmedlaLely prlor Lo Lhe employee leavlng Lhe flrm
wlLh Lhe alm of beLLer undersLandlng whaL Lhe employee Lhlnks abouL Lhe company
Lxpatr|ates non-clLlzen of Lhe counLry ln whlch Lhey are worklng
Lxpert power power dellverlng from Lhe leader's unlque knowledge or skllls
Lxpert system an advanced lnformaLlon LhaL uses human knowledge capLured ln a compuLer Lo solve
problems LhaL normally requlre human experLlse
Lxterna| |ocus of contro| causlng feellngs of helplessness and decreaslng lnLenslLy of goal-seeklng efforLs ln Lhe face
of fallure

Iace-to-face group A Lerm used ln soclal psychology, parLlcularly ln group dynamlcs. lL descrlbes a small group
of people ln close enough physlcal proxlmlLy for each person ln Lhe group Lo lnLeracL
dlrecLly wlLh each of Lhe oLhers
Iac|||t|es Lhe deslgn and locaLlon of an operaLlon faclllLy
Iac|||t|es |ayout Lhe grouplng and organlzaLlon of equlpmenL and employees
Iac|||t|es |ayout des|gn Lhe physlcal arrangemenL for Lhe faclllLy LhaL wlll allow for efflclenL producLlon
Iacts blLs of lnformaLlon LhaL can be ob[ecLlvely measured or descrlbed, such as Lhe reLall prlce
of a new producL, Lhe cosL of raw maLerlal, Lhe defecL raLe of manufacLurlng process, or Lhe
number of employees who qulL durlng a year
Iear of fa||ure A fear LhaL ls aroused when someone feels pressured Lo achleve someLhlng. lL ls parLlcularly
prevalenL ln people wlLh a hlgh need for achlevemenL
Iear of success malnly used Lo descrlbe a moLlve ln some women Lo avold dolng, well and achlevlng success
Ieedback lnformaLlon recelved back from Lhe recelver, whlch allows Lhe sender Lo clarlfy Lhe message
lf lLs Lrue meanlng ln noL recelved.(b) Lhe degree Lo whlch carry ouL Lhe work acLlvlLles
requlred by a [ob resulLs ln Lhe lndlvldual obLalnlng dlrecL and clear lnformaLlon abouL Lhe
effecLlveness of hls/her performance
I|e|d research an lmporLanL parL of markeL research, lL lnvolves Lhe collecLlon of daLa abouL producLs or
adverLlslng from acLual or poLenLlal cusLomers, usually by means of lnLervlew or
I|nanc|a| year Lhe Lwelve monLhs chosen by an organlzaLlon as lLs accounLlng perlod
I|rewa|| a comblnaLlon of compuLer hardware and sofLware LhaL conLrols access Lo and Lransmlsslon
of daLa and lnformaLlon conLalned ln a neLwork
I|rst-||ne superv|sor 1he supervlsor responslble for Lhe managemenL of producLlon workers on Lhe shop floor.
1he Lerm refers Lo anyone aL Lhe level above charge hand and lL's mosL ofLen synonymous
wlLh Lhe Lerm foreman
I|at organ|zat|on an organlzaLlon wlLh relaLlvely few levels ln lLs hlerarchy
I|ex|b|e t|me under flexlble worklng hours flexlble Llme refers Lo Lhose perlods durlng whlch an employee
may choose wheLher Lo be aL work or noL, ln conLrasL Lo core Llme where aLLendance ls
I|ex|b|e work|ng hours a meLhod of organlzlng worklng hours whlch has no flxed sLarLlng or flnlshlng Llmes and
whlch allows people some aLLlLude ln decldlng when Lhey wlll work
I|ow chart a dlagram showlng all Lhe parLs of a sysLem or Lhe sLages ln a process and Lhe
lnLerrelaLlonshlps beLween Lhem
Iorma| Commun|cat|on communlcaLlon beLween people Lhrough Lhe offlclal channels of an organlzaLlon, followlng
Lhe offlclal procedure
Iorma| Group a group seL up by Lhe managemenL of an organlzaLlon wlLh a wrlLLen mandaLe and a well-
deflned purpose
Iorma||zat|on Lhe degree Lo whlch wrlLLen documenLaLlon ls used Lo dlrecL and conLrol employees
Iorma| Crgan|zat|on 1he ouLward face of an organlzaLlon as exhlblLed ln lLs broucher, annual reporL rule, book
organlzaLlon charL and so forLh. lL represenLs Lhe offlclal sLrucLure of Lhe organlzaLlon and
Lhe way lL ls supposed Lo funcLlon
Iorma| p|ann|ng a sysLem deslgned Lo dellberaLely ldenLlfy ob[ecLlves and Lo sLrucLure Lhe
ma[or Lask of Lhe organlzaLlon Lo accompllsh Lhem
Iorman a flrsL-llne supervlsor responslble for a group of workers on Lhe shop floor
Iranch|s|ng A means of enLerlng new markeLs slmllar of llcenslng, malnly used by servlce companles, ln
whlch Lhe franchlse pays a fee for uslng Lhe brand name and agrees Lo sLrlcLly follow Lhe
sLandards and ablde by Lhe rules seL by Lhe franchlse
Ir|nge benef|t a reward beyond Lhe baslc pay for Lhe [ob, examples can range from subsldlzed meals and
Lravel Lo penslon, holldays and slckness beneflLs
Iunct|ona| Ana|ys|s A sLraLeglc managemenL approach LhaL esLabllsh organlzaLlonal capablllLles for each of Lhe
ma[or funcLlonal areas of Lhe buslness
Iunct|ona| Author|ty Lhe auLhorlLy LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh a parLlcular [ob
ConfllcL LhaL sLlmulaLes Leam and organlzaLlonal performance
Iunct|ona| Conf||ct
Iunct|ona| organ|zat|on a form of organlzaLlonal sLrucLure ln whlch speclallsLs carry ouL Lhelr own parLlcular
funcLlon ln an organlzaLlon (llke research and developmenL or quallLy conLrol) buL wlLhouL
any auLhorlLy over people ln llne managemenL
Iunct|ona| Structure A deparLmenLallzaLlon approach LhaL clusLers people wlLh slmllar skllls ln a deparLmenL

Gantt charts a vlsual sequence of Lhe process sLeps used ln plannlng, schedullng, and monlLorlng
Genera| Manager 1he manager responslble for Lhe whole range of admlnlsLraLlon ln an organlzaLlon and noL
[usL a speclflc funcLlon
G|oba| sh|ft a Lerm used Lo characLerlze Lhe effecLs of changes ln Lhe compeLlLlve landscape prompLed
by worldwlde compeLlLlon
Go|den nandcuffs A flnanclal lnducemenL Lo an employee Lo sLay, so favorable LhaL he or she would flnd lL
dlfflculL Lo leave Lhe organlzaLlon
Go|den nandshake a relaLlvely large sum of money glven ln Lhe forms of severance pay for a deparLure LhaL ls
usually ahead of normal reLlremenL or Lhe end of a conLracL
Go-S|ow A form of lndusLrlal acLlon, shorL of a sLrlke, where workers do noL wlLhdraw Lhelr labor buL
slow down Lhe raLe aL whlch Lhe work ls done lnsLead, by meLlculously followlng Lhe rule
Grade refers Lo a Lerm whlch ls used ln publlc personnel admlnlsLraLlon Lo deslgnaLe a group of
poslLlon classes, no maLLer how dlfferenLly Lhe work Lhey represenL, LhaL are compensaLed
wlLhln Lhe same salary range
Gr|evance procedure ln lndusLrlal relaLlons Lhls ls a serles of arrangemenL for seLLllng grlevances LhaL employees
have agalnsL Lhelr employers, elLher dlrecLly or beLween Lhelr managemenL and Lrade unlon
Group A number of lndlvldual who are vlewed, or who vlew Lhemselves as a collecLlvlLy. (b) 1wo or
more lndlvldual's lnLeracLlng and lnLerdependenL who have come Lo gaLher Lo achleve
parLlcular ob[ecLlves
Group dynam|cs ln soclal psychology Lhls Lerm refers Lo Lhe sLudy of Lhe way people behave ln a group,
especlally a small face-Lo face group
Group|ng ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls Lhe process of comblnlng lndlvldual scores lnLo caLegorles of puLLlng Lhem
ln rank order
Group M|nd a hypoLheLlcal enLlLy (see hypoLhesls) someLlmes glven mysLlcal quallLles whlch has been
suggesLed as Lhe agency for crowds acLlng ln unlson
Group Norm 8ehavlor expecLed of all Lhe members of a group, ln a work group Lhe PawLhorne sLudles
dlscovered LhaL Lhls can mean an lndlvldual keeplng Lo Lhe same level of producLlvlLy as
Lhe oLher group members
Group rocess A Lerm used Lo descrlbe Lhe lnLeracLlons wlLhln a group and Lhe changes LhaL occur over
Llme ln Lhe relaLlonshlps beLween lLs members
Group se|ect|on methods 1echnlques of selecLlon whlch alm Lo assess Lhe ablllLy of lndlvlduals Lo work wlLh oLher
people ln a group. 1hey usually lnvolve Lhe observaLlon of a group of candldaLes ln a
dlscusslon or a problem solvlng slLuaLlon
Group Structure 1he way ln whlch a group ls deslgned and organlzed. lL forms Lhe framework for Lhe group
process and for Lhe performance of Lhe group's Lask
Groupth|nk Ceorge Crwell's Lerm for Lhe LoLallLarlan lmposlLlon of auLhorlzed LhoughLs on all Lhe
members of a socleLy. 1he Lerm has been lnLroduced lnLo soclal psychology by Lhe
Amerlcan sclenLlsL lrvlng !anls, where lL ls someLlmes used Lo descrlbe Lhe way LhaL
members of a very coheslve group can become so descrlbe Lhe way LhaL members of a very
coheslve group can become so preoccupled wlLh malnLalnlng a group consensus of Lhough
LhaL Lhelr crlLlcal faculLles become dulled
Group tra|n|ng methods 1hese are Lralnlng Lechnlques whlch use Lhe properLles of a group Lo help lndlvldual
members learn. 1he polnL of Lhe Lralnlng may be Lo have Lhe members learn from each
oLher's experLlse ln Lackllng a parLlcular problem LogeLher, or Lhe polnL of Lhe group mlghL
be Lhe group process lLself from whlch Lhe members would be encouraged Lo learn abouL
Lhemselves and how Lhey are percelved by oLher, a well as abouL group behavlor ln general
Group Work|ng an aLLempL Lo lncrease [ob saLlsfacLlon (as well as producLlvlLy) especlally among assembly-
llne worker, by formlng lndlvldual lnLo a coherenL work group and allowlng Lhem more
auLonomy over, and responslblllLy for Lhelr work Lhan Lhey would have as a serles of
lndlvldual. 1hls process ofLen lnvolves [ob resLrucLurlng of lndlvldual [obs
nab|t A learned response Lo a glven slLuaLlon whlch occurs ln such a regular fashlon LhaL lL
appears Lo be vlrLually auLomaLlc. 1hus lL may aL Llmes be mlsLaken for lnnaLe behavlor and
consldered an lnsLlncL
nack|ng Lhe unauLhorlzed breaklng-ln-Lo Lhe daLa base of a compuLer
na|| 1est ln markeL research Lhls ls Lhe Lechnlque of asklng people Lhelr oplnlons of Lhe adverLlng,
packaglng and presenLaLlon of a producL
nandbook A book of lnsLrucLlons on how Lo operaLe some machlne or procedure. ln a more academlc
sense lL ls used of a survey of a parLlcular fleld LhaL ls lnLended Lo be auLhorlLaLlve and
nard copy a copy on paper, ofLen ln Lhe form of prlnL-ouL of daLa sLored elecLronlcally ln a compuLer
or word processor
nard currency a naLlonal currency used ln lnLernaLlonal Lrade because lL has a sLable or rlslng exchange
raLe and ls generally accepLed as belng easlly converLlble, e.g Amerlcan dollar or
AfghanlsLan Afghanl
nard se|| a colloqulal Lerm for Lhe aggresslve adverLlslng, markeLlng, promoLlon and selllng of a
nardware Lhe physlcal componenLs of elecLronlc and mechanlcal equlpmenL LhaL make up a
compuLer, e.g. Lhe dlsk drlves, keyboard, prlnLer, screen, eLc
nawthorne effect 1he flndlng LhaL paylng speclal aLLenLlon Lo employees moLlvaLes Lhem Lo puL greaLer efforL
lnLo Lhelr [obs (from Lhe PawLhorne managemenL sLudles, performed from 1924 Lhrough
1932 aL wesLern elecLrlc company's planL near Chlcago).
nea|th and safety at work an area of work sub[ecL Lo a greaL deal of deLalled leglslaLlon ln mosL lndusLrlallzed
counLrles because of Lhe lmporLance of labor Lo producLlvlLy
neavy Industry Lerm applled Lo LradlLlonal lndusLrles llke sLeelmaklng, coalmlnlng and shlpbulldlng whlch
were Lhe basls of wesLern lndusLrlallzaLlon ln Lhe nlneLeenLh cenLury and have always
requlred heavy physlcal labor
nedon|sm ln psychology Lhls refers Lo Lhe ldea LhaL all of our behavlor sLems from Lhe moLlvaLlon Lo
pursue pleasure and avold paln, ln phllosophy Lhe docLrlne LhaL lL ls our eLhlcal duLy Lo do
neur|st|c an ldea or meLhod of Leachlng LhaL sLlmulaLes furLher Lhlnklng and dlscovery
n|dden Agenda 1hlng whlch are noL llsLed on Lhe formal agenda of a meeLlng buL whlch lnfluence Lhe
meeLlng noneLheless. 1here may be unspoken-or even unconsclous- aLLlLudes LhaL
lndlvldual hold on Lhe sub[ecLs under dlscusslon or Lhey may form a qulLe consclous
aLLempL aL manlpulaLlng Lhe meeLlng on behalf of Lhe hldden agenda of an lndlvldual or
group lnLeresL
n|erarch|ca| task ana|ys|s a form of Lask analysls used ln assesslng Lralnlng needs whlch descrlbe a Lask ln Lerms of a
hlerarchy of Lhe operaLlon necessary for lLs performance
n|erarchy Any organlzaLlon sLrucLure conLalnlng dlfferenL levels of auLhorlLy and ofLen responslblllLy.
(2) Any arrangemenL of Lhlngs ln succeedlng levels each one lncludes all precedlng levels
n|erarchy of Needs a Lheory of moLlvaLlon proposed by Lhe Amerlcan psychologlsL A88APAM MASLCW ln Lhe
1940s. Pe suggesLed Lhere were flve dlsLlncL levels of human need arranged ln a hlerarchy,
sLarLlng wlLh Lhe baslc physlologlcal needs for food and shelLer. As one level of need ls
saLlsfled anoLher ls reached
n|stogram ln sLaLlsLlcs Lhls ls a form of 8ar CharL on whlch a frequency dlsLrlbuLlon can be represenLed
nor|zonta| commun|cat|on CommunlcaLlon beLween people aL Lhe same level of Lhe hlerarchy ln an organlzaLlon.
Compare wlLh downward communlcaLlon and upward communlcaLlon. 2. CommunlcaLlon
beLween a sender and a recelver aL a slmllar level ln Lhe organlzaLlon
nor|zonta| d|mens|on Lhe organlzaLlonal sLrucLure elemenL LhaL ls Lhe basls for dlvldlng work lnLo speclflc [obs and
Lasks and asslgnlng [obs lnLo unlLs such as deparLmenL or Leams
numan asset account|ng an aLLempL Lo measure Lhe value Lo an organlzaLlon of lLs human resources by LreaLlng
Lhem as asseLs as well as cosLs Lo Lhe organlzaLlon and assesslng, for example 8ecrulLmenL
and 1ralnlng pollces and fundlng ln Lhls llghL
numan Cap|ta| Lhe parL of an organlzaLlon's caplLal represenLed by Lhe ablllLy, experlence and skllls of lLs
numan Commun|cat|on 1he process of communlcaLlon beLween people. A relaLlvely new fleld of sLudy lnvolvlng
conLrlbuLlons from compuLer sclence, llngulsLlc loglc, psychology and soclal sclence
numan ke|at|on approach A managemenL approach LhaL vlews Lhe relaLlonshlps beLween employees and supervlsors
as Lhe mosL sallenL aspecL of managemenL
numan kesources All Lhe people who work for an organlzaLlon ln a capaclLy
numan kesource
1he responslblllLy of maklng Lhe besL use of an organlzaLlon's employees. Cne of Lhe ma[or
funcLlons of personnel managemenL
numan kesource tact|cs Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of human resources programs Lo achleve Lhe flrm's vlslon
numan sk|||s 1he ablllLy Lo work wlLh, undersLand and moLlvaLe oLher people, boLh lndlvldually and ln

Ident|f|cat|on ln general Lerms recognlzlng Lhe ldenLlLy or naLure of someone or someLhlng. ln
sychoanalysls lL refers Lo Lhe phenomenon of emulaLlng Lhe behavlor of a person wlLh
whom one has a powerful emoLlonal bond
Ident|ty Pavlng essenLlally unchanglng characLerlsLlc. 1he basls unlL of a personallLy, especlally Lhe
Imp|ementat|on gu|de||nes 1he plannlng sLep LhaL show how Lhe lnLended acLlons wlll be carrled ouL
Incent|ve ln psychology Lhls ls Lhe basls of moLlvaLlon and can refer Lo any klnd of reward or
lnducemenL, ln an organlzaLlon, especlally a buslness organlzaLlon Lhe Lerm ls mosL ofLen
applled Lo flnanclal rewards, alLhough promoLlon and enhanced sLaLus may also be used
Increment ln personnel managemenL Lhls ls a regular and usually auLomaLlc, lncrease ln a scale of
pay.2. ln ergonomlcs lL may refer Lo an lncrease ln a sLlmulus from Lhe envlronmenL of a
sLandard amounL
Ind|v|dua||sm Lhe degree Lo whlch a socleLy values personal goal, auLonomy and prlvacy over group
loyalLy, commlLmenL Lo group norms, lnvolvemenL ln collecLlve acLlvlLles, soclal
coheslveness an lnLense soclallzaLlon, eLhlcal declslons based on lndlvlduallsm promoLe
lndlvldual self- lnLeresL as long as lL does noL harm oLhers
Induct|on 1he process of lnLroduclng new members lnLo an organlzaLlon. 1he alms of lnducLlon are Lo
provlde Lhem wlLh an overvlew of Lhe whole organlzaLlon and Lhelr place ln lL, and Lo glve
Lhem a LasLe of Lhe organlzaLlonal culLural and Lhe naLure of Lhe psychologlcal conLracL Lhey
wlll be maklng
Industr|a| act|on Any form of collecLlve acLlon Laken by Lhe employees of an organlzaLlon-usually organlzed
by a Lrade unlon-mosL ofLen Lo do wlLh pay or condlLlons of employmenL. AcLlon Laken may
lnclude a go-slow sLrlke or work Lo rule
Industr|a| re|at|ons 1hls Lerm ls now used Lo descrlbe Lhe web of relaLlonshlps LhaL exlsLs beLween employees
or Lhelr Lrade unlCn represenLaLlves, ManagemenL, and governmenL. lLs usage ls Lherefore
much broader Lhan lLs orlglnal lndusLrlal or manufacLurlng conLexL and exLends Lo lssues
and procedure concernlng employmenL ln any work envlronmenL
Industr|a| 1ra|n|ng ln personnel managemenL Lhls Lerm usually refers Lo Lhe Lralnlng of new workers ln a
parLlcular lndusLry or secLor of Lhe economy aL all levels of ablllLy and skllls
Infer|or|ty Comp|ex accordlng Lo Lhe vlennese sychoanalysL, Alfred Adler, Lhls ls an unconsclous condlLlon
where an lndlvldual feels lnadequaLe and resenLful, ofLen because of some physlcal feaLure
regarded as a defecL
Informa| Group unllke a formal group an lnformal group ls noL seL up by managemenL of an organlzaLlon buL
arlses sponLaneously ln Lhe workforce
Informat|on daLa LhaL have been gaLhered and converLed lnLo a meanlngful conLexL
communlcaLlon beLween people Lhrough Lhe grapevlne of an organlzaLlon
Informat|on management Lhls ls concerned wlLh applylng lnformaLlon Lechnology Lo Lhe flow of lnformaLlon ln an
organlzaLlon wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon of orderlng lL ln Lhe besL way Lo achleve organlzaLlonal goals
Informat|on process|ng A key Lerm ln Lhe sLudy of cognlLlon whlch ls used Lo denoLe whaL happens menLally
beLween sLlmulaLes and Lhe response Lo, lL lncludlng ercepLlon. Memory, Lhlnklng
declslon-maklng and problem-solvlng
Informat|on r|chness Lhe poLenLlal lnformaLlon carrylng capaclLy of daLa
Informat|on 1echno|ogy A relaLlvely new fleld LhaL comblnes Lhe Lechnology of Lhe compuLer wlLh LhaL of
communlcaLlon. lL ls concerned wlLh Lhe gaLherlng, recordlng, sLorage, processlng and
dlssemlnaLlon of lnformaLlon and represenLs Lhe laLesL form of Man-Machlne lnLerface eLc
Infrastructure Lhe neLwork of essenLlal servlces supporLlng a modern socleLy LhaL has undergone Lhe
process of lndusLrlallzaLlon
Innovat|on 1he developmenL of someLhlng new. lL ls mosL ofLen applled Lo Lhe lnLroducLlon of new
goods and servlces Lo Lhe markeL, parLlcularly Lhose lncorporaLlng some advance ln
Input-output ana|ys|s Lhls ls a seL of sLaLlsLlcs used ln a general sense ln economlcs and more speclflcally ln
markeLlng and markeL research, ln whlch paLLerns of buylng and selllng beLween lndusLrles
or secLor of an economy are analyzed Lo sLudy changes ln Lhelr Lradlng relaLlonshlp over a
glven perlod of Llme
In-serv|ce tra|n|ng Lhe Lralnlng of sLaff by Lhe organlzaLlon Lhey work for ln order Lo enhance Lhelr value Lo Lhe
Inst|tut|on ln soclal sclence Lhls Lerm refers Lo a soclal, culLural economlc or pollLlcal arrangemenL
LhaL may be of greaLer or lesser lmporLanL Lo people's llves- llke Lhe famlly or Lhe
monarchy- buL whlch usually endures over Llme and reflecLs some baslc values of Lhe
Integrat|on 1he process of organlzaLlon dlfferenL parLs lnLo a whole of a hlgher order. lL ls used wldely
ln sclence, from Lhe organlzaLlon of nervous lmpulses necessary for any klnd of behavlor up
Lo Lhe organlzaLlon of a whole socleLy
Inte|||gence AlLhough Lhls concepL has been dlscussed ln psychology slnce Lhe 1870s Lhere ls no
unlversally accepLed agreemenL on whaL lnLelllgence ls. MosL psychologlsLs would probably
agree LhaL heredlLy seLs llmlLs of a person's lnLelllgence and mosL would also agree LhaL Lhe
ablllLy Lo Lhlnk ln one form or anoLher (handllng absLracL ldeas, adapLlng Lo new slLuaLlons,
percelvlng complex relaLlonshlps) ls Lo slgn of hlgh lnLelllgence-whlch may noL geL us very
far buL never prevenLed psychologlsLs from deslgnlng new lnLelllgenL LesLs
Interact|ng Group Lyplcal group ln whlch members lnLeracL wlLh each oLher face Lo face
refers Lo Lhe arL and sclences of managemenL as applled Lo Lhe operaLlons of an
lnLernaLlonal organlzaLlon especlally a publlc lnLernaLlonal organlzaLlon employlng
lnLernaLlonal clvll servanLs
Internat|ona| C|v|| Serv|ce Lhe Lerm used for employees of lnLernaLlonal organlzaLlons who are appolnLed by Lhe
secreLary general of Lhe un and who, ln Lhe words of Lhe un charLer, shall noL seek or
recelve lnsLrucLlons from any governmenL and shall refralns from any acLlon whlch mlghL
reflecL on Lhelr poslLlon as lnLernaLlonal offlclals responslble only Lo Lhe organlzaLlon
Interpersona| conf||ct Lhe general Lerm for any klnd of confllcL beLween lndlvldual
Interpersona| contact Lhe general Lerm for any klnd of relaLlonshlps or forms of communlcaLlon beLween
Interpersona| sk|||s
A group Lralnlng meLhods whlch emphaslzes Lhe skllls lnvolved ln communlcaLlon wlLh oLher
people ln llsLenlng Lo Lhelr replles. 1hese skllls are obvlously lmporLanL LhroughouL Lhe llfe
of an organlzaLlon buL are perhaps mosL vlslble (on Lhe boLh sldes of Lhe Lable) ln an
lnLervlew, especlally a performance appralsal lnLervlew
Interv|ew ln essence an lnLervlew ls a form of conversaLlon, beLween one lnLervlewee and one more
lnLervlewers, whlch ls sLrucLured Lo a greaLer or lesser exLenL. lL ls probably Lhe mosL
wldely-used meLhod for Lhe assessmenL of a person's ablllLy. lL ls also Lhe mosL sub[ecLlve
meLhod and one whlch ls exLremely dlfflculL for Lhe lnLervlewer Lo do well
I Lhe lnLelllgence CuoLlenL, a sore obLalned from an lnLelllgence LesL by dlvldlng Lhe menLal
age (MA) obLalned on Lhe LesL by Lhe acLual or chronologlcal age(CA) and mulLlplylng by
100, l.e. lC=Ma 100 an lC score by lLself ls meanlngless. lL doesn'L lnLelllgence Lhe way a
Lape measure helghL, for lnsLance. lL ls only measure of comparlson beLween all Lhe people
who have Laken LhaL parLlcular LesL, wlLh Lhe average score belng arblLrarlly aL around 100

Iob A plece of work or an order for a plece of work Lo be done. 1he Lerm ls also used more
wldely Lo descrlbe one's llvellhood. A [ob ls Lherefore a unlL of work large enough Lo be Lhe
basls of an occupaLlon
Iob ana|ys|s 1he process of obLalnlng lnformaLlon abouL [obs, lncludlng Lhe Lask Lo be done on Lhe [obs
as well as Lhe personal characLerlsLlcs necessary Lo do Lhe Lask
Iob demand Lhe requlremenL of a [ob has and Lherefore whaL wlll expecLed of Lhe person who perform lL
Iob Descr|pt|on a wrlLLen summary of Lask requlremenLs for a parLlcular [ob
Iob Des|gn Lhe process of relaLlng all Lhe Lasks Lo be performed wlLhln Lhe organlzaLlon
Iob Ln|argement expandlng Lhe conLenL of a [ob Lo lnclude responslblllLles LhaL wlll usually requlre Lralnlng
and Lhe acqulslLlon new skllls
Iob eva|uat|on assessmenL of Lhe relaLlve worLh of [ob Lo a flrm
Iob sat|sfact|on a pleasurable feellng LhaL resulLs from Lhe percepLlon LhaL a [ob fulfllls or allows for Lhe
fulflllmenL of lLs holder's lmporLanL [ob values
Iob Spec|f|cat|on a wrlLLen summary of worker requlremenLs for a parLlcular [ob
Iob 1|t|e Lhe offlclal name an organlzaLlon glves Lo Lhe occupanL of a parLlcular [ob, sales Manager,
P8 Manager
Iun|or Management Lhe Lerm applled Lo managers who are relaLlvely low ln Lhe hlerarchy of an organlzaLlon
because Lhey are [unlor ln age and or/ level of responslblllLy and auLhorlLy
Iust|f|cat|on Lhe procedure used by a word processor Lo llne up Lhe rlghL hand margln of a page so LhaL
all Lhe llnes of scrlpL are of equal lengLh

key [obs [obs LhaL are characLerlzed by sLable Lasks and sLable [ob speclflcaLlons, also known as
benchmark [obs
know|edge a blend of lnformaLlon experlence and lnslghLs LhaL provldes a framework LhaL can be
LhoughLfully applled when assesslng new lnformaLlon or evaluaLlng relevanL slLuaLlons
know|edge cap|ta| Lhe value of Lhe knowledge possessed by people aL all levels of an organlzaLlon
know|edge Lng|neer|ng a Lerm someLlmes used of a group of Lechnlques, based on Lheorles of arLlflclal lnLelllgence,
whlch ls concerned wlLh Lhe deslgn of lnLelllgenL knowledge - based sysLems
know|edge Management Lhe process of creaLlng an lncluslve, comprehenslve, easlly accesslble organlzaLlonal
memory, whlch ls ofLen called Lhe organlzaLlon's lnLellecLual caplLal

Labor Market a geographlcal area wlLhln whlch Lhe force of supply (people looklng for work) lnLeracL wlLh
Lhe forces of demand (employers looklng for people) and Lhereby deLermlne Lhe prlce of
Labor turnover Lhe percenLage of Lhe LoLal labor force of an organlzaLlon leavlng lLs employmenL and belng
replaced over a glven perlod of Llme, usually a year
Leadersh|p a wldely- applled Lerm LhaL usually refers Lo Lhe personallLy characLerlsLlc and Lhe behavlor
of people wlLh auLhorlLy and lnfluence and responslblllLy for leadlng group
Leadersh|p sty|e Lhls Lerm usually refers Lo Lhe adopLlon of an auLhorlLarlan managemenL or a dependlng on
whlch sLyle ls more comforLable Lo hls or her personallLy
Lead t|me 1he Llme Laken Lo compleLe a cycle of acLlvlLy. 1he Lerm ls usually used ln reference Lo Lhe
producLlon process, from Lhe lnlLlal ldea Lo Lhe flnlshed producL, alLhough lL can also refer
Lo Lhe Llme-lag ln supplylng an order
Learn|ng theory ln psychology Lhls refers Lo Lhe sysLemaLlc aLLempL Lo explaln Lhe process of learnlng
Leg|t|macy a Lerm someLlmes used of Lhe leadershlp of a group or organlzaLlon when lL ls fully
accepLed by Lhe members
Len|ency Lhe Lendency Lo raLe every employee hlgh or excellenL on all crlLerla
L|cens|ng a means of enLerlng new markeLs, prlmarlly used by manufacLurlng flrms, by Lransferrlng
Lhe rlghL Lo produce and sell producLs overseas Lo a forelgn flrm. ln reLurn, Lhe llcenslng
recelves a negoLlaLed fee, normally ln Lhe form of a royalLy
L|ne and staff concept A Lerm used ln organlzaLlon Lheory Lo denoLe Lhe dlfferenL funcLlons performed ln an
organlzaLlon by managers who are dlrecLly goals (llne) and Lhose who perform supporLlve
funcLlons llke markeLlng or personnel (sLaff).
L|ne Author|ty Lhe conLrol by a manager of Lhe work of subordlnaLes by hlrlng, dlscharglng, evaluaLlng and
rewardlng Lhem
L|ne Management Lhe Lerm used Lo descrlbe managers who are responslble for an organlzaLlon carrylng ouL
lLs baslc funcLlon, e.g. markeLlng producLlon eLc
Locus of Contro| a dlmenslon of personallLy ln whlch people who have an lnLernal locus feel Lhey have
conLrol over whaL happens Lo Lhem, and people wlLh an exLernal locus Lend Lo aLLrlbuLe
Lhelr experlences Lo ouLslde forces or oLher people
Log|st|c A Lerm LhaL was orlglnally used ln Lhe mlllLary sphere Lo descrlbe Lhe organlzlng and movlng
of Lroops and equlpmenL. lL ls now ofLen applled Lo any deLalled plannlng process ln an
organlzaLlon whlch enLalls Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon or redlsLrlbuLlon of resources

Make-buy-ana|ys|s an operaLlon managemenL Lool used Lo help make Lhe declslon as Lo wheLher Lo producL n
lLem or Lo purchase lL
Management maklng Lhe mosL effecLlve use of avallable resources, wheLher ln Lhe form of machlne,
money or people, (2) Lhe people responslble for Lhe managemenL of an organlzaLlon, l.e. for
Lhe dlrecLlng, plannlng and runnlng of lLs operaLlons, for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of lLs pollcles
and Lhe aLLalnmenL of lLs ob[ecLlves
Management account|ng Lhe preparaLlon of accounLlng lnformaLlon for use by managers of an organlzaLlon ln
budgeLlng, declslon maklng, plannlng and formulaLlng pollcy
Management by ob[ect|ve
a performance appralsal sLraLegy ln whlch employees and supervlsors agree on a seL of
goals Lo be accompllshed for a parLlcular perlod, performance ls Lhen assessed aL Lhe end of
Lhe perlod by comparlng acLual achlevemenL agalnsL Lhe agreed -on-goals
Management change Lhe ongolng managerlal process of enhanclng Lhe ablllLy of an organlzaLlon Lo anLlclpaLe and
respond Lo developmenLs ln lLs exLernal and lnLernal levels Lo cope wlLh Lhe changes
Management consu|tant someone who offers a consulLancy, servlce ln any area of ManagemenL or Lhe runnlng of an
1he process of ldenLlfylng, Lralnlng and generally equlpplng relaLlvely [unlor Managers wlLh
Lhe experlence or sklll necessary for senlor managemenL, poslLlons wlLh an organlzaLlon ln
Lhe fuLure. lL ls a process LhaL ldeally, should be an lnLegral parL of a coherenL personnel
pollcy golng from lnlLlal recrulLmenL Lo ulLlmaLe reLlremenL
Management |nformat|on
an lnformaLlon sysLem LhaL provldes lnformaLlon Lo managers Lo use ln maklng declslons(b)
a cenLrallzed and usually compuLerlzed, lnformaLlon sysLem for use by Lhe managers of an
organlzaLlon ln declslon maklng
Management serv|ce Lhe appllcaLlon of sclenLlflc meLhods, and parLlcularly quanLlLaLlve MeLhodology Lo Lhe
pracLlce of sclence perspecLlve Lo Lhe sLudy of managemenL
Management sty|e 1he general approach a manager has Lo deallng wlLh oLher people aL work, and ln parLlcular
Lhe exerclslng of hls or her auLhorlLy wlLh subordlnaLes. 1hls sLyle ls ofLen characLerlzed as
Lendlng Lowards auLhorlLarlan managemenL or democraLlc managemenL, dependlng on Lhe
personallLy of Lhe lndlvldual manager, buL people can also have somewhaL dlfferenL
approach when faced wlLh dlfferenL slLuaLlons
Management tra|n|ng Any form of Lralnlng ln Lhe pracLlces and Lechnlques of managemenL. Cne lmporLanL form
of managemenL Lralnlng ls Lo have mangers sLudy case hlsLorles of real-llfe lssues ln
organlzaLlons and work on soluLlons Lo problems, anoLher ls Lo play buslness games
deslgned Lo deal wlLh parLlcular aspecLs of managemenL. 1he Lerm ls ofLen used
lnLerchangeably wlLh managemenL educaLlon, Lhough Lhe emphasls of managemenL
Lralnlng ls generally more focused and less formal or academlc
Manger anyone lnvolved ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of an organlzaLlon wlLh Lhe auLhorlLy Lo use
organlzaLlonal resources, wheLher money, labor, or equlpmenL, ln furLherance of Lhe
organlzaLlon's ob[ecLlves
Manager gr|d a Lechnlques used ln managemenL developmenL LhaL was devlsed by Lwo Amerlcan
organlzaLlon psychologlsLs, 8oberL 8lake and !ane MouLon, bulldlng on prevlous
conLrlbuLlons Lo Lhe sLudy of Puman 8elaLlons by psychologlsLs llke A8C8lS, LLWln, and
LlkL81. 1he Lechnlque conslsLs of scorlng managers on Lwo dlmenslons aL rlghL angles Lo
each oLher Lo form a grld. 1he dlmenslon ls concern for producLlon (or Lhe Lask ln hand) and
concern for people. Lach lndlvldual's scores are Lhen ploLLed on Lhls grld Lo see how much
of each concern by express
Manager|a| psycho|ogy Lhe sysLemaLlc sLudy of Lhe role of Lhe Manager ln an organlzaLlon and ln parLlcular Lhe
relaLlonshlps beLween supervlsor and supervlsors, Lhls area of sLudy ls a parL of lndusLrlal
parL of lndusLrlal psychology
Manag|ng d|vers|ty esLabllshlng a heLerogeneous workforce (lncludlng whlLe men) Lo perform Lo lLs poLenLlal ln
an equlLable work envlronmenL where no members or group of members en[oys an
advanLage or suffers a dlsadvanLage
Manpower ana|ys|s An analysls of Lhe employee ln an organlzaLlon LhaL aLLempLs Lo ldenLlfy paLLern and Lrends
ln Lhelr employmenL. lL wlll examlne, for lnsLance, Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of employees by age, sex,
sklll, [ob LlLle and lengLh of servlce. lL ls Lhe sLage of sysLemaLlc manpower plannlng
Manpower p|ann|ng Lhe process of forecasLlng boLh Lhe numbers and Lhe klnds of employees LhaL an
organlzaLlon wlll requlre over a glven perlod of Llme and Laklng sLeps Lo ensure Lhelr supply,
ldeally Lhls should be an lnLegral parL of an organlzaLlon's personnel pollcy from
recrulLmenL Lo reLlremenL, lncludlng selecLlon, promoLlon, and Lralnlng
Manua| sk||| a sklll LhaL requlres physlcal raLher Lhan menLal ablllLy
Manua| worker someone employed on Lhe shop floor of an organlzaLlon dolng physlcal raLher Lhan menLal
work, wheLher Lhe work ls skllled or unskllled
Market A slLuaLlon where buyers and sellers are ln communlcaLlon wlLh each oLher. 1hls may Lake
several forms, e.g ln person (as ln a caLLle aucLlon) or elecLronlcally (as ln Lhe sLock
exchange) or Lhrough Lhe mass medla as ln newspaper adverLlslng columns
Market|ng Lhe serles of process by whlch demand for goods and servlces ln ldenLlfled, supplled
anLlclpaLed or manlpulaLed, lL relles heavlly of such funcLlons as adverLlslng and markeL
Market|ng concept a phllosophy of markeLlng LhaL emphaslzes Lhe supreme lmporLanL of Lhe cusLom,
fundamenLal Lo Lhls phllosophy ls an undersLandlng of whaL Lhe cusLomer wanLs ln any
glven markeL, and Lhls ls usually ascerLalned by Lhe exLenslve markeL research
Market|ng env|ronment Lhe seL of exLernal facLors LhaL affecL Lhe markeL ln whlch an organlzaLlon operaLes l.e
culLural, economlc, legal, pollLlcal, geographlcal eLc
Market|ng M|x 1he comblnaLlon of dlfferenL aspecLs of an organlzaLlon's sLraLegy for markeLlng a producL,
e.g adverLlslng, markeL research, producLlon and publlc relaLlons. 1he guldellnes for Lhe
mosL approprlaLe mlx are someLlmes expressed as Lhe four s- producL, prlce
Market |eader 1he organlzaLlon wlLh largesL share ln a glven markeL. prlce (markeL), poslLlon and place.
Market penetrat|on Lhe amounL of demand ln a glven markeL LhaL ls supplled by a parLlcular organlzaLlon
Market kesearch 8esearch carrled ouL ln Lhe course of markeLlng, elLher by an organlzaLlon lLself or by
speclallsLs from an exLernal consulLancy, Lo deLermlne Lhe llkely MarkeL for a producL or Lhe
effecLs of pasL or prospecLlve adverLlng on consumers. uependlng on Lhe klnd of
lnformaLlon requlred, Lhe research may use elLher quanLlLaLlve meLhodology wlLh survey
research on large numbers people or quallLaLlve meLhodology wlLh large lnLervlews of
lndlvlduals and famllles and group lnLervlews of 3-10 people ln a face- face group
Market segmentat|on 1he analysls of buyers or poLenLlal buyers ln a glven markeL along varlous dlmenslons.
1hese usually lnclude demographlc llke age sex and soclo-economlc sLaLus, buylng paLLerns
wlLh respecL Lo prlce and quallLy, and personallLy facLors llke conservaLlsm-radlcallsm, need
for achlevemenL or need for afflllaLlon Lhe ob[ecLlve ls Lo dlvlde markeL lnLo segmenLs
comprlslng slmllar klnds, of people so LhaL markeLlng efforLs can be LargeLed more
preclsely, and Lhe mosL effecLlve approach used wlLh each segmenL
Market share Lhe amounL of LoLal demand ln a markeL whlch a parLlcular organlzaLlon supplles over a
glven perlod of Llme
Market va|ue Lhe currenL prlce LhaL a parLlcular lLem would feLch ln Lhe markeL
Mas|ow's h|erarch of
Lhe Lheory LhaL people Lend Lo saLlsfy Lhelr needs ln a speclfled order, from Lhe mosL Lo Lhe
leasL baslc
Mass Med|a forms of communlcaLlon LhaL reach a large-usually naLlon-wlde-audlence, l.e., radlo,
Lelevlslon and newspapers
Mass roduct|on 1he producLlon of ldenLlcal lLems on a very large scale. lL requlres Lhe process of
auLomaLlon, dlvlslon of labor [ob slmpllflcaLlon, speclallzaLlon and sLandardlzaLlon. ln Lhe
LwenLleLh cenLury Lhe proLoLype for mass producLlon was Lhe assembly llne developed ln
Lhe car manufacLured lndusLry by PLn8? lC8u
Master of 8us|ness
1he academlc quallflcaLlon ln ManagemenL LducaLlon whlch ls generally accepLed ln Lhe
unlLed SLaLes as a prerequlslLe for a professlonal career as a manager. 1he quallflcaLlon ls
also becomlng lncreaslngly soughed afLer ln Lhe unlLed klngdom-buL noL ln oLher
lndusLrlallzed counLrles llke Cermany and !apan whlch have alLernaLlve rouLes lnLo
Matr|x organ|zat|on A flexlble form of organlzaLlon sLrucLure ofLen used ln slLuaLlon whlch requlres a mlx of
people wlLh dlfferenL skllls and experlence Lo be focused on a parLlcular Lask, or an unusual
pro[ecL LhaL crosses exlsLlng deparLmenLal boundarles ln an organlzaLlon. 1he people
lnvolved ln Lhls klnd of Lask force wlll conLlnue Lo reporL offlclally Lo llne ManagemenL, buL
ln Lhelr day-Lo-day work Lhey wlll be responslble Lo Lhe pro[ecL leader
MDW See Measured uay Work
Mean ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls Lhe mosL commonly used measure of cenLral Lendency. lL ls Lhe arlLhmeLlc
average, found by summlng Lhe values of a serles of numbers and dlvldlng Lhls by Lhe LoLal
number ln Lhe serles
Measured Day work a managemenL procedure where a dally producLlon LargeL ls deflned for all Lhe workers on
Lhe shop floor, whose pay ls Lhen made up of a flxed regular amounL of each day LhaL Lhe
LargeL ls meL-as opposed Lo paymenL-by-resulL
Measure of centra|
one of Lhree sLaLlsLlcal whlch can each be used as a cenLral value Lo descrlbe a serles of
numbers Lhe mean Lhe medlan and Lhe mode
Med|an ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls a measure of cenLral Lendency whlch dlvldes a group of scores ln half, wlLh
half Lhe scores falllng above Lhe medlan score and half below
Med|at|on a process by whlch a neuLral Lhlrd parLy aLLempLs Lo help Lhe parLles ln a dlspuLe reaches a
seLLlemenL of Lhe lssues LhaL dlvlde Lhem
Merger an amalgamaLlon of Lwo or more organlzaLlon lnLo a slngle new organlzaLlon by muLual
agreemenL-as opposed Lo a Lake-over
Mer|t rat|ng A form of reward for members of an organlzaLlon based on an assessmenL of Lhelr worLh
beyond Lhe normally expecLed performance of Lhelr [ob, on Lhe grounds LhaL dlfferenL
people dolng Lhe same [ob can have a dlfferenL value Lo Lhe organlzaLlon. 1he klnd of facLor
usually Laken lnLo accounL are absenLeelsm, apLlLude, aLLlLude Lowards managemenL,
lengLh of servlce, puncLuallLy eLc
Mer|t pay system pay sysLems mosL commonly applled Lo exempL employees under whlch employees recelve
permanenL lncreases, Lled Lo levels of [ob performance, ln Lhelr base pay
M|dd|e Management A manager whose poslLlon ln Lhe hlerarchy of an organlzaLlon ls hlgher Lhan [unlor
managemenL and lower Lhan senlor managemenL ls parL of mlddle managemenL, and Lhls
accounLs for mosL managers ln mosL organlzaLlons. Mlddle managers are Lyplcally ln charge
of Lhe consLlLuenL unlLs LhaL make up an organlzaLlon, responslble for Lhe work of oLher
people buL wlLh llLLle or no say ln Lhe maklng of pollcy or Lhe Laklng of organlzaLlon-wlde
M|dd|eman an lndlvldual or an organlzaLlon acLlng as a llnk beLween oLhers, especlally beLween
producers and consumers or reLaller, e.g a furnlLure wholesaler or llLerary agenL
Mon|tor|ng observlng envlronmenLal changes on a conLlnuous basls Lo deLermlne wheLher a clear Lrend
ls emerglng
Monocu|ture Lhe homogeneous organlzaLlonal culLural LhaL resulLs from Lurnover of dlsslmllar employees
Mot|vat|on ln psychology Lhls ls a general Lerm for any parL of Lhe hypoLheLlcal psychologlcal process
whlch lnvolves Lhe experlenclng of needs and drlves and Lhe behavlor LhaL leads Lo Lhe goal
whlch saLlsfles Lhem. ln more popular usage moLlvaLlon refer Lhan anoLher
Mu|t|moda| d|str|but|on ln sLaLlsLlcs Lhls Lerm refers Lo a dlsLrlbuLlon wlLh several modes
Mu|t|nat|ona| company a commerclal organlzaLlon whlch operaLes ln more Lhan one counLry and moves lLs
resources and acLlvlLles beLween Lhem ln such a way as Lo maxlmlze lLs Lradlng advanLages
ln such areas as labor cosLs or LaxaLlon beneflLs

Need for ach|evement a sLrong drlve Lo accompllsh Lhlngs, ln whlch Lhe lndlvldual recelves greaL saLlsfacLlon from
personal aLLalnmenL and goal compleLlon
Need for aff|||at|on a sLrong deslre Lo be llked by oLhers, Lo recelve soclal approval, and Lo esLabllsh close
lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps
Need for assessment a Lralnlng Lool LhaL ls used Lo deLermlne wheLher Lralnlng ls needed
Need of power Lhe deslre Lo lnfluence or conLrol oLher people
Negat|ve re|nforcement Lhe removal of unpleasanL consequences assoclaLed wlLh a deslred behavlor resulLlng ln an
lncrease ln Lhe frequency of LhaL behavlor
Negot|at|on ln lndusLrlal relaLlons Lhls ls Lhe essence of Lhe collecLlve bargalnlng process. lL refers Lo Lhe
dlscusslon of Lerms and condlLlons of employmenL by employers and employee, or Lhelr
represenLaLlves, wlLh a vlew Lo reachlng a muLually accepLable ouLcome
Network|ng llnklng people scaLLered geographlcally lnLo a slngle work group by elecLronlc means e.g
New techno|ogy Lhe Lerm ofLen used Lo descrlbe Lhe applled mlcroelecLronlc devlces Lo be found ln Lhe
elecLronlc offlce
N|che Market|ng Lhe sysLemaLlc search for a markeL nlche usually by a new markeL raLher Lhan lncrease
markeL share of an exlsLlng markeL
Nom|na| group techn|que
a declslon-maklng Lechnlque LhaL helps a group generaLe and selecL soluLlons whlle leLLlng
group members Lhlnk lndependenLly, group members are glven Lhe problem and each
presenLs one soluLlon wlLhouL dlscusslon, Lhen all soluLlons are dlscussed, evaluaLed and
ranked Lo deLermlne Lhe besL alLernaLlve
Non-conform|ng h|gh
a Leam member who ls very lndlvlduallsLlc and whose presence ls dlsrupLlve Lo Lhe Leam
Non- execut|ve d|rector a dlrecLor of an organlzaLlon who ls noL a full Llme employee and who does noL have any
execuLlve form of auLhorlLy
Non-f|nanc|a| reward Lhe componenL of an organlzaLlonal reward sysLem LhaL lncludes everyLhlng ln a work
envlronmenL LhaL enhances a worker's sense of self-respecL and esLeem by oLhers, such as
Lralnlng opporLunlLles, bonus, and lnvolvemenL ln declslon maklng and recognlLlon
Lhls Lerm ls usually applled Lo an organlzaLlon LhaL operaLes lnLernaLlonally buL lL ls noL
supporLed, ln Lhe maln, by dlrecL governmenLal fundlng e.g amnesLy lnLernaLlonal or Lhe
8ed Cross
Non- prof|t organ|zat|on any organlzaLlon whose ownershlp resldes enLlrely wlLh lLs members and whose flnanclal
operaLlon are noL lnLended Lo yleld a proflL for shareholder
Non-verba| behav|or any form of human behavlor LhaL does noL employ speech or wrlLlng
ulrecL face Lo face communlcaLlon beLween people by any means oLher Lhan Lhe spoken
word. 1hls would lnclude faclal expresslon, body gesLures, hand gesLures, body posLure and
eye conLacL
Norm ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls a value represenLaLlon of a whole seL of numbers such as one of Lhe
measures of cenLral Lendency (mean, medlan, and modes).
Norm|ng stage a sLage ln Leam developmenL LhaL ls characLerlzed by resoluLlon of confllcL and agreemenL
over Leam goals and values

Cb[ect|ve career a sequence of poslLlons occupled by a person durlng Lhe course of a llfeLlme, commonly
referred Lo slmply as one's career
Cb[ect|ves Lhe goals or LargeLs LhaL Lhe flrm wlshes Lo accompllsh wlLhln a sLaLed amounL of Llme
Cff|ce Management ls Lhe organlzaLlon of an offlce ln order Lo achleve a speclfled purpose and Lo make besL
case of Lhe personnel by uslng Lhe mosL approprlaLe machlne and equlpmenL
Cff|ce Manager ls one who leads Lhe offlce and who organlzes and conLrol Lhe offlce acLlvlLles ln such a
manner whlch ensures efflclenL servlce sclenLlflcally and economlcally
Cff|ce ersonne| lL ls Lhe offlce personnel who perform all Lhe acLlvlLles of Lhe offlce Lhe offlce manager,
selecL Lralns, asslgn and conLrol Lhe acLlvlLles
Cff-||ne 1he parL of a compuLer sysLem whlch ls noL under Lhe lmmedlaLe conLrol of Lhe cenLral
processlng unlL and cannoL Lherefore be accessed dlrecLly. lL ls used Lo produce daLa LhaL ls
only requlred aL relaLlvely long lnLervals, llke a monLhly bank sLaLemenL or a quarLerly
elecLrlclLy blll
Cff-[ob tra|n|ng : Lralnlng LhaL Lakes place away from Lhe employmenL slLe
Cn-[ob tra|n|ng Lralnlng LhaL Lakes place ln Lhe acLual work seLLlng under Lhe guldance of an experlenced
works, supervlsor, or Lralner.(b) a form of Lralnlng LhaL ls glven Lo people aL Lhelr place of
work, and usually durlng worklng hours
Cperat|ona| act|on p|an a managemenL plan normally creaLed by llne managers and employees dlrecLly responslble
for carrylng ouL cerLaln Lask or acLlvlLles
Cperat|ona| ana|ys|s ln Lhe assessmenL of Lralnlng needs Lhe level of analysls LhaL aLLempLs Lo ldenLlfy Lhe
operaLlonal declslon
Cperat|ona| dec|s|on declslons wlLh a shorL Llme perspecLlve, generally less Lhan a year, and LhaL ofLen are
measured on dally or weekly basls
Cperat|ona| manger Lhe flrm's lower-level managers who supervlse Lhe operaLlon of Lhe organlzaLlon
Cperat|on management Lhe process an organlzaLlon uses Lo obLaln Lhe maLerlals or ldeas for Lhe producL lL provldes,
lL process of Lransformlng Lhem lnLo Lhe producL, and Lhe process of provldlng Lhe flnal
producL Lo a user
Cperat|on p|ann|ng shorL- Lo-mlddle range buslnesses plannlng LhaL addresses lssues assoclaLed wlLh Lhe
growLh of currenL or new operaLlons as well as wlLh and speclflc problems LhaL mlghL
dlsrupL Lhe pace of planned growLh also known as LacLlcal plannlng
Cperat|on research A branch of managemenL sclence LhaL applles maLhemaLlcs Lo a serles of Lechnlques, llke
crlLlcal paLh analysls whlch an organlzaLlon may use ln lLs plannlng and declslon-maklng. ln
essence operaLlonal research ls used Lo see wheLher Lhe efflclency and cosL effecLlveness of
a sysLem can be lmproved by developlng a sclenLlflc model Lo sLudy LhaL sysLem and
lncludlng wlLhln lL Lhe facLors of chance and rlsk
Cpt|m|z|ng selecLlng Lhe besL alLernaLlve from among mulLlple crlLerla
Crgan|c organ|zat|on
a managemenL deslgn LhaL ls focused on change and flexlblllLy, emphaslzlng horlzonLal
relaLlonshlps LhaL lnvolve Leams, deparLmenLs or dlvlslons and provlslons Lo coordlnaLe
Lhese laLeral unlLs
Crgan|zat|on A group of people broughL LogeLher for Lhe purpose of achlevlng cerLaln ob[ecLlves. as Lhe
baslc unlL of an organlzaLlon ls Lhe role raLher Lhan Lhe person ln lL Lhe organlzaLlon ls
malnLalned ln exlsLence, someLlmes over a long perlod of Llme desplLe many changes of
member. (b) A consclously coordlnaLed soclal unlL, composed of Lwo or more people LhaL
funcLlon on a relaLlvely conLlnuous basls Lo achleve a common goal or seL of goals
Crgan|zat|on chart a graphlc deplcLlon LhaL helps summarlzes Lhe llnes of auLhorlLy ln an organlzaLlon
Crgan|zat|on des|gn Lhe selecLlon of an organlzaLlon sLrucLure LhaL besL flLs Lhe sLraLeglc goals of Lhe buslness
Crgan|zat|on po||t|cs Lhe exerclse of power ln an organlzaLlon Lo conLrol resources and lnfluence pollcy
Crgan|zat|on structure 1he formal sysLem of relaLlonshlps LhaL deLermlnes llnes of auLhorlLy (who reporLs Lo
whom) and Lhe Lasks asslgned Lo lndlvldual and unlLs (who does whaL Lask and wlLh whlch
Crgan|zat|ona| goa|s 1he formally sLaLed ob[ecLlves whlch are Lhe basls for Lhe exlsLence and Lhe malnLenance of
an organlzaLlon and lLs members. lL ls usually assumed Lo be someLhlng Lhe lndlvldual owes
Lhe organlzaLlon
Crgan|z|ng ueLermlnlng whaL Lasks ls Lo be done who ls Lo do Lhem, how Lhe Lasks are Lo be grouped,
who reporL Lo whom and where declslons are Lo be made
Crgan|z|ng Lhe managemenL of funcLlons LhaL deLermlnes how Lhe flrm's human, flnanclal, physlcal,
lnformaLlonal and Lechnlcal resources are arranged and coordlnaLed Lo perform Lasks Lo
achleve deslred goals, Lhe deploymenL of resources Lo achleve sLraLeglc goals
Cverhead any recurrenL day-day expendlLure lncurred ln runnlng an organlzaLlon oLher Lhan Lhe cosLs
of labor and maLerlal, e.g. renL, heaLlng, and llghLlng
Cvert|me any Llme worked ouLslde normal worklng hours, for whlch people are pald aL a hlgher raLe
Lhan Lhe baslc level of pay
Cwners Lhe parLles LhaL have lnvesLed a porLlon of Lhelr wealLh ln shares of company sLock and
have a flnanclal sLake ln Lhe enLerprlse

art|c|pant observat|on 8esearch Lechnlques ln soclal sclence where an observer becomes an accepLed member of
Lhe group he or she wanLs Lo sLudy
art|c|pat|on Lhe Lerm used Lo descrlbe Lhe lnvolvemenL of people ln Lhe performance of Lhe organlzaLlon
Lhey work for, e.g. by employee ownershlp or proflL sharlng
art method a Lechnlque of learnlng ln whlch Lhe maLerlal ls broken down lnLo smaller parLs Lo be
learned separaLely and Lhen recomblned, compare Lhls wlLh Lhe whole meLhod
artnersh|p a form of buslness LhaL ls an assoclaLlon of Lwo or more persons acLlng as co-owner of a
ass|ve -aggress|ve
sLyle of communlcaLlon whereby lndlvldual avolds glvlng dlrecL responses Lo oLher's
requesLs or feedback
ass|ve commun|cat|on sLyle of communlcaLlon whereby lndlvldual does noL le oLhers know dlrecLly whaL he or she
wanL or needs
ay An amounL of money pald on a regular basls Lo people ln regular employmenL. aymenL
may be of wages or salary, ln cash or by cheque or by dlrecL bank Lransfer
ay |ncent|ve compensaLlon LhaL rewards employees for good performance, lncludlng varlable pay and
merlL pay
eak exper|ence ln humanlsLlc psychology Lhls Lerm refers Lo a momenL of greaL emoLlonal power ln whlch a
person feels someLhlng asklng Lo ecsLasy, where she ls aL one wlLh herself and wlLh Lhe
erformance Lhe way a [ob or Lask ls done by an lndlvldual, a group or an organlzaLlon
erformance appra|sa|
an lnLervlew beLween an employee and hls or her llne manager, usually conducLed once a
year, aL whlch an assessmenL ls made of Lhe lndlvldual' s [ob performance and how lL
relaLes Lo Lralnlng needs, promoLlon opporLunlLles eLc
erform|ng stage a sLage of Leam developmenL LhaL ls characLerlzed by a focus on Lhe performance of Lhe
Lasks delegaLed Lo Lhe Leam
ersona||ty 1he sum LoLal of all Lhe facLors LhaL make an lndlvldual human belng boLh lndlvldual and
human, Lhe Lhlnklng, feellng and characLerlsLlc paLLern of Lhese elemenLs LhaL makes every
human belng unlque. sychologlsLs ofLen emphaslze Lhe lnLegraLlon and dynamlc naLure of
an lndlvldual's personallLy and Lhe lmporLanL role of unconsclous processes LhaL may be
hldden from Lhe lndlvldual buL are aL leasL parLly percepLlble Lo oLher people
ersona| network Lhe relaLlonshlps beLween an enLrepreneur and oLher parLles, lncludlng oLher
enLrepreneur's supplles, credlLors, lnvesLors, frlends, form colleagues, and oLhers
erson-[ob-f|t 1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe personallLy of an lndlvldual flLs harmonlously wlLh Lhe [ob she does.
Cne Lhe goodness of flL beLween Lhe Lwo wlll depend Lhe cruclal facLors of work llke [ob
saLlsfacLlon, producLlvlLy and sLress
ersona Non Grata an unwanLed person. 1he declaraLlon of .n.C ls made ln a governmenL sLaLemenL Lo Lhe
effecL LhaL any furLher sLay of Lhe dlplomaL ln quesLlon and hls famlly on Lhe LerrlLory of Lhe
hosL counLry ls undeslrable
erson ercept|on Lhe process by whlch people form lmpresslon of oLhers, Lhen flesh Lhese lmpresslon ouL and
make Lhem more coherenL- Lhrough noL necessarlly more accuraLe
ersonne| Lhe people employed ln an organlzaLlon (2) Lhe funcLlon of deallng wlLh an organlzaLlon
employees as lLs human resources
|ecework a form of paymenL -by-resulLs where workers are pald for each plece of work Lhey do
raLher Lhan Lhe number of hours Lhey puL ln. lL was based orlglnally on Lhe sclenLlsL
managemenL prlnclple of l.W 1aylor
||ot Study a Lerm someLlmes used ln markeL research or survey research, e.g. when a proposed
CuesLlonnalre may be LesLed on a few respondenLs before belng used on a large-scale
sLudy, Lo see wheLher Lhe quesLlonnalre needs revlslng and wheLher Lhe sLudy lLself ls
worLh dolng
|acement 1he process of placlng someone ln a [ob, ldeally wlLh a perfecL person-[ob flL. 1hls ls an
lmporLanL aspecL of personnel managemenL
|ann|ng Any aLLempL sysLemaLlcally Lo organlze Lhe fuLure performance of people or money or
goods and servlces wlLhln a glven seL of consLralns and Llme horlzon. (b) 1he managemenL
funcLlon LhaL assesses Lhe managemenL envlronmenL Lo seL fuLure ob[ecLlves and map ouL
acLlvlLles necessary Lo achleve LhaL ob[ecLlve.(c) lncludes deflnlng goals esLabllshlng,
sLraLegy and developlng plans Lo coordlnaLe acLlvlLles
|ant 1he bulldlng, equlpmenL and machlnery used ln Lhe runnlng of an organlzaLlon, especlally ln
manufacLurlng lndusLry
ower 1he ablllLy Lo make Lhlngs happen by exerLlng lnfluence over people or Lhlngs. 1he mosL
commonly recognlzed sources of power are physlcal sLrengLh, knowledge, or poslLlon ln Lhe
hlerarchy of an organlzaLlon. 8uL Lhere are also less concerL sources of power such as exlsL
ln personallLy facLors llke charlsma or Lhe relaLlonshlps beLween people ln an organlzaLlon
ower D|stance 1he exLenL Lo whlch lndlvlduals expecL a hlerarchlcal sLrucLure LhaL emphaslzes sLaLus
dlfferences beLween subordlnaLes and superlors
r|c|ng 1he declslons made by an organlzaLlon ln seLLlng a prlce for Lhe goods of Servlce lL
provldes, Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe cosL of producLlon and Lhe naLure of Lhe MarkeL
roact|ve Management a managemenL sLyle ln whlch problems are anLlclpaLed before Lhey become pervaslve and
Llme ls seL aslde on boLh a dally and weekly basls Lo plan goals and prlorlLles
roact|ve strategy a means of deallng wlLh sLakeholders when a flrm deLermlnes LhaL lL wanLs Lo go beyond
sLakeholder expecLaLlons
rocess Lhe way a producL or servlce wlll be produced
rocess Contro| systems an operaLlons lnformaLlon sysLem LhaL monlLors and runs Machlnery and oLher equlpmenL
rocess reeng|neer|ng a meLhod of changlng Lhe enLlre producLlon process raLher Lhan maklng lncremenLal
roduct d|fferent|at|on 1he packaglng and adverLlslng of dlfferenL brands of vlrLually ldenLlcal producLs ln order Lo
creaLe dlfferences beLween Lhem ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe consumer. (2) Lhe process of deslgnlng
and produclng a range of Lhe same baslc producLs ln order Lo appeal Lo dlfferenL segmenLs
of Lhe markeL, e.g. breakfasL cereals wlLh or wlLhouL flber, frulL sugar eLc
roduct |nnovat|on A producL whose producLlon breaks new ground for an organlzaLlon elLher because of Lhe
process lnvolved ln produclng lL or Lhe markeL lL ls almed aL
roduct|v|ty 1he raLe of ouLpuL of a worker or a machlne. (b) A performance measure lncludlng
effecLlveness and efflclency
roduct L|fe cyc|e A Lerm used ln markeLlng Lo descrlbe Lhe dlfferenL sLages LhaL every producL goes Lhrough
from lLs lnlLlal developmenL and lnLroducLlon Lo Lhe markeL, vla lLs ln lnlLlal developmenL
and lnLroducLlon Lo Lhe markeL, vla lLs lnlLlal sales and lLs esLabllshed sales, Lo lLs evenLual
decllne and wlLhdrawal from Lhe markeL
roduct Manager a managemenL role LhaL coordlnaLes Lhe developmenL of new producLs
roduct M|x 1he range of producLs and Lhe parLlcular comblnaLlon of Lhem aL any glven Llme, LhaL an
organlzaLlon producLs
roduct obso|escence Lhe flnal sLage of a producLlon cycle when lL wlLhdrawal of Lhe producL from Lhe markeL
rofess|on An occupaLlon possesslng hlgh soclal sLaLus and characLerlzed by conslderable sklll and
knowledge, much of whlch ls LheoreLlcal and lnLellecLual ln naLure
rofess|ona| soc|a||zat|on Lhe process of soclallzaLlon LhaL a new recrulL Lo a professlon has Lo undergo
rogram Lva|uat|on and
kev|ew 1echn|que
1he name of a parLlcularly popular Lechnlque ln crlLlcal paLh analysls. (b) 1ool for analyzlng
Lhe converslon process
rogrammed dec|s|on ldenLlfylng a problem and maLchlng Lhe problem wlLh esLabllshed rouLlnes and procedure
for resolvlng lL
ortfo||o ana|ys|s an approach Lo classlfy Lhe processes of a dlverslfled company wlLhln a slngle framework or
ro[ect|on ln psycho analysls Lhls refers Lo an LCC uLlLnCL where an lndlvldual (aL Lhe unconsclous
level) aLLrlbuLes Lo oLher people feellngs he her hlmself lf buL whlch are Loo LhreaLenlng Lo
LCC Lo admlL lnLo hls consclousness
ro[ect Manager a managemenL role LhaL coordlnaLes work on a sclenLlflc, aerospace or consLrucLlon pro[ecL
ro[ect team a group LhaL works on a speclflc pro[ecL LhaL has a beglnnlng and an end
romot|on An aLLempL Lo publlclze an organlzaLlon, lLs producLs or lLs lnLeresLs, by adverLlslng or publlc
relaLlons. (2) 1he process of movlng wlLhln Lhe same organlzaLlon Lo a [ob of greaLer
auLhorlLy pay and sLaLus
romot|on |n C|v|| Serv|ces Cf Lhe mosL vlLal lmporLance ln Lhe managemenL of publlc personnel ls Lhe sysLem of
promoLlon. romoLlon ln words of ur. WhlLe means an appolnLmenL from a glven poslLlon
Lo a poslLlon of hlgher grade lnvolvlng a change of duLles Lo a dlfflculL Lype of work.
lnvolvlng a change of duLles Lo a more dlfflculL Lype of work and greaLer responslblllLy,
accompanled by change of LlLle and usually an lncrease ln pay. 1he promoLe goes from a
lower poslLlon Lo a hlgher one whlch means more responslblllLy hlgher rank and
lncldenLally, Lhough noL fundamenLal hlgher salary
sycho|ogy MosL commonly deflned aL presenL as Lhe sLudy of human and anlmal behavlor, a deflnlLlon
LhaL accuraLely descrlbes Lhe rouLe Lo lncreaslng our psychologlcal knowledge. An older
deflnlLlon Lhe sclence of menLal llfe, focuses on a psychologlcal undersLandlng of whaL LhaL
behavlor ls abouL and how make sense of lLs mosL lnLelllgenLly
ub||c Adm|n|strat|on An old-fashloned Lerm daLlng from Lhe Llme when Lhe sysLemaLlc sLudy of admlnlsLraLlon
was consldered a publlc secLor acLlvlLy. lL has been largely superseded by Lerm buslness
admlnlsLraLlon (when followed as parL of a masLer of buslness admlnlsLraLlon course) and
admlnlsLraLlve sclence (8). 8efers Lo Lhe acLlvlLy of a governmenLal unlL ln carrylng ouL Lhe
publlc pollcy declared ln Lhe laws. lL ls also a fleld of professlonal sLudy Lhrough whlch
preparaLlon for publlc managerlal poslLlons ls secured
ub||c offer|ng a means of ralslng caplLal by Lhe sale of securlLles ln publlc markeLs such Lhe new ?ork
SLock Lxchange and nASuAC
ub||c ke|at|ons 1he sysLemaLlc aLLempL by an organlzaLlon Lo presenL lLself Lo besL advanLage, boLh Lo an
exLernal publlc and Lo lLs employees by a process of persuaslve communlcaLlon. lL ls used Lo
con[uncLlon wlLh pald adverLlslng and concenLraLes usually on Lhe mass medla. 1he
ob[ecLlve of Lhe exerclse ls Lo bulld up and malnLaln good relaLlons beLween Lhe
organlzaLlon, lLs publlc and lLs employees.(b) ln professlonal Lerms Lhe funcLlon Lhrough
whlch publlc and prlvaLe organlzaLlons and lnsLlLuLlons seek Lo wln and reLaln Lhe
undersLandlng sympaLhy and supporL of Lhelr presenL or poLenLlal publlc l.e. Lhose groups
wlLh whom Lhey are or may be concerned, such as voLers, sLockholders, dlrecLors,
governmenL offlclals employees, cusLomers, suppllers and Lhe general publlc
un|shment an averslve or unpleasanL consequence followlng undersLand behavlor

ua||ty Lhe Lerm ls now used malnly as a way of measurlng or descrlblng how good or bad a
producL ls aL performlng lLs funcLlon
ua||ty c|rc|es groups of employees who meeL regularly Lo dlscuss ways Lo lncrease quallLy
ua||ty Contro| Any Lechnlque, llke Lhe quallLy clrcle, for helplng Lo malnLaln a deslred level of quallLy ln Lhe
producLlon of a producL. normally Lhls level wlll be as hlgh as ls feaslble, buL someLlmes
conLrol wlll be exerclsed Lo ensure LhaL quallLy ls noL Loo hlgh
ua||ty Gap Lhe dlfference beLween whaL cusLomers wanL and whaL Lhey acLually geL from Lhe company
ua||ty Market a markeL ln whlch Lhe quallLy of a producL ls more lmporLanL Lo Lhe cusLomer Lhan Lhe prlce
ua||ty of work|ng ||fe An approach Lo work LhaL flrsL became promlnenL ln Lhe 1960s. lL ls concerned Lo lmprove
Lhe quallLy of llfe for people ln Lhe workplace by emphaslzlng Lhe lmporLance of good [ob
deslgn ln maklng work more meanlngful for workers and glvlng Lhem more conLrol over
how Lhey do lL
uest|onna|re Any seL of wrlLLen quesLlons used ln Lhe collecLlng of lnformaLlon for purposes of
comparlson. lL ls wldely used ln markeL research and ls Lhe basls of all work ln survey
uota samp||ng ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls Lhe process of sampllng daLa from each subgroup of a glven populaLlon.
1hls ls a parLlcular form of sLraLlfled sampllng wldely used ln markeL research where an
lnLervlewer ls glven a seL number or quoLa of lnLervlew Lo carry ouL ln a glven sLraLum of
Lhe populaLlon and sLops sampllng when Lhe quoLa has been achleved

k& D research and uevelopmenL
kandom samp||ng ln sLaLlsLlcs Lhls ls Lhe process of sampllng daLa aL random from a populaLlon so LhaL
lnference can be made abouL Lhe populaLlon from flndlng abouL Lhe sample. 1he cruclal
condlLlon ls LhaL each lndlvldual ln Lhe LoLal populaLlon has an equal chance of belng chosen
kank order any serles of number lLems, or lndlvldual arranged ln order of magnlLude, elLher lncreaslng
or decreaslng
kat|ona||zat|on ln psychoanalysls Lhls Lerm ls used Lo descrlbe an LCC uLlLnCL ln whlch a person [usLlfles
some acLlon abouL whlch he has unconsclous gullL feellngs because he really knows he
should noL have acLed ln LhaL way. (2) ln economlcs Lhe Lerm ls used Lo denoLe Lhe
appllcaLlon of Lhe mosL efflclenL meLhods ln Lhe use of resources ln a creaLlon of a more
effecLlve organlzaLlon sLrucLure, whlch ofLen lmplles one LhaL ls slmpler and cheaper
kat|ona| Management Lhe opposlLe of parLlclpaLlve managemenL Lhe Lerm ls usually used Lo denoLe a
managemenL sLyle LhaL emphaslzes ob[ecLlve measures of lnpuL and ouLpuL raLher Lhan
human relaLlons
keact|ve management Lhe managemenL sLyle of respondlng Lo Lhe mosL urgenL problem flrsL when noL enough
Llme ls avallable
kecru|tment 1he process of ldenLlfylng posslble candldaLes for a [ob vacancy. lL sLarLs wlLh a [ob analysls
afLer whlch a [ob descrlpLlon and [ob speclflcaLlon ls drawn up. Llkely candldaLes Lo meeL
Lhe speclflcaLlon are Lhen Lrawled, perhaps by adverLlslng ln an approprlaLe Lrade press or
by head hunLlng. ldeally Lhls process should be Lhe loglcal ouLcome of manpower plannlng
and flrsL sLage of a coherenL pollcy of personnel managemenL LhaL conLlnues unLll
reLlremenL. (b) 1he process of generaLlng pool of quallfled candldaLes for a parLlcular [ob
kecru|tment p|pe||ne Lhe Llme frame from Lhe recelpL of a resume Lo Lhe Llme a new hlre sLarLs work
kedep|oyment Lhe process of movlng workers from one locaLlon Lo anoLher, ofLen wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlve of
flndlng Lhem alLernaLlve employmenL
ked 1ape lL ls offlclal conducL of posLponlng declslons and delaylng lmplemenLaLlon of pollcles,
quoLlng rules and regulaLlons as hurdles. lL ls a defecL assoclaLed wlLh bureaucracy
kedundancy Lhe dlsmlssal of someone from hls employmenL elLher because hls [ob has ceased Lo exlsL or
hls skllls are no longer requlred
keference group ln soclology Lhls ls Lhe Lerm for a group wlLh whlch an lndlvldual ldenLlfles and whose group
norms he follow, wheLher he ls accepLed by lL or noL and wheLher he ls physlcally parL of lL
or noL
keference power power derlved from Lhe saLlsfacLlon people recelve by ldenLlfylng Lhemselves wlLh Lhe
ke|at|onsh|p-bu||d|ng ro|e a lead shlp sLyle LhaL focuses on malnLalnlng good lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps
ke|at|ve [udgment a performance appralsal approach ln whlch employees are compared Lo one oLher
ke|evant |abor market deLermlned by whlch [obs Lo survey and whlch markeLs are relevanL for each [ob,
conslderlng geographlcal boundarles as well as producL-markeL compeLlLors
ke||ab|||ty Lhe conslsLency of resulLs from Lhe selecLlon meLhods
kesearch and
1he flrsL sLage of a producL llfe cycle ln whlch sclence and Lechnology ls applled Lo Lhe
developmenL of new producLs. 1he Lerm ls also used more generally Lo descrlbe any
sysLemaLlc acLlvlLy wlLhln an organlzaLlon almed aL galnlng lL a compeLlLlve edge ln Lhe
kesources a||ocat|on Lhe plannlng sLep LhaL deLermlnes where Lhe resources wlll come from (for lnsLance,
borrowlng versus lnLernally generaLed funds) and how Lhe resources wlll be deployed Lo
achleve Lhe agreed-on ob[ecLlves
kesource-based v|ew a sLraLeglc managemenL vlewpolnL LhaL baslng buslness sLraLegy on whaL Lhe flrm ls capable
of dolng provldes a more susLalnable compeLlLlve advanLage Lhan baslng lL on exLernal
kespons|b|||ty Lhe manager's duLy Lo perform an asslgned Lask
kestructur|ng Lhe process of changlng a company by selllng or buylng planLs or llnes of buslness or by lylng
of employees
kesu|t-or|ented system raLlng formaLs LhaL place prlmary emphasls on whaL an employee produces
kesume A lrench word whlch ls used an Amerlcan verslon of Currlculum vlLae
kesumes numan Sk|||s
Management system
an auLomaLed resume-processlng sysLem LhaL use elecLronlc Lechnology Lo process resume,
lnpuL daLa lnLo an appllcanL daLabase, and provlde onllne access Lo resume and skllls
lnformaLlon on avallable [ob candldaLes
keta|| Aud|t a markeL research Lechnlque whlch lnvolves Laklng a represenLaLlve sample of reLall ouLleLs
and sLudylng Lhem Lo obLaln daLa on dlsLrlbuLlon, sales sLock eLc
keta|||ng 1he selllng of goods and servlces, ln relaLlvely small quanLlLles dlrecLly Lo Lhe consumer
Lhrough a shop or oLher reLall ouLleL. Compare wlLh wholesallng
keta|| pr|ce |ndex a flgure calculaLed monLhly whlch reflecLs LhaL cosL of a seL of basls goods and servlces used
by mosL of Lhe unlLed klngdom populaLlon
ketent|on lnlLlaLlves Laken by managemenL Lo keep employees from leavlng, such as rewardlng
employees for performlng Lhelr [obs effecLlvely, ensurlng harmonlous worklng relaLlons
beLween employees and managers and malnLalnlng a safe healLhy work envlronmenL
ket|rement Lhe process of flnlshlng one's full Llme work llfe aL a deslgnaLed or generally accepLed age
keturn on |nvestment (8Cl) a measure comparlng Lralnlng programs moneLary beneflLs wlLh lLs cosL
keward Any klnd of reLurn (usually poslLlve) as a resulL of a glven behavlor. lL ls mosL ofLen used ln
employmenL Lo refer Lo moneLary galns ln reLurn for an lndlvldual's performance aL work.
1hese galns may be ln Lhe form of pay or frlnge beneflLs or perks
keward power power derlved from Lhe bellef LhaL Lhe leader can provlde someLhlng LhaL oLher people
value so LhaL Lhey Lrade Lhelr supporL for Lhe rewards
k|ght approach a means of maklng declslons based on Lhe bellef LhaL each person has fundamenLal human
rlghLs LhaL should be respecLed and proLecLed
k|sk 1he llke hood or Lhe sLaLlsLlcal probablllLy of fallure ln an enLerprlse, Lhe essence of belng
an enLrepreneur, and Lherefore of caplLallsm. 1he Lerm ls also used of Lhe probablllLy of
damage or loss Lhe essence of lnsurance. (b) Lhe level of uncerLalnLy as Lo Lhe ouLcome of a
managemenL declslon
k|sk cap|ta| caplLal lnvesLed ln an enLerprlse wlLh a hlgh degree of rlsk, LhoughL usually wlLh Lhe
posslblllLy of a large flnanclal galn
ko|e A Lerm wldely used ln soclal psychology Lo refer Lo Lhe klnd of behavlor expecLed of a glven
person ln a glven slLuaLlon. 1he Lerm has been applled generally Lo Lhe organlzaLlon a
workplace. (b) LxpecLaLlons regardlng how Leam members should acL ln glven slLuaLlons
ko|e Amb|gu|ty a slLuaLlon ln whlch an lndlvldual ls unclear abouL Lhe role expecLed of her or hls
ko|e conf||ct a slLuaLlon ln whlch an lndlvldual ls expecLed Lo play Lwo or more roles whlch are ln confllcL
or ln compeLlLlon wlLh each oLher
ko|e d|fferent|at|on 1he process of Lhe dlvlslon of labor and of speclaLlon wlLhln a group. 1he larger and more
complex Lhe group from Lhe famlly Lo Lhe mulLlnaLlonal company-Lhe greaLer Lhe degree of
role dlfferenLlaLlon
ko|e expectat|on Lhe expecLaLlon oLher people have abouL Lhe way a person wlll pay her role ln a glven
ko|e |nnovat|on Lhe process of changlng Lhe goals and ob[ecLlves of a parLlcular role
ko|e mode| eople afLer whom an lndlvldual wlll model hls/her own performance of a glven role. (b)
1he leadershlp mechanlsm ln whlch managers serve as example of behavlors Lhey would
llke employees Lo follow
ko|e negot|at|on Lhls Lerm ls someLlmes used Lo descrlbe a process LhaL may Lake place durlng an lnLervlew
wlLh a candldaLe for a [ob where Lhe exacL role Lhe lndlvldual would play ln Lhe organlzaLlon
ls sub[ecL Lo negoLlaLlon
ko|e over|oad an exLreme form of role confllcL where Lhe number of dlfferenL roles expecLed of an
lndlvldual are slmply Loo greaL for her Lo conLaln
ko|e p|ay|ng acLlng Lhe parL of anoLher person ln a LherapeuLlc or buslness game slLuaLlon (b) playlng a
cerLaln role for Lhe parLlcular affecL lL wlll cause
ko|e re|at|onsh|p any relaLlonshlp beLween Lwo people whlch ls deflned by Lhe role Lhey each play, e.g. boss
and subordlnaLe
ko|e reversa| a slLuaLlon ln whlch people agree Lo swlLch Lhelr usual role relaLlonshlps
ko|e set Lhe slgnlflcanL oLhers who have relaLlonshlps wlLh a glven lndlvldual
ko|e structure Lhe exLenL Lo whlch a role ls speclfled and deflned or lefL open
ko|e trans|t|on Lhe process of swlLchlng from one role Lo anoLher, a process ln whlch soclallzaLlon ls of
greaL lmporLance

Sa|ar|ed staff 1hls Lerm ls usually applled Lo sLaffs who ls whlLe-collar workers and whose pay ls
calculaLed on an annual basls and pald ln equal monLhly lnsLallmenLs. 1hls ls ln conLracL Lo
Lhe blue-collar worker, for example, whlch mlghL be pald on an hourly basls or by Lhe
amounL of worker compleLed
Sa|ary Structure 1he arrangemenL of pay wlLhln an organlzaLlon such LhaL dlfferenL grades of employees
dolng dlfferenL [obs wlll recelve dlfferenL raLes. 1hese raLes would be based (orlglnally) on
Lhe processes of [ob analysls and [ob evaluaLlon, and each would normally be ln Lhe form of
a scale wlLh annual lncremenL of pay
Sa|es promot|on any aLLempL Lo lncrease Lhe sales of a parLlcular producL by ralslng publlc awareness of lL
Lhrough adverLlslng or publlc relaLlons
Samp||ng ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls Lhe process of analyzlng a sample drawn from a parLlcular populaLlon
when lL ls Loo dlfflculL or expenslve Lo deal wlLh each member of LhaL populaLlon. 1he mosL
common ways Lo obLaln a sample are by random sampllng and sLraLlfled sampllng lncludlng
quoLa sampllng
Samp||ng error ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls Lhe exLenL Lo whlch a sample ls noL an accuraLe represenLaLlon of Lhe
populaLlon from whlch lL has been drawn
Samp||ng frame Lhe background or caLchmenLs area of populaLlon from whlch a sample ls Lo be Laken
Sat|sfy|ng SelecLlng Lhe flrsL alLernaLlve soluLlon LhaL meeLs a mlnlmum crlLerlon. (b) A Lerm LhaL
orlglnaLed ln Lconomlc Lo descrlbe Lhe slLuaLlon ln whlch an organlzaLlon was sufflclenLly
saLlsfled wlLh whaL lL had achleved Lo sLop sLrlvlng for more even Lhough lL had noL reached
lLs ldeal or opLlmal LargeLs. 1he Lerm ls also used more broadly Lo be almosL synonymous
wlLh comprlse' ln a slLuaLlon of confllcL where a soluLlon ls reached whlch saLlsfles all
parLles buL ls less Lhan opLlmal for any of Lhem
Sav|ng face malnLalnlng one's self esLeem or Lhe self-esLeem of one's group ln a slLuaLlon of lndlvldual
or group confllcL, or any klnd of bargalnlng
Scan|on p|an named afLer Lhe Amerlcan Lrade unlon LheorlsL !oseph Scanlon whose plan, flrsL produced
ln Lhe laLe 1930s, and was lnLended Lo herald a new form of co-operaLlve relaLlonshlp
beLween managemenL and unlons. Cne ouLcome of Lhe plan was a meLhod whereby
employees would share ln Lhe flnanclal beneflLs of lncreased producLlvlLy by recelvlng each
monLh a bonus based on a percenLage. 1he Scanlon plan ls regarded as an lmporLanL
conLrlbuLlon Lo lndusLrlal democracy
Scann|ng Lhe analysls of general envlronmenLal facLors LhaL may dlrecLly or lndlrecLly be relevanL Lo
Lhe flrm's fuLure
Sc|ent|f|c Management a managemenL meLhod LhaL applles Lhe prlnclples of Lhe sclenLlflc meLhod Lo Lhe
managemenL process, deLermlnlng Lhe one besL way Lo do a [ob and sharlng Lhe rewards
wlLh Lhe workers.(b) an approach Lo managemenL, based on Lhe Lheorles of lW 1A?LC8,
deallng wlLh Lhe moLlvaLlon Lo work. lL sees lL as a manager's duLy Lo flnd ouL Lhe besL way
Lo do a glven [ob by a process of work measuremenL, Lhan glve each worker lndlvldual
lnsLrucLlons whlch have Lo be sLrlcLly followed. 1he lndlvldual ls Lhus seen as Lhe exLenslon
of hls machlne, and hls rewards are also Lo be allocaLed mechanlcally wlLh more pay
expecLed regardless of any oLher facLors
Seasona| unemp|oyment a form of unemploymenL LhaL peaks aL cerLaln Llmes of Lhe year due Lo Lhe naLure of Lhe
lndusLry ln quesLlon, e.g. consLrucLlon or Lourlsm
Secretary an lndlvldual female who supporLs one or more execuLlve ln an organlzaLlon by Lyplng
fllllng, arranglng meeLlngs, screenlng Lelephone calls eLc. an lndlvldual usually male, who ls
Lhe execuLlve responslble for admlnlsLraLlve arrangemenL (and ofLen Lhe legal and flnanclal
arrangemenLs) of a group or organlzaLlon e.g. Lhe of Lhe crlckeL club or secreLary of
flows of lnformaLlon wlLhln Lhe flrm LhaL ls far greaLer wlLhln groups Lhan beLween groups
Se|ect|on 1he screenlng process used Lo declde whlch [ob appllcanL Lo hlre. (b) 1he process of
chooslng someone for a parLlcular [ob whlch follows Lhe recrulLmenL of sulLable candldaLes.
1he selecLlon process wlll probably lnclude an lnLervlew and may also lnclude LesLs such as
ablllLy, apLlLude, lnLelllgence, personallLy and physlcal
Se|ect|on percept|on 1ype of percepLlon barrler whereby Lhe recelver focuses on Lhe parLs of Lhe message LhaL
are mosL sallenL Lo hls or lnLeresLs and lgnores oLher parLs LhaL are noL relevanL. (b)
LlLerally, Lhe process of seelng whaL you wanL Lo see. 1he process of percelvlng Lhe world as
we need Lo percelve lL, whaLever Lhe relaLlon of LhaL percepLlon Lo ob[ecLlve reallLy, ls Lhe
way we saLlsfy Lhe need Lo make sense
Se|ect|on rat|on Lhe percenLage of appllcanLs hlred, whlch ls used ln evaluaLlng Lhe usefulness of any
Se|f-actua||zat|on Accordlng Lo Lhe Amerlcan psychologlsL A88APAM MASLCW Lhls Lerm descrlbe Lhe ongolng
sLrlvlng Lo fulflll one's creaLlve capaclLles. 1hls ls consldered an lmporLanL slgn of
psychologlcal healLh
Se|f -censorsh|p A slLuaLlon ln whlch people do noL say whaL Lhey really Lhlnk ln a group dlscusslon, for Lhe
sake of group coheslveness. 1hls ls one of Lhe facLors conLrlbuLlng Lo groupLhlnk
Se|f-concept Lhe enLlre elemenL LhaL make up a person's vlew of herself lncludlng her self-lmage
Se|f-emp|oyment worklng for one and noL belng a sLaff member of an organlzaLlon
Se|f esteem 1he degree Lo whlch a person llkes herself, how worLhy she deems herself Lo be. Plgh self-
esLeem ls generally consldered Lo be an lmporLanL slgn of psychologlcal healLh
Se|f-fu|f||||ng prophecy Lhe ldea LhaL expecLaLlons concernlng one's own or oLher eople's behavlor can lead Lo Lhe
expecLed behavlor appearlng, such as ln Lhe ?CMALlCn confllcL
Se|f-|mage 1he self a person belleves hlmself Lo be, one's self-lmage ls a composlLe of many Lhlngs and
may bear llLLle relaLlon Lo any ob[ecLlve assessmenL Lo oneself or Lhe assessmenL of oLhers.
lL beglns very early ln llfe and ls probably, Lo a large exLenL, physlcal. 1hls early body lmage
can sLay wlLh a person for Lhe resL of hls llfe. 1he [udgmenL of oLher people are also
lmporLanL ln Lhe formaLlon of Lhe self-lmage, buL even Lhough someone's soclal conLacLs
and Lherefore Lhe [udgmenL made of hlm, may change greaLly ln laLer llfe, he may sLlll Lhlnk
of hlmself ln Lerms of Lhe earller [udgmenL
Se|f-know|edge Pavlng an accuraLe awareness of whaL our self ls really llke. Where Such knowledge ls
palnful we wlll lnvesL an enormous amounL of energy ln noL knowlng
Se|f-|eadersh|p leadershlp LhaL sLresses Lhe lndlvldual responslblllLy of employees Lo develop Lhelr own
work prlorlLles allgned wlLh organlzaLlonal goals, Lhe manger ls a faclllLaLor who enhances
Lhe self-leadershlp capablllLles of subordlnaLes, encouraglng Lhem Lo develop self conLrol
Se||er's market a markeL slLuaLlon ln whlch sellers have more power Lo lnfluence prlces and condlLlons of
sale Lhan buyers, usually because demand exceeds supply
Sen|or|ty 1hls Lerm refers elLher Lo hlgher rank or greaLer lengLh of servlces ln an organlzaLlon. (b) a
defense agalnsL dlscrlmlnaLlon ln whlch companles wlLh a well-esLabllshed senlorlLy sysLem
can glve more senlor workers prlorlLy, even lf Lhls has an adverse lmpacL on proLecLed class
Sen|or Management Lhe Lerm applled Lo managers who are relaLlvely hlgh ln Lhe hlerarchy of an organlzaLlon
because Lhey are senlor ln level of responslblllLy and auLhorlLy and ofLen ln age as well
Severance pay a paymenL made Lo an employee elLher because hls conLracL of employmenL has ended or
because he has Lo lose hls [ob Lhrough on faulL of hls own e.g. redundancy
Sex ro|e 1he dlfferenL behavlor a socleLy expecLs of a male or female person on Lhe basls of Lhelr
sex. As soclal dlfferences lnvarlably lmply pre[udlce, Lhls ls Lhe baslc for sexlsm ln socleLy
Sexua| narassment Lhe occurrence of verbal or physlcal abuse solely on Lhe basls of Lhe sex of Lhe vlcLlm. lL ls
very common ln Lhe workplace and almosL always by men agalnsL women. (b) a form of
dlscrlmlnaLlon LhaL ls broadly lnLerpreLed Lo lnclude sexually suggesLlve remarks, unwanLed
Louchlng, and physlcal or verbal acL LhaL lndlcaLes sexual advances or requesLs sexual favor,
a promlse of reward or hldden LhreaLs by a supervlsor Lo lnduce emoLlonal aLLachmenL by a
subordlnaLe and a hosLlle envlronmenL base on sex
Sh|ft work 1he process of dlvlnlng Lhe whole 24- hour day lnLo work perlods, ofLen of elghL hours each
e.g., mldnlghL-8:00 am-4:00 pm and 4:00 pm mldnlghL. ShlfL work ls used Lo obLaln
maxlmum use of planL ln manufacLurlng, or of Lhe work-force ln Lhe servlce secLor,
especlally LhaL parL of lL whlch lncludes Lhe emergency servlces where conLlnuous cover ls
Shop f|oor A Lerm orlglnally applled Lo Lhe area of a facLory ln whlch producLlon Look place. lL has been
wldened ln lLs appllcaLlons Lo lndlcaLe Lhe blue-collar workers ln an organlzaLlon as opposed
Lo Lhe whlLe-collar workers ln an organlzaLlon as opposed Lo Lhe whlLe-collar workers, or
even Lhe work-force ln general as opposed Lo Lhe managemenL
Shop steward a Lrade unlon offlclal elecLed by fellow workers on Lhe shop floor Lo represenL Lhem ln Lhelr
day-day deallngs wlLh Lhe employers or Lhelr ManagemenL represenLaLlves
Short||st A llsL of leadlng candldaLes for a parLlcular [ob or poslLlon as Lhe resulL of a recrulLmenL
process. eople on Lhe shorLllsL wlll be asked Lo aLLend an lnLervlew, and wlll perhaps be
glven some LesLs as well, before Lhe flnal selecLlon ls made
Short-t|me work|ng A slLuaLlon ln whlch a workplace ls forced Lo work a reduced worklng week because of a
shorLage of orders. 1hls ls seen as a Lemporary measure Lo cuL labor cosLs whlle reLalnlng
Lhe work-force lnLacL
S|mu|at|on 1he creaLlon of a conLrolled repllcaLlon of a real llfe slLuaLlon for purposed of Lralnlng,
analysls or pollcy declslon-maklng. lL may be absLracL and use sophlsLlcaLed maLhemaLlcs
(llke a slmulaLlon, or model, of Lhe world economy) or concreLe and use Lhe buslness game
S|tuat|ona| context Lhe facLors LhaL are ouLslde Lhe conLrol of Lhe subordlnaLe such as Lhe Lask deflnlng Lhe [ob,
Lhe formal auLhorlLy sysLem of Lhe organlzaLlon, and Lhe work group
S|x d|fferences 1hese refer Lo all dlfferences ln behavlor or ablllLy beLween males and females. As wlLh
supposed raclal dlfferences Lhere ls no evldence LhaL Lhere are any, whaL llke a geneLlc sex
dlfference ln aggresslveness, for lnsLance ls due Lo a culLural process of learnlng Lhe sex role
consldered approprlaLe for elLher males or females
S|x s|gma a quallLy sLandard LhaL ls equlvalenL Lo generaLlng fewer Lhan 3.4 defecLs per mllllon
manufacLurlng or servlces operaLlons
Sk|||s a learned response, ofLen as Lhe resulL of speclflc Lralnlng, whlch affords someone Lhe
ablllLy Lo perform a parLlcular Lask and achleve a parLlcular goal
Sk|||s |nventory a human resource lnvenLory LhaL keeps Lrack of Lhe flrm's lnLernal supply of LalenL by llsLlng
employees educaLlon, Lralnlng, experlence, and language ablllLles, Lhe flrm can use Lhls
lnformaLlon Lo ldenLlfy Lhose ellglble for promoLlon or Lransfer before Lrylng Lo flll Lhe
poslLlon from Lhe exLernal markeL
Sk|nner, 8I (1940-1990) An Amerlcan psychologlsL and Lhe mosL celebraLed exponenL of behavlorlsm, noL [usL ln Lhe
sLudy of psychology buL as a means of runnlng a socleLy. Pls own Lechnlques of condlLlonlng
were based on Lhe research of avlov and WaLson. ln recenL years he has expounded Lhe
soclal lmpllcaLlons of hls vlews ln a number of lnfluenLlal works lnLended for Lhe general
S|oan, A|fred (187S-*
An Amerlcan lndusLrlallsL who Look over a small and alllng moLor manufacLurer, Ceneral
MoLors, ln Lhe early 1920s and Lurned lL lnLo one of Lhe blggesL corporaLlons ln Lhe world-
and aL Lhe expense of Lhe lord MoLor Company. Pe dld so malnly by lnLroduclng Lhe
concepL of professlonal ManagemenL Lo a buslness world LhaL was sLlll largely run by Lhe
personal proprleLor, llke Penry lord, whose company almosL wenL ouL of buslness ln
compeLlLlon wlLh CM
S|ush fund an lnformal unofflclal and someLlmes dublous source or funds from whlch an organlzaLlon
can flnance a greaL varleLy or lnformal, unofflclal and someLlmes dublous acLlvlLles, ranglng
from sLaff ouLgolng, or brlblng publlc offlclals
Sma|| bus|ness any buslness LhaL ls lndependenLly owned and operaLed, LhaL ls small ln slze, and LhaL ls noL
domlnanL ln lLs markeLs
Sm|th, Adam (1723-1790) An elghLeen cenLury ScoLLlsh economlsL and hllosopher who based hls docLrlnes of Lhe
free markeL on a raLlonal-economlc vlew of human naLure. Pe argued LhaL, as lndlvldual
self-lnLeresL was Lhe drlvlng force whose aggregaLe effecLs resulLed ln soclal harmony, Lhere
should Lherefore be no sLaLe lnLervenLlon ln Lhe markeL beLween buyers and sellers. Pe also
proposed speclallzaLlon and Lhe dlvlslon of labor ln manufacLurlng
Soc|a| account|ng a parLlcular concern wlLh Lhe soclal aspecLs of a cosL-beneflL analysls
Soc|a| anthropo|ogy 1he sysLemaLlc sLudy of Lhe soclal sysLem and Lhe culLure of dlfferenL socleLles, parLlcularly
non-llLeraLe socleLles. lLs ma[or research meLhod ls parLlclpanL observaLlon
Soc|a| c|ass a raLher old-fashloned Lerm for soclo-economlc sLaLus consldered crude and gauche n some
quarLers, lf noL downrlghL subverslve
Soc|a| cohes|on a slmllar process Lo LhaL of group coheslveness, Lhough on a larger scale exLendlng Lo an
enLlre culLure or socleLy
Soc|a| compar|son 1he process of evaluaLlng one's aLLlLudes and behavlor by comparlng Lhem wlLh Lhose of
oLher people. ln soclal psychology Lhere ls an ldea LhaL when people are uncerLaln of whaL
Lo do (or Lhlnk or feel) ln a glven slLuaLlon Lhey are more llkely Lo Lake Lhelr cue from oLher
people and conform Lo Lhelr behavlor
Soc|a| contro| 1he conLrol LhaL a group or culLure, or socleLy exerLs upon Lhe lndlvldual who comprlse lL.
1hls conLrol sLems from Lhe process of soclallzaLlon and ls exhlblLed as conformlLy pressures
Lowards soclal norms
Soc|a| depr|vat|on ln soclology Lhls Lerm ls used Lo descrlbe Lhe slLuaLlon of an lndlvldual or group lacklng Lhe
maLerlal beneflLs whlch are generally en[oyed ln a socleLy. Compare wlLh relaLlve
Soc|a| d|stance Lhe degree Lo soclal lnLlmacy someone wlll accepL ln relaLlon Lo oLher lndlvldual or groups
Soc|a|-emot|ona| |eader 1he lndlvldual who may emerge ln a small group as Lhe person who keeps up Lhe morale
and faclllLaLes Lhe lnLerpersonal relaLlons of Lhe group. Compare wlLh Lask leader
Soc|a| fac|||tat|on 1he sLlmulaLlng effecLs on someone's behavlor of oLher people-even Lhe mere presence of
oLher people. 1he PawLhorne effecL ls an example of soclal faclllLaLlon
Soc|a| |nf|uence a baslc concepL of soclal psychology whlch refers Lo Lhe effecLs on a person of relaLlons wlLh
oLhers, wheLher lndlvlduals groups, or socleLy ln general
Soc|a| |nteract|on Lhe muLual soclal lnfluence LhaL people have on each oLher's behavlor ln a soclal seLLlng
Soc|a||zat|on Lhe process of lnLernallzlng or Laklng organlzaLlonal values as one's own
Soc|a| norm 8ehavlor LhaL ls expecLed of all Lhe members of a socleLy. 1he norm of soclal behavlor ls
Lherefore one way of deflnlng soclal normally
Soc|a| psycho|ogy Lhe branch of psychology LhaL deals wlLh soclal llfe, Lhe behavlor of people ln groups, and
Lhe behavlor of lndlvlduals ln soclal seLLlng
Soc|a| sk|||s A seL of skllls ln deallng wlLh oLher people whlch deLermlne someone's effecLlveness ln a
soclal or group seLLlng. 1hey lnclude lnLerpersonal skllls developmenL as well as
lnLerpersonal relaLlons and non- verbal communlcaLlon
Soc|a| status someone's general poslLlon ln socleLy ln relaLlon Lo and as deLermlned by oLher people
Soc|a| strat|f|cat|on ln soclology Lhls Lerm refers Lo Lhe dlvlslon of a socleLy lnLo a serles of sLraLa of dlfferlng
soclal class or soclal economlc sLaLus
Soc|a| support poslLlve lnLerpersonal relaLlons wlLh colleagues, frlends or famlly whlch are parLlcularly
helpful ln deallng wlLh Lhe effecLs of sLress
Soc|o-econom|c status ln soclology Lhls Lerm refers Lo Lhe caLegorles produced from Lhe soclal sLraLlflcaLlon of a
socleLy by lncome and occupaLlon. ln Lhe unlLed klngdom Lhese are slx ln number and Lhey
are wldely used ln AdverLlslng, markeL research and survey research:
A (upper mlddle class) hlgher managerlal, admlnlsLraLlve or professlonal
8 (mlddle class) lnLermedlaLe managerlal, admlnlsLraLlve or professlonal
C1 (Lower mlddle class) supervlsory, clerlcal [unlor managerlal, admlnlsLraLlve or
C2 (Skllled worklng class) skllled manual workers
D (Worklng class) seml-skllled and unskllled workers
L (lowesL level of subslsLence) sLaLe pensloners, wldows, casual and lowesL grade workers
Software Lhe compuLer programs, codes and oLher supporL maLerlal avallable for use wlLh parLlcular
Span of contro| 1he number of subordlnaLes who reporL dlrecLly Lo a glven manager and over whose work
he exerclses auLhorlLy generally speaklng, Lhe hlgher a manager ls ln Lhe hlerarchy of an
organlzaLlon Lhe smaller Lhe span of conLrol he/she has Lo deal wlLh. (b) 1he feaLure of Lhe
verLlcal sLrucLure of an organlzaLlon LhaL ouLllnes Lhe number of subordlnaLes who reporL Lo
a manager, Lhe number of managers, and Lhe layer of managemenL wlLhln Lhe organlzaLlon
Spec|a||st an lndlvldual who ls an experL ln one parLlcular fleld of sLudy or ln Lhe use of a cerLaln ablllLy
or sklll or even ln Lhe performance of a parLlcular Lask
Spec|a||zat|on ln economlcs Lhls Lerm refers Lo parL of Lhe dlvlslon of labor ln whlch a glven Lask ls broken
down as far as posslble lnLo subLasks, each of whlch Lhen becomes Lhe responslblllLy of a
speclallsL worker. SpeclallzaLlon ls Lherefore an lmporLanL basls for mass producLlon
Sp|n-off an lndependenL enLrepreneurshlp LhaL produces a producL or servlce LhaL orlglnaLed ln a
large company
Staff 1hls Lerm ls mosL ofLen used Lo descrlbe Lhe whlLe-collar workers usually full Llme
employee- of an organlzaLlon, as opposed Lo blue-workers. 1he Lerm refers Lo a dlfferenL of
sLaLus ln Lerm of pay, condlLlon of employmenL and frlnge beneflLs.(b) Lhe managerlal
acLlvlLles of ldenLlfylng work requlremenLs wlLhln an organlzaLlon, deLermlnlng Lhe numbers
of people and Lhe skllls mlx necessary Lo do Lhe work, and recrulLlng, selecLlng and
promoLlng quallfled candldaLes
Staff appra|sa| 1he assessmenL of how well a member of sLaff ls dolng. lL ls usual Lo lnclude a performance
appralsal lnLervlew as parL of Lhls process
Staff assoc|at|on ln Lerms of lndusLrlal relaLlons a sLaff assoclaLlon ls equlvalenL Lo a company Lo a company
unlon as lL usually has no powers of collecLlve bargalnlng on pay and condlLlons of
employmenL. lL also has Lhe funcLlon of organlzlng soclal acLlvlLles for sLaff
Staff author|ty ManagemenL funcLlons of adverLlslng, recommendlng, and counsellng llne mangers and
oLhers ln Lhe organlzaLlon, lL provldes speclallzed experLlse and ls noL dlrecLly relaLed Lo
achlevlng Lhe sLraLeglc goals of Lhe organlzaLlon
Staff |nspect|on a [ob analysls of all sLaff poslLlons ln an organlzaLlon as Lhe flrsL sLep ln a process of
Staff Management 1he managemenL of sLaff ln an organlzaLlon (2). Managers who have a speclallsL servlce or
advlsory supporL funcLlon and are noL ln Lhe chaln of command of Lhe organlzaLlon's
Staff Manager Lhe level of managemenL LhaL helps llne managers achleves boLLom-llne resulLs whlle only
lndlrecLly conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe ouLcome
Stakeho|ders Lhe group or lndlvlduals who have an lnLeresL ln Lhe performance of Lhe enLerprlse and how
lL uses lLs resources, lncludlng employees, cusLomers and shareholders
Standard hour ln work sLudy Lhls Lerm refers Lo a unlL of work raLher Lhan Llme. lL ls Lhe measure of Lhe
performance of a sLandard operaLor for a glven Lask over one hour
Standard|zat|on 1he process of producLlon LhaL provldes sLandard machlne parLs Lhrough a wlde varleLy of
manufacLurlng. 1hls ls one of Lhe bases of Mass roducLlon. 1he process of seLLlng generally
accepLable sLandards of producL of quallLy
State |ntervent|on Lhe lnLervenLlon by governmenL, elLher dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, ln Lhe worklng of Lhe economy
State-of -the Art 1he very laLesL producL ln lLs fleld
Stat|st|ca| process contro| 1he use of sLaLlsLlcal Lechnlques Lo deLermlne Lhe accepLable llmlLs of varlaLlon of quallLy of
a glven producL, usually lnvolvlng random sampllng of Lhe ouLpuL. (b) An operaLlons
managemenL monlLorlng Lool LhaL uses quanLlLaLlve meLhods and procedures Lo evaluaLe
LransformaLlon operaLlons and Lo deLecL and ellmlnaLe devlaLlons
Stat|st|cs a form of maLhemaLlcs used on daLa gaLhered ln sLudylng behavlor and by whlch
lnvesLlgaLors evaluaLe Lhelr flndlngs and make lnferences of wlder lmpllcaLlon Lhan Lhelr
sLudy sample
Status 1he sLandlng of an lndlvldual ln an organlzaLlon. 1hls ls based on Lhe amounL of respecL he
ls accorded by oLher people, wheLher lL ls because of hls poslLlon ln Lhe hlerarchy or
because of personal quallLles llke charlsma. 1he sLandlng of a documenL under dlscusslon.
Pow formal or offlclal ls lL and whaL ls Lhe approprlaLe way or respondlng Lo lL?
Storm|ng stage a sLage ln Leam developmenL ln whlch Leam members volce Lhelr dlfferences abouL Leam
goals and procedures

Strateg|c act|on p|an ManagemenL plans based on macro approaches for analyzlng organlzaLlonal feaLures,
resources, and Lhe envlronmenL and esLabllshlng long-Lerm corporaLe wlde acLlon programs
Lo accompllsh Lhe sLaLed ob[ecLlves ln llghL of LhaL analysls
Strateg|c a|||ances cooperaLlve arrangemenLs beLween compeLlLors or poLenLlal compeLlLors form [olnL
venLure or collaboraLlon beLween flrms on speclflc pro[ecLs
Strateg|c compensat|on compensaLlon pracLlces LhaL besL supporL Lhe flrm's buslness sLraLegy
Strateg|c dec|s|on declslons LhaL have a long-Lerm perspecLlve of Lwo or flve years and affecL Lhe enLlre
Strateg|c nk |ann|ng
1he developmenL of a vlslon abouL where Lhe company wanLs Lo be and how lL can use
human resources Lo geL Lhere. (b) an approach Lo human resource managemenL LhaL has
Lhe goal of uslng people mosL wlsely wlLh respecL Lo Lhe sLraLeglc needs of Lhe
organlzaLlon, ensurlng LhaL people from all Lhe levels of Lhe organlzaLlon are worklng Lo
lmplemenL Lhe sLraLegy of Lhe buslness effecLlvely
Strateg|c |ntent Lhe flrm's lnLernally focused deflnlLlon of how Lhe flrm lnLends Lo use lLs resources,
capablllLles, and core compeLencles Lo wln compeLlLlve baLLles
Strateg|c [ob ana|ys|s fuLure-orlenLed analysls LhaL ldenLlfy sklll and ablllLy requlremenLs for [obs LhaL do noL yeL
Strateg|c Managers Lhe flrm's senlor execuLlve who are responslble for overall managemenL
Strateg|c Meet|ng brlnglng people from dlfferenL deparLmenLs or dlvlslons LogeLher Lo synchronlze plans and
ob[ecLlves and Lo coordlnaLe acLlvlLles
Strateg|c M|ss|on Lhe flrm's exLernally focused deflnlLlon of whaL lL plans Lo produce and markeL, uLlllzlng lLs
lnLernally based core compeLence
Strateg|c |ann|ng Lhe basls of a corporaLe plan or oLher broad based and long-Lerm assessmenL of an
organlzaLlon's fuLure
Strateg|z|ng Lhe managemenL skllls of focuslng on Lhe flrm's key ob[ecLlves and on Lhe lnLernal and
exLernal envlronmenLs and respondlng ln an approprlaLe and Llmely fashlon
Strategy formu|at|on Lhe deslgn of an approach Lo achleve Lhe flrm's fashlon
Stress hyslcal and psychologlcal Lenslon and sLraln usually accumulaLed over a perlod of Llme,
whlch LhreaLens a person's ablllLy Lo go on coplng wlLh Lhe demands of a glven slLuaLlon. lf
lL ls noL dealL wlLh lL wlll frequenLly resulL ln psychosomaLlc dlsorders
Stress Interv|ew An lnLervlew LhaL ls dellberaLely conducLed by Lhe lnLervlewer ln a harsh and hosLlle
manner wlLh Lhe supposed lnLenLlon of LesLlng Lhe lnLervlewee. lL ls more llkely Lo be Lhe
slgn of a man wlLh an lnferlorlLy complex LesLlng hls manhood
Structura| change deep-seaLed changes LhaL affecL very sLrucLure of a socleLy, llke Lhe lndusLrlal lnvenLory
Structura| unemp|oyment unemploymenL LhaL arlses from Lhe changlng sLrucLure of an lndusLry or socleLy (e.g. ln Lhe
paLLern of demand) LhaL ls long Lerm or even permanenL, as opposed Lo seasonal
unemploymenL or unemploymenL LhaL ls a Lemporary reflecLlon of prevalllng economlc
Structured |nterv|ew An lnLervlew ln whlch Lhe lnLervlewee ls led Lhrough a flxed serles of Loplcs based on a seL
of prepared quesLlons, ofLen ralsed ln a parLlcular order. 1hls meLhod emphaslzes
comparablllLy of respondenLs aL Lhe expense of flexlblllLy for Lhe lnLervlewer and scope for
ampllfylng answers by Lhe lnLervlewee
Subcontract|ng Lhe pracLlce of maklng an agreemenL beLween Lhe maln conLracLor responslble for a pro[ecL
and anoLher organlzaLlon whlch wlll subconLracL Lo carry ouL parL on lL
Subcu|ture a Lerm borrowed from anLhropology by soclology Lo denoLe a culLure wlLhln a culLure, l.e.
one whlch shares mosL of Lhe maln feaLures and values of Lhe parenL whlle reLalnlng speclal
characLerlsLlcs of lLs own
Supernumerary someone who ls surplus Lo requlremenLs for an organlzaLlon aL a glven Llme and place, e.g.
resulL of over mannlng
Superv|sor anyone who supervlses Lhe work of oLhers, alLhough a supervlsor, llke a lorman, ls usually
regarded as belng on Lhe flrsL level of llne managemenL ln Lhe hlerarchy of an organlzaLlon
Survey research A Lechnlque for gaLherlng daLa from large numbers of people by Lhe use of quesLlonnalres
and uslng sLaLlsLlcal sampllng meLhods. SWC1 (SLrengLhs-Weakness -opporLunlLles-LhreaLs
Analysls): a sLraLeglc managemenL Lool Lo evaluaLe Lhe flrm, whlch ls accompllshed by
ldenLlfylng lLs sLrengLhs and weakness, ldenLlfylng lLs opporLunlLles and LhreaLs, and cross-
maLchlng sLrengLhs wlLh opporLunlLles, weakness wlLh Lhe LhreaLs sLrengLhs wlLh LhreaLs,
and weakness wlLh opporLunlLles
Sympathy 1he ablllLy Lo feel wlLh someone. lL ls an emoLlonal experlence as compared Lo empaLhy
Synd|cate A group of lndlvlduals or organlzaLlons who comblne for some common goal whlch ls Lo
Lhelr muLual beneflL
Synergy Allows lndlvlduals Lo blend complemenLary skllls and LalenLs Lo produce LhaL are more
valuable Lhan Lhe sum of Lhe lndlvldual conLrlbuLlons. (8) A slLuaLlon ln whlch Lhe co-
operaLlon of Lwo or more lndlvlduals groups or organlzaLlon produces a comblned effecL
whlch ls greaLer Lhan could have been produced by Lhe sum of Lhe separaLe enLlLles e.g.
super ordlnaLe goal achleved by Lwo groups
System any serles of lnLerconnecLed elemenLs formlng an organlzed or organlc whole wlLh common
ob[ecLlves, Lxample can range from an lndlvldual cenLral nervous sysLem Lo a socleLy's
famlly and klnshlp arrangemenLs
System4 a classlflcaLlon of ManagemenL sLyle by Lhe Amerlcan psychologlsL 8ensls LlkerL, 1here are
four sLyles ln all arranglng from Lhe auLocraLlc (SysLem 1) Lo Lhe democraLlc (SysLem4)
System Ana|ys|s Lhe aLLempL Lo formulaLe general prlnclples LhaL could be applled Lo any sysLem by a
comparaLlve analysls of Lhe sLrucLures and funcLlons of as wlde a varleLy of sysLem as
System approach an approach Lo managlng human resources LhaL provldes a concepLual framework for
lnLergradlng Lhe varlous componenLs wlLhln Lhe framework and for llnklng Lhe human
resources managemenL (P8M) sysLem wlLh larger organlzaLlonal needs
System|c d|scr|m|nat|on any buslness pracLlces LhaL resulL ln Lhe denlal of equal employmenL opporLunlLy
16I test Lhls ls a psychologlcal LesL of personallLy, developed by Lhe Amerlcan psychologlsL 8aymond
CaLLell, whlch aLLempLs Lo measure slxLeen ma[or personallLy facLors (hence 16l). 1he LesL
ls someLlmes used ln occupaLlonal psychology for Lhe purpose for selecLlon where Lhe
flndlngs are maLched agalnsL lmporLanL personallLy facLors LhaL have some been ldenLlfled
for varlous occupaLlons

1-Group a form of senslLlvlLy Lralnlng
1act|ca| act|on p|ans ManagemenL acLlon plan aL Lhe dlvlslon or deparLmenL level aL lndlcaLes whaL acLlvlLles
musL be performed, when Lhey musL be compleLed, and whaL resources wlll be needed aL
Lhe dlvlslon or deparLmenLal level Lo compleLe Lhe porLlons of Lhe sLraLeglc acLlon plan LhaL
fall under Lhe purvlew of LhaL parLlcular organlzaLlonal subunlL
1act|ca| dec|s|ons declslons LhaL have a shorL-Lerm perspecLlve of one year or less and focus on subunlLs of
Lhe organlzaLlon, such as deparLmenLs or pro[ecL Leams
1act|ca| Managers Lhe flrm's managemenL sLaff who are responslble for LranslaLlng Lhe general goals and plan
developed by sLraLeglc managers lnLo speclflc ob[ecLlves and acLlvlLles
1act|ca| |ann|ng ShorL- Lo mlddle-range buslness plannlng LhaL addresses lssues assoclaLed wlLh Lhe growLh
of currenL or new operaLlons, as well as wlLh any speclflc problems LhaL mlghL dlsrupL Lhe
pace of planned growLh. Also known as operaLlonal plannlng
1a|ent |nventory Lhe human resources skllls, ablllLles and poLenLlal, and analyzes how Lhose resources are
currenLly belng used
1ang|b|e resources asseLs LhaL can be quanLlfled and observed, lncludlng, flnanclal resources, physlcal asseLs,
and manpower
1ask 1he ma[or elemenL of work LhaL makes up a [ob. Lach Lask ln a [ob descrlpLlon ls lnLended Lo
conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe overall ob[ecLlves of Lhe [ob
1ask 1he ma[or elemenL of work LhaL makes up a [ob. Lach Lask ln a [ob descrlpLlon ln lnLended
Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe overall ob[ecLlves of Lhe [ob
1ask ana|ys|s Lhe analysls of a Lask lnLo lLs consLlLuenL operaLlons for Lhe purposes of ldenLlfylng Lhe skllls
lnvolved and Lhe Lralnlng necessary Lo lmprove Lhem
1ask fac|||tat|ng ro|e Lhe Leam-member role wlLh Lhe prlorlLy of helplng Lhe Leam accompllshmenLs and
performance resulLs
1ask force a Lemporary lnLerdeparLmenLal group formed Lo sLudy an lssue and make
recommendaLlons. (b) A group of people who are broughL LogeLher for a parLlcular Lask,
usually lnvolvlng a speclal pro[ecL or unusual problem. 1he group ln normally dlsbanded
when Lhe Lask has been successfully compleLed
1ask Ident|ty Lhe exLenL Lo whlch a Lask ls composed of a slngle, whole and ldenLlflable plece of work
1ask |eader Lhe lndlvldual who may emerge ln a small group as Lhe person who Lrles Lo keep Lhe
aLLenLlon of Lhe group focused on lLs Lask and who Lrles Lo ensure LhaL lL geLs done
1ax avo|dance Lhe legal aLLempL Lo reduce Lhe burden of LaxaLlon on an lndlvldual or organlzaLlon
1ax deduct|b|e any buslness expense LhaL can be deducLed from lncome before Lhe calculaLlon of Lax due
1ay|or I.W (18S6- 191S) An Amerlcan englneer who lnvenLed work sLudy and founded Lhe sclenLlflc ManagemenL
approach Lo Lhe world of work (someLlmes known as 1aylorlsm) aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe
LwenLleLh cenLury. Pe placed greaL emphasls on analysls Lhe consLlLuenLs operaLlons of a
Lask down Lo Lhe flnesL deLalls. 1aylor also saw Lhe lmporLance of good selecLlon and
Lralnlng procedures and argued for beLLer communlcaLlon beLween managemenL and Lhe
shop floor and beLLer cooperaLlon ln general boLh sldes of lndusLry
1eam a small number of people wlLh complemenLary skllls, who are commlLLed Lo a common
purpose, a seL of performance goals, and an approach for whlch Lhey hold Lhemselves
muLually accounLable
1eam bu||d|ng A Lechnlque LhaL alms Lo help work groups by lmprovlng Lhe quallLy of Lhelr member's
lnLerpersonal relaLlons as well as Lhelr skllls aL solvlng problems and accompllshlng Lhelr
Lask. 1hls ls usually done wlLh Lhe ald of an exLernal consulLancy whlch wlll dlagnose Lhe
way Lhe work group funcLlons, helplng members Lo ldenLlfy dlfflculLles and suggesL
1eam cohes|veness Lhe exLenL Lo whlch members feel a hlgh degree of camaraderle, Leam sprlL and sense of
1eam norms share bellefs LhaL regulaLe Lhe behavlor of Leam members
1echno|ogy 1he means of Lransformlng lnpuLs lnLo producLs. (b) 1he pracLlcal appllcaLlon of sclenLlflc
lnnovaLlon Lo lndusLry
1echno|ogy transfer Lhe Lransfer of a Lechnology from an area ln whlch lL has been successfully applled Lo an
area ln whlch lL has noL yeL been Lrled
1e|ecommun|cat|on any form of communlcaLlon by elecLronlc means
1e|econference a dlscusslon or conference where parLlclpanLs are geographlcally scaLLered and llnked by
means of LelecommunlcaLlon such as audlo conferenclng or vldeo conferenclng
1e|ephone |nterv|ew|ng an adapLaLlon of Lhe lnLervlew Lechnlque used ln survey research where face- Lo face
lnLervlewlng ls noL posslble or advlsable
1est Market|ng a form of plloL sLudy on a new producL, where lL ls Lrled ouL ln a llmlLed area flrsL ln order Lo
see wheLher lL would be worLh markeLlng more wldely
1hemat|c Appercept|on
A pro[ecLlve Lechnlque developed ln Lhe laLe 1930s by Lhe Amerlcan psychologlsL Penry
Murray. lL conslsLs of vague and amblguous drawlng (usually of one or Lwo human flgures)
abouL each of whlch Lhe sub[ecL has Lo make up a sLory. 1he Lhemes LhaL may emerge from
Lhese sLorles are Lhen used Lo dlagnose areas of emoLlonal confllcL or concern ln Lhe
sub[ecL. 1hls Lechnlque has been wldely used ln Lhe selecLlon of senlor managemenL where,
for example, Lhe lncldence of achlevemenL lmagery mlghL be of parLlcular lnLeresL
1heory k a negaLlve perspecLlve on human behavlor(b) ln Lhe Lermlnology of uouglas McCregor Lhls
descrlbe Lhe raLlonal-economlc vlew of Lhe human naLure LhaL people only work when Lhey
have Lo and Lherefore requlre auLhorlLarlan managemenL
1heory ln Lhe Lermlnology of uouglas McCregor Lhls descrlbes vlew of human naLure ln whlch
people would llke Lo be creaLlve ln Lhelr work and Lake more responslblllLy for lL. 1hey
would Lhus be more responslve Lo democraLlc managemenL and lL's enabllng funcLlon Lhan
ls suggesLed by Lhe proponenLs of Lheory x
1heory 2 1he Lerm suggesLed by Lhe Amerlcan wrlLer on organlzaLlonal Lheory Wllllam Cuchl for
wesLern adapLaLlon of !apanese ManagemenL pracLlces. 1he Lheory Z organlzaLlon ls
dlsLlngulshed by several lmporLanL feaLures: l llfe Llme employmenL: 2. relaLlvely slow
promoLlon, 3. Concern for Lhe whole person,4. lnformal conLrol and leadershlp, 3.
lndlvldual responslblllLy, 6. Consensual declslon-maklng,7. 8elaLlvely less speclallzaLlon.
1here ls some evldence LhaL Lheory Z organlzaLlons have less absenLeelsm, greaLer
producLlvlLy and beLLer quallLy ouLpuL Lhan oLhers
1|me budget Lhe preparaLlon of a deLalled LlmeLable of work acLlvlLles ln order Lo help lmprove Llme
managemenL and efflclency
1|me hor|zon Lhe degree Lo whlch Lhe plannlng of an organlzaLlon or an lndlvldual manager exLends lnLo
Lhe fuLure
1|me |n L|eu a perlod of Llme off work, usually Laken aL Lhe employees dlscreLlon, Lo make up for Llme
worked over and above normal worklng hours, l.e., an exchange of Llme for Lhe money LhaL
would have been pald for worklng an overLlme raLe
1|me shar|ng a slLuaLlon ln whlch Lwo or more people or organlzaLlons make use of Lhe same plece of
equlpmenL (parLlcularly a compuLer) ln order Lo share cosLs and Lo maxlmlze use of Lhe
1o|erance for amb|gu|ty Lhe ablllLy Lo llve wlLh a slLuaLlon LhaL ls noL clear cuL, where dlfferenL lnLerpreLaLlons of
whaL ls happenlng are posslble and where Lhe ouLlook ls observe, ln sum Lhe ablllLy Lo
accepL complexlLy ln human affalrs wlLhouL seeklng Lhe comforL of slmpllsLlc soluLlons. ln
psychology, hlgh Lolerance for amblgulLy ls usually seen as a slng of psychologlcal healLh
and maLurlLy
1op-down change organlzaLlonal change LhaL ls lnlLlaLed by managers
1ota| factor product|v|ty Lhe measuremenL of how well an organlzaLlon uLlllzes all o f lLs resources, such as caplLal,
labor, maLerlals, or energy, Lo produce lLs ouLpuLs
1ota| ua||ty Management
An organlzaLlon wlde managemenL approach LhaL focuses on quallLy as an over searchlng
goal. 1he basls of Lhls approach ls Lhe undersLandlng LhaL all employees and organlzaLlonal
unlLs should be worklng harmonlously Lo saLlsfy Lhe cusLomer. (b) An approach Lo and
concern for quallLy whlch pervades Lhe organlzaLlon from Lo boLLom. lL was orlglnally
lnLroduced Lo !apan ln Lhe afLermaLh of Lhe Second World War by Lhe Amerlcan englneers
W Ldwards uemlng and !oseph uuran. lL ls based on close aLLenLlon Lo deLall, self-
monlLorlng by workers aL each sLep and a passlonaLe commlLmenL Lo quallLy as parL of an
organlzaLlon's ldenLlLy, and whlch ls lnLernallzed by everyone ln lL. 1hls approach ls
cusLomer drlven and alms for Zero ln lL. 1hls approach ls cusLomer drlven and alms for zero
defecLs, whlle belng lmbued wlLh Lhe splrlL of kalzen or conLlnuous lmprovemenL
1ra|n|ng An area of personnel managemenL concerned wlLh maklng Lhe besL use of Lhe Puman
8esources ln an organlzaLlon by provldlng Lhem wlLh Lhe approprlaLe lnsLrucLlon Lo acqulre
Lhe necessary skllls for Lhelr [obs. (2) lanned programs deslgned Lo lmprove performance
aL Lhe lndlvldual, group and or organlzaLlonal levels
1ra|n|ng and deve|opment
phase of tra|n|ng
Lhe phase of Lralnlng whose purpose ls Lo deslgn Lhe envlronmenL ln whlch Lo achleve Lhe
ob[ecLlves deflned ln Lhe assessmenL phase by chooslng meLhods and Lechnlques and by
dellverlng Lhem ln a supporLlve envlronmenL based on sound prlnclples of learnlng
1ra|n|ng Cutcome Lhe effecLlveness of a Lralnlng program based on cognlLlve, sklll-based, affecLlve, and resulLs
1ra|n|ng paradox Lhe seemlngly conLradlcLory facL LhaL Lralnlng employees Lo develop Lhelr skllls and lmprove
Lhelr performance lncreases Lhelr employablllLy ouLslde Lhe company whlle slmulLaneously
lncreaslng Lhelr [ob securlLy and deslre Lo sLay wlLh Lhelr currenL employer
1ra|t any endurlng characLerlsLlc of an lndlvldual's personallLy
1ra|t Appra|sa| |nstrument erformance appralsal Lools LhaL evaluaLe employees based on worker characLerlsLlc LhaL
Lend Lo be conslsLenL and endurlng, such as declslveness, rellablllLy energy, and loyalLy
1ra|t 1heory any approach Lo Lhe sLudy of leadershlp whlch emphaslzes Lhe lmporLance of Lrylng Lo
ldenLlfy dlsLlngulshlng characLerlsLlc or LralLs of personallLy common Lo successful leaders
1ransact|ona| |eaders leaders who use leglLlmaLe, coerclve, or reward powers Lo ellclL obedlence and aLLempL Lo
lnsLlll ln followers Lhe ablllLy Lo quesLlon sLandard modes of operaLlon
1ransfer Lhe exLenL Lo whlch compeLencles learned ln Lralnlng can be applled on Lhe [ob
1ransfer of 1ra|n|ng 1he process whereby Lhe learnlng achleved ln one slLuaLlon ls Lransferred Lo anoLher
slLuaLlon. 1hls can have poslLlve effecLs (knowlng Spanlsh alds Lhe learnlng of lLallan) or
someLlmes negaLlve effecLs (knowlng how Lo sLeer a car ls deLrlmenLal Lo sLeerlng a boaL
wlLh a Llller).
a leadershlp sLyle characLerlzed by Lhe ablllLy Lo brlng abouL slgnlflcanL change ln an
organlzaLlon, such as a change ln vlslon, sLraLegy or culLure
1rust Lhe wllllngness of one Leam members Lo lncrease hls or her vulnerablllLy Lo Lhe acLlons of
anoLher person whose behavlor he or she cannoL conLrol
1rust -contro| d||emma Lhe baslc problem of delegaLlon faced, aL any level, by a manager ln an organlzaLlon of how
much LrusL Lo have ln Lhe subordlnaLe Lo whom Lhe work ls delegaLed and how much
conLrol, lf any of Lhe work Lo reLaln
1u|t|on ass|stance
supporL by Lhe flrm for employees' educaLlon and developmenL by coverlng Lhe cosL of
LulLlon and oLher fees for semlnars, workshops and conLlnulng educaLlon programs
1urnkey pro[ect a speclallzed Lype of exporLlng ln whlch Lhe flrm handles Lhe deslgn, consLrucLlon, sLarL-up
operaLlons, and workforce Lralnlng of forelgn planL, and a local cllenL ls handed Lhe key Lo a
planL LhaL ls fully operaLlonal
1urnover 1he amounL of sales revenue achleved or buslness LransacLed durlng a glven perlod of Llme.
2. Loss of people from and appolnLmenLs Lo Lhe work force durlng a glven perlod of Llme. 3.
1he 1hrough puL of sLock ln elLher manufacLurlng producLlon or ln servlces
1wo-step of
Lhe ldea LhaL Lhe mass medla of communlcaLlon flrsL lnfluence Lhe oplnlon leaders ln a
communlLy who ln Lurn lnfluence Lhe oplnlons and aLLlLudes of oLhers
1wo-way commun|cat|on communlcaLlon channels LhaL provlde for feedback
1ype a persona||ty A seL of personallLy characLerlsLlcs LhaL have been llnked Lo a parLlcular suscepLlblllLy Lo
hearL dlsease. 1hese characLerlsLlcs lnclude belng lmpaLlenL, always rushlng, Lrylng Lo do
Loo many Lhlngs aL once, walklng, Lalklng and eaLlng fasL, belng hard-drlvlng aL work, havlng
few lnLeresLs, ouLslde work and hldlng feellng, Lype A personallLy ln always conLracLed wlLh
Lype 8 personallLy
1ype 8 ersona||ty a seL of personallLy characLerlsLlcs LhaL are Lhe opposlLe of Lype a personallLy and Lherefore
consldered Lo be much less suscepLlble Lo hear dlsease. 1hese characLerlsLlcs lnclude belng
casual abouL appolnLmenL, belng a good llsLener, never feellng rushed, slow and dellberaLe
ln manner and speech, easy-golng many lnLeresLs ouLslde work and able Lo express feellngs.
8oLh Lypes A and 8 are exLreme lnsLances and people would generally fall somewhere
beLween Lhe Lwo

Uncerta|nty Lhe condlLlon when lncompleLe lnformaLlon ls avallable and musL be Lo make a
managemenL declslon
Unconsc|ous 1hls ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL concepL ln psychoanalysls. lL ls Lhe reglon of Lhe psyche LhaL
conLalns lmpulses and deslres whlch are Loo LhreaLen Lo be allowed lnLo consclousness and
from whlch Lhey have been repressed or lnhlblLed from enLerlng. 1he effecLs of Lhls
represslon and lnhlblLlon are expressed ln consclous (and never clalmed Lo have done so),
he sysLemaLlcally probed Lhe dynamlc mechanlsms lnvolved ln lLs relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhe
consclous psyche, and dld more Lhan anymore else Lo expose Lhe greaL amounL of
lrraLlonallLy ln human affalrs. unfalr dlsmlssal: Lhe verdlcL of an lndusLrlal Lrlbunal whlch ls
soughL by an employee who feels he has been wrongfully dlsmlssed by hls employer. 1he
employer has Lo show LhaL Lhe dlsmlssal was falr and legal
Un|t of Command ln organlzaLlonal Lheory, Lhls ls Lhe prlnclple LhaL each member of an organlzaLlon should
reporL Lo only one person. (2) 1he managemenL concepL LhaL a subordlnaLe should have
only one dlrecL supervlsor and a declslon can be Lraced back Lhrough subordlnaLes Lo Lhe
manager who orlglnaLed lL
Unstructured |nterv|ew An lnLervlew whlch ls noL gulded by a seL of flxed quesLlons, or perhaps even Loplcs from
Lhe lnLervlewer buL ln whlch as free and open a dlscusslon as posslble ls encouraged wlLhln
Lhe consLralnLs of Llme and Lhe ob[ecLlve of Lhe lnLervlew. 1hls meLhod emphaslzes
flexlblllLy for Lhe lnLervlewer and scope for expresslon by Lhe lnLervlewee, aL Lhe expense of
comparablllLy across respondenLs. ln pracLlce mosL lnLervlew of whaLever klnd fall
somewhere beLween Lhe compleLely unsLrucLured lnLervlew and Lhe LoLally sLrucLured
Upward Commun|cat|on communlcaLlon from lower level, of employees up Lo senlor ManagemenL ln Lhe hlerarchy
of an organlzaLlon. A much dlfflculL proposlLlon Lhan elLher downward communlcaLlon or
horlzonLal communlcaLlon.(b) sendlng a message from a poslLlon lower ln Lhe hlerarchy Lo a
recelver hlgher ln Lhe hlerarchy
Ut|||tar|an|sm a means of maklng declslons based on whaL ls good for Lhe greaLesL number of people

Va||d|ty Lhe measuremenL of how well a Lechnlque used Lo assess candldaLes ls relaLed Lo
performance ln Lhe [ob
Va|ue chaln analysls: sLraLeglc managemenL analysls LhaL breaks Lhe flrm down lnLo a sequenLlal
serles of acLlvlLles and aLLempLs Lo ldenLlfy Lhe value-added of each acLlvlLy
Var|ance ln sLaLlsLlc Lhls ls Lhe square of Lhe sLandard devlaLlon. lL ls used Lo measure Lhe spread of
scores ln a parLlcular LesL or experlmenL
Venture cap|ta||sts flnanclal lnvesLors who speclallze ln maklng loans Lo enLrepreneurshlps LhaL have Lhe
poLenLlal for rapld growLh buL are ln hlgh-rlsk slLuaLlons wlLh few asseLs and would
Lherefore noL quallfy for commerclal bank loans
Vert|ca| Commun|cat|on a Lerm applled Lo downward communlcaLlon, Lhough more usually Lo upward
communlcaLlon ln an organlzaLlon
Vert|ca| d|mens|on Lhe organlzaLlon sLrucLure elemenL LhaL lndlcaLes who has Lhe auLhorlLy Lo make declslons
who ls expecLed Lo supervlse whlch subordlnaLes
Vert|ca| |ntegrat|on 1he process whereby a company exLends lLs buslness lnLeresLs lnLo each sLages of
producLlon of or sales, of lLs producLs. 1hough someLlmes a company ls able Lo do Lhls for lL,
lL ls usually accompllshed by some form of merger wlLh, or Lakeover or anoLher flrm
concerned wlLh a dlfferenL sLage of Lhe same producL, e.g. a publlsher may Lake over a
Vert|ca| |ntegrat|on
a form of dlverslflcaLlon sLraLegy ln whlch a flrm lnLegraLes verLlcally by acqulrlng
buslnesses LhaL are supply channels or dlsLrlbuLors Lo Lhe prlmary buslness, produclng lLs
own lnpuLs ls backward lnLegraLlon, and dlsLrlbuLlng lLs own ouLpuL ls backward lnLegraLlon,
and dlsLrlbuLlng lLs own ouLpuLs ls forward lnLegraLlon
V|deoconferenc|ng a Leleconference uslng vldeo, as well as audlo, means of communlcaLlon
V|rtua| Corporat|on a new organlzaLlon form ln whlch Leams of speclallsLs come LogeLher Lhrough Lechnology Lo
work on a pro[ecL, and dlsband when Lhe pro[ecL ls flnlshed
V|rtua| teams Croups LhaL use lnLeracLlve compuLer Lechnologles such as Lhe lnLerneL, groupware
(sofLware LhaL permlLs people aL dlfferenL compuLer worksLaLlons Lo collaboraLe on a
pro[ecL slmulLaneously) and compuLer-based vldeoconferenclng Lo work LogeLher
regardless of dlsLance
V|rtua| workp|ace a new organlzaLlonal form based on Lhe ldea of worklng anyLlme, anywhere-ln real space or
ln cyberspace
V|s|b|e cu|tura| Lhe aspecL of culLure LhaL an observer can hear, feel or see
V|s|on|ng concepLuallzlng whaL should be happenlng ln Lhe fuLure, and havlng Lhe ablllLy Lo exclLe and
lnsplre oLhers ln maklng Lhe vlslon a reallLy
V|sua| search ln ergonomlcs, Lhls Lerm refers Lo Lhe process of scannlng dlsplay of lLs operaLlons on a
Lelevlslon screen
Vocat|ona| gu|dance A branch of occupaLlonal psychology whlch helps people Lo choose an occupaLlon or a
career whlch wlll be muLual beneflL Lo Lhem and Lhelr prospecLlve employers. lL makes use
of Lhe lnLervlew Lechnlque plus an exLenslve baLLery of psychologlcal LesLs, lncludlng LesLs
of ablllLy, apLlLude and need for achlevemenL
Vo|untary contracts 8ecause boLh parLles enLer Lhe labor conLracL freely, one parLy can use Lhe legal sysLem Lo
enforce Lhe Lerms of Lhe conLracL lf Lhe oLher parLy does noL fulflll lLs responslblllLles
Vo|untary redundancy a slLuaLlon ln whlch an employee requesLs or agrees Lo redundancy, usually ln reLurn for
favorable Lerms of compensaLlon
Vo|untary work unpald work due by volunLeers for a charlLy or slmllar organlzaLlon
Vroom-etton Mode| A conLlngency Lheory of leadershlp LhaL uses a declslon Lree Lo ldenLlfy Lhe mosL
approprlaLe leadershlp sLyle for a glven slLuaLlon. lL was developed by Lwo Amerlcan
lndusLrlal psychologlsLs, vroom and ?eLLon

We|fare funct|on 1he baslc funcLlon of personnel managemenL whlch lmplles responslblllLy for Lhe well-belng
of an organlzaLlon's members, physlcal, menLal and soclal. AL Lhe every leasL Lhls wlll
lnclude healLh and safeLy aL work buL, dependlng on Lhe pollcy of Lhe organlzaLlon, lL may
also lnclude many oLher Lhlngs, llke AfflrmaLlve acLlon aLernlLy leave, or Lhe provlslon of a
creche for worklng moLhers or small chlldren
We|fare State a counLry whose governmenL accepLs LhaL lL has Lhe prlmary responslblllLy Lo look afLer Lhe
welfare of lLs clLlzens, Lhelr educaLlon healLh, employmenL and reLlremenL ln parLlcular
Wh|te-co||ar cr|me crlmlnal offences assoclaLed wlLh buslnessmen or whlLe-collar workers, llke embezzlemenL,
fraud or lnslder deallng or Lhe sLock markeL
Wh|te-co||ar worker opular Lerm for any member of sLaff who works ln an offlce. 1he name derlves from Lhe
pracLlce of (men) wearlng a whlLe shlrL Lo work (ln Lhe days when men wore whlLe shlrLs-
wlLh whlLe collars)
Who|e method a Lechnlque for learnlng ln whlch Lhe maLerlal ls learned as a whole an each pracLlce or
Who||y owned subs|d|ar|es a means of enLerlng new markeLs ln whlch a flrm fully owns lLs subsldlary ln forelgn
Who|esa||ng AcLlng as an lnLermedlary or mlddleman beLween Lhe producLlon of goods and Lhelr
reLalllng Lo Lhe general publlc. lL usually lnvolves Lhe sLocklng of relaLlvely large quanLlLles of
goods for onward communlcaLlon
W|n |ose barga|n|ng ln negoLlaLlons, Lhe bargalnlng posLure LhaL assumes LhaL Lhe goals of Lhe parLles are
lrreconcllable, also known as dlsLrlbuLlve bargalnlng
W|n Lose Sty|e negoLlaLlng sLyle used when Lhere ls a slngle lssue LhaL conslsLs of a flxed amounL of
resources ln whlch one parLy aLLempLs Lo galn aL Lhe expense of Lhe oLher
W|n-W|n barga|n|ng ln negoLlaLlon Lhe bargalnlng posLure LhaL assumes LhaL Lhe goals of Lhe parLles are noL
muLually excluslve, LhaL lL ls posslble for boLh sldes Lo achleve Lhelr ob[ecLlve
W|n-W|n sty|e negoLlaLlng sLyle requlrlng all lnLeresLed parLles Lo converL a poLenLlal confllcL lnLo a
problem-solvlng process ln whlch each parLy seeks Lo ldenLlLy common, shared common,
shared or [olnL goals
Work Any klnd of purposlve acLlvlLy wheLher pald or unpald, full Llme or parL Llme, formal or
lnformal. WlLh reference Lo an organlzaLlon lL ls used abouL Lhe operaLlons lnvolved ln a
parLlcular [ob or Lask
Work des|gn Lhe parL of Lhe [ob deslgn process LhaL ls concern wlLh Lhe acLual worklng operaLlons, as
opposed Lo Lhe personnel managemenL aspecLs
Workers compensat|on
programs LhaL provlde paymenLs Lo workers who are ln[ured on Lhe [ob, or who conLracL a
work-relaLed lllness
Workers samp|e tests sLandardlzed measures of behavlor whose prlmary ob[ecLlve ls Lo assess Lhe ablllLy Lo do
raLher Lhan Lhe ablllLy Lo know Lhrough mlnlaLure repllcas of acLual [ob requlremenLs
Work exper|ence a perlod of Llme spenL dolng unpald work ln a workplace envlronmenL by young people
abouL Lo leave school, as preparaLlon for fuLure employmenL
Work f|ow Lhe arrangemenL of [obs ln a parLlcular sequence lnLended Lo help an organlzaLlon run
smooLhly and producLlvely
Work Group Members of a group who are held accounLable for lndlvldual work, buL Lhey are noL
responslble for Lhe ouLpuL of Lhe enLlre group
Work|ng c|ass Lhe prlnclpal producLlve force of modern socleLy, Lhe maln drlvlng force of Lhe LranslLlon
from caplLallsm Lo soclallsm and communlsm
Work ||fe program an employer-sponsored beneflL or worklng condlLlon LhaL helps employees Lo balance work
and non-work demands
Work Measurement an lnLegral parL of Lhe work sLudy, process ln whlch a varleLy or (sub[ecLlve) meLhods, llke
work sampllng, are used Lo flx a sLandard Llme for Lhe accepLable performance of a glven
Lask by a Lralned worker
Work organ|zat|on any organlzaLlon whlch, ln Lhe course of Lrylng Lo fulflll lLs goals glves pald employmenL
(wheLher full-Llme or parL Llme) Lo one or more workers
Work |ann|ng ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe numbers of employees and Lhe skllls needed Lo perform avallable [obs,
based on an undersLandlng of avallable compeLencles and change ln [obs requlred by
corporaLe goals
Work Samp||ng a Lechnlque used ln work measuremenL and work sLudy for obLalnlng lnformaLlon abouL a
parLlcular [ob or Lask by Lhe sampllng (usually 8andom Sampllng) from Lhe work acLlvlLles aL
varlous Llmes raLher Lhan by conLlnuous observaLlon
Work s|mp||f|cat|on a process used ln organlzaLlon and meLhods or work sLudy where a sysLem of work ls lL's
examlned Lo see lf unnecessary expendlLure of energy can be removed
Work ut|||zat|on a means of ldenLlfylng wheLher Lhe composlLlon of Lhe workforce-measured by race and
sex-employed ln a parLlcular [ob caLegory ln a parLlcular flrm represenLs Lhe composlLlon of
Lhe enLlre labor markeL avallable Lo perform LhaL [ob


1. 1he Conclse ulcLlonary of ManagemenL by uavld A. SLaLL.
2. ManagemenL Second LdlLlon by McCraw- Plll lrwln.
3. Managlng Puman 8esources 6
LdlLlon by Wayne. l. Casclo.
4. ubllc AdmlnlsLraLlon Complled by M. lalsal khan
3. 8esearch MeLhods 7
LdlLlon by Wllllam C.Zlkmud.
6. CrganlzaLlonal 8ehavlor 6
LdlLlon by 8obblns SLephen.
7. klngs Cfflce ManagemenL by ur. M.M. varam and 8.k. Aggarwal klngs books
LducaLlonal ubllsh 1684, nal Sarak uelhl.