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For this year's Biology program, we will focus on at least three main activities :
1) Concepts and content (understanding ideas in Biology and learning Biology concepts)
2) ro!lem solving in Biology
") #$perimental%field wor&'
(e$t!oo& : #nsure it is with you each day for class' )e will tal& a!out material from it and we will use it for
practice pro!lems'
*heets : +ou will receive handout and homewor& sheets over the year which will guide you through your studies
and aid you on your practice pro!lems'
,otes : #nsure to have paper to do notes and pro!lems' (his can !e a note!oo& with lined paper or a !inder with
sheets in it' (he !inder and sheets are recommended as they are good for organi-ing wor& and it is good
for students to !e familiar with using them in higher grades of the school'
.ther tools : Blac&%!lue pen, pencil, eraser, ruler, calculator with logarithms'
Course Outlie
(he course will include the following topics :
The relationship between genes and DNA, structure of DNA, chromosome structure and the events in DNA replication.
Difference between DNA and RNA. The genetic code and importance in transcription and translation in the formation of
proteins. Gene and chromosomal mutations and regulation using the lac operon as a model.
The Human Genome
Identify the types of human chromosomes in a aryotype ! the role they play in the inheritance of "uman traits. "ow se#
is determined and e#amples of inheritance of human traits ! how small changes $mutations% can cause genetic disorders.
&hat are se#'lined disorders, the process of (' chromosome deactivation ! nondis)unction and the problems they cause.
Investigate human DNA analysis ! the human genome pro)ect ! how researchers are trying to cure genetic disorders.
Genetic Engineering
The purpose of selective breeding and techni*ues used in the process and why breeders try to induce mutations. "ow
scientists manipulate DNA and what happens during transformation and discover if a transformation e#periment has been
successful. Describe the usefulness of some transgenic organisms to humans ! investigate the main steps in cloning.
"ow the pattern Darwin observed amongst organisms of the Galapagos Islands and events leading to publication of the
+rigin of ,pecies and how Darwin used the evidence to present his case for evolution and his theory of evolution by
natural selection, how natural variation is used in artificial selection and how natural selection is related to species
fitness. "ow "utton and -yell described geological change, how -amarc thought species evolve and investigate
.althus/s theory of population growth. &hat is a gene pool, sources of variation ! effect on the phenotype and speciation.
Bacteria and Viruses
"ow the two type of proaryotes differ and factors used to identify them .Importance of bacteria in maintaining the living
world. ,tructure of viruses and how they cause infection and the control of bacterial growth.
"ow plants survive and what they need to survive. The three groups of bryophytes, how they reproduce and their
adaptations. "ow vascular tissue is important to ferns and the stages in their life'cycles and the four groups of
gymnosperms, the reproduction of seed plants and their evolution. The characteristics of angiosperms and the three
different life spans. &hat are monocots and dicots.
Roots Stems and Leaves
"ow the organs ! tissues of vascular plants are organised ! specialised for their function ! how primary ! secondary
growth occurs in stems' (he leaf structure enables it to carry out photosynthesis ! how gas e#change taes place. "ow
water is transported through a plant ! the products of photosynthesis ! the structure of the 0 main types of root are
related to function.
Reproduction o Seed Plants
"ow pollination and fertilisation differ between angiosperms and gymnosperms and their reproductive structures. "ow
seeds are dispersed and development of seeds and fruits, investigate factors that influence the dormancy and germination
of seeds. "ow plants can reproduce vegetatively and the ma)or food supply crops for humans.
Plant Responses and Adaptations
"ow plant growth substances lie Au#ins and gibberellins affect plant growth and influence on growth and development
Investigate plant tropisms and photoperiodism. "ow deciduous plants prepare for winter and adapted to different
environments, obtain nutrients and use chemicals as a defence
Human Biolog!
"ow the human body is organised and the function of homeostasis. "ow a nerve impulse is transmitted, function of the
nervous system both central and peripheral, the five sense organs and how their sensory receptors protect the body. The
effect of different classes of drugs and alcohol on the body. "ow bones develop, their structure, the function of the seletal
system and the three different inds of )oints, the three types of muscle and their function and importance of e#ercise. The
function of the integumentary system and structure of hair and nails.
"irculator! and Respirator! S!stem
Investigate the function of the human circulatory system and its structure. Describe blood pressure and the three types of
blood vessels in the circulatory system, the three different blood cells function and the role of the lymphatic system.
Describe respiration and the function of the respiratory system in gas e#change and breathing. "ow smoing affects the
respiratory system.
Digestive and E#cretor! S!stems
"ow food provides energy ! nutrients ! the importance of water, how to use the food guide pyramid. "ow the different
organs of the digestive function ! their role in carrying out digestion. "ow blood is filtered and the function of the idney'
Endocrine and Reproductive S!stem
"ow the endocrine system maintains homeostasis and the role of hormones and their endocrine glands.
The function of the male and female reproductive system, the four phases of the menstrual cycle and se#ual development.
1ertilisation, stages of early development, the function of the placenta and the life cycle after birth.
The $mmune S!stem and Disease
"ow infectious disease is transmitted, the cause of disease and the use of antibiotics to fight infection. The function of the
Immune system and the bodies/ non'specific defense system. "ow "I2 is transmitted and its effect on the immune system.
"ow the immune system can over react and cause autoimmune disease. "ow you can maintain your health and
environmental factors affecting your health.
E!peri"et#l $or%
/a!oratory activities are an essential part of the Biology course' +ou will ma&e o!servations, ta&e measurements, and do
la! reports'
A&#'e"i& #' Assess"et (oli&ies
+our grade is an assessment of your learning and academic performance'
012 of your grade will come from tests
232 of your grade will come from graded homewor&
132 of your grade will come from your participation in class, your note!oo&, and your preparedness for class (32 each)'
*ample pro!lems and practice pro!lems are an important part of your learning and they ena!le you to ac4uire and practice
s&ills' (hey will not !e graded and will not figure into your final grade, !ut they will help your grade improve (e'g'
ena!ling you to do !etter in tests)'
5ost assessments will !e graded according to the scale in the student6parent hand!oo&' 7 !riefer version of this is !elow :
8161112 76, 7, or 79
:16:82 B6, B, or B9
;16;82 C6, C, or C9
016082 <6, <, or <9
Below 012 F
Olie Gr#'e)oo%
7ll students = parents should have access codes to #ngrade' >f you do not, please contact me' ?rades will !e put on
#ngrade, so you or your parents can see how well you have done' (his will help you to see where you need to improve' >f
you want advice on how to improve in any area of your wor&, please tell me'