You are on page 1of 361

U.S.$28.CC$.

CC\1
1\\1
I`'L`+I`o
J
he 1,000-year period beginning in . the fifth
century is commonly referred to as the
Dark Ages in the Western World. In Islamic
societies, however, the era was anything but dark. In
fact, from the seventh century on, while the rest of
the world languished, the international language of
science was Arabic. Thousands of social, scientific,
and technological achievements were spawned by
men and women of different faiths and cultures who
lived in Muslim civilization.
Companion to the hugely popular traveling
exhibit that opened at the Science Museum, London,
1001 Inventions: 7ne nduring Legocy of Mus/im
Civi/izotionsheds new light on the forgotten history
and the innovations-of these men and women who
helped pave the way for the European Renaissance
and the modern world as we know it.
Take an enlightening journey through time to
discover how advances in the fields of medicine, optics,
mathematics, astronomy, engineering, cartography,
and even the rudiments of aviation can trace their
roots back to great thinkers from a bygone era. Learn
the secret behind the way we write our numbers
today ... when scientists first discovered how we can
see ... who drew the oldest surviving map of what
would become America ... and the hidden meaning
behind the 13th-century Elephant Clock. In addition
to learning about many inventions, you will gain new
insights into everyday life in Muslim civilization and
related Western growh.
Complete with a time line and map illustrating these
inventions and discoveries worldwide-and featuring
remarkable photographs and rich illustrations of
historic documents, drawings, and artifacts, 1001
Inventions deftly illustrates not only the scientific
legacy of Muslim civilization, but also the heritage we
all share.
Within these pages is a lost story of scholarship,
imagination, and discovery in a time and place where
faith, gender, and race were secondary to progress. Man
worked beside woman, Muslim beside non-Muslim, all
in the name of advancing the world for humankind.
It is a story of common goals, common dreams, and a
common desire to achieve what seemed impossible.
Perhaps this eye-opening view of the past can sere as
a blueprint for designing a brighter future.
'`L`
loreworo o lniroouction 8 MupoMujorConiributionsinMuslinCivilizuiion :
1 1 L+\1!J` !\+ I I\\[ l !`! ' 1 !! \1'` I\
CHAPTER ONE o
`\`11 !1 \11
1l o1.Y |`o
|11 !.!. 1J 111`- J`-1`-
CHAPTER TWO
\C\1 `xL [|\1.'1` 1l'
'!! V11` ``!1\ 1`1L.` ` !^!\ `1`'`\1
l.^I
1'` !`!1 \ !1!'J `
\ 1\\ L `!` 111! 1 \ \1 V!`\ 1l1' ! 1! \ `1
C HAPTER THREE oz
1\\\ `\J1\`J'` . \l`\ `.C\ \1 \\ \ ' J11 '\ 1J!
!J!\`-\ J !1i L11`11!\ \\`\^'1 \l L l1 `\1I!
..
'!\\ 11 1 \`-1J 11 .`\1| `''1!J\'`J1
!O''.\.I | |1 1\11`^ 1\ `\` 1
CHAPTER FOUR ic8
` ! I N\.!`.!L1 "\1.` `-`++1 !' \!`! ^'`
^I!IJ
!'` 1^!1 l` . ! .' i '\!11 1`11!S
+.!`^ `1`J11!1 \' 1 1 ; \!:!-'i
11L`\1'1 !1 1 `'1L'`\1`J !`!L`1 ^ \! 1'11 1\`-
CHAPTER FIVE :z
\\1`i 1\1\\1 !1 1\` J1 ^
I.IIJI
\`-1 1 ' !11` `- 11\\1 \1 111 !l J.\'1 !!\`
1 11.`1 \1 |J!!`H1! !!`1 \C`: l 1 !J\+J
TO``` 1`1 ``-'1 \\1JJ\1 l !!
CHAPTER SIX 8o
\ \L ` 1J1! 1\\1 !! C!!11: 1L1 !`1 1JJ !`
J.\`
\ 1 | 1 b 1 1J !'111\ 1 Jl! | !
1\`\ 1\`+ lL \\^`L` .|OP+ '+`1J .L |\^l`
1 !`1I 1 J 11 \!lI! !J ` \1 l11 ``J ` !
CHAPTER SEVEN zzo
..!'l! \\1' l1\` lJ !`!`11.1. `.!`1l+ !\`
\' \1 1111. \+!'\1 L`1`\`! 11`
\.I
`1 !-1 '! !1'\`| `L! !!J X`! ! C\ `
1J\ L V \I1'iO 1`11 1 CHAPTER EIGHT zo
``+ 1\1 l \1 1 1 !'! \1 \\ !`1 1`| \1`1
L`I\III
!11 `\\L 1` !1 |\1`\ '`> L` |1 1 l \` |! lL:! 1
1'J'C`111!` L^\ 1J 1 C1' | !1J!`\+ `J
` 1!\!`.~1 I . LJ '\ \ '111!' `! ! !J.1b !1! |11 J11
REFERENCE cz
!\1111111 !1!`L\+\b'.`1| 11.11!1L \11 1`1+`
WII1! I l'WII!'I
I `|1 ` .!`-\\\ I [)( ,\\J "I:,
OPPOSITE: A Persian manuscript shows a scholar teaching male and female students in a classroom.

"
l1

P
P

e
+
e e
=

5
1001 I NVENTIONS: THE ENDU RI NG l FCACY OF MUSLIM CI VIl. I Zi\TION
CP|\CPl
CLAHENCE HCUGE
ln !''^, I gave a lecture at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies called "Islam and
the West", in which l addressed the dangerous level of misunderstanding between
these two worlds and drew attention to the joint scientifc and cultural heritage that in
fact links us together.
Today, in times when these links matter more than ever, l am delighted to see the
success of the initiative called 1|| nvcnI!unS, which presents and celebrates the
many scientifc, technological and humanitarian developments shared by the Islamic
world and the West. For while the West struggled in a period ofen called the "Dark
Ages", enormous intellectual and cultural developments were taking place in Muslim
civilization from the seventh century onward. In science, astronomy, mathematics,
algebra (itself an Arabic word), law, history, medicine, pharmacology, optics,
agriculture, architecture, theology, music - a "Golden Age" of discovery was
fourishing in the Islamic world, which would contribute enormously to the European
Renaissance.
lt is a matter of great pride that, although global in its outreach and operation, 1||1
1nVcnI!unS is in fact an initiative of a British-based team supported by a network of
academics around the world. The 1||1 nVcnI!unS exhibitions, books and films have
achieved signifcant success in popularizing public understanding of the cultural roots
of science and, thereby, encouraging intercultural respect and appreciation.
This book, now in its third edition and published by the National Geographic Society,
introduces the fascinating legacy of the Golden Age to a new audience. lt is part of a
global eff ort to increase understanding of how men and women of many different
faiths and ethnicities, living under the umbrella of Muslim Civilization, made
extraordinary advances during this period and how these advances touch every part of
society today.
I can only pray that the whole concept of 1||1 nVcnI!unS, and especially this book,
will inspire future generations of scientists and scholars, men and women, Muslims
and non-Muslims alike, to build a better world for their fellow man, whatever their
creed or colour. ! look forward to the further success and expansion of this important
and much-needed initiative.
His Hoyal HighnessAhe rinceofMales

N
An illustration from Al-Jazari's The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices
depicts a robot that serves drinks. The writing at right describes how the device works.
FORL\X' ORD 7
8 ICJ I NV[NTIONS: TH[ lN DU RINC LG;CY OF MUSLIM CIVILIZiTION
`TPClUCT| C`
T
he development of this book tells an interesting story. In 1975, Lord
B. ` Bowden, the principal at the time of the University of Manchester
Institute of Science and Technology, or UMIST, became fascinated by the
manner in which the Muslims managed a domain that stretched from China
to Spain for so many centuries. Of particular interest was how they introduced
the concept of "indexation" in combating infation, which was rampant in the
Roman Empire. He announced in the House of Lords that in order to guide the
United Kingdom's economy, then riddled with infation, we should learn from
the Muslims' experience and consider the economic principles laid down some
1,400 years ago in the Quran as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).*
o:o ovocn sc: up t|c .ns:itutc |or t|c History
o| usiim Scicncc, Tcc|nooqy, a:o ommc:cc,
rccruit.nq mc a:o a :cv pro:cssors |rom UST
ano :|c Vic:or.a Un.crs.:y o| anc|cs:cr, ano vc
vcrc auqmcntco oy a :cv oiq:.tar.cs -.:|ouq|
t|is .:it.at.c o.o no: t|:ic :or o:q .t qac mc t|c
opportu:.:y :o cnco:tc: |.s:orians a:o sc|o.ars
outsioc my cnq.ncc::nq o.scipi:c ano, morc s.q
nincanty, .: rcca.co to mc t|c :r.q|:c:.:q cc
o: t|cir :qnorancc o| t|c t:aoit.o:s ano Lcic|s o|
o:|cr cuturcs. Loro ovocn passco avay :: :o,
a:o vit| |.m vcn: t|at institutc
T|cn in i_ lro:cssor Lonao arovc. |cao
o| t|c Lcpartmc:t o: H.story o| Scicncc ano 1cc|
:ooqy, a:o t|c |ounocr o: t|c uscum o| Sc.c:cc
ano l:oustry .: a:c|cstc:, prcscntco mc v.:| a
c|acnqc uc| :: :|c spir.: o: Loro ovoc: |c
sa.o :o mc Sa.m, you s|o.o Ly nov knov :|c:c
arc a t|ousanc ycars missinq |rom t|c |.story o:
cnqinccr.:q. a pc:ioo vc ca. t|c Lark -qcs ost
o| t|c m.ss.:q knovcoqc .s con:ai:co .n -raLic
manusc:ip:s n:nq t|c ccars o| many |amous
.iLrar.cs You arc a o.s:inqu:s|co pro:cssor o|
cnqincc:inq a: a prcst.qious u:.crs.:y ano you
knov t|c -raLic .anquaqc T|c:c|orc, you arc
Lcst s.tco to oo somc:|inq aLo: ninq t|is qap
1|at vakcup ca. proc.co mc :o |oov a inc
o| inquiry t|a: ccntay c|a:qco my ..:c |at
vas v|cn :|c sto:y o| t|is oook ocqan
Lc|o:c taki:q t|is c|a.c:qc, |ovcc: l ookco
up a:.ous Looks ano or:a. papcrs a:o con
sutco :umcrous |r.cnos ook a|tcr Loo. ]ourna
a|:cr ourna, a.. poi:tco to t|.s inc:co.Lc qap
1akc, |o: instancc a :yp.ca popu|a: Look at t|c
timc 'c:cn:.s:s cno !nvcn:os !/c icop|c |/o
Mcoc !cc/no|ojy /o Lc|:cs: !:cs :o icscn:
Dcy oy -n:|ony :c.oma: ano lctcr loro, puL
.is|co i: i/ T|c aut|ors cxpa.n t|at t|c oook
qics .n c|:ono.oq.ca o:cc: |umanitys sc.cnt.c
a:o :cc|:ooqica. proq:css ::om :|c .ncn::o: o:
moaLc :ypc to t|c oiscoc:y o| pcn.c.|.: 1|c
namcs o: :|c q:ca: i:cn:ors, to v|om :|cy ocotc
s|or: c|aptc:s, :o. ov .n c|ronooq.ca. o:oc:.
Lmpcooccs c.rca .c._c -.:) Lcmocritus
.cc_/c :..:,Hippocra:cs .cc_// -.:),-r.s
:otc _o__.. -.:,-:c|imcocs .o/.i. -..:)
* I use the term "pbuh," meaning "Peace Be Upon Him/Her" to indicate the respect paid by Muslims to the Prophet
Muhammad and other prophets including Jesus, Mary, Moses, and Isaac.

'
.
. l and Their Uses by Ibn Bakhtishu shows . from Amma s A 13th-century illustratwn
l d Alexander the Great. Anstot e an
INTRODUCTION Q
10 I'! INVENTIONS: Till: rNDURINC1 /(li\CY OF `` CIVIL/L:/\TION
Jo|annos u:onLo:q :.cc:.co ..:)|oovoo Ly
ot|ors suc| as La Vinc.
T|o romarkaLo ]ump o| :,ccc yoars :rom :|o
:imo o| -rc|imooos to utonLorq vas amazinq ano
trouLinq lurt|or :oao.nq o| ot|or Looks rooaloo
t|at t|o v|oo porioo, c:.. :.is in |ac: passoo
oor as :|o Lark -qos T|o po:ioo is a.:oqot|o:
iqnoroo as |ar as scionco ano civiization aro con
cornoo, tormoo ariousy as a m.ooo aqo, an into:
mooiary porioo, a un.|o:m Loc, uqa: contur.os,
ano, mos: o.sconcor:.nq o| a.., an oLscuro t.mo.
Somo Looks incuoo a Lit moro on t|o Pomans Lut
sti| oap oor ono t|ousano yoa:s oro o.squiotinq
vo:o t|o qaps in sc|oo toxtLooks ano ot|or sou:cos
o| oarn.nq, v|ic| :o:m t|o iovs ano porcop:ions o|
pup.s on ot|or cuturos as.oo |rom t|oir ovn
!a:or t|at samo yoar, on ctoLo: ./, :,
at:onooo an .nsp.rinq octuro Ly HPH lrinco
|aros a: t|o S|ooonian |oa:ro, x|oro, titoo
sam ano t|o 'ost. -oorossinq a qaaxy o|
ominon: sc|o.ars in ono o: t|o stronq|oos o| ori
ontaism, |.s spooc| vas rocoioo iko nro .n ory
vooos 1|o oyoopon.nq oxtrac: Loov roin|orcoo
my nnoinqs
!there is much misunderstanding in the West
about the nature of Islam, there is also much igno
ranee about the debt our own culture and civiliza
tion owe to the Islamic world. It is a failure, which
stems, I think, from the strait-acket of histm, which
we have inherited. The medieval Islamic world,
from central Asia to the shores of the Atlantic, was
a world where scholars and men of learning flour
ished. But because we have tended to see Islam as
the enemy of the West, as an alien culture, societ,
and system of belief we have tended to ignore or
erase its great relevance to our own histmy.
- stuoonts aro tra.noo to t|ink crit|ca|y, yot
v:on |acoo vit| t|o oarknoss o| ton conturios in
Luropo, t|oy aro too t|inqs appoaroo, as i| Ly mir
aco, a. a: onco our.nq t|o Ponaissanco T!is oonos
|oqic L.scoorios inon:.ons, ano oooopmon:s
t|a: ator t|o courso o: |uman.:y, as any sciont.st
knovs, oo no: appoar Ly c|anco ontinu.:y is :un
oamon:a, ospociay in t|o Lirt| ano r.so o| t|o
scioncos, it is amost so .n oory o:|or hoo o: stuoy.
- coupo o| yoa:s ator ano ] ust Lo|oro pass
inq avay, lro|ossor arovo. arranqoo |or mo
to qio a proson:ation at t|o ostoomoo Litorary
ano l|.osop|ica Socioty, titoo t|o usim
ontr.Lution to Scionco ano Toc|no|oqy 1|o
amount o| amazomont ano su:priso oxprossoo
Ly t|o auoionco on t|o it:.o |ao to say roin
|o:coo t|o assort.on o: lr|nco |a:os lrom
t|on on, v|onoor .octuroo on t|o topic |ot
iko a onooyoo man amonq t|o L.no : spocia!
oxci:omont vas t|o |ascination o| younq poop.o
in t|o suL]oct o| knov.nq v|oro our prosont
c.iization camo |rom
1|o amL.tion to vri:o a Look on t|o suL]oct
vas pus|oo asioo Ly t|o oomanos o| Loinq a
pro:ossor o| moc|an.ca onqinoor.nq, in a unio:
sity voro .naooo Ly markot :orcos v..| a. t|o
prossuros o| octur.nq, rosoarc|inq, puL.s|inq,
:unoraisinq, aom.nistra:ion, ano runn.nq tvo
consutinq companios !|o pract.ca sou:ion
vas to |iro |is:or.ans ano .nitiato unoorqraouato
pro]octs on t|o .:tua roconstruction o| anciont
mac|inos. T|is, toqot|or v.t| t|o support o: ..ko
m.nooo acaoomics ano pro|ossionas, sav t|o
omo:qonco o| :|o lounoation :or Scionco, 1oc|
nooqy ano i.isa:ion, or lST. T|o vouoLo
Look ins:oao Loqan :o :ako s|apo in t|o |orm
o| a voLsito, V usimHor.taqo com v|ic|
at:ractoo oxco.on: poorro.ovoo papors |:om
ronovnoo vr.tors ano rosoarc|ors
Vory quicky, t|o voLsito Locamo :|o nrst oosti
nation ano sourco o| in:ormation :o: many institu
tions o| oarninq sc|oo.s, mooia qroups, ano younq
poopo :rom a oor t|o Lnq.s|spoak.nq vo:o .:
nov attracts moro t|an c,ccc oai.y paqo iovs
1|o spot|iq|t :o on t!o roa:ions|.p Lotvoon
t|o usim vo:o ano t|o 'os: .mmoo.a:oy a::o:
t|c , tcrrorist attacks on Scp:cmLcr :, .cc:,
on Ncv York's 'oro 1:aoc cntcr ano t|c lc:
taqon uitc amaz.nq vas a oa:inq spccc| q.vcn
]us: tvo vccks atcr Ly Lusincssvomcn ano |is
torian ary l.orina, c|ic cxccut.vc occr a: t!c
timc o Hcvcttlacaro orporatio: -t a mcct
inq o: a| :|c corporat.ons vorovioc manaqcrs,
on ScptcmLcr .c, .cc:, ary lior.na announcco
!/cc wcs oncc c c:v:|:zc::on :/c: wcs :/c
jcc:cs: :n :/c wo|c !: wcs c/|c :o ccc:c c
con::ncn:c| s.pcs:c:c :/c: s:c:c/cc /o
occcn :o occcn cnc /o no:/cn c|:cs :c
:op:cs cnc ccsc:s |: :/:n ::s co:n:on |:vcc
/.ncccs o/ : ||:ons o/ pcop|c, o/ c:!ccn:
ccccs cnc c:/n:c o:j:ns
nc o/ ::s |cnj.cjcs /cccc :/c .n:vcsc|
|cnj.cjc o/ .c/ o/ :/c wo|c, :/c /:cjc
/c:wccn :/c pcop|cs o/ c /.nccc |cncs
!:s c:cs wcc ccc .p o/ pcop|c o/ cny
nc:: onc| : ::cs, cnc ::s : |: :cy po:cc:: on
c||owcc c ccjcc o/ pcccc cnc pospc::y
:/c: /cc ncvc /ccn /nown !/c ccc/ o/
:/:s c:v:|:zc::on's coccc c.:cnccc /o
lc:: n Ac:cc :o /: nc, cnc cvcyw/cc
:n /c:wccn
Anc :/:s c:v:|:zc::on wcs c:vcn oc :/cn
cny:/:nj /y :nvcn::on !:s cc/::cc:s ccs:jncc
/.:|c:njs :/c: cc/cc jcv::y !:s c:/cc::
c:cns ccc:cc :/c c'jc/c cnc c|jo::/s :/c:
wo.|c cnc/|c :/c /.:|c:nj o/ cop.:cs, cnc
:/c ccc::on o/ cncyp::on I:s coc:os c.c
:ncc :/c /.cn /ocy, cnc /o.nc ncw c.cs
/o c:sccsc !:s cs:onocs |oo/cc : n:o :/c
/ccvcns, nccc :/c s:cs, cnc pcvcc :/c wcy
/o spccc :cvc| cnc c.p|oc::on I:s w: :cs
ccc:cc :/o.scncs o/ s:o:cs ':o:cs o/ co.
cjc, ocncc, cnc cj:c !:s poc:s wo:c o/
|ovc, w/cn o:/cs /c/oc :/c wcc :oo s:ccpcc
:n /cc :o :/:n/ o/ s.c/ :/:njs
|/cn o:/c nc::ons wcc c/c:c o/ :cccs, :/:s
c:v:|:zc::on :/:vcc on :/c, cnc /cp: :/c c|:v.
I NTRODUCTI ON 11
|/cn ccnsos :/cc:cncc :o w:pc o.: /now|
ccjc /o pcs: c:v:|:zc::ons, :/:s c:v:|:zc::on
/cp: :/c /now|ccjc c|:vc, cnc pcsscc : : on
:o o:/cs
|/:|c occn |cs:cn c:v:|:zc::on s/ccs
cny o/ :/csc :c::s, :/c c:v:|:zc::on ! :c./
:nj c/o.: wcs :/c !s|c:c wo|c /o :/c ycc
cOO :o 1COO, w/:c/ :nc|.ccc :/c ::ocn
Ip:c cnc :/c co.:s o/ cj/ccc, Dccs
c.s, cnc c:o, cnc cn|:j/:cncc .|cs |:/c
'.|cycn :/c Mcjn:nccn:
|:/o.j/ wc cc o/:cn .ncwcc o/ o.
: ncc/:ccncss :o :/:s o:/c c:v:|:zc::on, ::s
j:/:s cc vcy .c/ c pc: o/ o. /c::cjc !/c
:cc/no|ojy :nc.s:y wo.|c no: c.:s: w: :/o.:
:/c con::/.::ons o/ Ac/ c:/cc::c:cns
- numLcr o: cocaqucs, vc. cstaL..s|co ir t|c
suLcct, Lcqan a ccturinq campaiqn in ritain,
furopc, ano aLroao - arqc numLcr o pcopc
rom a vaks o .ic ocrivco p|casurc ano irspi
ration rom t|is knovcoqc lrcscntat.ons to t|c
younqc: qcncratior, cspcc.ay t|c oncs qavc to
t|c Yout| NCs a: t|c Luropca: la:.amcrt .n
russc.s, sparkco cnornous intcrcs: in scic:cc
ano tcc|nooqy, ano cspcc.a.y in t|c ivcs o
us..m pionccrs i: c|cmis::y, p|ysics, mco.
ci:c, L.o.oqy, aqcL:a, cnqinccri:q, a:c|itccturc,
a::, aq:icuturc, ano in numcrous manuac:urinq
inoustr.cs v|o |avc impac:co so pos.t.vc.y o: our
moocr: civ.izatior . vas ccar t|is u:ocrapp:c
ciatco suL]cct vas |nay cominq o| aqc
: .ccc lS1 aunc|co t|c icci nvcn:ions ini
tiativc, ano sincc t|cn, puLic intcrcst in t|c sc.crtinc
ac|icvcmcnts o us|im civ.|zation |as incrcasco
cxponcntiay ur |rst cx|iLition vas sponsorco
Ly numcrous Unitco linqoom qovcrnmcnt, scicn
tinc, ano acaocmic cstaLis|mcr.s ano c|ar.taLc
orqaniza:ions : tourco ritis| scicncc muscums
or tvo ycars ano suLscqucnty visitco t|c rit
.s| Houscs o lariamc:t ano t|c Unitco Nations
1|c :st tvo co.t.ors o :|c 1OO1!nvcn::ons Lcoks
12 1001 I NVENTI ONS: TI- I F FN DURI NG LEGt\CY OF ,\1USL\1 CIVI LI ZATI ON
soo moro t|ar icc,ccc copios Hovoor ::is vas
]ust :|o s:ar: o| v:at vouo o a muc: qroator nov
orinq o: intornationa| intorost .: o.r vork, a|onq
s.oo incroasoo o.aoquo aLout t|o cutura roots o|
scionco ano nov opportunitios to promoto socia
co|osion ano intorcultura rospoct ano approciation
n zcic, t|anks to t|o qonorous sponsors|ip
o| t|o Jamoo lounoation ator -!J), iS1
aunc|oo a muc| arqor, statoo|t|oart, ox|.L.tion,
v|ic| omLarkoo upon a qoLa tour. star:i:q at
t|o vororonovnoo Scionco usoun .n Lonoon.
-s part o| t|o ox|iLition's proouction procoss, t|o
Scionco usoum rotainoo an inooponoont pa:o
o| oxport |istorians to conouct a compoto roiov
PI'fessor Salim S. al-Hassani demonstrates a
mechanical interactive at the 1001 Inventions exhibi
tion during its run in Istanbul, Turkey. The professor
is the chief editor of 1OO1Inventions: The Enduring
Legacy of Muslim Civilizationthe companion volume
to the exhibit.
o| t|o contont to onsuro t|o |iq|ost stanoaros o
|istorica accuracy voro maintainoo
1|o puLic oomano |or :|o ox|iLition .n .on
oon |ar oxcooooo oxpocta:io:s, attracti:q moro
t|an .cc,ccc is.tors|our timos :|o oxpoctoo
:umLorin no mon:|s, many o| v|om |ao noor
isitoo t|o Scionco usoum Lo|oro - |ov mont:s
a|tor aunc|, Turkis| primo ministor locop Tayyip
Lrooqan took timo out |rom |is stato isit t o
ritain to scc t|c cx|iLition |or |imsc| Hc
insistco t|at t|c ncxt cnuc on our qoLa tour Lc
s:anLu|, Lc|orc i t Lcqan . :s Nort| -mcr.ca |cq
|us, t|c cx|iL.tion a|so |ao a cry vc|rccc.co
sccnvcck rcs.ocncy in 1urkcy.
-t :|c stanLu aunc| ccnt t|c primc ministcr
cxprcssco |is occp apprcciation o| our initiatic
1001 Inventions relives the 1,000-year-long adven
ture of science and technology in Muslim civili
zation {and] provides a positive message for our
youth, for the Muslim world, and for humanity.
Exhibits displayed here about the history of medi
cine, astronomy, mathematics, geomet1 chemis
tiY and so on, still manage to amaze us even today.
It is our common responsibility to make sure
we do not forget, or let be forgotten, these impor
tant underappreciated scientists from Muslim
civilization. In that sense, the 1001 Inventions ini
tiative has a ve1y important and propitious task.
I congratulate each and eve1y individual involved
in the creation of this exhibition and I am opti
mistic this exhibition will provide a brand-new
perspective on our modem scientific world.
1|c pcoplc o| lstanLu rcsponoco vit| simi
ar cnt|usiasm, vit| morc t|an .c,ccc vakinq
:|rouq| t|c ooors to cxpcr.cncc our Liinqua 1.rk
is|Lnqis| cx|.L.:ion s.t.a:co in t|c citys |istor.c
Sutana|mct Squarc, ncxt to t|c Haqia Sona ano t|c
|uc osquc 1|c 1urkis| mcoia vas unanimous in
its pra.sc, ano t|c scicntinc lcqacy |rom t|c ttoman
pcrioo rcsonatco stronqy vit| our 1urkis| auoi
cncc 1|is scrvco as a maqninccnt Luropcan scno
o|| |or t|c Nort| ^crican tour t|at vouo |oov
-t t|c timc o| :|is vritinq, t|c cx|iLition |as
so |ar cnoyco a varm rcccption in Ncv York ity
v|crc it vas o.sp.ayco at :|c Ha o| Scicncc ano .s
currcnty attractinq morc t|an c,ccc v.s.tors a vcck
at t|c ai|ornia Scicncc cntcr in Los -nqc|cs
'c arc truly qratc|u |or t|c support vc |ac
rcccico |rom voro caocrs, oipomats, ano
INTRODUCTION 13
coucation cstaL

s|mcn:s orc satis|yinq yct .s t|c


cnt|usiasm o| t|c miions o| pcopc, many o| t.cm
tccnaqcrs ano yo.nq pcopc, v|o |ac cnqaqco
vit| o.r couca:.ona. Looks ano cx|.L.:.ons, as vc
as oninc ano t|rouq| socia mcoia c|anncs
-n intcqra| part o| t|c cx|iLit.on is a s|ort cou
cational nm, starrinq scarvinninq actor Sir cn
linqscy, titco 1001 Inventions and the Library of
Secrets, v|ic| is aaiaLc |or |rcc ia our vcLsitc
1|c moic vas a rcc|at.on Lovnoaoco morc t|an
tcn miion timcs, .t vcnt on :o vin morc t|an zc
intcrnationa n m avaros, incuoinq cst lim rcc
oqnit.on a: anncs ano t|c Ncv York lim lcstia.
1|c momcn:um vc'c crcatco continucs to
qrov ano vc |ac amLitious pans |or t|c |uturc
-n -raLicanquaqc crsion o| t|c cx|iLition
Lcqan tourinq t|c iooc Last in autumn zcii,
Lrinqinq icci ncntions to a ncv auoicncc t|at
.s |unqry |or a qrca:cr unocrstanoinq o| :|c.r ovn
scicntic |is:ory 1|c oriqina cx|.Lition arr.cs
in 'as|inqton, L, t|c summcr o| zc:z lurt|cr
morc, vc intcno to prooucc morc coucat.ona nms
ano oocumcntar.cs, ano ncv coucationa matcria
ano transations o| :|c icci ncntions cx|iLition,
in ot|cr -sian ano Luropcan anquaqcs
1|is Look is ust onc o| t|c muc| laLorco ocr
|ruits o| t|c icci ncntions initiatic lts painstakinq
comp|ct.on is an ac!iccmcn: o| no s.nqc ino.io
ua, L.t o| a| t|osc mcnt.onco on t|c -cknovcoq
mcn:s paqc 1|c Look iocnt.ncs .n an cn]oyaLc,
casytorcao |orma: aspccts o| our moocrn ics
t|at arc inkco vit| incntions |rom usim ciiiza
tion it is our |opc t|at t|rouq| t|csc paqcs vc can
cn|ancc intcrcultural rcspcct v|ic at t|c samc timc
inspirc younq pcoplc |rom Lot| usim ano non
usim Lackqrounos to no carccr roc moocs in
scicncc, tcc|no|oqy, cnqinccrinq, ano mat|cmatics
Professor Salim T. S. al-Hassani
Chief Editor and Chairman, FSTC
w .lOOlinventions.com
w.MuslimHeritage.com
VapoFVa[orContrlbutlonslnVusllmCivlllzatlon
Dar al-l slam, or the Muslim world, stretched over three vast continents, from Toledo in Spain, th!ough Arabia
and Indonesia to China, and as far south as East Africa. It reached its peak in the 12th century_ nder the
Abbasids. Cities in the Middle East and Spain became global centers of culture, trade, and learning. Their
atmosphere of tolerance and creativity stimulated ground breaking advances in medicine, engieering, philoso
phy, mathematics, astronomy, and architecture. Explore the map below to see what happened, where-and when . "
Gothic Rib Vaulting
(1000)
The gothic ribs of the Toledo and C6rdoba Mosque
vaults inspired European architects and their patrons to
adopt them in the Romanesque and Gothic movements.
[page 199)
Surgical Instruments
AI-Zahrawi (936-1013)
Cutting-edge surgeon AI-Zahrawi introduced more
than 200 surgical tools that revolutionized medical
science. These instruments would not look out of
place in today's 21st-century hospitals.
London.
Paris.
Toledo
C6rdoba
Granada

---------------------
-
-----.Tangier
Eploration
.Fez
[page 158]
Ibn Battuta (1304-1368/70)
Ibn Battuta traveled more than
75,000 miles in 29 years
through more than 40 modern
countries, compiling one of the
best eyewitness accounts of the
customs and practices of the
medieval world.
[page 250]
Blood Circulation
Foundation of Sociology and Economics
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
This man traced the rise and fall of human
societies in a science of civilization,
recording it all in his famous
AI-Muqaddimah, or Introduction to a History
of the World, which forms the basis of
sociology and economic theory.
[page 262]
Tunis
Ibn ai-Nafis (1210-1288)
Pointed Arch
(ninth century) Ibn a-Haytham (965-1039)
World Map
Al-ldrisi (1099-1166)
Al-ldrisi was wmmissioned by the
Norman king of Sicily, Roger II, to
make a map. He produced an atlas
of]o maps called the Book of Roger,
showing that the Earth was round,
which was a common notion held by
Muslim scholars.
[page 236]
Horseshoe Arch
(715)
Istanbul.
Resembling a horseshoe, this arch was
first used in the Umayyad Great
Mosque of Damascus. In Britain, it is
known as the Moorish arch and was
popular in Victorian times; it was ofen
used in railway station entrances.
[page 195]
AI-Nuri Hospital
(1156)
Hospitals provided free health care to
all. AI-Nuri was an immense and
sophisticated hospital where druggists,
barbers, orthopedists, oculists, and
physicians were all examined by
"market inspectors" to make sure they
met the highest standards.
[page 154]
Castles
(12th century)
Moscow.
Diyarbakir ..
Mecca.
Ibn ai-Nafis of Egypt first described
pulmonary circulation of venous
blood passing into the heart and
lungs via the ventricles, thus
becoming oxygenated and arterial
blood. He was finally accredited
with this discovery in 1957.
[page 166]
The pointed arch concept, on which
Gothic architecture is based, came to
Europe from Egypt's beautiful Ibn
Tulun Mosque of Cairo via Sicily with
Amalfitan merchants. It enabled
European architects to overcome
problems in Romanesque vaulting.
[page 196]
In a darkened room (qamara in
Arabic), Ibn ai-Haytham observed
light coming through a small hole in
the window shutters producing an
upside-down image on the opposite
wall. This early pinhole camera has
led to the cameras of today.
[page 56]
The invincible design of the castles of Syria
and Jerusalem were i itated in Western
lands with key features like roud towers,
arrow slits, barbicans, machicolations,
parapets, and battlements.
[page 210]
Water-Raising Machine
Al-jazari (early 13th century)
AI-Jazari's greatest legacy is the application
of the crank and connecting-rod system,
which transmits rotary motion into linear
motion. His machines were able to raise
huge amounts of water without anyone
lifing a finger.
[page 121]
Khwarizm
Baghdad
Kufa
Mocha
Cofee
(eighth century)
Algebra
Chemistry
(722-815)
This was a period when chemical instruments
and processes that form the basis of today's
chemistry were created and developed. jabir
ibn Hayyan discovered vitally important acids
like sulfuric, nitric, and nitromuriatic acid,
while AI-Razi set up a modern laboratory,
designing and using more than 20 instruments
like the crucible and still.
[page go]
Trick Devices
(ninth century)
Three brothers, the Banu Musa brothers, were
great mathematicians who funded the
translation of Greek scientific treatises; they
also invented fabulous trick devices that, some
say, are precursors to executive toys.
(page 52]
House of Wisdom
(eighth-fourteenth century)
This immense scientific academy was the
brainchild of four generations of caliphs who
drew together the cream of Muslim scholars. It
was an unrivaled center for the study of
humanities and for sciences, where the
greatest collection of worldly knowledge was
accumulated and developed.
[page 72]
AI-Khwarizmi (78o-85o)
AI-Khwarizmi introduced the beginnings of
algebra; it then developed into a form still
used today by many who lived afer him.
[page 84]
Khalid the goat herder noticed his excitable
animals had eaten red berries, which led to
the early Arabic drink al-qahwa. Cofee
drinking flourished across the Muslim
world in the 1500s and spread to Europe
through trade in 1637.
[page 36]
Lands encompassed by Muslim
civilization at various times from
the seventh century onward.
Cryptology
AI-Kindi (801-873)
Second World War problem solvers carried on
the code-breaking tradition first written about
by polymath AI-Kindi from Baghdad when he
described tequency analysis and laid the
foundatio of cryptography.
[page :58]
Distillation
jabir ibn Hayyan (722-815)
Jabir ibn Hayyan perfected the distillation
process using the alembic still, which is still
used today. The Muslim world produced rose
water, essential oils, and pure alcohol for
medical use. Today, distillation has given us
products ranging from plastics to gasoline.
[page 92]
Canton.
Shampooing
Sake Dean Mohamed (18th century)
Shampooing was introduced to Britain at
Brighton by Sake Dean Mohamed, from
Patna, India, who became the "Shampoo
ing Surgeon" to King George IV and King
William IV
[page 51]

f
|

18 1001 INV E NTIONS: Til E CNDUR I NC UCj:\CY Of .\HJSll.l Cl II 1/.\TION


. +H| \Cll|` C|
T
his volume looks at the scientinc legacy of Muslim civilization-from
the theories, inventions, devices, processes, and ideas frst conceived,
to the discoveries adopted, developed, and spread during the age of
Muslim scholarship. In seven chapters, Home, School, Hospital, Market,
Town, World, and Universe, the book aims to uncover the cultural roots of
science to enhance intercultural respect and appreciation in our world today.
Home
n :|c Homc c|aptcr, you vi cncountcr t|c
:|ousanoycaroo .ncntions t|at sti| s|apc
oaiy i|c lrom c|css to camcras, tooay's |omc
i|c is packco vit| oL]ccts innucncco Ly cary
uslim ci.lization
|css camc to t|c lcrsian cour: ia lnoia
ir t|c n.nt| ccntury, ano sprcao across usim
ci.ization Tooay, vc rctain t|c voro t|at cnos
a c|css matc|, c|cckmatc, v|ic| comcs |rom
t|c lcrsian p|rasc c/c/c:, mcaninq t|c k.nq
is oc|catco
usim Spain vas onc o| t|c sourccs o| a ncv
trcno to cat t|rcccoursc mcals t|cr rcv iocas
|rom uslim ciilization incuoco ncv as|ions,
|iq|y prizco carpcts, ano inqcnious ociccs .kc
t|c |ountain pcn ncrcoiLc mcc|anica cocks
vcrc ]us: onc typc o| ocicc invcntco Ly it|
ccntury cnqinccr -Jazar.
-s cary as t|c ..t| ccrtury, .arqc quantit.cs
o| spiccs camc to Luropc |rom Lqypt ano Syria
-no orinkinq co||cc nouris|co across t|c usim
voro |or ycars Lc|orc it sprcao t|rouq| traoc into
Luropc .n :|c i/t| ccntury
School
T|c Sc|oo| c|aptcr tc.s t|c s:ory o| t|c consiocr
aLc in|ucncc o| usim ciiization on t|c ocvc
opmcnt ano sprcao o| knovcoqc at|cmatics,
scicncc, arts, anquaqcs v|atcvcr suL]cct intcr
csts you most, oiscovcr its links vit| t|c oistant
past, ano :|c pcopc, ikc n.nt|ccntury unicrsity
patron la:ima ali|ri ano .atc ciq|t|ccntury
c|cm.st JaLir .Ln Hayyan, v|osc innoa:ions
ivc on tooay
Lary c|cmists oistico |raqranccs |rom pants
ano novcrs in t|c ciq|t| ano nint| ccnturics, a
practicc t|at sprcao to Luropc, aonq vit| ot|cr
occopmcnts in c|cm. stry a:|cmaticians
occ|opco t|c conccpt o| zcro ano :|c systcm o|
occima mat| vc usc tooay, t|cy aso spottco intr.
catc qcomctrica ocs.qns in t|c pattcrns o| novcrs
ano s|cs, v|ic| in turn innucncco c|aractcris:ic
ocsiqns .n arc|itccturc ano occorativc arts.
T|c Housc o| 'isoom, a prcstiqious acaocmy
ano iLrary, vas |ounoco a t|ousano ycars aqo in
Laq|oao T|crc, usim, |ristian, ano Jcvis|
sc|oars coopcratco in :ransatinq knovcoqc,
|ucinq scicrtinc ocLatc ano oiscovcry
Sc|oo|s ano un.vcrsi:ics spranq up in tovns
ano citics rom airo to TimLuktu, ano onc
qcncrousspiritco vomar calco latima ali|ri
ounoco a univcrsity |or |cr commurity in lcz,
orocco, usinq |cr ovr |ortunc -laraviyin
tooay is knovn as t|c voro's oocst univcrsity,
continu.nq to qrant ocqrccs to stuocnts
Market
T|c arkct c|ap:cr cxp.orcs t|c vays in v|ic|
innucntia .ocas |rom usim civiization sprcao
arouno t|c voro -cross t|rcc cortincns, a
Luzzinq nctvork o| traoc ano travc ocvclopco
CHAPTER ONE
'-:j|ttt|-os|oo-|ot-.:ot:jt|-
tt:t|o||to::j:tw|-t-v-t:t.o-s|to
-v-:|:t.o-s|toto.-s:stotoot:s
:/-t-t|to:s``
Al -KIND!, NINTH-CENTURY MUSLIM SCHOLAR WHO STUDIED IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ

1! S1IY l!C!`S
+ \'1l` .\
+^ 1` '1 lNi'i^`+ ` ^L`1^ N.+'`
fOR CENTURIES AFTER THE FALL OF ANCIENT ROME, SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN
western Europe slowed almost to a standstill. I n the developing Muslim world, however,
a golden age of discovery flourished from the seventh century until the sixteenth cen
tury. During this period i n the Mus l im world, scholars of various faiths and cultures built
and improved upon the knowledge of ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia, Persia, Chi na,
I ndia, and of the Greeks and Romans, maki ng breakthroughs that hel ped pave the way for
the European Renaissance.
Great men and women of the past-mathematicians, astronomers, chemists, physicians, archi
tects, engineers, economists, sociologists, artists, arisans, historians, geographers, and educa
tors-expressed their faith by making benehcial contributions to society and humanity. They did
so with open-mindedness and, in many instances, in collaboration with people of other faiths,
cultures, and backgrounds.
Now, you can uncover the stories of the talented men and women who lived in the golden
age of Muslim civilization, and discover the ways in which their inventions shaped the
way we live today.
OPPOSITE: Al-Jazari designed a water-powered Elephant Clock in the 13th centur, reconstructed for the 1001 Inventions exhibition.
ano qrcv |rom t:c ciq:t: ccntury, cncouraq.nq a
crcatic cxc:anqc o| iocas |or supp|yinq cnc:qy,
qrovinq |ooo, ano prooucinq qooos, many o:
v:ic: arc |amiiar tooay
-s traoc cxpanoco, so oio knovcoqc ano
prospcrity crc:an:s, rucrs, ano piqrims tra
cco Lctvccn citics in -|rica, -sia, ano furopc,
takinq vit: t:cm vcat: ano ncv .ocas 1:c Sik
loao strctc:co t:ousanos ol m.cs, .inkinq :.na
vi:: ::c iooc fas: ano furopc
Sca traoc |ovco t:rouq: t:riinq ports . n
aqa ano -cxanoria n Lusy markc:s, trao
crs ocat in Lrocaoc |rom Hcrat, carpcts |rom
Lamascus, ano |ruit |rom Spain crc:ants,
rucrs, ano piqrims trac.co Lctvccn ci:ics .n
-|rica, -s.a, ano furopc, rcs:inq at caraansar.cs
a.onq popu.ar routcs y o||crinq |rcc s:c|cr,
|ooo, ano somctimcs cn:crtainmcnt, t:csc us
im c:aritaLc |ounoations :cpco promotc traoc
-asuoi, a tcnt:ccntury us|im qcoqra
p:cr, traccr, ano :istorian, rccoroco a Loom in
Actor Ben Kingsley plays a mysterious librarian in an
award-winning short flm titled 1OO1Inventions and the
Library of Secrets. In the movie Kingsley takes school
children on a jourey to meet pioneering scientists and
engineers from Muslim civilization. The librarian is
revealed to be 13th-century polymath Al-Jazari.
|ooo proouction in cary usim ciiization, as
crops ano t:c knovcoqc to qrov t:cm sprcao
:ar ano v.oc.ncuo.nq qrov.nq pcac:cs, auocr
qincs, ano oranqcs in Spa.n Cra|tinq ano crop
ro:a:.on aooco :o :arms proouctiity ano o.cr
sity, v:i|c irriqation occamc casicr vi:: t:c vatcr
pumps atcr occopco Ly iot:ccntury ttoman
cnqinccr Taqi aLin iLn a' rou|
Hospital
n ::c Hospi:a. c:aptcr, you vi| scc ::c many
vays .n v|.c: mcoica. knovcoqc ano :rcat
mcnt |rom usim cii.zation innucncco t:c
mcoicinc vc cxpcricncc :ooay T:c :cat: carc
systcm t:at occopco in car.y usim socictics
o||crco pionccrinq surqcry, :ospi:a carc, ano an
:\U Of \\ USl\1
incroasinq varioty o oruqs ano mooicinos oovol
opoo rom anciont knovooqo ano nov rosoarc|
lationts i n oary usim sociotios mi q|t
|avo takon pis, pastilos, syrups, ano povoors,
unoorqono surqory, or ovon |avo |ao a cataract
romovoo n t|o nint| contury, ootaioo oia
qrams o| t|o oyo voro prooucoo by sc|olars
suc| as Hunayn ibn s|aq, a Nostorian |ristian
|iq|ly rospoctoo by |is us i m poors 1|is
knovooqo vas oovol opoo t o a t romonoous
oxtont by lbn alHayt|am in t|o i it| contury,
q.vinq a soio ounoation or mat|omatica ano
p:ys.ooqica optics
-Za|ravi, a tont|contury surqoon, oovo
opoo many surqica instrumonts vo stil uso tooay,
Trained guides play characters from the history of
science and invention during the 1001 Inventions
global exhibition tour.
{It is admitted wi th difculty that a
nation in majority of nomads could
have had known any form of agricul
tural techni ques other than sowi ng
wheat and barley . . . If we took the
bother to open up and consult
the old manuscripts so many views
will be changed."
A. CHERBONNEAU, TRANSLATOR
v|ilo i it|contury ooctor ano p|iosop|or bn
Sina tauq|t viooy on mooicino, p|iosop|y, ano
natural scioncos Ho aso oovoopoo mot|oos o
troatinq racturoo bonos t|at ooctors sti ao|oro
to tooay ooica books vritton by t|oso mon ano
ot|or sc|oars in us|im ciiization .nnuoncoo
Luropoan mooicino or conturios
Town
T|o Tovn c|aptor oxploros t|o s|aroo |oritaqo
o arc|itocturo Lotvoon t|o mooorn voro ano
usim civiization Domos, auts, arc|os, ano
tovors T|o arc|itocturo o usim ciiization
oomonstratoo a |uqo arioty o nov iooas, many
o v|ic| voro rousoo ano aoap:oo a ovor t|o
voro T|o astinq oqacy o t|o intorc|anqo o
arc|itoctura ano oocoratio iooas Lotvoon Last
ano 'ost ovor |unoroos o yoars is coar
astor arc|itoct Sinan Luit t|o oart|quako
rosistant oomoo Suloymaniyo osquo in :ot|
contury lstanLu, oosiqninq t|o intorior vit| a
|tor room to coanso smoko rom t|o oxpooo air
ano cooct t|o soot or makinq ink.
Tovns o a t|ousano yoars aqo contoroo aro.no
puLic |.|o vit| t|o mosquo, markot, ano puLic
Lat|s contray pacoo, surrounooo Ly rosioon:ia
aroas Liscoor |ov tovns o usim cii|ization
voro surprisinqy aovancoo, vit| pavoo roaos,
The 1OO1Inventions exhibition brings to life a forgotten
period in history using models, interactive activities,
video, text, and imagery.
ittor cooction, covoroo sovors, ano somot.mos
stroot iq|tinq
World
n t|o 'oro c|aptor, you vi oiscovor |ov qooq
rap|ors, naiqators, oxporors, ano sc|oars in
usim civiization .nnuoncoo mapmakinq ano
t|o vay vo soo t|o voro tooay n t|oir oorts
to oxpain rainLovs, moasuro t|o Lart|'s c.rcum
oronco, ano ootormino |ov mountains orm,
sc|oars rom a t|ousano yoars aqo maoo |uqo
oaps o intuition ano insiq|t in t|oir soarc| to
unoorstano our panot
Lxtraoroinary traoors qivo a Havor o t|is aqo o
o.scovory, iko Ln attuta, v|o ot |omo in iz to
pororm a piqrimaqo to occa, ano roturnoo t|roo
oocaoos a:or |ainq oxporoo t|o |imits o usim
anos r Z|onq Ho, a |inoso usim navy aomi
ra v|o loo sovon voyaqos o oiscoory in t|o it|
contury aLoaro qiant voooon s|ips
22 1. 001 I NVENTI ONS : ! l | LNDURI NC l | C: OF 'lUSl |\\ UV ! LI /:\ Tl ON
Yo. can aso oxp|oro t:o maps o:. : o us Ly pio
noo:s o: t:.s po:ioo, |.ko t:o q.oLa map oravn Ly
oroccan sc|oar -.or.si, v:o c:oatoo it con:ur.os
Lo|o:o arco loo or o.umLus, ano t|o ooost
surviinq ootaioo map s|ovinq t|o -mo:icas, oravn
Ly :ot|contury Turkis| naa captain liri lois
Universe
l.nay, t|o Lniorso c|apto: oxam.nos |ov
astronomors, nat.ra p|iosop|ors, ano |nstru
mon: mako:s ir us.m c.i..zat.on oxparooo our
knov!ooqo o| t|o uniorso -stronom.ca. ins:ru
monts voro ronnoo ano maoo Ly cra|tspoopo |iko
orriam ai,a|, v|o constructoo astroaLos |or
t|o ruor o| -oppo in nort|orn Syria in t|o tont|
contury y t|o iot| contury, astronomor Taqi a
Lin vas usinq |uqo orsions o| starqazinq :oos
iko ,uaorants ano soxtan:s to incroaso t|o accu
racy o| moasuromonts
T|o :st .arqoscao oLsoratoy .n t|o us
im vor|o vas :|at Lu.: Ly Su.tan aiks:a| in
s|a|an in t|o ato iit| contury T|o innuontia
:t:contury araq|a Lsora:ory in :an vas
a sciont.hc institution v|oro astronomors c|a
onqoo rocoioo visoom aLout t|o uniorso ano
oooopoo nov mat|omatical mooos on v|ic|
lona.ssanco sc|oars roioo
y Lui. oinq on knovooqo t|at |ao como
Lo|oro, ano aooinq nov oLso:ations ano insiq|t,
usim sc:o.ars o|t us vit: a ric: s|aroo :oritaqo
o| astronomy |rom Last ano 'ost, commomoratoo
tooay in t|o Crook ano -raLic namos o| many
sta:s ano constolations
Muslim Civilization: Where and When?
-|tor lrop|ot u|ammao o.oo in t|o yoar oz,
t:o caip:s v|o camo a|tor |im Luit ar omp.ro
t:at strotc|oo |om sout:orn Spain, t|rouq| Nort|
-|rica ano t|o iooo Last, to noia ano |ina,
ano Ly t|o :t| con:ury as |ar as noonosia ano
oastorn Luropo Conoraly tolorant to t|o |ait|s
t:oy |ouno .n ::o anos :|oy r..oo, t|o ca!.p:s
oo:sav an .ncroo.Lo oxpansion o| knov.ooqo
ano prospor.:,
-s traoo nouris|oo, so oio knovooqo ano nov
.ooas Sc|oars vorkoo to transato t|o vritinqs
o| anciont tlinkors liko ra|maqupa, -risotlo,
Lucio, ltoomy, ano Hippocratos into -raLic to
alov ooLato ano oooopmont o| mat|omatics,
astronomy, c|omistry, moo.cino, ano onqinoorinq
: vas a qooon aqo o| t|ouq|:, oooopmont, ano
voa:| croat.on
Hov oio suc| an on.iq|tonoo ora como to an
ono` 1|is is a quostion many |ao trioo to ansvor
ano is Loyono t|o romit o| t|is Look Hovoor,
Ly t|o oary :| conury, usim ciilization |ao
oxporioncoo attacks Lot| |rom rusaoors cam
paiqns in Spain, Turkoy, ano laostino, ano t|o
onqo inasion o: lors.a, raq, ano Syria T|o
|amous iL:a:.os ano oa:n.nq o| t|o us..m vor.o
camo .noor catast:op|.c :|:oat ourinq t|oso t.mos
o| connict. '|on aq:oao vas inaooo .n :zo,
t|o attackinq onqo| armios oostroyoo countoss
manuscripts, v|io in rooLa, t|o ast maoriy
o| t|o citys ooo,ooo lsamic Looks voro oostroyoo
Ly crusaoinq .naoors
Hainq ost Spain ano Siciy, t|o us.im
voro t|on s.||oroo t|o onsauq|t o| Tim.r t|o
Lamo, knovn as Tamorano T|oso ooastat.ons
toqot|or startoo t|o oocino ano oon:ua| |a o|
lsamic c..|ization, ano t|o ono o| t|is Lriq|t
porioo o| cassica us|im sc|oars|.p T|is vas
sccompan|oo Ly t|o riso o| t|o 'ost a|tor t|o
Jiscoory o| t|o Nov 'oro, vit| a t|o voat|
it Lrouq|t to Luropo, ano t|o oontual oomiso o|
t|o Sik loao aonq v|ic| knov.ooqo |ao novoo
:|rouq| a:io.s c.tu:os
-: t:o samo timo, t|o us. im voro vas
voakonoo Ly ::o riso o| nov invaroook.nq
.ooas t:at oo|.octoo intorost avay :rom p|i
osop|y, oqic, ano t|o transation o| |ait| into
oooos to Lono|it socioty -no so t|o .sim
voro oisintcqratco into numcrous inocpcn
ocnt nationstatcs, many o| v|ic| suLscqucrt|y
cxpcricncco coonization or vcnt to var vit|
cac| ot|cr, cvcn a|tcr inocpcnocncc Ncit|cr
t|c pcopcs o| t|csc statcs nor t|cir coonia
rucrs |ao paio muc| attcntion to coucation or
sociocconomic rc|orm, cavinq t|csc countrics
in a onq struqqc |or iocntity ano surviva in a
|as:movinq moocrn voro
ut as :|is Look s|ovs, t|c knov.coqc o| t!c
sc|oars o| usim civiization vas |ar |rom ost
T|ousanos o| :|osc prccious oocumcnts o| t|c
past, vrittcn mainy in -raLic, nl t|c arc|ivcs
o| t|c ritis| LiLrary, crins StaatsLiLiot|ck,
lariss .Liot|,uc Nationac, ano many ot|crs
n To|coos ca:|cora arc|.vc tooay you ca: sti
scc aout .,oo o| t!c s.rv.vi:q manuscr.pts :|a:
sc!o.ars :ransatco |rom -raLic to Lat.n -no i:
vas t|csc Lati: tra:sations t!at |co t|c scicn:i|c
ano p|iosop|ica rcvoution o| :|c iooos ano kcp:
t|c namc o| knovcoqc aivc
At the California Science Center in Los Angeles,
children enjoy a computer-based game that explores
inventions in the home. The game is part of the award
winning 1OO1 Inventions exhibition.
Crcat scicnti|ic minos likc loLcrt oylc,
Lomuno Halcy, Jo|n 'alis, ano Jo|anncs Hcv
cius, v|o vcrc t|c cary pionccrs o| t|c loya
Socicty, took qrcat .ntcrcs: in transatinq ano carr
inq |rom -raL.c manuscripts - rcccn: cx|iLition,
-raLick loots, orqanizco :o cccLratc t|c ot|
annivcrsary o| t|c loya Socicty, notco t|at linq
|arcs askco t|c Lcvant ompany to scno |omc
a manuscript on cvcry s|ip rcturninq to Lnqano
|rom t|c Last
Tooay, t|c in|ucncc o| t|c t|ousanoycar
usim civiization is ccar to sccin mcoic.nc
ano as:ro:omy, arc:.tccturc ano cnqinccrinq,
mat|cma:.cs ano c!cmis:ry, !istory ano qcoq
rap|y, as vc as in :ooays customs, |as!ions,
ano tastcs T|rouq| . oo: Invcn::cns you can nov
cxporc t|is cqacy |or yoursc|
J NL TL C LLYLCINLTJ T NLS N C Y ZPJ CT
637
Islam spreads to
Persia, Palestine, Syria,
Lebanon, and Iraq, and
later to Egypt.
ca 635
Al-Shifa is appointed the
nrst female health and safety
minister by Umar, second
caliph, in the city of Medina
and then in Basrah.
t
or more than a thousand years from the seventh century onward, the Muslim
world stretched from southern Spain as far as China. During this period
scholars, male and female and of many beliefs, worked collaboratively to build
and improve upon ancient knowledge. They made breakthroughs that led to an
incredible expansion of knowledge and prosperity-a golden age of civilization.
Follow the time line below to trace the progress of mathematics, science,
architecture, exploration, education, and medicine during Muslim civilization.
And see how ideas and knowledge migrated from the East, paving the way for
the Renaissance-another great age of development.
654
Islam has spread to all of
North Africa.
Dome of the Rock Mosque
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
691
Building begins of
the Dome of the Rock
Mosque in Jerusalem.
1l.l l l l lIl l l l l l.l l lIl
632
Prophet Muhammad
dies and Abu Bakr
becomes nrst caliph, or
Muslim ruler.
644
A windmill powering a
millstone is built in Persia.
A medieval windmill
661
The Umayyad dynasty
rules the caliphate from
Damascus.
((There can
be no education
wi thout books. n
ARABIC PROVERB
711
Islam reaches Spain.
Old street in Cordoba, Spain
L

g.,_ _,
_\ T
Distillation

ca 722
Jabir ibn Hayyan is born.
He is considered the
"father of chemistry."
NLoll N LVL!o

LLLlLP! LV|!o
Astrolabe
ca 777
Astrolabe maker and
astronomer Al-Fazari dies.
787
Building begins of the Great
Mosque of Cordoba.
786
Caliph Harun al-Rashid
establishes the House of
Wisdom in Baghdad.
Gold Mancus

785
. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
King Offa mints a Gold
Mancus coin, imitating the
gold dinar of Caliph
al-Mansur.
813
Caliph Al-Ma'mun expands
the House of Wisdom;
the translation movement
intensifes.
|.. .... 'L. . l l l l i1
750
Abbasids overthrow the
Umayyads and in 762 build a
new capital in Baghdad. Spain
is ruled by an Umayyad
family descendant.
780
Mathematician Al
Khwarizmi is born. His
book Algebr wal Muqabala
developed modern algebra.
alf he {the teacher] is i ndeed
wise he does not bid you enter
the house of hi s wisdom, but
rather leads you to the threshold
of your own mind. n
KHALIL GIBRAN I N HIS BOOK THE PROPHET
795
First mention of a paper
mill in Baghdad.
OO
Caliph Harun al-Rashid
presents Charlemagne
with a clock that strikes
the hour.
828
Abu Mansur opens
Al-Shammasiyah
Observator, near Baghdad.
801
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Al-Kindi is born. He
was a mathematician,
philosopher, physicist,
chemist, and musician.
Al-Kindi
Al-Razi, known as "Hippocrates of the Arabs"

850
Banu Musa brothers
publish their Book of
Ingenious Devices.
858
Astronomer Al-Battani
is born. He determined
astronomical measurements
with accuracy.
859
Al-Qarawiyin University
in Fez is completed
by Fatima al-Fihri.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
864
Al-Razi (Rhazes) is born.
A physician, chemist, and
medical teacher, he is
considered the "father of
clinical and experimental
medicine." His writings were
later translated into Latin.
8
7
2
Ahmad ibn Toloun, Abbasid
governor of Egypt, establishes a
hospital in Cairo known to be the
nrst to include a department for
mental diseases.
Abbas ibn Firnas's fight

88
7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Abbas ibn Firnas, pioneer
of unpowered fight, dies in
Cordoba.
880
Physician and inspector of
Baghdad hospitals Sinan ibn
Thabit ibn Qurra is born. He
started mobile hospital services
for rural and Bedouin areas.
895
Ibn al-Jazzar al-Qayrawani
(Aljizar) is born. He wrote the
nrst independent book on
pediatrics and social pediatrics:
Risalah f Siyasat as-Sibyan wa
Tadbirihim (A Treatise on Infant
and Child Care and Treatment).
900
Fatimids rule Egypt and
North Africa, then, nine
years later, Sicily .
913
Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtader issues
the nrst licensing regulation for
medical practice. He established
the hospital of Al-Muqtadiri in Bab
al-Sham in Baghdad; his mother
established Al-Sayyida Hospital in
Souq Yehia in Baghdad.
936
Surgeon Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis)
is born in Cordoba. He renned
the science of surgery, invented
dozens of surgical instruments,
and wrote the nrst illustrated
surgical book.
Al-Zahrawi
" 7. Y

'

X
A mbabah, ancestor of the violin
950
Al-Farabi from Baghdad dies. A
philosopher and musician, he
invented the ancestor of the violin.
957
Cartographer and writer Al
Masudi describes his visit
to the oil felds of Baku.
965
Physicist Ibn al-Haytham
is born. His discoveries and
theories revolutionized optics.
Ibn Sina's Canon
. .
Al-Azhar University
973
1009
uThe World is a
book, and those
who do not travel
read only a page.''
ST. AUGUSTINE,
CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHER
Al-Biruni is born. The
polymath, astronomer,
mathematician, and
geographer measured the
circumference of Earth
Astronomer Ibn
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
972
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. .
Al-Azhar University is
founded by the Fatimids
in Cairo.
970
Labna, a mathematician and
scientist, is appointed private
secretary to the Umayyad
caliph Al-Hakim in Cordoba.
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
980
Prince of physicians
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
is born. He wrote the
infuential Canon
of Medicine.
987
Sutaita al-Mahamli, a
mathematician and expert
witness in courts, dies in
Baghdad.
999
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...
,
Building begins of Bab
Mardum Mosque in Toledo,
which uses a unique form
of rib vaulting .
Yunus dies in Cairo,
leaving thousands
of accurate records,
including (Oplanetary
conjunctions and _O
lunar eclipses.
(Seek knowledge
from the cradle
to the grave."
MUSLIM PROVERB
Mapping the sun's position
1050
Constantine the African
moves from Tunisia to
Salerno, initiating the transfer
of Islamic medicine to Europe.
DE CONSERVANDA
ONA YALLTY D| NE,
L:berScho|StIctoittnr.
NMTHE MA T , 5 T
uu):qs!s].:_rtt4llb,
C 4 FlII-
_;|e.ctibithtD
r .
.
7 xruu .
.

1 .-

-=
W
Constantine the African
The Story of Hayy ibn Yaqzan
1066
The Norman Conquest of
England begins a fow of
Muslim motifs and ideas
into that country.
1065
The Nizamiyya madrasa,
the nrst school in Baghdad,
is established by Nizam
al-Mulk, the Seljuk
minister who appointed
distinguished philosopher
and theologian Al-Ghazali
as a professor.
1085
Christians take Toledo. A center at
Toledo is established, translating
Arabic books into Latin.
Ibn Bassal's Book of Agriculture
revolutionizes farming. He is from
Toledo, Spain.
1091
Abu Marwan ibn Zuhr
(Avenzoar) is born. He is
a pioneer of experimental
surgery and co-author, with
Ibn Rushd (Averroes), of
an original encyclopedic
medical text. His two
daughters became doctors.
1096
The nrst Crusades begin.
1110
Ibn Tufa!, author
of Hayy ibn Yaqzan,
is born.
1126
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) is born.
He wrote an extensive corpus
of philosophy in which he
stated signifcant theories
in epistemology, natural
philosophy, and metaphysics.
An accomplished physician,
he wrote the famous treatise
Al-Kulliyat f al-tib, known in
Latin as the Colliget.
1099
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,
Al-Idrisi is born. He
e
produced a world map
for Norman king Roger
II of Sicily.
uwho so ever treats people
wi thout knowledge of medicine)
becomes liable. "
PROPHET MUHAMMAD, NARRATED
BY AL BUKHARI AND MUSLIM

Al-Khwarizmi

1143
Robert of Chester translates
the Quran and works of
Al-Khwarizmi.
1140
Daniel of Morley travels to
Cordoba to learn mathematics
and astronomy, returning to
lecture at Oxford.
1145
Jabir ibn Afah invents an
observational instrument
known as the torquetum, a
mechanical device to convert
between spherical
coordinate systems.
1154
Nur al-Din Zangi establishes
Al-Nuri Hospital in
Damascus, a large
teaching hospital.
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
1197
Botanist Ibn a!-Baytar
is born in Malaga.
He wrote a famous
pharmacopeia.
11
8
7
Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi
(Saladin) regains Jerusalem.
He established AI-Nasiri
Hospital in Cairo.
11
8
6
Queen Dhaifa Khatoon
is born in Aleppo, Syria.
She was the daughter-in-
law to Saladin,
and a supporter of
science and learning.
11
8
5
Temple Church is built in
London by the Templars,
imitating the Dome of
the Rock in Jerusalem.
1202
Leonardo of Pisa, known
as Fibonacci, introduces
Arabic numerals and
mathematics to Europe
in his book Liber Abaci.
1206
Al-Jazari completes
his Book of Ingenious
Mechanical Devices.
1210
Ibn al-Nafs is born. He was
a scholar of jurisprudence
and doctor who was frst
to discover pulmonary
circulation. He wrote Al-
Seerah al-Kamiliyah refuting
the ideas of Ibn Tufayl's
novel Hayy ibn Yaqzan on
the oneness of existence.
1229
Robert Grosseteste, who
studied in Cordoba,
becomes frst chancellor
of Oxford University. He
was elected bishop of
Lincoln in 1253-
Botanical species
by Ibn al-Baytar
1233
Ibn al-Quff is born. A
Christian surgeon and
author, he continued Al-
Zahrawi's efforts to develop
surgery as a science and
independent medical
specialty. He wrote Kitab
al-Umda f al-Jirahah (The
Main Pillars of Surgery).
Traditional carpets

1255
Queen Eleanor, Castilian
bride of King Edward I,
brings Andalusian carpets
to England in her dowry.
1254
King Alfonso el Sabio
establishes Latin and
Arabic colleges in Seville
and commissions the
translation of Arabic texts.
1260
Roger Bacon publishes
Secrets of Art and Nature
praising infuences of
Muslim scholars.
1256
Ibn abi al-Mahasin
al-Halabi writes his
comprehensive scholarly
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1250
and illustrated work on
eye diseases, Al-Kaf
f al-Kuhl (The Book of
Sufcient Knowledge in
Mamluk lusterware
Mamluk dynasty rules Egypt
after the Ayyubids and later
defeats the Mongols.
Ophthalmology).
125
8
Mongols devastate
and rule Baghdad and
conquer Syria.
(And the leaves of the tree
were for the healing and the
restoration of the nations.n
THE BI BLE, REVELATION 22.2
1293
The frst paper mill
outside Islamic Spain in
Europe is established
in Bologna.
1267
Marco Polo starts his 24-
year journey
12
8
4
Al-Mansuri Hospital in
Cairo is completed after 11
months of construction.
Ibn Battuta
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1325
Ibn Battuta leaves Tangier
on his 29-year journey.
1311
The Ecumenical Council
of Vienne decides to
establish schools of
Arabic and Islamic studies
at universities in Paris,
Oxford, Bologna, and
Salamanca.
Lion Fountain
({Beauty of style and
harmony and grace and
good rhythm depend on
si mplici ty. n
PLAT0,C8EEK Ph|L0S0PHE8
13
8
5
Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu is
born. An Ottoman surgeon,
he continued the work of
Al-Zahrawi and Ibn al-Quff
by writing an independent
surgical textbook.
The Muqaddimah
by Ibn Khaldun
13
8
3
Chemist Maryam
al-Zanatiyeh dies in
Qarawiyin, Tunisia.
1332
Ibn Khaldun, the "father
of sociology," is born.
1330
Giotto's painting "Madonna
and Child" uses tiraz, bands
of Arabic inscriptions,
which mark royal garments
and other textiles from the
Muslim world.
1347
The Black Death reaches
Alexandria and Cairo
from Europe.
1354
Emir Mohammed V builds
the Lion Fountain, a water
powered clock, in the
Alhambra.
. . . . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . .
1405
Zheng He starts his seven
epic sea voyages from China.
In the largest wooden boats
the world had seen, he
established China as a leading
power in the Indian Ocean,
brought back exotic species
like the giraffe, and drew
tribute from many nations.
1437
Ulugh Beg publishes his
star catalog.
1432
Ibn Majid is born in Arabia.
He was a master navigator
and is said to have guided
Vasco da Gama from South
Africa to India.
1452
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leonardo da Vinci is born.
He was a major contributor
to the foundation of
the Renaissance.
((The earth is like
a beauti ful
bride who needs no
man-made
jewels to heighten
her loveliness. "
KHALIL GIBRAN, LEBANESE WRITER
1492
Christopher Columbus lands
in the New World.
14
8
9
Koca Mimar Sinan is born.
A renowned architect, he
built Turkey's Selimiye and
Suleymaniye mosques, as
well as many others.
1497
Detail of Piri Reis's map

1513
Piri Reis constructs the
earliest known map
showing America.
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1543
Venice publishes a
translation of Al-Tasrifby
Al-Zahrawi. Basel and
Oxford follow suit.
Nicolaus Copernicus
'
publishes De Revolutionibus,
drawing on the work of
Nasir alDin al-Tusi and
Ibn al-Shatir.
Leonardo da Vinci
(If anyone travels
on a road i n search
of knowledge) Allah wi ll
cause him to travel on one
of the roads of Paradise. ))
P80PhE1 MUhAMMA0,
NA88ATE0 8Y A8U AL~0A80Ah
1564
Galilee Galilei is born.
155
8
The first German, and
probably European,
observatory is built in Kassel.
1571
Johannes Kepler is born. He
drew on the work of
Ibn al-Haytham in his work
on optics.
1577
Istanbul observatory of Taqi
al-Din is founded. It will close
a few years later, in 1580.
Latin translation of Canon
1593
The Canon of Ibn Sina is
printed in Rome and, along
with Al-Hawi by Al-Razi,
becomes a standard text
in the European medical
curriculum.
1604
Edward Pococke is born.
He spent fve years in
Aleppo learning Arabic;
he also translated Hayy ibn
Yaqzan, a precursor to
Robinson Crusoe.
1606
Edmund Castell is born.
He lectured on the use of
Avicenna's medical work.
For more than 18 years, he
compiled a dictionary of
seven Asian languages.
1611
Polish astronomer
Johannes Hevelius is born.
In the frontispiece of his
Selenographia (Gdansk,
1647), he depicted Ibn al
Haytham as symbolizing
knowledge through reason,
and Galilee Galilei as
symbolizing knowledge
through the senses.
1616
John Wallis is born.
A renowned mathematician
and member of the Royal
Society in London, he
translated and lectured
on the work of Arabic
mathematicians. He included
Al-Tusi's work in his Opera
Mathematica.
1627
Robert Boyle, England's
most famous chemist, is
born. He sought Arabic
manuscripts and had
them translated.
Lagari Hasan Celebi's rocket fight

1634
King Charles I requests
that the Levant Company
send home Arabic
manuscripts on every ship
returning to England.
1633
...... . . . . ........ :
Lagari Hasan Celebi fies
the fust manned rocket
over the Bosporus.
1642
Isaac Newton is born. He
kept a copy of the Latin
translation of Ibn al
Haytham's Book of Optics
in his library
Turkisec
-


.
.
.
.

bring coffee to the


United Kingdom.

1664
At the request of Hevelius,
the Royal Society agrees to
translate the astronomical
manuscript of Ulugh Beg
from Persian to Latin
in its entirety.
1656
Scientist and astronomer
Edmund Halley is born. He
translated Arabic editions
of Greek mathematics and
researched observations
of Al-Battani.
1678
John Greeves publishes
a paper in the Royal
Society Philosophical
Transactions on
Egyptians' use of
large ovens to hatch
thousands of chicken
eggs at a time.
"The Cow-Pock" by James Gillray

1729
Tripoli ambassador
in England Cassem
Aga writes about the
widespread practice of
smallpox inoculation
in North Africa and
is elected a fellow
of Royal Society in
1682
London.
Moroccan ambassador to
London Muhammed Ibn 1796
Haddu is elected a fellow of
the Royal Society in London.
Edward Jenner tests
inoculation with cowpox.
1721


Lady Mary Montagu tests
smallpox inoculation in
Britain, having witnessed the
practice in Turkey.
1725
Moroccan ambassador to
London Mohammed Ben Ali
Abgali is elected a fellow of
the Royal Society in London.
''nyone who wants to
be a good doctor must
be an Avicennist. n
0L0 U80PAN L0MN0N 5AY|NC
Lady Mary
Wortley Montagu
CHAPTER JWO
1-:s|o:-s;/-|-:j-osot,
w|/s-o.-:|:s|o- "
JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, GERMAN WRITER
HOME
'` +| ''11L +.\L 1` l``\ J|''L` ^`L
'L''` '|`` ^L`' 'L.`L``` J' lN'l.`
N`'` `l '.`l\` 1.`|'` .`l `JL ' J`
YOUR HOME IS YOUR PRIVATE DOMAIN, WHERE YOU CAN BE WHO YOU WANT TO BE, WHERE
the bi g world stops at the front door. Your home represents who you are; it speaks your
language. In the kitchen, maybe a favorite coffeepot sits by the kettle, under a clock that
is beside a hol iday photo taken from last year's vacati on. Fragrant smells of fine soap and
perfume waft out of the bathroom while music floats up the luxuriously carpeted stairs.
Read on and you will be intrigued to discover that the items mentioned above originated
or were developed more than a mil lennium ago by i ndustrious Muslims who sought to
provide greater comforts i n their world.
The humble roots of your trusted camera were in a dark room i n nth-century Egypt, and
i f you are late, hurriedly looking at your watch, think about the ?-meter-high (23 feet)
clocks designed in 1 3th-century Turkey with state-of-the-art engineering technology. A
man with the nickname of "the Blackbird" came from eighth-century Baghdad to Musl i m
Spai n, bringing the etiquette of three-course meals and seasonal clothes, while chemists
developed perfumes, and chess went from bei ng a war game to household entertainment.
OPPOSITE: A 16th-century manuscript shows a traditional Muslim coffeehouse.
. .` +H| 'C| |||+PA| l
M
ore than l._ billion cups of coffee are drunk
worldwide every day-enough to nll nearly 300
Olympic-size swimming pools. If you do not have
a jar of coffee in your kitchen, you are in a minority. Coffee
is a global industry and the second largest commodity-based
product; only oil beats it.
More than 1, 200 years ago hardworking people fought to stay awake
without this stimulant until, as the story goes, a herd of curious goats and
their watchful master, an Arab named Khalid, discovered this simple, life
changing substance. As his goats grazed on the Ethiopian slopes, he noticed
they became lively and excited after eating a particular berry. Instead of just
eating the berries, people boiled them to create al-qahwa.
Suns .: Yomon oran| c|jc/wc |o: :|o samo roa
so:s vo oo tooay, to stay ava|o .t nopoo t|on
to concontra:o ourinq ato niq|: !/:/ prayors in
romomLranco o| -a|) Co||oo vas sproao to t|o
ros: o| tno usim vor.o Ly traoors, p|qr.ms, ano
traoo:s, roac|inq occa ano T.r|oy .n t|o ato it|
contury ano airo in t|o iot| contury
lt vas a Tur|.s| morc|ant namoo lasqua losoo
v|o |rst Lrouq|t co||oo to Lnqano in :oo, soinq
it in a co||oo|ouso in Coorqoyaro, LomLaro Stroot,
Lonoon Liq|t yoars ator, anot|or co||oo|ouso
caoo Sutanoss Hoao vas oponoo .n Corn|.|.
L|oyos o| Lonoon. tooay a |amous insuranco com
pa:y, vas or.qi:ay a co||oo s|op caoo Lovaro
Loyo's Co::oo Houso y i/oo, t|oro voro aLout
oo co||oo|ousos in Lonoon, ano noar.y ,ooo in
t|o v|o.o o| :qano T|oy voro |novn as ponny
uniorsitios Locauso you couo iston ano ta| vit|
t|o qroat mi:os o| t|o oay |or t|o prico o| a co||oo
T|o consumption o| co||oo in Luropo vas
arqoy Lasoo on t|o :raoitiona usim propara
:.o: o: tno orink 1!is onta..oo ooiinq t|o m.xturo
o: co::oo povoor, suqar, a:o va:or toqot|or, v|ic|
A goatherd herds his animals in Ethiopia. More than
1,zOOyears ago, an Ethiopian goatherd noticed his
goats became lively afer eating some red berries.
People later boiled the same berries to make cofee.
f
c|t a co||cc rcs.ouc .n tnc cup occausc .: vas :ot
tc:co Hovcvcr, in .co_, a ncv vay o| prcpar.nq
ano o:.nkinq co:|cc vas oiscovcrco ano it Lccanc
a co::cc|o.sc |avoritc
appucc.no co||cc vas inspirco Ly a.co
o-viano, a pricst |rom t:c ap.c:in nonastic
oroc:, v:o vas !q|:.nq aqains: t|c Turks Lcsicq
i:q Vic:na in ico_ loovinq :nc rctrca: o: :|c
.:s, :|c Vicnncsc maoc co||cc |ron aLanoo:co
sacks o| T.r.s| co||cc lino.nq .t too stro:q |or
tnci: :astc, t|cy nixco .t vit: crcan ano |o:cy
T|.s naoc tnc coor o| co||cc t.rn Lrovn, rcscn
L|inq t:c coor o| t|c apuc|.ns roocs 1nus, t|c
Vicnncsc nanco i: cappucci:o i: |onor o: arco
7via:os orocr S.:cc :|c:, cappuccino |as Lccn
oru: |or i:s cn]oyaLc, snoot| tastc
''Cofee is the common man's
gold, and like gold it brings to
every person the feeling of luxury
and nobi li ty. "
SHEI KH ' ABDAL KADI R, WHO WROTE THE EARLI EST KNOWN
MANUSCRI PT ON THE HISTORY OF COFFEE I N 1 588
LK L N L mL LLLLmLU5L
w- r

An illustration depicts Edward Lloyd's Cofee House, established in the 1;th century.
1
he frst coffeehouse i n Europe a ppeared i n Veni ce i n 1 645, after coffee came to Europe t hrough
trade wi th North Afri ca and Egypt. Edward Ll oyd' s Coffee House i n London, establ i shed i n the
l ate 1 7th cent ury, was a meeti ng pl ace for merchants and shi powners. Cofeehouses became forerun
ners of today' s pubs. They were the pl aces where the publ i c di scussed pol i ti cal affai rs and al so gave
ri se to the l i beral movement.
.2 | `| | `| `C
W
e can thank a ninth-century man with the
nickname "the Blackbird" for introduc
ing the concept of three-course meals
into Europe. Eating habits were totally transformed
when Ziryab landed in Andalusia in the ninth century
and said meals should start with soup, followed by a main
course of fsh, meat, or fowl, and fnish off with fruits and nuts.
coicva usims, ikc many o:|c:s, atc accoro
.nq :o scasona .n|ucnccs ypica vin:c: mca|s
usco vcqctao.cs suc: as sca kac, occts, cau|.
|ovcr, turnips, parsnips, carro:s, cc.cry, pcas,
o:oao Lcans, .cn:i|s, c:.ckpcas, oivcs, |aro
v:cat, ano nu:s T|csc vcrc usuay ca:cn v.:|
mcat o.s|cs Lcsscrts usua|y cons.s:co o orico
ruits suc| as lqs, oatcs, raisins, ano pruncs 1|c
rui:s vc:c accompanico Ly orinks maoc rom
sy:ups o v.oct, asm.nc, aoc, mcoicina spiccs,
:rui: pas:..cs, .no qums
Ly contrast, t:ci: summcr oict consis:co o: . :
typcs o qrccn Lcans, raois:cs, c::uccs, c|icory,
auLcrqincs, car:ots, cucumLcrs, q|crkins, vatcr
cr.ss, marrov, courqcttcs, ano ricc T:c mcat
accompany.nq t|csc vas ma.ny pou|try, os:r.c|,
ano Lcc Lcsscrts incuoco rui:s suc: as cmon,
.mc, quinccs, ncctarincs, muocrrics, c|crrics,
pums, aprico:s, q:apcs, pomcq:anatcs, vatcr
m-on, pcars apcs, ano :oncyocv mcon .rins
vcrc maoc rom syrups ano prcscrvcs o :ui:
pastics, |cmon, rosc, asminc, qinqcr, ano cnnc
T|is Lanquc: o ooo vas prcscntco on a :aLc
cot|, t|c conccp: o: v|.c| vas sprcao in -noa
usia Ly ZiyaL. Hc a.so c:anqco t|c :cavy mc:a
o:.nkinq qoLc:s ano qo.o cups usco on t:c o.nncr
tao|cs o t:c orooLan court to ocica:c crysta.
ln most furopcan a:is:ocratic c.rc|cs, t|c
ocmano or -s.an rccipcs ano sp.ccs incrcasco
rapioy Sourccs rom :|c c|roniccs o: t|c popc
in -viqnon .n t|c i.t| ccntury tc us t|at s|ips
|:om fciru: Lrouq|: ams, prcscrvcs, ricc, ano
spcc.a |our :or mainq cakcs, p.us compcnsa
tory axat.vcs uccn |r.st.na o Lcnmar too
carc to o|ov :|c usim oict ano .mportco
:|cir prooucts ano ru.:s Sincc Lcnmar couo
most|y supp|y app|cs ano ryc, it is pcr|aps
`:ooo or ::ouq:: to consiocr t|c or.q.n o
|an.s| pastr.cs
rysta vas ocvcopco .n -noausia ouc to
:|c inqcnuity o anot:c: us|.m, -oLas .on
lirnas, v|o oico .n oo/ ln |is cxpcrimcnts,
:c manuac:urco qass rom sano ano s:onc,
cstaLis|inq a crys:a| .noustry Lasco on rocks
minco nort| o Laoa] os ost o :|c -noa|u
sian rock crysta p. cccs t:at |avc survivco
arc ouno in Luropcan c|urc|cs ano monas
:cr.cs, t|c mos: amous amonq :|cm oc.nq a
TOP: A rock crystal ewer from the Fatimid period in
Cairo, Egypt, dates from the tenth or eleventh cen-
tury. Zi1yab brought c1ystal to the dinner table in the
ninth century, after 'Abbas ibn Firas introduced it
to Al-Andalus, the Arabic name given to the Iberian
Peninsula during Muslim rule.
{{Cofee makes us severe
}
and grave}
and phi losophical.
)
}
JONATHAN SWIFT, I RI SH WRITER
sp|orica Lotto currontiy in t|o -sto:qa
at|oora, Spa.n t Loars voqota pattorns ano
a lu|ic inscription, t|o common oocorativo
oomonts on rock crysta p. ocos
-s vo as introoucinq crysta t|at vas usoo
|or or.nkinq qassos, -ooas iLn lirnas vas t|o
samo man v|o usoo qass in a most inqonious
vay to construct a panotarium, suppyinq it vit|
art.ncia| c|ouos, t|unoor, ano iq|tninq Natura.y
t|is astounooo t|o n.nt|contury puLic
Musim pottors t|on introoucoo t|o art o| styi
is| oininq vit| a varioty o| coramics ano qazos.
Maqa ano Vaoncia voro ma]or contors o| t|o
inoustry, ano Musims rovout.onizoo t|o proouc
tion ano oocoration o| pottory t|rouq| t|oir uso
o| ustor qlazo, v|ic| you can roao moro aLout in
t|o lottory soction o| t|o Markot c|aptor
Lot| Vaoncian ano Ma|aqan pottors oxportoo
t|oir varos to |ristianpopuatoo roqions |iko
nort|orn Spain ano sout|orn lranco ano as |ar
oast as tay Horo, Maaqan pottors voro t|ouq|t
to |avo a.o t|o |ounoations o: t|o iamous Mao
ica varo, v|ic| vont on to oominato t|o lta.an
coramic inoustry
Noxt timo you |avo a moa, look at t|o coram
ics ano qassos -ro t|o platos maoo o| nno
oart|onvaro vit| oosiqns t|at ook iko procious
motas` -ro t|o q.assos ooicato, c|.m.nq i you
qonty tap t|om`
A 16th-century manuscript from Gelibolulu Mustafa
Ali's book, Nusratname, shows a banquet given by
commander-in-chief Lala Mustafa Pasha, seated at the
head of the table, to leading dignitaries of the army in
Izmit. On either side of the commander are oficers who
participated in the campaign. The soldiers are eating a
variety of dishes served by servants carrying pitchers of
rose water. Cutlery and napkins cover the diners' laps.
"mL dLALKdI KO"

bui - Hasan 'Al i i bn Naff' was ni cknamed Zi ryab, "the Bl ackbi rd, " because of hi s mel odi ous voi ce
and dark compl exi on. A musi ci an and fashi on desi gner, he came from I raq i n the ni nth century to
Cordoba, Andal usi a, one of the l eadi ng cul tural centers of Mus l i m ci vi l i zati on. Here he set fashi ons i n
eati ng, eti quette, cl othes, and musi c that have l asted unti l today. Because of hi s i mpact, you can read
more about hi m in many secti ons of thi s chapter.
The Bl ackbi rd became the foremost trendsetter of thi s ti me. Hi s tal ent generated an i nvi tati on
to Moori sh Spai n, where he recei ved a sal ary of 2OOgol den di nars i n addi ti on to many pri vi l eges.
Wi th hi m, he brought fne eti quette, cooki ng, fashi on, and even toothpaste.
. +HP||-'CUPS | `|`U
From an anonymous Andalusian cookbook of the 13th century
Translated by Charles Perry
Starters: Meat Soup with Cabbage
Tako moat ano cut it up as nnoly as possiLlo. Tako
ripo c|ooso, t|o Lost you can obtain, cut it up, ano
t|rov on it an onion pounooo vit| corianoor
Tako tonoor oyos o| caLLaqo, Lo|, t|on pouno
t|om vit| a o| t|at in a voooon mortar, ano
t|rov t|om in t|o pot, a|tor ooiinq onco or tvico.
-oo somo .:, a litto vinoqar ano somo poppor
ano caravay ovor t|o contonts o| t|o pot vit|
oouq| or souroouq|| ano covor vit| oqqs
Main meal: Mrkuswith Fresh Cheese
Tako somo moat, caro|uy pounooo as ooscriLoo
oarlior. -oo |ros| c|ooso t|at is not too so|t ost
it s|ouo |a apart, ano |al| a pioco o| oicoo moat
ano somo oqqs, |or it is v|at |olos it toqot|or,
aonq vit| poppor, covos, ano ory corianoor.
Squoozo on it somo mint ]uico ano corianoor
]uico oat it al ano uso it to stu| t|o innaros,
v|ic| aro tioo vit| t|roaos in t|o usua vay
Noxt, |ry it in |ros| oi|, ano oat it in niLLos, vit|
out sauco, or |ovovor yo. iko
Main meal: Roast in a Tu)ne
Tako an ontiro sioo o| a younq,
plump kio ano paco it in a arqo
:c,:nc oart|onvaro cookinq ois|
vit| a io sti usoo in Nort| -|r.ca
tooay], put it in t|o ovon ano oavo it t|oro
unti t|o top is Lrovnoo Tako it out, :urn it
ano put it in t|o ovon a socono timo unti it is
Lrovnoo on Lot| sioos Tako it out ano sprinko
it vit| sat, qrouno poppor ano cinnamon T|is
is oxtromoy qooo ano is t|o most notabo roast
t|at oxists, Locauso t|o |at ano moisturo stay in
:|o Lottom o| t|o pan ano not|inq is ost in t|o
!ro, as in t|o roast on a spi: or :|o roast in a :cn
n. cay ovon|
Main meal: Fish Thurld
louno piocos o| a Liq s| vol ano aoo oqq v|ito,
poppor, cinnamon, onouq| o| al t|o spicos, ano
a itto loavoninq yoast oat t|om unti a is
vo mixoo Tako a pot ano put in it a spoon|u.
o| vi.oqar, tvo o| c.antro ]uico, ono a.o a |a|
o| onion ]u.co, ono o| . ncj:' puro :ypo o|
Laroy nour], spicos, navourinqs, pino .u:s, six
spoon|us o| oi, ano onouq: sat ano vator, ano
put it ovor a mooorato ro. `|on it |as Loioo
sovora timos, mako t|o pounooo hs|] moat into
t|o |orm o| a hs| ano insort into its intorior ono
or tvo Loi|oo oqqs, ano put it caro|uy i.to t|o
sauco v|io .: is oo.inq ut t:o romai.oor into
qooo moatLas, tako Loioo oqq yoks a.o c|oak
t|om vit| t|at moat aso T|rov a t:a: i. ::o pot
ano v|on a is oono, :ao t|o ns| |rom t|o po:
ano t|o moatcoakoo yoks, ano |ry t|om i. a |ry
inq pan unti Lrovnoo T|on, covor t|o co.tonts
o: t|o pot vit| six oqqs, po.nooo amonos ano
Lroaocrumos, ano oot t|o pot vit| yo.ks]
Main meal: Roast Chickens
Tako younq, |at c|ickons, coan ano Loi t|om in
a po: vit| vator, sa: ano sp.cos Tako t|om o.t o|
t|o po: ano pour t|o Lrot: v.:| t:o |at .. a ois:
ano aoo to it v|at |as Loon saio |or :|o roas: ovor
coas luL t|at onto t|o Loioo c|ickon, arranqo
.: on a spit ano turn it ovor a mooorato nro vit|
a continuous movomon: ano Las:o it constanty,
un:ii it is roaoy ano Lrovnoo, t:on sprinko i: vit|
v|at romains o| t|o sauco ano sorvo. l: tastos
nicor t|an ivostock moat, ano is moro uni:orm
t:or oiros may Lo roastoo t:o oxact samo vay
Sweet: Tharda of the Emir
lnoao v|ito nour vo vit| vator, a itto oi ano
oavoninq yoast, makinq |our :|.n cj/:/s nat
Lroao, rooo ou: oocioooy t|i..or t|an a pita,
|iko a t|.n pancako] lry t|om in a :ryinq pan
vit| muc| |ros| oil, unti t|oy Lrovn
a itto Tako t|om out o| t|o oi ano
pouno t|om vo| lrom t|o rost
o :|o oouq| mao |.tto |oov
t|inqs on t|o pattorn o| ma]o/
/cnc c|ooso pio], ano mako top
crusts |or t|om lry t|om in |ros|
| | .\!. 1| | Hl l CCL HS | \|^L
oi, makinq suro t|oy stay v|ito ano oo not turn
Lrovn, |ry t|o top crusts, too T|on, tako poooo
p.stac:.os, amonos, ano pino.u:s, ano sumcion:
suqar, pouno t|om coarsoy, spico :|om ano
knoao t|om vit| s|arp rosovator ano mix vit|
qrouno cj/:/s ano stir unti compotoy mixoo
li. :|o |oov oumpinqs proparoo oarior vit|
t:a: m.x, ano put on :|o.r covors, ano procooo
co. oont t|at t|oy vi not Lo ovoroono -rranqo
t|om on a ois| ano put Lotvoon t|om t|o rost o|
t|o |inq ano sprinko t|om vit| s|arp rosova
:or unti :|o ois| is :u Sprino vit: ponty o:
qrouno suqar ano prosont it -no .| somo syrup
o| t|ickonoo, |onoyoo rosovator syrup is orippoo
on it, it vi Lo qooo, oo viinq
Drink: Syrup of Pomegranates
Tako a c:| oo qrams approximatoy] o| sour
pomoqranatos ano anot|or o| svoot pomoqran
atos ano aoo t|oir ..co to :vo c:|s o: suqar cook
a| t|.s unt. it roacnos t:o cons.stoncy o: syr.p,
ano sot it asioo u.ti. nooooo ts oononts it is uso
|ul in casos o| |ovors, cuts t|o t|irst, aloviatos Li
ious |ovor ano iq|tons t|o Looy qonty
I I I NVE. N TI ONS: HI L EN DURI NG LE G1\CY OF MUS l i M CI VI l 1 //\TI ON
. 'lCCKS
W
hat ever we do, wish, hope, dream, or fear,
time will always go on, with or without us.
Whether it is an examination we dread taking,
an important interview, or a birthday, there will be a time
when the activity begins and ends.
lrom t|o !rst sunoia, poopo |avo vantoo to
rocoro timo Nov vo |avo siont, oiq.ta timo
piocos as vo as t|o ticktock o| mooorn cocks
T|oir ancostors voro t|o oriporop o| t|o copsy
ora ano o: vator cocks T|o copsyora, a simpo
vaso markoo vit| oivisions t|at moasuroo vator
novinq out o| a sma spout noar t|o Laso, vas
.soo in fqypt Lo:oro icc B. C. E.
-not|or anciont vator timinq oovico is |rom
no.a ano .s caoo j/c::/c,cn:c lt consists o|
a sma|, |omisp|orica Lov maoo o| coppor or
a coconut) vit| a sma |oo in |ts Laso lloatoo
in a arqor pot o| vator, t|o Lovi vouo qraou
ay !|| ano s.n `|on .t roac|oo t|o Lottom,
an auoiLo t|uo aortoo t|o timokoopor, v|o
vouo raiso it up to start t|o procoss aqain T|is
Locamo vory popuar in Luoo|ist ano Hinou
:ompos, ano ator vas v.ooy usoo in no.an
usim mosquos
ur story Loqins vit| i_t|contury vator
cocks ano an inqonious man ca||oo -Jazar.
|rom LiyarLakir in sout|oast Turkoy Ho vas a
pious usim ano a |iq|y skioo onqinoor v|o
qavo oirt| to t|o concopt o| automatic mac|inos
Ho vas inspiroo by t|o |istory o| mac|inos ano
t|o toc|nooqy o| |is prooocossors, particuary
anciont rook ano noian sc.ontihc invontions
TOP: The history of mechanical clocks includes many
timepieces conceived in the Muslim world from the 13th
centwy on. BOTTOM, FROM LEFT: Images depict the
evolution of measuring time-from sundials, clepsydras,
and water clocks, to weight-driven grandfather clocks
and today's digital watches.
{By time,
surely mankind is i n loss,
except for those
who have believed
and done useful deeds
and advised each other
to truth
and advised each other
to patience."
QURAN ( 1 03)
y izcc, -Jazari |ao maoo numorous
cocks o| al s|apos ano sizos v|ilo |o vas
vorkinq |or t|o -rtuq kinqs o| Liyarbakir
T|onkinq Nasir aLin saio to |im, You |avo
maoo ,ooross oovicos, ano t|ro.q| s:ro:qt|
|avo brouq|t t:om |ort| as vorks, so oo no:
oso v|at you |avo voarioo yourso| v.:| ano
|avo painy constructoo vis| yo. to composo
|or mo a book v|ic| assombos v|at you |avo
croatoo soparatoy, ano brinqs toqot|or a sooc
tion o| inoivioua itoms ano picturos
Control l ed Si nki ng
of Perforated Bowl
An I ndi an ghatika-yantra-as the
bowl fl l s with water it si nks to the
bottom of the tank afer a preset ti me
i nterval , dependi ng on the weight
and size of the bowl and size of the
hole. As i t hits the bottom, i t makes a
thud and alerts the ti mekeeper, who
lifs it to start the process agai n.
l | C^\ C|CClS 43
T|o outcomo o| t|is roya urq.nq vas an out
stanoinq book on onqinoorinq caoo !/c !cc/
c/ !ncw|cJjc c/ !nj-n.c.s Mcc/cn.cc| Dcv.ccs
T|is book bocamo an i:va.abo rosourco |or
poopo o| oi|oro:t o:qinoo:.nq backqrounos,
as it ooscriboo c moc|anica| oovicos in six cat
oqorios, incuoinq vator cocks
Just as vo nooo :o knov t|e timo tooay, so
oio Muslims moro t|an /cc yoars aqo, ano -
Jazari vas koop.nq to a M.sim traoition o|
cock makinq Mus.ms :ov t|at timo cou|o
no: bo s:oppoo, :|at vo aro a|vays osi:q .t, ano
t|at it vas impor:a:: :o :ov t|o :imo to uso it
vo ooinq qooo oooos Musims aso nooooo to
knov v|on to pray at t|o riq|t timos oac| oay
Mosquos |ao to knov t|o timo so t|oy couo
announco t|o cal to prayor mportant arnual
ovonts, suc| as v|on to |ast in lamaoan col
obrato L.J, or qo on piqrimaqo to Mocca aso
|ao :o bo an:.cipatoo
|is .:sp.rat.o. moant t|a: :|o pooross
oovicos to v:ic| r.:q Nas.r aLin ro|orroo
i:c.ooo t|o L|op|an: oc -s vo|| as to.nq
t|o timo, t|is qrano cock vas a symbo o| status,
qranoour. ano voat|. it aso incorporatoo t|o
rst robotics vit| movinq, :imotollinq nquros
46 1001 I NV ENTI ONS : T J- J F. E NDU R I NG U.G/\CY O :'\ US l. l M CI VI L I ZATI ON
'H|SS
S
team rises from the hot pools of Budapest's outdoor
baths, hanging above gathering crowds as people
crouch low over marble chessboards. In China,
chessboards are laid out in the parks, as they are in Central
Park, New York Chess is a game of mental combat played by most nation
alities on 64 squares with 32 pieces. Despite its size and unassuming appear
ance, the number of possible games that can be played is beyond counting.
1|o storios, nquros, ano .noiviouas surrouno
i:q c|oss qivo .t a mys:orious o.mo:sio:, ano
its oonnito oriqins romain unknovn |t camo
rom oit|or noia or lorsia n t|o i.t| con:ury,
lL. l|a.oun con:octs c|oss to an inoian :amoo
Sassa iLn La|ir, an ominont man o visoom
1|oro vas an ancio:t no.an qamo caoo
/c:.cnjc, v|ic| moa:s |avinq our .mLs,'
proLaLy roorrinq to t|o our Lranc|os o t|o
noian army o oop|ants, |orsomon, c|ar.ots, ano
ina:try |aturanqa vas not oxact|y c|oss Lut a
procursor to tho c|oss o tooay
- i.t|contury lorsian manuscript ooscriLos
|ov an no.an amLassaoor Lrouq|t c|oss to t|o
|ors.a: court, irom v|oro .t vas takon to Luropo
Ly -raLs qoinq to mooiova| Spai:
ooro it roac|oo Luropo, t|o lorsians mooi
noo t|o qamo .nto /c:cnj, usi:q it .n :|o.r
var qamos -raLs camo into co:tact v.t| c|oss
or '/c:cnj as it vas t|on caoo, in lorsia ano
aLsorLoo it .n:o t|oir cutro
-: t|at timo, t|o pay.:q piocos voro '/c/, t|o
kinq, |:zcn, a qonora|, v|o Locamo t|o quoon in
mooor: :imos, |:| vas an oop|ant t|at Locamo
t|o Lis|op, |ccs vas t|o |orso, R.// vas a c|ar
iot t|at is nov t|o castlo or rook. ano !c:ccj vas
t|o oot sooior or pavn
1|o qamo vas vory popu.ar vit| t|o qo:ora
puLic as vo as t|o noLiity, ano t|o -LLasio
caip|s part.cuary ovoo it T|o qroa. mastors,
:|ouq|, voro -Su|i, -lazi, --aoani, ano lLn
aNaoim. n t|o miozot| contury, lussian qrano
mastor Yuri -vorLak p.ayoo an astonis|i:q movo
in o:o o |is c|ampions|ip qamos, v|ic| |o von
Many t|ouqht t|is to Lo an inqonious nov iooa,
Lut it vas acta|y oovisoo moro :|an a :|ousano
yoars aqo Ly -Su.
-raL qrano mastors vroto copiously aLout
c|oss, i:s avs, a.o its stratoqios, ano :|oso
sproao a| ovor :|o Mus.m voro T|oro voro
An illustration shows a Muslim and ChJ:istian play
ing chess in a tent, from King Alfonso X's 13th-century
Libras del Ajedrez.
LEFT: Abu Bakr al-Suli's Muntahab Kitab al-Shatranj
depicts an early tenth-centwy chess table miniature.
The Arabic reads, "The black is winning and it is his tur
to play." Scholars are not sure whether this was a game
through correspondence or an instruction manual of how
to play. CENTER AND RIGHT: Kempe len's fran Muslim
"robot" of 1769 had a chess master inside the cabinet, who
played skillfully and beat other master players of the day.
Looks on c|oss |is:ory, oponins. ono.nqs, ano
proLoms oo/ o/ :/c L.cp|cs o/ c/cc :n
:/c cc o/ /css, vri::on arouno i_/c, .ntro
oucoo t|o c|oss qamo !|o Lino -LLoss ano
Hor Nuns |or :|o lrs: timo
T|o v|irvino iryaL, a qroa: musician ano
tronoso:tor, Lrouq|t c|oss :o -noaus.a in .|o
oary nint| contury T|o voro c|ockma:o .s lor
sian in oriqin ano a corruption o| '/c/c:, moan
.nq t|o inq is oo|oa:oo
lror -noausia, t|o qamo sproao amonq
|ris:ian Spaniaros ano t|o ozaraLs, ano
roac|oo nor:|orn Spain as ar as t|o lyronoos,
crossinq t|o mountains .nto sou:|orn lranco T|o
nrst Luropoan rocoros :o montion c|oss qo Lac
to ico, v|on t|o v. o| oun:oss frmossino o|
Larco.ona oonatoo |or .rysta .|oss piocos :o St
ios monastory at Nimos - coup.o o| yoars a:or,
aroina lam.ani o s:.a vroto to lopo roqory
Vll, urq.nq |im to Lan t|o qamc o| t|o .nloos
|rom sproao.nq amonq :|o corqy
|V| !| ' | 5 47
|oss vas aso carrioo via :|o traoo rou:os
|rom contra| -sia to t|o sou:|orn s:oppos o| oary
luss.a Sovont| ano o.q|t|contury lorsian
c|oss piocos |avo Loon |ouno in Samarkano ano
arq|ana Ly iccc, c|oss |ao sproao ovon |art|or
on t|o Vik.nq traoo routos as :|o Vikinqs carrioo
it Lack to Scanoinavia T|oso traoo routos moant
t|a: Ly t|o D:| contury, c|oss |ao maoo its vay
as |ar as co|ano, ano an coanoic saqa vr.tton in
:: taks o| t|o Lan.s| kinq, lnut :|o roat, pay
inq t|o qamo in .c./
Ly :|o i.t| contury, c|oss vas v.ooy knovn .n
furopo, ano linq -|onso /,knovn as t|o 'iso,
|ao prooucoo t|o !oo/ o/ /css cnJ :/c ccs
.n t|o ._t| contury lor t|o ast o.q|: contur.os,
c|oss |as qono |rom stronqt| to stronqt|, proouc
inq a ov |unny storios aonq :|o vay, suc| as t|o
roLotic c|oss mas:or o| i/c
Hunqar.an 'o|qanq oo lompoon oociooo
to qivo a qi|t to |is ,uoon, Lnpross aria 1|o
rosa, v|o vas a c|oss |anatic Ho qavo |or a roLot
mac|ino ca.oo t|o ron usim, ator ronamoo
ttoman .rk, v|ic| payoo c|oss sk.|.y,
Loatinq |.q|rankoo payors o| t|o oay lns.oo, a.
crampoo up, vas a c|oss mas:or loopo travooo
mios to marvo at t|o turLanvoarinq roLot n
|act, i soparato c|oss payors in|aLi:oo .t |or o
yoars, in :|o quiso o an ::oman roLot.c' Tur

48 1 001 l Vl 1' C: - 1ll l | lL|| C |lCC: C| ^C` l^ C' \| |z1 | C


O ^LS | C
M
usic crosses continents, cultures, people, and nature. Like
language, it enables us to communicate. But do 20th
century artists and singers know that much of their craft lies
in the hands of ninth-century Muslims of the Middle East? These art
ists, particularly Al-Kindi, used musical notation, the system of writ
ing music. They also named the notes of a musical scale with syllables instead
of letters, called solmization. These syllables make up the basic scale in music
today. We are all familiar with do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti. The Arabic alphabet for
these notes is dal, ra, mim, fa, sad, lam, sin. The phonetic similarity between
today's scale and the Arabic alphabet used in the ninth century is striking.
-Lout / yoars atcr Alinoi, -.laraL. ocvc
oco t|c c/c/c/. an anccstor o| tnc vio.n amiy,
ano jcn.n, a taLc zit|or Ho vrotc nvc Looks on
music, Lut !/- -c: Book of M.s. on t|c t|oory
o music vas |is mas:crpioco. ln :|c :.ta cc.tury,
it vas tra:s|atco i:to HoLrcv, ano t|on i.to Latin
1.o .n|ucncc o: -laraL. ano |.s Look cont.nuco
up :o t|c .c:| co:tury.
lovinq music.ans, morcaants, a.o travoors
a. :c:co -raLic music on i:s vay i.to furopo,
ano :|.s |cpoo to s|apc t|c cu:ura| ano ar.is:ic
io o Sai. ano lortuqa unoor t|c yoars o
usim ru.c nc o t|c cariost cxampcs o t|.s
is ouno in :|o cocctio. o cn:.jcs J- 'cn:c
(Arabs} when they came to Europe}
i n the begi nning of the eighth cen-
tury} were more advanced in the
cultivation of music} . . . i n the con-
struction of musical i nstruments}
than were European nations, thus
only can thei r astoundi ng musical
i nfuence be accounted for. "
CARL ENGEL, A 20TH-CENTURY HI STORY OF MUSI C SCHOLAR
Mc:c omposco arouno :.. upon t|c oroors o
Aonso X c: SaL.o, kinq o astia ano Araqn,
:|is cocction co.sists o| .: rciqious sonqs
aLou: :|o V.rqin ary.
any inoivioua.s aso ayco a art in t|c
sproaoinq o ncv mus.c into Luropc. -pprocia
Lo innucncc ics vi:| ono man, ZiryaL, knovn as
tno :ackLiro Locauso o| |is mcooious voico
TOP: An 18th-century manuscript on musical
composition and rhythm shows a qIara,or guitar,
from TahIn aInaqanatby Kamani Khidir Aga.
BOTTOM: Traditional musicians perform in Morocco.
Two musicians are depicted in Alfonso X's 13th-century
Cantigas de Santa Maria.
ano oark compoxion Ho vas a qi|too pupil o| a
ronovnoo Laq|oao musician, Lut |is taont ano
oxcoonco in music slovy ovortook |is toac|ors,
so t|o Umayyao caip| invitoo |im to -noalusia.
ZiryaL sottoo in t|o court o| rooLa in ozz,
v|ic| vas unoor t|o aip| '-Lo alla|man ,
t|o son o| t|o Umayyao calip| Horo, ZiryaL |ouno
prospority ano rocoqnition o| |is art, Locominq
t|o court ontortainor vit| a mont|y saary o| zcc
qooon oinars in aooition to many priviloqos
His accompis|monts aro many, incuoinq
ostaLis|inq t|o voros irst consorvatoiro in
rooLa, toac|inq |armony ano composition,
introoucinq t|o -raL uto c| .J) to luropo
ano aooinq t|o |i|t| Lass strinq to it, ropac
inq t|o voooon ploctrum vit| a qui |oatnor
|rom a vuturo, ano roarranqinq musical t|oory
complotoy Ly sottinq |roo motrica ano r|yt|
mica paramotors
Honri Torrasso, t|o lronc| zct|contury |is
torian, saio, -|tor t|o arriva o| t|is orionta
ZiryaL] , a vino o| poasuro ano uxurious i|o
Lov t|rouq| rooLa -n atmosp|oro hoo
vit| pootry ano oxquisito ooiq|t surrounooo
ZiryaL, |o composoo |is sonqs at niq|t in t|o
company o tvo sorvants v|o payoo t|o luto Ho
qavo |is art an unprocooontoo valuo
N L AKT NU5 LAL dAN O5
1
he Ottoman State was the frst Euro
Asi an state to have a permanent mi l itary
musi cal band. Founded in J 2qq, the famous
Mehterhane mi l itary band fol l owed the sul tan
on hi s expediti ons. I t woul d arri ve i n the mid
dl e of battles to rouse the spi rit of the sol di ers
whi l e al so terrifi ng the enemy. The J ani ssary,
an el i te army, al so had a band of si x to ni ne
members with i nstruments l i ke drums [zuma),
cl ari nets, tri angl es, cymbal s [z||), and kettle
d rums of war kos and naqqara) . These were
carri ed on the backs of camel s.
Europeans met the J ani ssary bands i n peace
and war. On vari ous ambassadori al receptions
it became fashi onabl e to have Ottoman-Turk
i sh i nstruments, the "Turqueri e" fashi on, i n
Europe. The J ani ssari es were defeated at the
gates of Vi enna i n 1 683 and lef behi nd thei r
musi cal i nstruments. Thi s was an event that
l ed to the ri se of European mi l i tary bands. Even
Napol eon Bonaparte's French mi l itary bands
were equi pped wi th Ottoman war musi cal
i nstruments such as zi l and the kettl edrums.
I t i s sai d that Napol eon' s success i n the battle
of Austerlitz (1805) was due in part to the psy
chol ogi cal i mpact of the noi se of hi s fanfares.
A janissar band ofthe Ottoman State
HOME: '\ LS| C 49
1001 I NVE NTI ONS : T H E. ENDUR I NG UG1\CY OF MUS LJ .v\ CI VI LI ZATI ON
.7 'l|A`l| `|SS
M
edieval times are often i magined as smelly, dark, rough, and
unclean. In the tenth-century Islamic world though, the hygiene
practices and products found in bathroom cabinets could com
pete with those we have today.
oaninoss is vita in sam, vit| aLutions knovn
as w.J/. carr.oo out Looro prayors n t|o i_t| con
tury ::oro vas an outstanoinq moc|anica onqinoor
caoo -Jazari v|o vroto a Look caoo !/c !cc/
c| !ncw|cJjc c| !njcn:c.s Mcc/cn:cc| Dcv:ccs,
incuoinq roLotic vuo|u mac|inos no oaLorato
mac|ino, rosomLinq a poacock vouo Lo Lrouq|t
tc oac| quost, v|o voulo tap t|o poacocks |oao
tc mako vator pour in oiq|t s|ort spurts, provio
inq ust onouq| |or aLution Somo mac|inos couo
ovo: |a:o you a tovo
Musims maoo soap Ly mixinq oi| usuay o.vo
oi) vit| c|c|: a sa:iko suLstanco) -ccoroinq to
manuscripts, t|is vas Loioo to ac|iovo t|o riq|t
consistoncy, o|t to |aroon, ano usoo in t|o /c
cs or Lat||ousos.
((Allah is Beautiful and
He loves beauty."
PROPHET MUHAMMAD
NARRATED BY MUSLI M (NO. 1 3 1 )
Mooiova Musims aso vont t o qroat onqt|s
vit| t|oir appoaranco no oxport vas -Za|ravi,
a :amous p|ysic.an ano surqoon aLout v|om
you can roao moro in t|o Hospita c|aptor Ho
.ncuooo i: |.s moo.ca| Loo ca|oo A|!cs:/ a
c|ap:or oovo:oo comp|otoy to cosmot.cs, caoo
!/c McJ:c:ncs c/ !cc.:y
Ho ooscriLoo t|o caro ano Loaut.ncat.on o|
|air ano skin, t.ot| v|.toninq, ano qum stronqt|
on:nq, a vit|in t|o bounoarios ol lsam. Ho
-"-
fJ>'>.
.'o~,~
.,,a,u
_ __;|, _
-..,, _!
__tiy|,.
|(!j.I
Q= O|,`,
~ -(s.|
._.
'
>
-l3
J~ ~
/='3go
:'_| -u
_,a. ,
.|, , = ;o
.~JO,l,~
Lv_..|;.
r
.9-(!J
'
=O,LU:7'
~' .} _'
Y _ | ,;
^jj'~-
|
+oU _
7
An illustration from a manuscript shows Al-Jazari's
wudhu, or washing, machine.
incuooo nasa sprays, mout|vas|os, ano |ano
croams, ano takoo o| por|umoo sticks, rooo ano
prossoo in spocia moos, a bit iko tooays roo:
ooooorants Ho aso namoo moo.ca:oo cosm.:ics
iko |airromovinq stics, as vo| as |air oyos t|at
:urnoo L|ono |air :o Lack a:o o:.ons |or straiq|:
oninq k.nky or cury |ai: T:o Lononts o| sun:a:
otions voro aso oiscussoo as voro t|oir .nqrooi
onts, a amazinq consioorinq t|is vas a t|ousano
yoars aqo
{(When you rise up for praye0
wash your face, and your hands up
to the elbows, and lightly rub your
heads and {wash] your feet
up to the ankles."
QURAN (5: 6)
orn in lua, nov in lra,, -linoi aso vro:o
a Look on porumos ca|oo !cc/ c/ :/- /c:s:,
c/ P-/.c cnJ D:s:||c::cns His ooo con:ainoo
moro :|an a |unoroo roc.pos :or raqran: o.s, sa|vos,
aroma:ic vators, ano suLs:.:utos or .m.:at.ons o
costy oruqs ln.t.a|y, tao moro anuont in socioty
usoo t|oso, .ator t|oy oocamo accossioo to a
usim c|om.sts aso o.stioo pants ano
novors mak.nq por:umos ano suostancos :or
:|orapou:ic p|armacy
T|oso procossos ano iooas o t|o us.ms
toroo .n:o Luropo v.a morcaan:s, travoors, ano
t|o rusaoors ao oocumontary /c: :/c
I-l OME: CL U\N LI NLSS
Anc:-n:s D J /c 's /c 's|cc c|J saio taa:
tao novooqo o :ao usims ovon:ua|y arrivoo
a: Hauto lrovonco in t|o sou:| o: lranco, v|ic|
|as :|o por:oc: cimato ano :|o riq|t ino o so.
or :|o porumo inous:ry, v|ica s:i| nourisaos
ator /cc yoars
-not|or impor:ant cosmo:ic .n lsar is
|onna, knovn :or its Loautiu, in:ricato oosiqns
on ooqant |anos `.:| t|o sproao o lsam, .:
roac|oo o.:oron: parts o: :ao voro, Locominq
an ossont.a cosmo:ic inqrooion:
lrop|o: u|ammao ano |is compan.ons
oyoo :|o|r Loaros, va.o vomon oocora:oo :|o.r
aanos ano :oot ano aso oyoo taoir |a|r io
vomon o: tooay ooorn scion:is:s aavo ouno
aonna :o Lo ant.Lactoria, an:iunqa., ano ant.
|omorr|aq.c lt is usou | n aoa|inq ataoto's oo:,
:unqa s|n |n:oc:|ons, ano oca .nnamma:ion
T|o oavos ano sooos o t|o p|an: possoss moo.c
ina propor:|os, ano Lo:a act as coo|.nq aqon:s or
t|o |oao ano oooy Honna a.so con:ains natura.
.nqroo.on:s :aa: aro usoo :or |a.r nour.s|mont
5AKL OLAN NAmLNL O
|
n the 1 770s and 1 780s, Bri ghton,
Engl and, was a bl ossomi ng beach
resort and it was at this scene that Sake
(Shei kh, but because of accents thi s
became Sake) Dean Mahomed arrived.
Sake Dean Mahomed was from
a Musl i m fami ly in Patna, I ndi a, and
i n 1 759 opened what was known as
Mahomed' s I ndi an Vapour Baths on
the Bri ghton seafront, the site of what
i s now the Queen' s Hotel . These baths
were si mi l ar to Tu rki sh baths, but
cl i ents were pl aced i n a fl a nnel tent
and received an I ndi an treatment of
Sake Dean Mahomed opened the Indian Vapor Baths on the c|ao pi (shampooi ng) or therapeuti c
Brighton seafront in 1759.
massage from a person whose hands
came through sl i ts i n the fannel . Thi s remarkabl e "vapori ng" and shampooi ng bath l ed hi m to receive
the ul ti mate accol ade of bei ng appoi nted "Shampooi ng Surgeon" to both George IV and Wi l l i am I V.
Bw
A
: +P| CK |\| C|S
M
aybe you can hear the click-clack of the metal balls
swinging on wires as they knock each other rhyth
mically while you nddle with a Rubik's Cube. Games and
puzzles, whether for business or leisure, are a source of fascination to many.
T.is scnsc o |uman cn]oymcnt vas capturco Ly
t|rcc Lrot|crs in t|c .int| ccntury u|ammao
iLn usa iL. S|akir, -|mco iLn usa iL. S|air,
ano -Hasan iLn usa .Ln S|akir vcrc knovn
as t|c Lanu usa Lrot|crs 1|cy vcrc part o t|c
amous Housc o `.soom, t|c intccctua. acao
cmy o Laq|oao in t|c nint| ccntury, v.ic| you
can rcao morc aLout in :|c Sc|oo c|aptcr -s vc
as Lcinq qrcat mat|cmaticia.s ano :ransators o
rcck scicntihc trcatiscs, t|cy aso i.vcn:co aLu
ous trick ocviccs, v|ic|, somc vouo say, arc a
prccursor to cxccutivc toys 1|c Lrot|crs :co t|cir
pccrs oLscssion Ly ocsiqninq ano makinq tric
i.vcntions, ano t|cir cc/ c/ 'nj-n:c.s .V|CS
|ists morc t|an a |unorco o t|cm T|csc vcrc t|c
Lcqinninqs o: mcc|anica :cc|nooqy
L.kc toys tooay, t|cy |ao ..tt|c practica unc
:ion, Lut t|csc i, iccycaroo mcc|anisms ois
p|ayco amazinq cra:tsmansi.p ano knovcoqc
A drawing explains the Banu Musa brothers'
ninth-century "Drinking Bull" robot.
any o t|c mcc|anisms i.vovco vatcr, akc
animas, ano sounos lor cxamp.c, t|c or.nk.nq
Lu maoc a souno o con:cntmc.t v|c. i: |n
is|co, as i .ts t|.rst |ao Lccn sat.sco : oio t|is
usinq a scr.cs o | inq c|amLcrs, |.ats, vacu
ums, ano puqs
Scc i you can :oov t|c Lanu usa Lrot|crs
t|inkinq on t|c o|aqram Lc|ov
initiay vatcr comcs rom t|c tap .nto com
partmcnt - ano t|cn i: is cosco o. T|c Lov
is t|cn nco vit| vatcr, :oo 1|c |oat m sccn
in t|c oiaqram oppositc) r.scs vi:| t|c cvc. o
vatcr, puinq t|c puq out o t|c vavc `a:cr
orains rom compartmcnt - into compartmcnt
L loat L riscs vit| t|c vatcr, pus|inq up puq
L ano a|ovinq vatcr :o |ov Lc:vccn t|c tvo
compartmcn:s `|cn t|c air .n compartmcnt L
.s :u|y cvacua:co, a vacuum orms .n compart
mcnt - sincc no air is a.ovco to nov i.to it
`atcr rom t|c Lov is t|cn oravn t|rouq| t|c
p.pc ano in:o - ncc a t|c vatcr is qonc rom
:|c Lov, air is suckco in so it appcars t|at t|c


'|
_
A
_

B

Lu. is makinq a souno o conton:mon: Sinco no
va:o: is o:t in t|o Lov to koop t|o puq anoa:,
::a: part.cuar puq cosos, so ony puq is
opon to ompty compartmont -. ompartmont
omptios via a sma |oo Lotvoon ano -ir is
aovoo to nov rooy rom a |oo on :|o sioo o
compartmont .
H.q:|y compox ano minoLonoinq, t|is must
|avo kopt poopo ont|raoo or |ours
-not|or o t|o anu usa Lro:|ors' trick
oovicos vas a |ask vit: tvo spou:s L.::oront
cooroo .qu.os voro pouroo into oac: spout, Lu:
v|on .: vas timo to pour, t|o v:onq coor camo
out o t|o vronq' spou: Liko t:o maqician v:o
can mako oranqo ]uico como out o |is ooov, ::o
Lro::ors :ao an ovon Lot:or, ano simpor, intri
ca:o moc:an.sm up t:oir soovos
`|at t|oy :ao oono vas to oivioo ::o ar .n.o
tvo vor:ica.y, vit| oac: soct.on tota..y sopara:o
rom ::o ot|or Liquio camo into t|o r.q|t s.oo ::om
Head
(Co mpa rt ment A)
Compa rt ment A
Pi pe (B to A)
HOM L T RI CK Df VI CE S
`7joke i s not a thing but a process,
a trick you play on the listener's
mi nd. You start him of toward
a plausible goal, and then by
a sudden twist you land hi m
nowhere at all or just where
he didn't expect to go. "
MAX EASTMAN, AMERI CAN WRITER
t|o r.q|t unno. anc into ::o ot sioo Ly ::o o. un
no., Lu: .: co.o not .oavo ::is vay nstoao, ano::or
p.po |ao Loon insor.oo or t|o outnov courso,
poopo oosorv.nq .o.o not soo any o t|is, ano
at|ouq| .: vas simpo, t:o t:ick st. :ao .mpac:
ano amazoo ::on :o Lrot|ors imaq.nat.on :or
:un a|so movoo into oosiqninq :oun:ains ao a
ook at t|o lounta.ns soction in ::o ovn c:aptor
Head
( Compart ment B)
Compart ment B
Pi pe (A to B)
Di vi si on
An illustration shows the inside of the Banu Musa brothers' game "Flask with Two Spouts." The device amazed all
those who observed the trick developed by the inventive brothers.
53
100 1 I NVENT I ONS: T H E. ENDU RI NG L E GACY OF MU S LI M CI V I LI ZATI ON
`| S | C` A`l 'AV|PAS
A
s a child did you ever wonder how we see? Did you think that if you shut
your eyes and you could not see anyone, then no one could see you?
Some ancient Greek scholars had less than conventional ideas of sight
as well, and the frst understanding of optics consisted of two main theories.
1|c :rst main:ainco t|at rays camc ou: rom our
cycs, a L.t .c ascr tcc:no|oqy tooay, ano ::csc
rays vcrc cut o| Ly t|c ooccts .n our .s.on So,
siq|t vas carr.co out :|rouq: :|c mocmcnt o:
t:c rays rom :|c cyc to t|c oo] cct
1|c sccono ioca saio t|at vc scc Lccausc
somct|inq is cntcrinq our cyc t|at rcprcscnts
t|c oL]cct. -ristotc, Cacn, ano t|cir olovcrs
Lcicco in t:.s mooc, Lut t|c.r t:corics vcrc
spccu.ation ano not Lackco up Ly cxpcrimcnts
Nintnccn:ury poymat: -linoi :rst a.o oovn
t|c |ounoations o moocrnoay op:.cs oy qucstion
inq t|c Crcc t|corics o ision Hc saio t|at |ov
vc scc, our isua conc, is not ormco o oiscrctc
rays as Lucio |ao saio, Lut appcarco as a oumc,
in t|rcc o.mcnsions, o continuous raoiations
Six:ccnt|ccntury taian p|ysician ano mat|
cmatician Ccronimo aroano sa.o -l.noi
vas onc o: :|c tvc|c q.an: m.nos o |.story
Lccausc |c oiscussco siq|t vit| ano v.:|out a
m.rror, |ov |iq:t rays camc .n a stra.q:: ..nc, ano
t:c c||cct o o.stancc ano anq|c on s.q|:inc|uo
inq optica .usions -linoi vrotc tvo :rcat.scs
on qcomctr.ca ano p|ysiooqica optics, v|ic|
vcrc usco Ly Lnqis| sc|oar loqcr Lacon
ano Ccrman p:ysicist `itco ourinq t|c i_t|
ccntury -ccoro.nq to ScLastian Voqc, a zct|
ccntury an.s| sc|o|ar, loqcr Lacon not mcrcy
coun:co alinoi onc o t|c mas:crs o pcrspcc
tic out in :.s ovn |cspcc::vc |c ano ot:crs in
|is co rccrrco rcpca:coy to al.no.s opt.cs
1|c qucstion.nq or.qinay Lcqun Ly -linoi
vas Lui.t upon Ly -Hasan lLn aHayt|am
in t:c tcnt| ccn:ury, v|o ccntuai|y cxpa.nco
t:at ision vas maoc possiL|c Lccausc o: t|c
rc:rac:.on o: .q:t rays Lis:inquis|co zc::
ccntury scicncc |istorian Ccorqc Sarton saio
:|at t|c cap orvaro maoc in optica scicncc
vas ouc :o Ln aHayt|am's vork, v|ic| scicn
tiucay cxpainco muc| o v|at vc knov tooay
about optics
The anatomy of the eye by 13th-century Kamal al-Din
al-Farisi is based on Ibn al-Haytham's ideas. The
Arabic text refers to the role of the brain in interpreting
the image on the retina of the eye.
ln |act, a tcnt|ccntury p|ysicis:, Ln Sa:
|rom aq:oao, |ao vorkco on iq|t rc|raction
Ly cnscs Lc|orc lLn aHayt|am, at|ouq| vc
arc not surc t|at Ln aHayi|am kncv o| lLn
Sa|s vork. -Hasan lLn aHay:|am, usua|y
caco ]ust .Ln a|Hayt|am ano aso knovn in t|c
`cs: as -|azcn, carr.co ou: mcticuous cxpcri
mcn:s a t|ousano ycars aqo, v:.c| cnaLco |im
to provioc t|c scicn:i|c cxpanat.on ::a: vision
vas causco Ly iq|t rc|cctinq o|| an oL]cc: ano
cntcr.nq t|c cyc -:azcn vas :|c nrst :o :ota|y
rc]cct t|c :|corics o| t|c rccks
(He, Ibn al-Haytham, was the
greatest Muslim physicist and
student of optics of all times.
Whether it be in England or far away
Persi a, all drank from the same
fountai n. He exerted a great
infuence on European thought
from Bacon to Kepler. "
GEORGE SARTON IN HIS HISTRY OF SCIENCE
orn in asra, raq, |c movco :o Lqypt on t|c
invitation o| its rucr :o |c.p rcoucc ::c c::cc:s
o| t|c Nics |oooinq, ano vas ::c nrs: to com
L.nc t|c ma:|cmat.ca approac| o| fucio ano
ltocmy vit| :|c p|ysica. principc |avorco Ly
natura p:.osop|crs Ln aHayi:am saio, |c
knovcoqc o| opt.cs ocmanos a comLinat.on o|
p|ysica. ano mat|cmat.ca stuoy
Hc vas a|so a mat|cma:ician, astronomcr, p|y
sician, ano c|cmist Lu: it is |is cc/ c/ p::cs
t|at |as |ormco t|c |ounoations |or t|c scicncc
o| opt.cs cncray knovn as Mcjn. p.s, it
oiscussco t|c naturc o| |iq|t, t|c p|ysiooqy ano
mcc|anism o| siq|t t|c structurc ano anatomy o|
t|c cyc, rc|cction ano rc|raction, ano catoptr.cs
HOMF. : VI S I ON ^ l C!MEI U\S 55
This frontispiece is from the 1572 Latin edition of Book
of Optics by Alhazen, the Western name for Al-Hasan
Ibn al-Haytham.
.Ln aHay:|am aso stuoico cnscs, cxpcri
mcntinq v.t| oi||crcnt m.rrors |at, sp|crica,
paraLoic, cyinorica, concavc, ano convcx Hc
aso trcatco t|c cyc as a o.op:ric sys:cm, Ly
app.yinq t:c qcomc:ry o| rc|raction :o it Hc Lr.
.ant|y invcstiqa:co t|c p|cnomcnon o| atmo
sp:cric rc|raction, ca.cuat.nq t|c :c.q:: o| t|c
a:mosp|crc to Lc ic k.omc:crs ic m.cs) 1|is
comparcs vc v.t| moocrn mcasurcmcnts o|
t|c troposp:crc, t|c |ovcst aycr o| t|c a:mo
sp|c.c, v|ic| mcasurcs ii ki.omctcrs / m.cs)
lLn aHayi|am usco cxpcrimcnta cv.ocncc
to c|cck :.s :|corics T|.s vas unusua |or :.s
t.mc Lccausc p|ysics |ao unt. ::cn Lccn morc
ikc p|i.osop|y, v.:|out cxpcr.mcnt Hc vas t:c
|rst :o introoucc cxpcrimcn:a cv.ocncc as a
rcquircmcnt |or acccptinq a t|cory, ano |is cc/
c/ p::cs vas actua|y a critiquc o| ltocmys
Look A|cjcs: - t:ousano ycars atcr, :|is Look
o| opt.cs is sti quotco Ly pro|cssors train.nq
rcscarc| stuocn:s to Lc |ac:ua. Somc scicncc
|.stor.ans Lcicvc t|at Sncs |av, in op:ics, actu
a.y comcs |rom t|c vork o| lLn Sa|.
l!\l | ``l`1| \``- 1l| l l ` lLll `l+ l.L.\!( \| ^L | | ^ !| \ | l| Z`1 | `
. ASH | C` A`l TYl|
F
ashions come and go, but good taste never goes out of style. So it
may not be surprising to fmd out that many present European styles
and ideas of dressing arrived l, zOOyears ago when Spain was part of
the I slamic world.
iryaL, t|o music.an ano o:.quotto :oac|or, vas
a.so a tronosot:or ano styo icon in nintcontury
orooLa, Spain Ho Lrouq|: vi:| |.m a t|o as|
ion Laq|oao vas t|o laris or Nov York o its oay
ano you :avo t|is in|ux o iooas rom Laq|oao
to orooLa, so |o Lrouq|t vi:| |im too::pas:o ano
ooooorant, ano s|or: |air 1|is is :|o t|inq, or
ooLa :ao stroot iq|tinq, sovaqo vorks runninq
va:or, sa.o aut:or Jason `oLstor aLout iryaL
v|on spoakinq vi:| laqo| maar on t|o LLs
An Is|c:c H:s:o o/ L.opc
Laq|oao, in raq, vas a qroat cutura. ano into.
oc:ua con:or o t|o |samic vor.o, rom v|oro
iryaL aso Lrouq|: nov taLovaro, nov sartoria.
as:ions, ano ovon t|o qamos o: c|oss ano poo
Ho vas ronovnoo as an ococtic man vit| qooo
:asto ano |.s namo vas connoctoo v.:| ooqanco
`.t| |is ronnoo ano .uxurious vays, |o oonnoo t|o
court o :|o ca.p:s v|io :no avoraqo orooLan
Bolts of cloth run the gamut of colors.
imitatoo |is |airstyo, ::o nov s|ort ook, ano
on]oyoo :|o oat|or urnituro |o Lrouq:t :o Spain
Honri Torrasso, t|o lronc: |.storian, saio
i,zcc yoars .ator o: i:yaL Ho .ntrooucoo vintor
ano summor orossos. sottinq oxacty t|o oatos
v|on oac| as|ion vas to Lo vorn. Ho aso aoooo
orossos o |a. soason or .ntorvas Lotvoon soa
sons T:rouq| |im, uxurious orossos o: :|o r.
ont voro in:rooucoo in Spain Unoor |is .n|uonco
a as|ion inoustp vas so: up, proouc.nq cooroo
s:ripoo aLric ano coa:s o: transparont :aLric,
v|.c| is sti ouno in orocco tooay'
.ryaLs ac|iovomonts qainoo |.m t:o rospoct
o succoss.vo qonorations, ovon .p to :|o pros
on: oay .n t:o usim voro, t|oro .s not a s.nqo
country t:at ooos not |avo a s:root a |oto, a cuL,
or a cao namoo a:tor |im. n t|o `os: sc|oars
ano music.ans sti pay |.m tr.Luto
usims ospoc.a.y in -noausia, oovoopoo a
sop|is:icatoo iostyo pattorn ::a: vas Lasoo on
soasona in|uoncos T:o c|oico to oa: par:icu.ar
|ooos ano voar cortain typos o| cot|inq ano
matoria. vas crucia in provioinq com:or: ano
voLoinq n cot|inq torms, v.ntor cos:umos
voro maoo ossontia|y |rom varm cotton or voo
.:oms, usuay in oark co|ors Summor costumos
voro maoo o| iq|t matoria|s suc| as cotton, s.|k,
ano nax t|at camo .n iq|t ano Lriian: coors
|rom oca oyo vorks
({Beauty of style and harmony
and grace and good rhythm
depend on simpli ci ty. "
PLATO, GREEK PHI LOSOPHER
-noausian Musims voro aso |oirs to a
numLor o| oakLasoo inoustr.os oovoopoo Ly
t|o lomans, .ncuoinq t|o mak.nq o| corkso|oo
s|oos T|oy in:ons.noo ano oivors.noo t|o proouc
:ion toc|ni,uo ano corksooo s|oos oocamo vioo
sproao in t|o country, ano a stapo o| :|o oxpor:
traoo T|o s|oo vas ca||oo j.j, t|o piura is cjcj,
v|.c| suLsoquont|y roturnoo to as:.ian in t|o
|orm c/coj.c. T|o artisan v|o maoo t|o proouct
vas a jccj Suc| an artisan vas -Loua|, a Su
mystic sanoal makor o| Sovio, montionoo Ly Ln
-raLi -rtisans o| t|is traoo |ao ivinq quartors
caoo jccj:n, nov araquin, in Cranaoa
Tvo mooiova Mus|im vr.tors, -Sa,a:. ano
Ln -Loun, provioo oo:a.|oo spoc.ncations o:
I I O.V\ U F, \ SH I ON AND STYE 59
An early 17th-century manuscript titled Album of the
Sultan Ahmed I by Kalandar Pasha depicts typical
costumes of the time.
t|o makinq o: corsooo s|oos, notaLy t|at t|o
oat|or st.tc|oo to :|o Lack s|ouo not Lo skimpy,
ano t|at oa:|or s|ouo oo sovn to oat|or, v.t| no
!or .nsortoo in Lotvoon Somo s|oomakors put
sano ooov t|o |oo to mao lL |.q|or, causinq i:
to Lroak v|on vorn 1|o moro sop|.sticatoo styos
ano mot|oos voro t|on aooptoo Ly |rist.ans
a|tor t|o conquos: o| /-noaus
So t|o noxt timo you aro out s|oppinq |or t|o
atost |as|ions in |ancy oosiqnor s|ops, romom
Lor t|o |iq| |oos o| a :|ousano yoars aqo `|on
you try on a iq|t pair o| summor trousors or a
oross romomLor ZiryaL, t|o LackLiro |rom
i, zcc yoars aqo, oocauso t|is vas t|o t.mo suc|
iooas voro nyinq |rom Spain, S.ciy, ano t|o Mio
oo Last into |ristian Luropo
60 1 001 I NV F NTI ONS: T HF N DUR I NC) L f. G1\CY OF MUS l . L v\ CI V I l l /. \ri ON
'APl|TS
C
arpets were frst made long before I slam by the Bedouin tribes of
Arabia, Persia, and Anatolia. They used carpets as tents, sheltering
them from sandstorms; foor coverings providing great comfort for
the household; wall curtains providing privacy; and for items such as blan
kets, bags, and saddles.
lor Musims, carpcts arc |co i n spcc.a cstccm
ano aom.rco |or Lcinq part o: laraoisc nsp.rco
oy t|is, ano ncv tincturcs |or tann.nq ano tcxti.cs,
t|cy ocvcopco Lot| t|c ocsiqn ano vcavinq tcc|
niquc, so t|at tncir carpcts camc in vonocr|u co
ors - 1unisian scicntist caco Ln Laois in t|c iit|
ccntury carrico out pionccrinq vork on inks ano
t|c coorinq o| oycs ano mixturcs to prooucc |is
':c! c/ :/c 'c:/cs
-s vc as coor:u|, Mus..m carpc:s vcrc
rcnovnco |or t|cir ,ua|.ty ano r.c: qcomct
ric pattcrns o| s:ars, octaqons, trianqcs, ano
roscttcs, a arranqco arouno a arqc ccntra
mcoalion -raLcsquc ano nora pattcrns hco
t|c arcas arouno t|csc s|apcs, puinq t|cm a
toqct|cr vit| a scnsc o| unity
|n furopc carpc:s cauq|t on quick.y ano
Lccamc sta:us symLos fnqanos l.nq Hcnry
Vl ruco :_c:./) .s knovn to |avc ovnco
morc t|an .cc Mus.im carpcts, ano a por.ra.t
maoc o| |im in :/ s|ovs |im stanoinq on a Turk
is| carpct vt| its 's/c/ star Muslim ocsiqns aso
occoratc |is roLc ano curtains
Lut t|c caricst Lnqis| contact vi:| Muslim
carpcts vas v|cn :|c qranoson o| `iiam :|c
onqucror, v|o ivco in ::c -LLcy o| uny, qavc
a carpct to an Lnqis| c|urc: in t|c .z:| ccn:ury
-t t|is samc timc, Musim qcoqrap:c: ano p|i
osop|cr -|orisi saio t|at voocn carpc:s vcrc
Carpets are draped over camels on long journeys to add
some comfort for the rider. They also serve as saddle
bags for storing provisions.
Muslim carpets are known for their rich colors and
geometric patterns.
prooucoo in |inc|ia ano urcia, Lot| nov in
Spain, ano voro oxportoo al ovor t|o vorlo
laintinqs maoo in t|o ato mooiova porioo
s|ov us |ov ano v|oro carpots voro usoo ano v|at
poopo t|ouq|t o t|om. n i.t| ano it|contury
Luropo, t|oy voro hrst usoo in |ristian roiqious
paintinqs 1|o i/t| contury sav oocorativo carpots
covorinq taLotops ano t|oir Lasos upLoaro ano
vinoov carpo:s aso maoo an appoaranco
olqian artists voro aso inspiroo Van Lyck's
paintinq irqin ano |io vitn St Donatian,
St oorqo, ano anon Van oor laoo, v|.c| :o
paintoo in i._c at ruqos, s|ovs t|o Virqin ary
soatoo on a carpot vit| qoomotrical s|apos, mainy
circos, oravn arouno rosottos comLinoo vi:| oz
onqos ano oiq|tpointoo star motis.
us|im carpots voro so |iq|y prizoo t|a: a
Victoria ano -Lort usoum puLication quotos a
c|aptor in ict|contury Hakluyts 'cycjcs, v|ic|
taks o a plan to import lorsian carpot makors into
Lnqano lt says ln lorsia yo. s|a nno carpots o
l | .\\. !`l| | J`
1n Persia you shall fnd carpets . . .
the best of the world."
RICHARD HAKLUYT, WRITER
courso :|rummoo voo, t|o Lost o t|o voro, ano
oxcoonty coouroo t|oso ci:ios ano tovns you
must ropair to, ano you must uso moans to loarn
a t|o oroor o t|o oyoinq o t|oso t|rums, v|ic|
aro so oyoo as noit|or rain, vino, nor yot v:noqar
can stain . . l Looro you roturn you couo procuro
a sinquar qooo vorkman in t|o ar: o 1urkis| car
pot makinq, you s|ouo Lr.nq t|o art into t|o loam
ano aso t|oroLy incroaso vork to your company'
osioos t|o ttoman,1urkis| carpot, no ot|or
carpot roac|oo t|o status ano popuar|ty o t|o lor
sian carpot, v|ic| Locamo a stato ontorpriso in t|o
Saavios' roiqn. 1|oso ruors oovoopoo traoo roa
tions vit| Luropo unoor S|a| -LLas io/icz),
ano t|oir oxport ano t|o sik traoo Locamo t|o main
sourcos o .ncomo ano voat| or t|o Saavio stato
arpot makinq vas a |uqo inoustry, ano man
uacturors rocoivoo oroors |rom across Luropo
lorsian cratsmon rom 1aLriz, las|an, lsa|an,
ano lorman prooucoo oyooazzinq ano mos
morizinq oosiqns.
ut Ly t|o oary i:| cont.z t:o carpot inoustry
startoo to oocino, partly ouo to |istorica ovonts ano
connicts, v|ic| ost lorsia its staoiity ano socurity,
Lut aso Locauso Luropoans |ao Loqun manuac
turinq t|oir ovn carpots in t|o iot| contury
T|o nrst proouc:ion o imitatoo usim carpots
in Luropo vas unoor nq.s: patrons 1|o loya
Socioty o -rts promotoo t|o ostaLis|mont o
succossu carpot manuacturinq on t|o lrincipo
o 1urk.s| arpots' :|ro.q| suLsioios ano avaros
otvoon i// ano i/, t|o socioty qavo ic as
avaros or t|o Lost .mitatoo' 1urkis| carpots
1ooay, t|o amo o t|o nyinq carpot o -a
aDin continuos in hlms ano storios, ano
orLor carpots !rom Nort| -r.ca aro onco aqain
incroasinq in popuar.:y
61
CHAPTER THREE
'|ot:s-ot:,:t|:s
.ov-:st- "
ARABIC PROVERB
S CHOOL
`'''1` L`lN`l Jl ` 'L` 'l l`l'^ 1| |l ` `l
|''`'l` J``1Jl `\ `'1l' ^Jl^Jl '`
Jl \'`'^J\ '^l`J\ ''^^'l 1 '|^l`J\ \'^J
J `l J |`_ J `'l | 'l l'
THIS CHAPTER REVEALS THAT WHICH MAKES ALL CIVILIZATIONS GREAT: EDUCATION,
learning, and applying knowledge for a practical outcome such as bettering society.
School i s one of the institutions we learn in, and the medieval Muslims excelled in learn
i ng, from the primary-level mosque schools through to universities and the illustrious
House of Wisdom, an intellectual academy i n ninth-century Baghdad.
The ethos of learning was a culture where i nquiring minds searched for truth based on sci
enti fi c rigor and experimentation, where opi ni on and speculation were cast out as unwor
thy pupils. This system of learning embodied by medieval I slam formed the foundation
from which came exceptional i nventions and di scoveries.
Here you will discover how a thousand-year-old chemical process helped form many of
today's gl obal industries; where the word "chai rperson" came from; the origins of admiral,
tabby, and sofa; as well as read that the 18th-century story of Robi nson Crusoe was not the
first tale of a person stranded on an island.
OPPOSITE: Layla and Majnun, characters in a classical Islamic love story, are shown at school in a 15th-century Persian manuscript.
. CHCClS
A
fter spending our formative years in schools, we have favorite teach
ers, hated subjects, and a bagful of memories from sports days to
difcult exams. Our lives are molded by timetables until fnally we
emerge with a head full of some kind of knowledge.
n usim countrios a t|ousano yoars aqo, t|o
sc|oo vas t|o mosquo T|oro vas .tto oistinc
tion ootvoon roiqion ano knovooqo, as t|o
mosquo vas Lot| t|o paco o| prayor ano t|o
paco o| loarninq SuL]octs incuooo scionco, so
roiqion ano scionco sat sioo Ly sioo com|ort
aLy, v|ic| |as not avays Loon t|o caso in ot|or
parts o t|o vorlo -ccoroinq to Danis| |istorian
Jo|annos looorson, oarninq vas intimatoly
Louno up vit| roiqion to oovoto onoso| to
Lot|, a||orooo innor satis|action ano sorvico
to oo it not on|y maoo mon o| ottors viinq
to accopt oopr.vation it promptoo ot|ors to
ono t|om aio
lrop|ot u|ammao maoo t|o mosquo t|o
main paco o: |oarninq, travoinq Lotvoon t|om,
.oac|inq, ano suporvisinq sc|ooinq -nyv|oro
a mosquo vas ostaLis|oo, Lasic instruction
Loqan Ho also sont toac|ors o| t|o uran to t|o
-raL triLos ano t|oy voro knovn as A/| c/ ':/,
or t|o poopo vit| knovooqo T|is moant t|at
ooucation spoao ovoryv|oro ano t|oso travoinq
toac|ors ivoo ivos o| qroat contontmont n la
ormo, Ln Havqa, a tont|contury qooqrap|or,
morc|ant, ano travoor, caimoo to |avo countoo
aLou: cc primary toac|ors
Young students attend an elementary Islamic school in
Laem Pho, Thailand.
-t t|o t.mo o| lrop|ot u|ammao in t|o
sovont| contury, t|oro vorc n.no mosquos .n
ooina v|ic: is nov in Sauoi -raLia T:o
|rst sc|oo appoarcc :o:o in c.. ano t|c icca
o| sc|ooinq sprcao so ano:|or spranq up .n
Lamascus, Syria, in /.. Liq|t|contury rooLa,
Spain, |ao sc|oo|s, ano Ly t|o lato nint| contury
noarly ovory mosquo |ao an olomontary sc|oo
|or t|o ooucation o| Lot| Loys ano qirs
((Stand up for your teacher
and honor him wi th praise.
For the teacher is almost a
prophet. Di d you see greater or
more honorable than he who
creates, fosters, and develops
personali ties and brains?"
A VERSE FROM A POEM BY AHMED SHAWKI
-t t|o aqo o six ncary a Loys, oxcopt :|o ric:
v|o |ao privato tutors), ano somo qirls Loqan
olomontary sc|ool 1uition vas normay |roo or so
inoxponsivo t|at it vas accossiLo to al no o| t|o
nrst ossons in vritinq vas :o oarn |ov to vrito t|o
most Loauti|u namos o| oo ano simpc vorsos
|rom :no uran T|is vas |o..ovoo Ly a ::o:ouq|
s:ucy o: ::o ura. a.o ..s:ruc:.on .n ar.::mot.c
fy t|o :ont| ccntury toac|inq vas movinq
avay |rom t|o mosquo ano into t|o toac|crs
|ouso, v|ic| moant t|at qraouay sc|ools oovo
opoo, t|is occurroo in lorsia |rst T|on, Ly iccc,
t|o Sol]uks Luit t|o Nizamiya| sc|oo, namoo
a|tor its |ounoor, Vizior Nizam auk o| faq|
oao T|is vas t|o |rs: propor sc|oo t|at |ao a
sopara:o toac|inq Luio.nq Hovovcr, sc|oos
voro os:aLis|oo ano saarios voro oosiqnatoo |or
toac|o:s in t|c cary oays o| sam
Liko many usim Luio.nqs, sc|oos voro con
structoo vit| no cxpcnso sparoo, ano Loauty vas
LU K LLVLL5 L 5LmLLL NL

s school s devel oped, they coul d be di vi ded


i nto four categori es dependi ng on what
they taught and at what l evel . These were regu
lar school s, hi gh school s or houses of readers,
houses of hadiths, and medi cal school s.
Regul ar school s taught general subjects
and were the equival ent of pri mary school s.
Students l ef wi th a pri mary l evel certifcate so
they coul d enter hi gh school s. Regul ar school s
were the most common, found i n every vi l l age.
Dar-ai- Qurra', or the house of readers, was
a hi gh school that taught profci ency in Ara
bi c, and in readi ng and reci ti ng the Quran.
The school al so trai ned i mams and muezzi ns.
Dar-ai-Hadith, or the house of hadi th,
speci al i zed i n teachi ng and researchi ng the
hadith, the sayi ngs of Prophet Muhammad.
Graduates from thi s school were awarded
the equi val ent to a university degree so they
coul d work at rel i gi ous i nsti tuti ons.
The frst school dedicated sol el y to the teach
ing of medi ci ne was founded i n Damascus in
1 231 . Before thi s, medical teachi ng was carried
out in hospital s and through apprenti ceshi ps.
Medi cal school s were not wi del y establ i shed
u nti l the 1 6th century, duri ng the rei gn of Sul ey
man the Magnifcent, the Ottoman sultan.
an .mpor.ant consiocration Lac| |ao a cour:yaro
vit| onc, tvo, t|rcc, or |our :wcns arqc arc|co
|as oirccty opcn to t|c courtyaro), v|ic| vcrc
usco |or cssons, as vc. as a praycr |ai, ivinq
accommooation inoivioua rooms), ano an aLu
tion compcx T|c statc or ruinq ca.ip| cxcrc.sco
somc supcrvision ovcr tcac|inq, ano tcac|crs |ao
to |avc pcrmiss.on Lc|orc t|cy couo tcac|
- :.t|ccntury usim couca:or Ln aHa]]
|ao muc| to say aLout sc|oos T|c sc|oos
s|ouo Lc in :|c Lazaar or a Lusy strcct, no: .n a
sccuoco pacc t is a p.acc :or tcac|inq, not an
cat.nq |ousc, so t|c Loys s|ouo not Lrinq :ooo
or moncy . n :|c orqan.zat.on a tcac|cr mus:
|avc a ocpu:y :o sc: t|c cass in :|cir paccs, aso
v.s.:ors accoroinq to t|c|r ran, to avakcn t|c
s|ccpcrs, to varn :|osc v|o oo v|at :|cy ouq|t
no: or omi: v|a: :|cy ouq|t :o oo, ano Lio t|cm
.s:cn to t|c ins:ruct.on :n c|ass, convcrsa:ion,
auq|inq, ano okcs arc |orLioocn
Ly t|c :t| ccntur,, :|c :tomans |ao rcvo
ut.on.zco sc|oos Ly sctt.nq up carn.nq com
pcxcs in :ovns ikc stanLu ano Loirnc in
Turkcy T|c.r sc|oo sys:cm vas caco ruiyc,
ano cons:itutco a campusikc couca:ion, vit|
a mosquc, |ospita| sc|oo| puLic kitc|cn, ano
o.ninq arca T|csc maoc carninq acccssiLc to a
viocr puLic v|i.c aso o|crinq |rcc mcas, |cat|
carc, ano somc:imcs accommooation T|c lati|
ruiyc in stanLu vas suc| a compcx, vit| :c
sc|oos tcac|inq sc.cncc ano :|cooqy
'|crc oio t|c moncy comc |rom |or a t|csc
ins:.tutions` Not so muc| in taxcs, Lut |rom puLic
|unos :|at vcrc c|ar.taLc oonations rom a :oun
oation ca|co wcj' -nyonc couo sct up a sc|oo
unocr a occo o: |ounoation as |onq as |c aLioco
Ly t|c Lc.c|s o: s.am l.nancc covcrco maintc
nancc, tcac|crs saarics, accommooat.on |ooo |or
stuocnts, ano sc|oars|ips |or t|osc .n ncco
Lccausc coucat.on vas |c.o .n suc| |iq|
cs:ccm, moncy vas qivcn qcncrousy ano .carn
.nq nouris|co lL: attu:a, t|c ..:|ccntury
"It was this great liberalit
whi ch they {Muslims] displayed
in educati ng their people
in the schools which was
one of the most potent factors
in the bri lli ant and
rapid growth of thei r civi lization.
Education was so
universally difused that
it was said to be difcult
to fmd a Muslim
who could not read or wri te. "
EDUCATOR E. H. WILDS
us.| m travccr, :aks aLou: t|c s:uocn:, v|o
vas supportco .cc pcrccn: anyonc v|o v.s|cs
:o pursuc a coursc o: s:uoics or to ocvotc |im
sc| to t|c rc.iqious i|c rcccivcs cvcry aio to t|c
cxccution o t|is purposc
any s:uocnts in :|c ..st ccntur, vouo .kc
suc| rcc coucation, ano cvcn t|ouq| t|c :.t|
ccntury may sccm ikc a onq timc aqo, t|c mct|
oos o: orqan.za:ion, oqistics, ano systcm o| insti
tutions cou.o ocr a cv pointcrs |or :ooay
The university complex of Bayazid II Killiye consists of a
mosque, mad rasa (school), and hospital in Edirne, Turkey.
A Turkish miniature from the 17th century by Mehmed ibn Amirshah
shows the Ghazanfar Aga madrasa in Istanbul.
2 L`| \|PS | T| |S
T
oday more people than ever before are applying for a university educa
tion. This quest for knowledge was also close to the hearts of medieval
Muslims as they were urged throughout the Quran to seek knowledge,
observe, and refect. This meant that all over the Muslim world, advanced sub
jects were taught in mosques, schools, hospitals, observatories, and the homes of
scholars-developing knowledge and learning that eventually spread to Europe.
Thoro vas somo ovorap Lotvoon schoo ano uni
vorsity ooucation Loth Loqan in tho mosquo, Lut
univors.ty in -raLic is Jc:'c/ vhich is tho |omi
n.no |orm o| tho -raL.c voro |or mosquo, Jc.
So in -raLic tho paco o| roiqion ano tho paco o|
aovancoo oarn:nq aro con]oinoo Thoro is no oquiv
alont in othor cuturos or anquaqos, ano somo o|
tho mosquos o| sam aro tho ooost univors|:ios
ramous mosquo un|vors|tios inc.uoo --zhar,
vh.ch st||| oxists tooay:,cc yoars ator -s tho
|oca point o| h.qhor loarninq in Lqypt, it attractoo
tho croam o| intoocts So it .s |novn |or its aqo
ano aso |or .ts ius:r.ous aumni Ln a.ayt.am
:athor o| oxporimonta optics, ivoo thoro |or a onq
timo, ano Ln rhaoun, a oaoinq :.thcontury
sociooqist, tauq|t thoro
-nothor qrano cooqo mosquo compox vas
-araviyin in oz, orocco This univorsi:y
vas oriqinay Luit as a mosquo in o our.nq
LEFT: The courtyard of Al-Qarawiyin shows a Mihrab
behind the fountain; it was usually used for prayer
on summer evenings. RIGHT: The timing room at
Al-Qarawiyin houses a fully functioning water clock,
which includes a series of brass jars and an astrolabe
indicating days and months. On the white wall hangs
one of the oldest European grandfather clocks. On the
noor is the bed on which the timekeeper sleeps.
Prayer mats lie in the
courtyard ofSankore Mosque
in Timbuktu, Mali.
SCHOOL: UNI VE RS I T I F S
U N VLK5 T L 5ANKLKL

t one of t he most southerl y poi nts of t he Musl i m l ands was t he Uni


versi ty of Sankore, i n Ti mbuktu, and i t was the i ntel l ect ual i nsti tuti on
of Mal i , Ghana, and Songhay.
I t devel oped out of the Sankore Mosque, founded in 989 by the eru
dite chi ef j udge of Ti mbuktu, AI -Qadi Aqi b i bn Mahmud i bn Umar. The
i nner court of the mosque was i n the exact di mensi on of the Ka'bah i n hol y
Mecca. A wealthy Mandi ka l ady then fnanced Sankore University, maki ng it
a l eadi ng center of educati on. I t prospered and by the 1 2th century, student
numbers were at 25, 000, an enormous amount i n a city of 1 00,000 peopl e.
The uni versi ty had several i ndependent col l eges, each run by a si n
gl e master. Subj ects i ncl uded the Quran, I sl ami c studi es, l aw, l i terature,
medi ci ne and su rgery, astronomy, mathemati cs, physi cs, chemi stry, phi
l osophy, l anguage and l i ngu i sti cs, geography, hi story, and art.
I t was not al l cerebral , as the students al so spent time learni ng a trade, the
busi ness code, and ethi cs. These trade shops ofered cl asses i n busi ness, car
pentry, farmi ng, fshi ng, constructi on, shoemaki ng, tai l ori ng, and navigation.
The hi ghest "su peri or" degree, equi val ent to a Ph. D. , took about ten
years, and produced worl d-cl ass schol ars who were recogni zed by thei r
pu bl icati ons and for thei r erudi ti on. The Ph. D. thesi s was cal l ed Risaleh
(l iteral l y meani ng "l etter") , and those graduati ng wi th thi s degree were
named Ayatu l l ah, as they sti l l are in the theol ogi cal Shi i te centers Qum
( I ran) and Naj af (Oraq) .
t|c iorisios ru.c oy la:.ma ai|ri, a ocvout ano
pious you.q voman S|c vas vc.. couca:co ano
a|:cr i.|cr.tinq a arqc amount o| mo.cy :rom
|cr |a:|cr, a succcss:u. ous.ncssman, s|c vovco
to spcno |cr cn:.rc .n|cr.tancc on Luio.nq a
mosqucun.vcrs.ty sui:aLc |or |cr commun.:y
. n cz S|c put a ocsiqn co.s:ra.nt on :|c Lui.o
.nq t|at a t|c Lu..oinq matcria. s|ou.o Lc |rom
:|c samc ano n aunc|inq t|c pro]cc: s|c
Lcqan a oaiy |as: u::.. t|c campus Luio.nq
vas compctco
a:o t|c :imcrs room |ao astro.aocs, sa:o c.cs,
a:o o:|cr i:strumc.:s to cacua:c :.mc -s vc..
as astro:omy, stuo.cs vcrc i. :|c uran ano :|c
o.oqy, .av r|ctoric prosc a.o vcrsc vri:i.q, .oq.c,
ari:|mct.c qcoqrap|y, ano mcoici:c !|crc vcrc
a.so courscs on qrammar us.m |.s:ory, a:o c.c
mcn:s o: c|cmistry ano mat|cmat.cs 1|.s varic:y
o: :opics a:o t|c |iq| qa.it, o| .ts tcac|i.q orcv
sc|oars ano s:uocnts |rom a v.ocsprcao arca
T|csc mosquc u:.vcrs.:ics :ot o.y too
oca stuocnts, out aso t|osc |rom .c.q|oorinq
countrics So . n t|c :amous -LLasio univcrsi
:ics o| Laq|oao, raq mcoic.:c, p|armacooqy,
cnqinccrinq, astr.nomy, ano ot|cr suL]ccts
vcrc tauq|t :o stuocn:s :rom Syria lcrs.a, ano
noia Stuocnts at --z|ar Un.vcrs.:, in a.ro
incuoco .arqc numocrs o: |orc.qncrs, aonqs.oc
Lqyp:ia.s |rom arcas outsioc airo
|.kc somc o| :|c qrcat mosqucs, -.arav.y.n
soon ocvcopco .nto a ccn:cr |or rciqious i.struc
tion a.o po.i:ica oiscussion, qraouay cxtcnoinq
its coucation to a. suo] ccts, particuary t|c na:u
ra scicnccs, ano so it carnco .ts namc as onc o| :|c
|rst univcrs.tics in |istory T|c univcrsity vas vc
cqu.ppco, cspcc.ay vit| as:ronomy instrumcn:s,
70 1001 J NVE. NTJ ONS: T H [ [N DURJ NC L E. Gf\CY Of MUS L I M CI VI I . J Zi\TI ON
{Books were presented and many
a scholar bequeathed his library
to the mosque of his ci ty to ensure
i ts preservation and to render the
books accessible to the leared who
frequented i t. And so grew up the
great universi ties of Cordoba and
Toledo to which Rocked Christians
as well as Moslems from
all over the world. "
R. o. MACKENSEN, A CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN HI STORIAN
OF ISLAMI C LI BRARI ANSHI P
-: t|o Zaytuna osquo .n Tunisia, t|oro voro
manuscripts on qrammar, oq.c, oocumontation,
t|o otiquotto o| rosoarc|, cosmooqy, arit|motic,
qoomot:y, minoras, ano vocationa :raininq -:
t|o Tunisian _ayravans -tiqa LiLrary, t|o:o vas
an -:aLic transation o| t|o H:s:o, o/ Anc:cn:
Nc::ons vritton Ly St Joromo Lo|oro ..c
oursos voro o.mcut, ano mooicino vas par
ticua:y qruoinq, as in univorsi:ios tooay, vi:| t|o
oopartmont o| mooicino |avinq a |a:o ano onq
oxamina:ion. -nyi|inq oss t|an a pass moant
t|at porson couo not practico mooic.no
T|o stoonts o| av vont t|:ouq| noorqraou
a:o tra.ninq ano, i| t|oy voro succoss|u, voro c|o
son Ly :|oi: mastor as a |oov ny t|on co.o
t|oy qo on to q:aoato s:uoios, v|ic| astoo an
:noohnito porioo o| :.mo : cou.o Lo up to .c yoars
Lo:o:o t|oy acquiroo t|oi: ovn pro|ossoria. c|air
T|o .av s:uoont |ao to qot a co::i|cato o| aut|ori
zation ano a !iconso Lo|oro practicinq
T|oso cortincatos, |novn as czcs, couo Lo
:|o oriq.n o| t|o vo:o Laccaarous, v|ic| .s t|o
ovost univors.ty ooq:oo T|o torm rst appoaroo
.n t|o Univorsity o| laris ooqroo systom so: up in
._`oy opo :oqory /. t couo Lo a 'ostorn:zoo
-raLic p|raso t|at t|o usims usoo. :/cjj c|
:wc,c/ moant t|o :iq|t to toac| on t|o aut|or
ity o| anot|or, ano :|.s p|raso vas usoo in t|o
ooqroo cortincatos, :,czcs, :or six conturios '|on
a stuoont qraouatoo |o vas qivon t|is !iconso, ano
it itoray moant |o nov |ao t|o riq|: to :oac|
Nov t|o lntornationa Laccaauroato is a quai
ncation |or stuoonts to proparo t|om |or univorsi
:ios any|oro in t|o voro
mL PKLL55LK' 5 LmA K
ow di d the tradition ari se of awardi ng a
professor a "chai r, " or addressi ng the
person i n charge of a meeti ng as "chai r"? I n
school s and universities more than a thousand
years ago, you woul d have seen a study ci rcl e
or a Halaqat a/-'i/m or halaqa gathered around
a professor who was seated on a hi gh chai r to
make hi m vi si bl e and audi bl e to the students.
The professor woul d have been ei ther chosen by
the cal i ph or by a committee of schol ars-and
once a professor was appoi nted by the cal i ph
to a chai r in one of the mai n mosques or J ami ' ,
he usual l y hel d it for the remai nder of hi s l ife.
Cases of l engthy tenure are frequent, l i ke Abu
'Al i ai - Kattani , who was i n hi s 8os when he di ed
in 1 061 afer occupyi ng hi s chai r for so years.
A lecturer sits in a chair, or mi n bar, while
giving a sermon at a mosque.
usims institu:ionaizoo |iq|or oo oouca
tion T|oro voro ontranco oxams, c|a|onqinq
nnas, ooqroo cortincatos, stuoy circos, intor
nationa stuoonts, ano qrants n |ac:, :|oro .s a
romaraLo s.m.ar.ty Lotvoon t|o toac|inq pro
coouros in mooioa uniorsitios ano t|o mot|
oos o| t|o prosont oay T|oy oon |ao cooq.ato
coursos ano prizos :or proncioncy in sc|o.ars|ip
usim .oarninq |it mooioa. Luropo .n t|o
:.:| con:ury. - massio trans.at.on oxorciso
Loqan o| -raoic vorks :rom t|o pro.os OO
yoars irto mooioa. |at.n, mairq aai.aLo t|o
ra:iona. iooas |rom oxpor.monts to a nov auoi
onco 1|o aaiaoii:y o| voro:oroncoo mator.a
k.cstar:oo Luropoan tor:iary ooucat.on ano
quostionoo t|o .ooa t|at t|oro |ao to oo con
|.ct Lotvoon roiq.on ano scionco -t |artros
ca:|oora sc|oo in t|o ::.cs, |.orry o: |ar:ros
:auq|t t|at :|o scion:inc approac| vas compa:
.Lo vit| t|o story o| croation .n t|o L.Lo, pa.nq
:|o vay |or t|o Ponaissanco
SU IOOL : UNI VE RS I TI ES
A 14th-century manuscript shows a dissection lesson at
the faculty of medicine at Montpellier University, France.
T|o nrst uniorsi:y .n vostorn Luropo vas at
Sa|orno in :a.y, v|ic| Lurst into io in t|o ato ::|
contury a|tor t|o arria o| onstantino t|o -:r.can
T|o ironc| city o: ontpo|ior vas an o|s|oot o:
Saorno ano a ma]or contor |or t|o stuoy o| usim
mooicino ano as:ronomy. t vas coso to usim
Spain, w::| its arqo popu.a:ion o| us.ims ano .ovs
Ly :|o ooqinninq o| :|o i.:| contury, t|o intooc
tua povor|ouso o: :|o 'ostorn voro |ao s|.too
to laris, a city o: :oac|ors, as t|o knovooqo o:
-rao.c vorks continuoo to sproao vit| traoinq
sc|o.ars .noooo, many |.s:orians tooay say t|at :|o
ouopr.nts o| :|o oar|.ost fnqis| uniors.t.os, io
x:oro, camo vit| t|oso :raoinq, oponminooo
sc|o.ars ano roturninq rusaoors v|o, as vo as
isi:irq us.im uniorsitios in pacos io rooLa,
orouq|t Lack trans.atoo Looks oasoo on rationa.
t|ouq|t rat|or t|an connnoo to roiqious t|ouq|t.
. CLS | C| | S lCV
T
he heyday of Baghdad was l, zOOyears ago when it was
the thriving capital of the Islamic world. For about _OO
years the city boasted the cream of intellectuals and cul
ture, a reputation gained during the reigns of Caliphs Al-Rashid, Al-Ma'mun,
Al-Mu'tadhid, and Al-Muktan.
T|o roason Laq|oao |ao roac|oo ano maintainoo
suc| a pinnaco vas t|at t|oso caip|s |ao ta|on
a orsona in:oros: in co|octinq qooa, qrouno
Lroakinq sciontinc vor|s -s vo as Loo|s, t|oy
Lrouq|t toqot|or usim sc|olars to croato ono
o| t|o qroatost intooctua acaoomios in |istory
caoo t|o Houso o| 'isoom T|is intoloc:ua
povor|ouso, coupoo vit| t|o stronqt| o| aq|
oao, moant t|o city vas t|o |oaoquartors |or t|o
arts, sc.oncos, ano ottors, ano :|o roo .t payoo .n
t|o sproao ano oooopmont o| |novooqo in t|o
arts ano sc.oncos vas |uqo
T|o Houso o: 'isoom vas |novn oy tvo
namos, accoroinq to its oooopmont staqos
'|on it vas a sinqlo |a in t|o timo o| Harun
aPas|io, .t vas namoo K/:zcnc: c/H:/c/
|iLrary o| 'isoom), Lut ator, as .t qrov into a
arqo acaoomy in t|o timo o| -amun, .t vas
namoo c,: c|H:/c/ Houso o| 'isoom)
.: |ousoo a |arqo iorary, v|.c| |oo a |uqo
co|oction o| o.|oront scionti|c suL]octs in many
anquaqos, t|us makinq .t a sc.on:.| c acaoomy
Caip| o|ammao aa|oi nrs: Loqan co|
octinq manuscripts v|on |o camo ac:oss t|om
ourinq |is var oxpoo.t.ons His son, Caip|
aHaoi, carrioo on t|is vor| ano lator |is son,
Calip| Harun aPas|io, v|o roiqnoo |rom /oc
to cO_, Luit t|o sciontinc coloction ano -cao
omy o| Scionco Caip| -a mun, v|o roiqnoo
|or zc yoars |rom o., oxtonooo t|o Houso o|
'isoom ano oosiqnatoo a soc:.on or v.nq |or
oac| oranc| o| scionco, so t|o p|aco vas |u
to ours:.nq v.t| sc|o|ars or ' ./cc, art sc|o
ars, |amous transa:ors, aut|ors, mon o| ottors,
poots, ano pro|ossionas in t|o arious arts
ano cra|ts
T|oso mooioa| Lrains mo: oory oay .or transa
:ion, roaoinq, vr.:inq, ano oiscourso T|o paco vas
a cosmopo.:an mo:inq pot, ano t|o anquaqos t|at
voro spo|on ano vrit:on .ncuooo -rao.c t|o in
qua |ranca), lars., HoLrov, Syriac, -rama.c, roo|,
Latin, ano Sans|rit, v|ic| vas usoo to transato t|o
anciont lnoian mat|omatics manuscripts
-monq t|o |amous transators vas Yu|anna
iLn aitriq aTu;uman, |novn as t|o Transator
Jona|, son o| t|o latriarc| Ho vas moro at |omo
vit| p|iosop|y t|an mooicino, ano trans|atoo
TOP: A Syrian stamp issued in 1994 shows AlKindi, a
leading scholar in the House of Wisdom, who trans
lated the works of Aristotle. BOTTOM: An archival photo
shows Baghdad in 1932. Eleven centuries earlier; the
city was the site of the House of Wisdom.
|rom La:.n !/c :oo/ o/ Anc|s oy -ristotc,
v|.c| vas in i c|aptcrs Hnayn ion s|aq vas
aso a :cnovnco transator o :|c oooks Ly :cck
p|ysicians Hippoc:a:cs ano acn
: is sa.o t|at a..p| -.a'mun vro:c to
:|c kinq o: Sici.y askinq |.m o: :|c cnt.:c con
:cnts o :|c Liora:y o Sic.y v|ic| vas r.c| .n
p|.osop|ica ano scicn:inc Looks T|c k.nq
:csponoco pos.:icy :o t|c caip| oy scnoinq
|im copics rom :|c Sici.ian . .Lrary
T|c t:anspor:a:ion o Looks a:ico. 'it|ou:
t|c aai.aL.ity o moocrn pancs it is sa.o :|a:
-amun usco a |unorco camcs :o ca::y |ano
v:ittcn oooks ano manuscripts rom r|urasan in
.ran :o Laq|oao
T|c Lyzant.nc cmpc:or vas aso approac|co
Lccausc -amun van:co to scno somc o |is
sc.cn:ists :o t:ans|atc t|c uscu. oooks t|at vc:c
sto:co in |is ooma.n T|c cmpcror aqrcco ano
t|c scicn:ists vcn:, aso c|arqco v.:| L:inq.nq
oack any Looks o :|c :cck in:ccctuas
aip| -amur not ony s:ccrco t|c o:qan.za
tion o t|c Housc o 'isoom, out a.so part.cipa.co
vit| t|c sc.cntists ano sc|o.ars .n t|c.: oiscussions
Hc Lui.t an as:ronomy ccntcr ca.co a:sao a.
aki, v|.c| vas run Ly |.s pcrsona as:ronomcrs, a
Jcv namco Sanao ion -i aYa|uo. ano a us..m
namco Ya|ya .Ln -Li ansur
-amun :ook atcr |.s :at|cr in cstao.is|
inq many |.q|cr ins:itu:cs, oLscra:or.cs, ano
ac:or.cs or tcx:i.cs t is sa.o t|at t|c numLc: o|
|iq|cr inst.:utcs ourinq |is :ciqn rcac|co __.
Hc aso apparcnt.y askco a qroup o visc mcn
to prcpa:c a map o :|c vo:o o: |im, v|ic| t|cy
o.o T|is vas knovn as c|Mc.ns map, or
c|s.c/ c|c'.n:,c/, v|ic| cxpanoco upon
t|osc t|at vcrc aaiaL!c ourinq t|c |i:ctimc o
ltocmy ano ot|cr rcck qcoqrap|crs
nonq t|c Housc o| 'isooms |uminarics o|
t|c t.mc vc:c :|c Lanu usa Lro:|crs, u|am
mao, -|mco, ano /Hasan, knon as mat|cma:i
cians ano .ncntors o trick ocv:ccs, -r|varizmi,
SCHOOL HOUSE OF \| : |.\\
:|c :at|cr o| a.qcora, -r.noi, incn:or o: oc.ryp
:ion ano musica t|cory Sa'.o iLn Harun a.ra:iL,
a sc:iLc, Hunayn ion ls|aq a|loao., p|ys.c.an ano
:ransa:or, ano |is son .s|aq |csc namcs appca:
:imc ano :imc aqa.n :|rouq|ou: t|.s Look Lccausc
:|csc ino..oua.s vcrc :csca:c|.nq, o.scocr.nq ano
oui.oinq a ast co.:cc o knov.coqc, Lasco on :ca
cxpcr.mcnts, v|.c| |as proioco a n:m ocorock o:
muc| o v|at vc knov :ooay
Hovccr vc mus: oistinqu.s| octvccn t|c
-oLas.o Housc o '.soom aLoc ano :|c la:.mio
Housc o| '.soom Dc c|H:/c/), v|ic| vas
cs:aLis|co in ai:o .n icc oy :|c aip| -!
Hakim ano as:co o: .c ycars :|cr ci:ics in t|c
cas:crn pro.nccs o: t|c lsamic voro aso cs:aL
.s|co Houscs o Sc.cncc Dc c|`|) or morc
accuratcy Houscs o rnovcoqc in t|c nint| ano
tcnt| ccntur.cs to cmu.a:c t|at o: Laq|oao
H
ri an Whi taker wrote in the Un ited Ki ng
dom' s Guardian newspaper i n Septem
ber 2OO. "The House of Wi sdom was an
unri val l ed centre for the study of h umani ti es
and for sci ences, i ncl udi ng mathemati cs,
astronomy, medi ci ne, chemi stry, zool ogy
and geography . . . Drawi ng on Persi an,
I ndi an and Greek texts-Ari stotl e, Pl ato,
Hi ppocrates, Eucl i d, Pythagoras and oth
ers-the schol ars accu mul ated the greatest
col l ecti on of knowl edge in the worl d, and
bui l t on i t t hrough thei r own di scoveri es. "
. | lPAP| |S A`l CCKS HClS
t is said that the Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma'mun paid translators the weight in
gold of each book that they translated from Greek into Arabic. This produced
a vast supply of books, commanding the attention and respect of succeeding
generations, Muslim and non-Muslim. During the Abbasid period, hundreds
of libraries, many privately owned, were opened, making many thousands of
books available to readers.
Lo:oro sc.onco Loos camo t|o vory nrs: Loo in
lsam in t|o sovont| contury T|.s vas t|o uran,
v|ic| vas rovoaoo to lrop|ot u|ammao in t|o
:orm o: mossaqos caoo A,c:s, or vorsos |oso
voro immoo.atoy momorizoo Ly sovora com
panions ano vritton oovn oy scriLos on v|a:ovor
matoria vas avaiaLo suc| as loavos, cot|, Lonos,
ano s:onos T|o oar..ost |u.. copy o| t|o oo vas
opt oy a|sa|, t|o oauq|:or o| t|o socono caip|,
mar T|o arranqomon:s o| t|o vorsos voro in
c|aptors, or suras, ano t|o location o: oac| c|ap
tor vas porsonay c|ocoo ano rov.soo Ly t|o
lrop|ot |imso: Sovora copios oxistoo, u: mos:
o| t|oso con:ainoo porsona oxp.anatory no:os Ly
t|oir ovnors
-l t|oso copios nooooo to Lo coloctoo to pro
ouco a s.nqo stanoaro copy vit|ou: aoo.:iona.
commonts, ano t|at vas aso c|ocoo aqainst
t|o or.qina vorsion o| Ha|sa|. T|is copy o| t|o
uran vas prooucoo Ly Ut|man iLn -an, t|o
t|iro caip|, v|ic| oo :o t|o stanoaro.zat.on o|
roao.nq ano vri:inq s:y.os, ano maoo it oas.or :or
t|o uran :o sproao op.os o| t|is .,.cyoar
oo Ut|man manuscr.pt aro sti avaiaLo in
ma]or .iLrarios o| t|o voro, ano t|o prosontoay
copy o| t|o uran is an au:|ontic oupica:ion o:
:|.s oriqina sovon:|con:ury manuscr.p:
Lovo.op.nq stronq a:tac|monts to Loo|s
moant usims also ovoo Lool cooctinq ano
ostaL..s|inq iorarios T|oro voro puL..c ano
pr.vato ..orar.os, vit| a arqo no:vor o| puo
ic iLrarios in mosquos in most Liq citios, pus
prostiqious privato cooctions, v|ic| attractoo
The Zaytuna Mosque college complex was built in 732
in Tunis, Tunisia. In the 13th century, its library con
tained more than 100,000 volumes.
"The book is silent
as long as you need silence,
eloquent whenever
you want discourse.
It never i nterrupts you
i f you are engaged, but if
you feel lonely i t will
be a good companion.
It is a friend who never
deceives or Ratters you,
and it is a compani on
who does not grow tired of you. "
AL-JAHIZ, MUSLI M PHI LOSOPHER AND MAN OF LITERATURE,
EIGHTH CENTURY, BASRA, IRAQ
sc|oars |rom a parts o| t|o usim voro 1no
Loos or manuscripts in t|om voro o| vario.s
sizos, con:ain.nq qooo quaity papor vitn vrit.nq
on oot| sioos, ano Louno in oat|or covors
luLic Look cooctions voro so vioosproao
t|at it vas impossiLo to nno a mosquo, t|o placo
o| oarninq, vit|out a cooction o| Looks o|oro
t|o onqos oocimatoo aq|oao in izo, .t |ao
c iLrarios ano moro t|an a |unoroo Look ooa
ors, somo o| v|om voro a.so puL.s|ors, ompoy
inq a corps o| copyists T|oro voro simiar
iLrar.os in a.ro, -oppo, ano in mao cit.os o|
ran, ontra -sia, ano osopotamia
osquo iLrarios voro caoo cc c//.:./, or t|o
Houso ol ooks, ano t|oy voro t|o locus o| into
octua activit, Horo vritors ano sc|oars oictatoo
t|o rosuts o| t|oir stuoios to mixoo auo.oncos o|
younq poopo, ot|or sc|oars, ano intoros:oo .ay
mon -nyono ano ovoryono couo :ako part .n :|o
oiscussions lro|oss.ona. wcujs n.ssc//, o
scriLos, :|on copioo ano turnoo t|om into Looks
Lvon v|on t|o Looks voro spociay comr.s
sionoo, t|oy vouo sti Lo puLis|oo in t|is vay
-oppo .n Syria proLaLy |ao t|o arqost ano
ooost mosquo iorary, ca.oo t|o 'c,|,c at t|o
citys qrano Uma,yao osquo, vit| a cooct.on o|
ic,ccc voumos |oso voro roportooy Loquoat|oo
Ly t|o citys mos: |amous ruor, lrinco Say| aLava
T|o 'c,|,c vas :|o ooost ano arqost, Lut t|o
iLrary at t|o Za,tuna osquo cooqo compox
. n Tunis vas possiLy :|o ric|ost o| al t |ao tons
o| tnousanos o| Looks, ano it is saio t|at most
ru.ors o| t|o Ha|sio oynas:y compotoo v.:| oac|
o:nor |or t|o prost.qo associatoo v.t| maintain
.nq ano s:ronqt|oninq :n.s ..orary -: ono po.nt,
:|o co.oc:ion oxco.ooo .cc,ccc voumos
-.Ja||z, an oiq|t|con:.ry us.m p|ioso
p|or ano man o| itoraturo, roturnoo to |is |omo
in asra a|tor sponoinq moro t|an c yoars in
aq|oao stuoyinq ano vritinq aLout zcc Looks
1|oso incuooo a sovonvoumo :oo/ o/ An:c/s,
v|.c| nao oLsorvat.ons on t|o socia orqaniza
:ion o| an:s, communication Lotvoon animas
ano t|o o||octs o| oiot ano onv.ronmont tnor
Looks voro !/c A: o/ Kccp:nj ncs Mo.:/ '/.:
ano Ajc:ns: :v:/ 'cvcn:s Ho oioo an appropri
a:o ooat| in |is pr.vato iLrary in oco, at t|o aqo
o| z, v|on a pilo o| Looks |ol on |im.
'|on Look lovors oioo. it vas a traoition t|at
t|oy vouo oonato :|o.r cooctoo manuscripts,
somot.mos tnousanos o| voumos, to t|o mosquo
iLrar.os |or a to on]oy His:or.an -JaLuri says
t|at Naya l|atun, a voa.:|y vioov o| 1urk
.s| or.qin, |ounooo c mosquo in momory o| |o:
oocoasoo |usLano urao L|anoi, ano attac|oo a
sc|oo ano a iLrar, to it t|or Looks camo |rom
U NATTAO L dKAKT

he Umayyad rul ers of Spai n had a l i brary


of 6oo, ooo vol umes in thei r h uge Cor
doba l i brary. So much better was the company
of books for AI - Hakam I I , cal i ph i n Spai n from
961 to 978, that he sai d they were "a more
consumi ng passi on than hi s throne. "
travolinq sc|olars as t|oy s|ovoo t|oir qratituoo
to mosquos |or qivinq t|om |roo accommooa
tions, |ooo, ano stationory
iLrarios couo Lo qrano a||airs ln S|iraz, ran,
t|oso tont|contury compoxos voro ooscriLoo Ly
t|o mooiova |istorian -luqaooasi, as Luiloinqs
surrounooo Ly qaroons vit| akos ano vatorvays
toppoo vit| oomos, ano comprisoo o| an uppor
ano a ovor story vit| a tota o| oc rooms . ln
oac| oopartmont, cataoquos voro pacoo on a s|o|
t|o rooms voro |urnis|oo vit| carpots
Somo |iLrarios, iko t|oso o| S|.raz, Cr
ooLa, ano Cairo, voro in Luioinqs soparato
|rom t|o mosquo T|oy voro spacious, vit|
many rooms |or oi||oront usos s|olvoo qalor
ios to storo Looks, roaoinq rooms, rooms |or
makinq copios o| manuscripts, ano rooms |or
litorary assomLlios -l t|oso voro aooquatoy
it ano com|ortaLo, vit| carpots, mats, ano
soatinq cus|ions
iko iLrar.os tooay, t|oso o| a :|ousano yoars
aqo voro |iq|y orooroo, vit| Lot| puLic ano
privato iLrarios |avinq Look cassincation sys
toms, ano accurato cataoquinq to |olp roaoors
.Lrarians aso |ao contro ovor t|o quaity ano
qua:tity o| t|o.r rosourcos
n :cc, t|o Look coloction o| --z|ar iLrary
in Cairo |ao moro t|an izc,ccc volumos rocorooo
in a ocvoumo cata|oq tota.nq aLout ,cc paqos
n Spain, :|o cataoq |or t|o vorks in -Hakams
iLrary vas aoqoo to |avo consistoo o| /voumos
LiLrar|ans voro appointoo to tako c|arqo ano
t|is vas an |onoroo position. ony |or t|o most
oarnoo ny t|oso o| unusua attainmont' voro
cons.ooroo as custooians o| t|o iLrarios, t|o quaro
ians ano protoctors o| knovooqo T|o manaqo
mont o| t|o iLrarios o| t|o -lmo|ao oynasty, t|o
ruors in Nort| -|rica in t|o izt| ano it| conturios,
vas ono o| :|o most privioqoo stato positions
- t|oso liLrarios voro t|o |ooors o| vita
knovooqo ano as Pap| 'aoo Lmorson, a it|
contury -morican vritor, saio Consioor v|at you
| C^
{(There can be no education
wi thout books. "
ARABIC PROVERB
|avo in t|o smaost c|oson iLrary - company o|
t|o visost ano v:ttiost mon t|at couo Lo pickoo
out o| a civi count:ios in a t|ousano yoars, |avo
sot in Lost oroor t|o rosults o| t|oir oarninq ano
v.soom it| is |oro vritton out in transparont
voros to us, t|o stranqors o| anot|or aqo
ooks|ops, too, |ao t|oir paco in s|ari:q
knovooqo T|o cooLra:oo Looks|op o| Ln
aNaoim, t|o tont|contury LiLliop|io ano
Looksoor, vas saio to Lo on an uppor story o|
a arqo Luioinq v|oro Luyors camo to oxamino
manuscripts, on]oy ro|ros|mon:s, ano oxc|anqo
iooas n t|o usim voro, a t|ousano yoars
aqo, t|oro voro Looks|ops containinq |un
oroos o| titos as vo. as massivo puLic ano pri
vato .Lrarios
'it| papor, wccj in -raLic, camo t|o pro|os
sion o| |ccj 1|o tito |ccj |as Loon usoo
|or papor ooaors, vritors, transators, copiors,
Lookso|ors iLrarians, ano iuminators T|o pro
|ossion o| t|o |ccjccn is qonoray Loiovoo to
|avo startoo s|orty a|tor t|o introouction o| t|o
art o| papormakinq into t|o uslim vorlo |rom
C|ina aq|oao vas proLaLy t|o nrst ma]or c.:y
v|oro t|o wccj: Looks|ops nrst appoaroo, ano
as t|o manu|acturo o| papor sproao, t|o num
Lor o| t|oso Looks|ops incroasoo oramaticaly
t|rouq|out t|o usim voro
K.:./:,.n is a oroccan namo |or LookLino
ors or Look morc|ants v|o sot up t|oir Looks|ops
ano iLrarios, copyists ano scriLos in a oistrict o|
izt|contury arrakoc|, orocco T|is oistrict
vas a stroot vit| a |unoroo Looks|ops ano iLrar
ios, c on oac| sioo Suc| activity roac|oo its
zonit| ourinq t|o roiqn o| YaquL aansur, v|o
constanty oncouraqoo t|o sproao o| Look print
inq ano promotoo qonora roaoinq activity
. -
* >
t 0
.
,

- j
^
+ `

` +
SCI OOL: L l f\ RiI ES .' `l HOOKSHOI' S 79
- `
^ -

g _ -
q >
A 13th-century manuscript ofMaqamat al-Hariri shows the public library of Hulwan in Baghdad.
+PA`S lAT| `C `C\l|lC|
W
hat is strikmg about the discoveries mnovat10ns, research, and
writmgs of Muslim scientists and scholars during the European
med1eval period 1s their insatiable thirst for knowledge. Th1s was
not knowledge for the sake of knowledge; in most cases it had practical appli
cation-improving the quality of life of the people.
T|oro vas aso a spiritua innuonco, as lropnot
unammao |ao saio 'non a man oios, n.s
actions coaso oxcopt |or t|roo tn.nqs a .ont.nu
ous c|arity, knovooqo v|.c| continuos to Lon
ont poopo, or c riq|toous son v|o prays |or |im
-mazinq onorqy vas s|ovn Ly oncycopooic
inoiviouas vno voro vri:inq oovn t|o.r nnoinqs
at incrooiLo ratos, ninq up onormous tomos
v.t| qrounoLroakinq in|ormation ooks ran to
:|ousanos o| paqos ano numorous voumos, ano
|.oo vast iLrarios no qo.oon aqo o| :n.s civi
ization, t|o o.q|t| to :|o t|irtoont| con:ur.os,
savoo anciont .oarninq |rom oxtinction, mooinoo
it, aoooo nov oiscovorios, ano sproao knovooqo
in an onarqoo ano onric|oo |orm To roao moro
aLout qroat |oats o| oarn.nq ano knovooqo
qat|orinq soo t|o Houso o| ':soom soction in
t|is c|aptor
-t t|o noart o| :n.s unoo:stanoinj vas :no
.ooa o| o.roc: oLsorvat.on .n oroor to unoors:ano
nov somot|.nq vorkoo, you |ao to soo i: vit|
your ovn oyos, ano ony t|on coulo you vrito it
oovn no man, Ln aHayt|am, in t|o ato :ont|
contury, o.o |.s oxpor.mon:s .n compoto oark
noss lLn aHayt|am vas ono o| t|o nrst poopo
.n t|o vorlo to tost |is t|oorios vit| oxporimonts,
ostaLis|inq ono o| t|o koystonos o| a. sciontinc
motnoo-provo v|at you oo|.ovo You can roao
moro aLou: |im ano n.s oxpor.mon:s in t|o
Homo c|aptor ano V.sion ano amoras soction
T|is t|irs. |or knovooqo vas in|octious ano
ovon roac|oo .ts ton:acos across ocoans, :oucn
inq nonusims v|o nockoo :o aLsorL t|o vast
oncycopooias, Lasoo on oxporimontation t|a:
t|o usim poymat|s |ao prooucoo
Ibn al-Haytham, left, and Galileo, right, explored the
world through observation and rational thought. Both
men are shown on the front of Johannes Hevelius's
Selenographia, a 1647 description of the moon.
Al-Haytham holds a geometrical diagram, and Galileo
clutches a telescope.
"On the Day of Resurrection the
feet of the son of Adam [man} wi ll
not move away till he is questioned
about four matters: how he spent
hi s li fetime, how he spent his youth,
from where he acqui red his wealth
and how he spent i t, and what he did
wi th his knowledge. "
PROPHET MUHAMMAD
NARRATED BY Al-TIRMIDHI, NO. Z1 1
Danio o| oroy vas an lnqis| priost ano
sciontist, Lorn circa 1140 in a sma, soopy viaqo
in Nor|olk, v|o vont in soarc| o| knovooqo Ho
is ]ust ono oxampo o| an outvaroookinq ano
lorvarot|inkinq Luropoan v|o oponoo |is mino
to usim knovooqo
Lanio vas possiLy a stuoont o| -ooaro o|
at|, v|o |ao vritton to t|o luturo binq Honry
ll sayinq, t |appons t|at you not only roao
A contemporary photo shows Toledo, Spain. In the 12th
century, Muslim Toledo hosted people of at least three
religions-Muslims, Jews, and Christians. They lived and
worked side by side. This melting pot of people and ideas
attracted scholars and translators from East and West.
caroluly ano vitl unoorstanoinq t|oso t|inqs
t|at t|o vritinqs o| t|o Latins conta|n, Lut you
also . vis| to unoorstano t|o opinions o| t|o
-raLs concorninq t|o sp|oro, ano t|o circos ano
movomonts ol t|o planots lor you say t|at v|o
ovor |as Loon Lorn ano Lrouq|t up in t|o |al ol
t|o voro, i| |o ooos not Lot|or t o qot to knov
t|o roason Lo|ino suc| vonoor|u Loaut,. is
unvort|y o| t|at |al ano s|oulo Lo t|rovn out
T|oroloro l s|all vrito in Latin v|at l |avo loarnt
in -raLic aLout t|o vorlo ano its parts
1o |urt|or |is ooucation, Lanio, iko many
younq stuoonts, lolt |is nativo lnqlano ano
|oaooo oast, hrst stoppinq at t|o univorsity in
laris Un|ortunato|y, accoroinq to |im, it |ao
Locomo stao ano moriLuno ano |o coulo |aroy
vait to oavo Ho saio, T|oso mastors in laris]
voro so iqnorant t|at t|oy stooo as still as statuos,
protonoinq to s|ov visoom Ly romaininq siont.
So v|o:o oio |o qo` 'o, in |.s ov. voros,
s.nco t|oso oays .t is at 1oooo :na: -raLic
:oac|inqs aro v.ooy cooLratoo, |urr.oo :|oro
:o .is:o. to :|o vor.o's v.sos: p|iosop.o:s n
.zt|con:ury 1oooo at oast t|:oo cutu:os :oo
sioo Ly sioo usims, Jovs, ano C|ristians T|is
vas a timo o| cultura ric|.oss v|oro al s|aroo
t|o samo, Lroat|takinq oosiro |or knovlooqo
1ooay, t|o vay t|oy vorkoo ano ioo toqot|or
is knovn oy t|o Spanis| voro as conv:vcnc:c.
Although thousands of Arabic manuscripts in the
Toledo Cathedral archives were burned, about 2,500
translated manuscripts-from Arabic to Latin-remain,
dating from Daniel of Morley's time in the 12th century.
t vas .n .zt|contury Toooo t|at possiL.y
:|o qroatos: tra:sa:.o. o||ort in t|o nis:ory
oi scionco :ook paco, |rom -raLic into atin
1|is at:ractoo numorous sc|oars ano :rans.a
:ors |rom t|o Cnris:.an 'ost mpor:ant vo:ks
Ly Crook p|iosop|ors ano mat|omaticians,
v|ic| |ao Loon ost in t.o 'ost, voro turninq
up in Toooo, saoo ano on|ancoo Ly usims
T|o critiquo ano commontary on -ristoto Ly
({The real jewel of Toledo is to be
found in the ci ty's libraries and
involved all three communities
{Muslims, Jews, and Christians}
working i n a particular feld,
translation. Teams of
Muslims, Jews, and Christi ans
translated texts i nto Arabic,
then into Castellan Spanish
and Lati n. It requi red
close cooperation and religious
tolerance. The Andalusi an word
for thi s is convivencia
and means living together. "
RAGEH OMAAR, PRESENTI NG THE BBc' S
AN ISLAMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE
lLn Pus|o, knovn in t|o 'ost as -orroos, vas
t|o roa start o| Luropos cassica roial, ano
t|is vas zcc yoars Lo|oro t|o start o| t|o Luro
poan Ponaissanco
a.y o| t|o commo.tarios on ano summa
r.os o| -:istot|o's vorks oy on Pusno, vrit.nq in
-raLic in CrooLa in t|o ato izt| contury, voro
transatoo into atin Ly ic|aol Scott, a sc|oar
|rom Scotano v|o oioo Lo|oro izo, ano Ly |is
Today, King Peter I's palace in Toledo is a center for
teaching Arabic and Hebrew translation skills. It is
a 14th-century Mudejar-the name for Muslims who
stayed under Spanish rule-building; at that time Jews,
Christians, and Muslims lived and worked together
translating scholarly works from Arabic and Hebrew
into Latin and Spanish.
succossor, Horman t|o o:man T|oso at.n
:rans|ations, maoo Lot| in To|ooo ano S.ci|y, voro
oostinoo to sot Lu:opo aLazo Ho -vo::oos|
vouo aunc| laris as t|o intoloctua capita o|
Luropo -vorroos vas tryinq to oo|uso a con
Hict Lo:voon scionco ano roliqion Locauso t|o
trut| rovoaloo Ly scionco vas o|ton at ooos vit|
t|o trut| o| oivino rovoation T|is attompt |ao
t|o opposito o||oct v|on |is iooas camo to t|o
attontion o| t|o C|r.stian c|urc| T|oy .mmo
oiato|y Lannoo -vorroos ano -r.stot|os vorks
T|o la:.s into.octuas |ouq|t Lack ano a ooLato
raqoo |or yoars, saio Paqo| maar in t|o Cs
An !s|c:c H:s:o, o/ L.opc
-s vo as ic|ao Scott ano Lanio| o| or
oy, t|o city o| Toooo vas Luzzinq vit| con:om
porary transation sc|oars T|oro vas c:aro
o| C:omona, v|o vas transatinq into atin
.mpo:tant vorks .iko -Za|rav.s cvoumo
mooica oncycopooia, Ln aHayt|ams ou
minous oo/ o/ p::cs. -linois troatiso on
qoomotrica optics, -lPazis Dc c/.:n:/.s c:
sc|:/.s or A ':.c, cnc |css: |cc::on o/ 'c|:s
cnc A'.s j'.' /c:cs, ano t|o Loo o| qoomo::y
oy t|o anu usa oro:|ors '|a: is amaz.nq
aoou: o:aro o| Cromona is t|a: |o maoo mo:o
t|an cO ::ansations Lu: novor |ao a |u qrasp
o| -raLic nstoao, |o |ao to vork vit| ano roy
on ozaraL ocas ano t|o C|:istian Spanis|,
v|o oio knov t|o anquaqo
T|o LCs 'o.ccs /o :/c Dc/ proqram
saio, T|o procoss o| t:ansation| varioo |rom
transation to transation Somotimos it vas a
toam |opoo Ly a oca porson vit| -:aLic as
t|oir mot|or tonquo Ho roao t|o toxt aouo :o
an in:o:moo.ary v|o aso knov -rao.c ano vas
oxpo:t |n Pomanco, t|o anquaqo :|at procoooo
mooorn Spanis| T|on t|o Pomanco transa
tion vouo Lo put into atin Somo transators
couo vork aono as t|oy |ao |u commano o|
a t|roo anquaqos
Lvon t|ouq| -|onso V |ao :otakon Toooo
in:o C|ristian |anos, :|o c.ty romainoo us
im in t|at t|o |inqua |ranca vas sti -r.Lic,
spokon Ly us.ims, Jovs, ano ozaraLs a.ko,
t|o cuturo ano customs voro usim, ano t|o
arc|itocturo vas samic Lonq vinoinq narrov
stroots proviooo rooms |or ooqinqs ano s.uoy
|or all t|o transators ano sc|olars v|o arrivoo
lor a t|oso 'ostorn sc|oars, Toooo vas t|o
paco to Lo
anuscr.pts o| t|o atin ::ansations maoo
.n Toooo a:o sti in t|o Toooo Cat|oora
a:c|ivos -Lout z,cc manuscripts aro t|oro,
incuoinq transa:ions |rom -raLic oatinq |rom
Lanio o| orloy's oay
O ATAT
T
here are quite a few mathematical ideas that were thought to have been
brilliant conceptions of 16th-, 17th-, and 18th-century Europeans. From
the studying and unearthing of manuscripts we now know that Muslim
mathematicians, about 1,000 years earlier, were calculating with great intensity.
Many of these mathematicians came from the Iran/Iraq region around cOO,
when the House of Wisdom was the leading intellectual academy in Baghdad.
You can read more about the House of Visdom in a section in this chapter.
T|.s romar|aoo orioo in t|o |.story o| mat|
omatics ooqan vit| Il|varizmis vor|, v|on
|o introoucoo t|o ooqinn.nqs o| alqoora lt is
imortant to unoorstano ]ust |ov siqnicant this
nov iooa vas n |act, it vas a roou:ionary moo
avay |rom t|o roo| concot o| mat|omatics,
v|ic| vas ossontia|y oasoo on qoomotry
Iqoora vas a uni|y.nq t|oory t|at aovoo
ratio:a numLors, irrat.ona numoors, ano qoo
motrica maqnituoos a to oo :roa:oo as aqo
oraic oo]octs. lt qao mat|omatics a v|oo
nov oimonsion ano a oooomont at|, muc|
oroaoor in concot t|an oo|oro t aso onaooo
|u:uro oooomont Inot|or imor:an: asoct
o| :|o .ntroouc:ion o| a|qooraic iooas vas :|a: it
a||ovoo ma:|omatics to oo a..oo to i:so| in a
vay t|at |ao not ooon ossioo oar.or
T|o torc| o| a|qoora vas taon u oy t|o succos
sor o| I|varizmi, a man caoo Iara]i, oorn in
_ Ho is soon oy many as t|o nrst orson to |roo
alqoora comctoy |rom qoomotrica oorations,
ano to roaco it vith t|o arit|motical tyo o| oora
tions, v|ic| aro at t|o coro o| aqoora tooay Ho vas
nrst to oo|no t|o monomia|s x, x, x, ano ./x,
./x, ./x, ano to q.o ru.os |or rooucts o| any
.vo o| t|oso Ho startoo a sc|oo o| aqoora, v|ic|
Hour.s|oo |or soora |unoroo yoars
Tvo |unoroo yoars ator, .zt|con.ury sc|o.ar
IlSamaval vas an imortant momoor ol
Iara]is sc|oo. Ho vas :|o nrst :o qio aqoora
t|o rociso ooscrition o| ooratinq on un|novns
usinq a tho arithmotical toos, in t|o samo vay as
t|o arit|motician ooratos on t|o |novn
T|o noxt contrioutor to t|o aqooraic story
vas t|o oo: Umar a|ayyam, |novn tooay as
mar |ayym, v|o vas oorn in :c.o. Ho qao
A 1983 commemorative stamp issued by the former Soviet
Union depicts Al-Khwarizmi, the "father of algebra."
The algebra studied today in school has as its basis
Al-Khwarizmi's book Algebr wal Muqabala.
a comjoto cassihcation o| cu|ic oquat.ons, vi:|
qoomo:r.c soutions |ouno oy moans o| .ntor
soctinq con.c soctions Ho |ojoo to qio a |u
ooscrijtion o| t|o aqooraic soution o| cuoic
oquations ano saio l| t|o ojjortunity arisos ano
can succooo, s|a. q.o a. :|oso . |orms vi:|
a. t|oir oranc|os ano casos, ano |ov :o oistin
quis| v|atoor is jossioo or imjossioo so t|at
a jajor, containinq oomonts vic| aro qroaty
uso|u. in t|is ar:, vi. oo jrojaroo
ln to mio.zt| contury, v|..o ISamava vas
stuoyinq in Iara]i's sc|oo., S|ara| alin a.
Tusi vas |ollovinq I|ayyam's ajjication o|
aqoora to qoomotry Ho vroto a troatiso on cuoic
oqua:ions, ano in i: sa.o t|at aqoora rojrosonts
an ossontia contrioution to anot|or no.o, v|ic|
aimoo to stuoy curvos oy moans o| oquations,
t|us inauquratinq t|o hoo ol aqooraic qoomotry
Iqoora is ony ono aroa v|oro usim mat|
omaticians siqnincanty c|anqoo t|o courso o|
oooojmont ln nint|contury laq|oao, in t|o
Houso o| `isoom, vas a qrouj o| t|roo orot|o:s
caoo t|o Fanu usa orot|ors You can roao moro
aoout t|om in t|o Homo c|ajtor ano |ov t|oy
oooojoo t|oir tric| ooicos. !|oy voro qi|too
ma:|omaticians, ano ono o| t|oir stuoon:s vas
!|aoit .on ur:a, v|o vas oorn in 3c Ho is jroo
aoy |ost |novn |or |is contrioution to numoor
t|oory, v|oro |o oiscoo:oo a ooauti|u t|oorom
aovinq jairs o| amicaoo numoors to oo |ouno
!|.s torm ro|ors to tvo numoors suc| t|at oac| is
t|o sum o| t|o jrojor oiisors o| t|o ot|or
Imicaoo numoors jayoo a arqo rolo in
Iraoic mat|omatics, ano in t|o .t|contury I
larisi qao nov jroo| o| !|aoit's t|oorom, intro
oucinq imjortant iooas concorninq |actorization
ano comoinatorial mot|oos. Ho aso oiscooroo
t|o jair o| amicaolo numoors ./,zc ano .3,.c,
v|ic| |ao ooon attri|utoo to luo:, an .3t|
contury Sviss ma:|oma:.cian Ino many yoars
oo|oro luor, anot|or usim mat|omatician,
u|ammoo laqir Yazoi. in t|o ./t| contury ois
cooroo t|o jair o| amicaoo numoors ,c,3
ano ,/,oc
"[Algebra operates} on unknowns
using all the ari thmeti cal tools) i n
the same way as the ari thmetician
operates on the known. "
AL -SAMAWAL, MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER
usim mat|omat.cians oxcooo in t|o tont|
contury in yot ano:|or aroa v|on on aHay:|am
vas t|o nrst to attomj. to cassi|y al oon jor
|oct numoors numoors oqua to t|o sum o| t|oir
jrojor oiisors), suc| as :|oso o| t|o |orm z
k
-
'
z
k
-1)
v|oro z
k
-1 is jrimo Ho vas aso t|o |rst jorson
t|at vo |nov o| to stato `isons t|oo:om, namoly
t|a: i| j is jrimo, t|on t|o joynomia .j.)' is
oiisioo oy j, ou: it .s uncoar v|ot|or |o |nov
|ov to jroo t|is lt .s caloo `ison's t|oorom
oocauso its oiscoory is attrioutoo to Jo|n
`ison, a Camorioqo mat|oma:ician in .//o
lu: aqain, vo oo not |nov v|otnor no cou.o rovo
.t or v|otnor i: vas ust a quoss ': vas a yoar .ator
v|on a ma:|omatician namoo Laqranqo qavo :|o
nrst roo|, /c yoars a|:or .ts nrs: o.scovory
atnoma:ics vas aso nooooo in o.s.noss ano
ovoryoay uso, ano in artic..ar i: vas ossontia
in countinq systoms !ooay, most o| us aro ony
avaro o| ono countinq systom. v|ic| ooqins vit|
zoro a:o carrios on into t|o oi|ions ano :ri.ions
lut i: :o::|contury us.m coun:rios, :|oro voro
tnroo o.||oront :yos o| ari:|motic usoo. a:o oy :|o
ono o| :no con:.ry, autnors s.cn as I.laqnoao.
voro vri:.nq tox:s comarinq :|om |oso :nroo
systoms voro nnqorroc|oninq ari:|mo:.c, :|o sox
aqosima systom, ano t|o Irao.c numora systom.
linqorroc|oninq arit|motic camo |rom count
inq on hnqors vit| t|o numoras vritton on:iroy in
voros. ano t|.s vas usoo oy t|o ousi:oss commu
ni:y a:|oma:.cians sucn as Iou a.`a|a' in laq|
oao .n :|o :on:| cont.ry vroto sovora. troat.sos .sinq
tnis sys:om Ho vas act.ay an oxort i: :|o uso o|
Iraoic :.moras ou: saio :|oso oio no: |no aica
:ion i: ousinoss circ|os ano amonq :|o ou.ation o|
t|o Eas:orn Cai|ato |or a onq timo T|o soxaqosi
ma systom |ao numorals oonotoo oy o::ors o| t|o
Iraoic a|aoo:. : camo or.qinaly |rom t|o laoy
on.ans ano vas most |roq.on:.y usoo oy Iraoic
matnomatic.a:s .n as:ronom.ca. vor|
Tno ar.tnmo:.c o| :|o Iraoic :.mora.s ano
|rac:.o:s v.tn :|o ooc.ma acova.uo sys:om
vas oovoooo |rom an lnoian vors.on us.ms
aoa:oo :|o lnoian numora.s in:o :|o mooorn
numoors. : to , |novn as Iraoic numoras !|oy
aro ooliovoo to |avo ooon oasoo on t|o numoor
o| anq.os oac| c|arac:or carrios, out tno numoor
/ croa:os a c|a.onqo. as :|o moo.a nor.zon:a .ino
cross.:q tno vortica oq is a rocon: .:n cont.ry
oovo.omon: !|oso |avo oocomo tno n.mora.s
vo .so .n L.roo ano Nortn I|r.ca tooay, as ois
t.:c: |rom tno lnoian numoras :|a: aro s:.| .soo
in somo oastorn ar:s o| t|o usim voro Num
oor :, |or oxamo, |as ono anqo. numora . |as
:vo anqos, _ nas tnroo, ano so on !|o arr.va o|
:|oso n.mora.s roso.voo tno roooms causoo oy
ati: :.mora.s .n .so .:ti. t|on Irao.c :umor
a|s voro ro|orroo to as j/./c: :umoras oocauso
"Mathematics is the door and key
of the sciences and things of this
world . . . It is evident that if we want
to come to certitude wi thout doubt
and to truth without erro0 we must
place the foundations of knowledge
in mathematics. "
ROGER BACON, ENGLI SH SCHOLAR
usims usoo oust j/./c) ooaros v|on ma|inq
cacua:.ons .a:nor :|a: ar aoac.s
I qroat ronomon: oy us.m ma:noma:.cians
o| t|o 'no.an systom vas :no v.oor oonn.tion ano
aica:.on o| zoro us|ims qavo .t a matnomat.
ca roor:y, suc| :nat zoro mut.ioo oy a num
oor oquas zoro. roviousy zoro oonnoo a saco
or a not|inq. lt vas aso usoo |or oocimaization.
ma|inq it ossioo to |nov v|ot|or, |or oxam.o,
t|o vr.tinq oovn o| ._ moan: ._c, ._. or .,_cc lt .s
intoros:.nq to no:o :|a: .| vo imaq.noo tno zoro s.t
ti:q insioo a |oxaqon :|o ra:.o o| tno o.amo:or o|
:no c.rc.o :o tno sioo o| tno noxaqon vo..o o.a.
:|o qooon ratio !o roao moro aoou: :no qo.oo:
ra:.o soo tno Coomotry soction in :|.s c|a:or
usim sc|oars voro aso |ascinatoo oy t|o
siqni|canco o| somo numoors, suc| as t|o in| o|
zoro ano ono :o t|o no as ono o| :|o attri
outos o| Coo, no:|inq oo|oro H.m ano not|inq
a|tor Him lt .s in:orostinq to noto tnat tno numor
a.s Oano 1 aro :|o on.y tvo o.qits usoo .n :|o com
u:or anq.aqo o| :ooay
Iraoic numora.s camo .nto E.roo |rom tnroo
sourcos lirst, tnrouq| Coroort oo Syvos:or )
in t|o lato ton:| con:ury, v|o stuoioo ir Coroooa
ano roturnoo to lomo !|on t|:ouq| looort o|
C|ostor .n t|o .zt| contury, v|o transatoo t|o
socono ooo| o| ||var.zmis, v|ic| containoo
t|o socono j/./c: ra

.c numora|s) |is :outo


o| raoic numoras into luroo is montionoo |y
contomorary |istorian ar onniqor in N.
/c |ocs cnc N./c ',/o|s !|o t|iro :outo
vas t|rouq| .oonacci in t|o :t| contu:y, v|o
in|oritoo ano ooivoroo t|om to t|o ou|at.on
o| luroo lioonacci oarnoo o| t|oso mot|oos
v|on |o vas sont oy |is |at|or to t|o city o| lou
qio |qo:.a, to |oarn mat|omatics |rom a toac|o:
caoo S.oi mar, v|o tauq|t t|o mat|omat
ics o| t|o sc|oos o| Faq|oao ano osu| v|.c|
incluooo aqooraic ano simultanoous oquat.ons
lioonacc. aso v.sitoo t|o io:ar.os o| oxan
oria. Cai:o, ano lamascus. a|tor v|.c| |o v:oto
|is ooo| l:/c A/cc: T|o |rst c|ator ooas vit|
raoic numoras. Ho .ntrooucoo t|o numoras in
t|o |oov.nq voros, !|o nino numora|s o| t|o
lnoians a:o t|oso 3/cz. `.t. t|om, ano v.t|
t|is s.qn O, v|.c| in ra|ic is ca|oo ccp/:.
ci|or], any oosiroo numoor can oo vritton
lt vas t|is systom o| cacuatinq vit| r.oic
numoras t|at aovoo most o| t|o aovancos .n
numorica mot|oos oy usim mat|omat.cians
1 r 1 1 < r 21 r 31
r 41
< r
51

r
2 I 12 < I 22 I 32
I
42 <I 52
I
3 m 1 3 -m 23 m 33
m
43
<
m
53

m
4
'
1 4 <
'
24
'
3
4

'
4
4 <
'
54
'
5
w 1 5 -

25 W 3
5 w 45
<w
ss w
6
f
16 -f
26 f 36 f 46 <
f
7

17 .
27

37

47 <

s
6
f
o
w
\o - 2o jo
w
4o
<
w
57

9
m
1 9 -
W
29

W
3
9
m
49
<m
s8
w
10 . 20 30 40 < so
s9 m
Nov .|o oxtraction o| roots oocamo ossiolo oy
mat|omaticians suc| as ou a`a|a' ano Uma:
a||ayyam !|o o.scovo:y o| t|o |inom.a t|oo
rom |or intoqor oxononts |y |ara . vas a ma]or
|actor in t|o oovoomont o| numorica anaysis
oasoo on t|o oocima systom. n t|o .t| contury,
:as|i contrioutoo to t|o oovoomont o| ooc.
ma |ractions, not on|y |o: a:oximatinq a|qoo:aic
numoors, out aso |o: roa| numoors suc| as i His
contrioution to oocima |ractions is so ma]or t|at
|or rany yoars |o vas consiooroo t|oir invontor
t|ouq| not t|o nrst to oo so, as|i qavo an
aqorit|m |or ca|cu|atinq nt| roots' t|at is a articu
ar oxamo o| mot|oos oovoooo many conturios
ator oy lumni ano Hornor, .t|contury mat|oma
tic:ans |rom ltay ano lnqano :osoctivoy
t|ouq| rao mat|omaticians aro mos: vo
|novn |or t|oir vor| on aqoora. numoor t|oory,
ano num|or systoms, t|oy aso maoo consioo:
ao|o contrioutions to qoomotry, t:.qonomotry, ano
mat|omatica astronomy
LEFT: An example of the Babylonian sexagesimal
number system illustrates how the figure of ;z;,OOO
was written. RIGHT: The progression of Arabic numerals
hom the tenth to the fourteenth centuries shows how the
Muslims devised modem numerals-the numbers 1 to 9
we use today-based on the use of angles.

\
Z


88 1 001 J NVF NTI ONS: Ti l l LN DURJ N(; lli .\CY OF ;\ US LJ \1 CIVI L I Z!\TJ ON
.7 +P| CC`CV|TPY
T
he birth of trigonometry lies in astronomy, one of the sciences studied
most vigorously by the Muslims, particularly due to its relevance in deter
mining the exact times of the ritual prayer. But even before the Mushms,
Greek astronomers were calculating the unknown sides and angles of certain
triangles, given the value of the remaining sides or angles, in order to under
stand the motions of the sun, the moon, and the then-known nve planets.
ot.atoo oy quost.ons suc| as t|o os.t.on o|
t|o sun, moon, ano anots, t|o roo|s comosoo
taolos ano ruos t|at onaooo qoomotr.c roooms
to oo tac|oo. Tno most t|orouq| troatmont o| t|o
suo]oct .s |ouno in t|o vor| A/cjcs: oy toomy,
v|o vas an astronomor vor|.nq . n Ioxanor.a
.n t|o oary ar. o| t|o socono contury C.E. :o
omy's troat.so roac|oo lurooan sc|o.ars .a
us.m |anos, v|o transatoo t|o or.q.na roo|
t.to, v|.c| moant !/c cc: Acnjccn:, .nto
moro succ.nct torms to roouco A/Mc,:s::, s.my
moan.nq !/c cc:cs:.
Istronomors |rom ato ant.qu.ty vou|o orav
r.nc.ay uon a taoo |ouno .n loo| l o|
A/cjcs:, v|.c| vas ca.oo A !c//c o/ /ocs
:n c :c/c, to soo a t|o.r .ano tr.qonomotr.c
roo.oms or arcs at anqos .n .ncromonts o| |a|
a ooqroo u to .3o ooqroos, t|o tao.o q.os t|o
onqt|s o| t|o c|oros suotono.nq t|o anqos .n a
c.rco o| rao.us co un.ts
ln |.s vor| /c !cnsvcsc| |:j.-, :t|
contury us.m astronomor I!us. oxa.ns
|ov t|.s taoo o| c|oro onqt|s vas om.oyoo
to soo roooms ro|at.nq to r.q|tanqoo tr.
anqos ITus. maoo t|o cruc.a. o|sorat.on
t|at os:ao.s|oo t|o |.n| ootvoon tr.anqos ano
arcs o| c.rcos Iny :r.anqo may oo .nscr.ooo .n
a c.rc.o, t|oro|oro, .ts s.oos may oo .ovoo as :|o
c|oros suotono.nq :|o arcs oos.:o :|o anq.os
o| t|o tr.anqo
lut t|oro voro :vo oravoac|s to ro.y.nq on
t|oso ta|os l.rst, cons.oora|.o man.uat.on o|
t|o taoo ano .ntormoo.ato stos voro roqu.roo :o
so.o a t|o ar.at.ons t|at m.q|t ar.so . n so.
.nq un|novn onqt|s or anq|os o| a r.q|tanqoo
tr.anqo !|.s .s .n contras: to us.nq t|o s.x |am.
.ar tr.qonomotr.c |unct.ons:|o s.no, cos.no,
ano tanqont, ano t|o.r roc.rocas, t|o socant,
cosocant, ano cotanqontt|at aro c|arac:or.s:.c
o| mooorn toc|n.quos, v|.c| voro |rst oo.soo
ano arranqoo .n a sys:omat.c vay oy us|.m
mat|omat.c.ans T|o socono .nconon.onco o|
t|o c|oro |onqt| taoos .s :|at t|oy o|ton roqu.roo
anqos :o oo oou|oo .n oroor :o ca.cu.ato t|o
.onq:| o| an arc
Ictua y a c|a.n o| us.m sc|o.ars |ao a|roaoy
a.o t|o |ounoat.ons o| :r.qonomo:ry oo|oro :|o
:ont| contury, a.nq t|o vay |or ITus. :o co..oc:,
orqan.zo, ano oa|ora:o on t|o.r con:r.out.ons t
vas I.lattan., oorn .n Harran, Tur|oy, v|o vas
ono o| :|o mos: .n|uont.a hquros .n :r.qonomo:ry
Ho .s cons.ooroo to oo ono o| :|o qroa:os: us
.m as:ronomors ano mat|omat.c.ans, oontuay
oy.nq .n Samarra, nov .n lra, .n . H.s mot.a
t.on |or .onoor.nq t|o s:uoy o| tr.qonomotry vas
|.s o|sorat.on o| t|o moomonts o| anots You
can roao moro a|out |.m .n t|o Is:ronomy soc
t.on o| t|o Un.orso c|ato:
oro cruc.ay, I.lattan. ox.a.noo n.s mat|o
nat.ca oora:.ons ano urqoo ot|ors :o cont.nuo
A thousand years ago, Muslim scholars pioneered the
study of trigonometry as they observed the movement of
the planets, and predicted unknown lengths and angles.
Today, trigonometry, including spherical trigonometry,
is used in solving complex problems in astronomy,
cartography, and navigation.
oosoration ano to soarc| in oroor to or|oct ano
oxano |is vor|. Is vol as IFattani, Iou a
`a|a, lon Yunus, ano lon aHay:|am aso ooo
ooo s|or.ca triqonomotry ano aioo i: to t|o
sou:ion o| as::onomica. :oooms
Ilattani vas :|o rst to uso t|o ox.os
s.ons s.no ano cosino, oo|ninq t|om as onq:|s,
rat|or t|an t|o ratios vo |nov t|om as tooay
T|o tanqont vas ro|orroo to oy IFattani as t|o
oxtonooo s|aoov t|o s|aoov o| a notiona |ori
zonta roo mountoo on a va ln t|o Dt| con:ury,
IFirun: oo|noo :|o triqonomotric |unctions o|
tanqont ano cotanqont, v|ic| voro in|oritoo in a
tontatio |orm |rom t|o lnoians
IlFiruni, oorn in _/_,vas amonq t|oso v|o
aio t|o |ounoation |or mooorn triqonomotry,
I|varizmi, oorn .n /3o. oooooo t|o sino,
cosino, ano triqonomotric tao.os, v|ic| vo:o .ator
:ransatoo to t|o `ost
lt vouo oo ano:|o: 500 yoars, .|ouq|, oc|oro
t|o triqonomotry o| tanqonts vas oiscooroo oy
mooorn mat|omaticians, ano anot|or :oo yoars
oo|oro Nicoaus Coornicus vas avaro o| it
1001 l `\ ` 1l ``' 1 | l l ` lL l | `l+ U.C \CY \| \\ L l l '\ || ` | l,Z`1l `
: 'H|V| STPY
M
aterials such as plastic, rayon, artincial rubber,
and gasoline, and medicines such as insulin and
penicillin, all stem from the chemical industry of
the early Muslims, who were chemistry revolutionaries.
|c vo:o c|cm.s:ry .n raoic is /::c ano
vit| c| as t|c oc|nitc articc /:uc occomcs
c|-::c t|c c|cmistry) ln t|c `cst t|c |as: a
vas oroco ano :|c voro occamc `ac|cmy .n
lnq.s| I|c|cmy, |or :|c main ls|am.c mco.ca
sc.cnt.sts, vas not aoo.t |o.|orc or occut rac
ticcs o.: aoou: :|c c|cm.st:.
!|c:c arc t|rcc co|c v|o s:ano out in .sim
c|cm.s:ry |rom a qoocn c:a sanninq .cc yca:s
Jabir ibn Hayan, or Geber (722 to ca 815, Iran)
Jaoir ion Hayyan vas |novn .n :|c `cst as
Ccocr, ano a sc|o.ars aq:cc :|at |c is t|c
|ounocr o| c|cmistry !|c son o| a oruqqis:, |c
scn: most o| i s i|c in .|a, lraq, v|crc |c sci
cnti|cay systcmizco c|cmis:ry. Constant|y in
:|c |aoora:ory, |c oc.sco ano cr|cc:co s.oi
mat.on. iquc|action, c:ysta|izat.on. oisiat.on,
uri|ca:ion, amaqama:ion, oxioation, cao
ra:ion, ano |t:ation Hc a|so vrotc aoou: |ov
c|cm.cas comoinco, v.:|ou: |oss o| c|aractcr,
to |o:m a .nion o| ccmcnts :oqc:|c: t|a: vcrc
too sma| |or :|c na|co cyc :o scc Nov :|.s may
sccm i|c common scnsc, o.: morc :|an i .c
ycars aqo, |c vas a man a|cao o| t|c :imcs
.ao|r ast|y .ncrcasco t|c ossio..:ics o|
c|cmica| cxcrimcnts oy o.scoc:inq s.|.r.c,
ni:ric, ano n.:rom.r.a:ic ac.os, a nov .:a..y
.mortant .n :|c c|cm.ca| inous:ry
Hc a|so ouit a rccisc scac, v|ic| vc.q|co i:cms
c,oc t.mcs sma|cr t|an :|c c:. ra:|. |.|oqram or
..c ounos), ano not.cco in cc:a.n cono.t.ons o|
ox.oat.on, :|c vciq|: o| a mc:a vas .csscnco
Somc o| .aoi: .on Hayyan's v:itinqs inc|uoc
t|c cc: oo/ o/ /c:cc| iopc::cs, /c
|c:j/:s cnc Mccs.cs, !/c /ccc| o/:nc
::on, ano /c D,cs Imonq |is qrcatcst con::iou
:.ons to :|c :|cory o| c|cm.stry vc:c |.s icvs on
:|c cons:.t.tion o| mc:as, ano t|csc s.rico v.t|
siq|: a|tcrations ano aoo.tions unti t|c ocq.n
ninq o| moocrn c|cm.stry .n :|c .3t| ccn:ury
I| :|.s rcscarc| vas car:ico o.: .n |is aoora
tory .n u|a, lraq, v|.c| vas rcoiscoc:co aoout
tvo ccntur.cs a|:c: |is oca:| o.rinq t|c ocmo.i
tion o| somc |ouscs in t|c q.artcr o| :|c :ovn
|novn as :|c Lamascus Catc louno amonq :|c
ruooc vcrc a mortar ano a arqc .ccc o| qoo
Al-Razi, or Rhazes (864 to 925, Iran)
u|ammao ion a|ar.ya' alazi vas |novn .n
:|c `cst as l|azcs, ano |c v:otc !/c oo/ o/
:/c 'ccc: o/ :/c 'ccc:s ln t|is. |c :oco |im
sc| to oc a qrca:cr cxcrt t|an a |.s rcocccs
sors, incuo.nq Jao.r, in t|c cxac: cass.|ca:ion o|
na:u:a suos:anccs Hc o.ioco :|cm .nto cart|y
cqc:aoc, ano an.ma s.os:anccs, v|i|c aso aoo
inq a n.mocr o| ar:i|c.a.y oota.nco ma:criais
..|c .cao ox.oc, caus:.c sooa, ano arious a|oys
:c|orc |.m, Jaoi: |ao oiioco mincra. suostanccs
.nto ooo.cs i|c qoo ano si|cr), sous i|c su
|ur ano arscn.c), ano s.:.ts i|c mcrcury ano
saammoniac)
LV.A 14thcentury manuscript shows hemispherical ves
sels with a rose-andwater mixture resting on a fre-the
red base. The vapors are collected and cooled in the eight
vessels, which feed into eight exteral alembics.
-.laz. aso cxccco .: vr.:inq up n.s cxpcr.
mc:ts rom |is 'c.c: .| :/- '-c-:s vc nov
|c vas pcr:orm.:q o.sti.at.on, ca.c.nation, a:o
crys:a..za:ion morc t|an `,`OOycars aqo
Hc ocs.qnco, ocscr.oco, a:o usco morc :!a:
O .aoora:ory .ns:rumcn:s. many o vn.c| .rc
st.. .n usc, suc| as :|c cr.c.Lc. cucuroit. or rc:ort
or o.s:i..a:ion
Al-Kindi (801 to 873, Iraq)
- ot o -.rinois vork vas :ra:sa:co .nto Lat.:
oy mcn ic craro o: rcmona. so :ooay :|crc
is morc .: ati: t|an -raL.c lor .:stancc, :ncrc
is Dc jco/s, i: v|ic| -.li:o. cxp.a.:s :|a:
tnc comp.cx o a compouno mco.c.:c cou.o Lc
mat|cma:ica..y ocr.co rom :nc quait.cs a:o
ocqrccs o its compo:c:: sampcs ano :na: :ncrc
vas a jcomc:rica. rc.a:io:sn.p octvccn .ncrcas
inq qu.nt.:y ano ocjrcc o c||ccticncss
Likc muc| o: t|c knov.coqc Luit up .: t|c us
.im vor.o t|c vork o -linoi o.o :ot stay :ncrc
.ic a qooo .ocas, .: sprcao arouno t|c q.oLc lt vas
trans.atco into Lat.: ano ccn .::o .oca a:quajcs,
vn.c| cxp|a.:s its sprcao :o Luropc :a..an Ccr.ro
o rcmona maoc t|c morc auaoc :ra:sat.ons
.kc -Paz.s D- c|.c/s c: s'/s a s:uoy ano
c!assinca:.o: o: sa.:s ano a.ums ,suatcs)
mpor:ant sc.cn:.sts o: i:|cc::ury Luropc,
ic -ocr:us ajnus ano Poqcr Laco: camc
:o nov aLout t|csc vorks Poqcr faco: par
ticuar.y oc..cco in :|c qrc.: .mportancc o:
c|cmis:ry, vn.cn |c oiscocrco :rom t|c a:i:
tra:sa:ions o -raL.c vorks
|is |uqc :ra:s.a:.on proccss :rom -raLic to
a:.n, Lcqan in t|c m.oo.c o: :|c i.:| ccntury nc
vork o: aLirs, !/c 'c:c:s, appcarco .n tnc .ast
tniro o: :nc :_:| ccn:ury ano aonq v.tn 'c
i-|-c:.c.s Mcj.s:-.. or ' .| i-/-.:..c vas
trans.atco i:to .a:in lrcqucnty pri::co :oqctncr
v.t| ot|cr trca:iscs i: onc oumc oc:vccn :|c
itn a:o :/:n cc::ur.cs, :ncy vcrc a.. :ov: as !/-
'c, a:o :|c o.umc vas so s.cccss:.. :|a: i:
Lccamc t|c ma.n c|cmistry tcx:Loo o mcoica
.ropc T|.s ma:ua on qcncr. c|cmica .tcra
:urc rcmai:co unriaco :or ccn:urics
Ninth-century chemist Al-Razi is shown in his Baghdad
laborato1y. Moder perfumes would not exist today
without the distillation process.
D| 81| ||A1| CN
LPL` |LN oo P`
|LN|PLo
Muslim Civilization's Ingenious Experimenters and Their Legacy
LEGACY: huehced Luroe8h chem5tryteXtbook5 uto the1]th cehtury
LOCATI ON: Per5 8
DATE: hth cehturyohw8rd
KEY FIGURES: 88hdj8br bhm8yy8h
|
rom rose water to hai r dye, soap to pai nt, early chemi sts worked to create a panoply of
useful substances. As earl y as the mi ddl e of the ni nth century, experimenters in Musl i m
ci vi l i zation were aware of the processes of crystal l i zati on, oxi dati on, evaporati on, subl i ma
ti on, and fltrati on. To make thei r experi ments more accurate, they i nvented precise scal es to
use for weighi ng chemi cal sampl es. But al ongsi de thi s experi mental work, they came up with
new theoreti cal i deas and chemi cal concepts, some of whi ch survived for centuri es.
Scientists of thi s period l ai d i mportant foundations of the modern chemical i ndustry. jabi r i bn
Hayyan, and his successor, Muhammad i bn Zakariya ai-Razi, developed new ways of classifing
substances and organizing chemical knowledge. They wrote chemical textbooks and researched
processes to i mprove cerami c glazes, formul ate new hai r dyes, and create varnishes for water
proofng fabrics. Other scholars worked on synthetic chemicals useful for pesticides, papermaking,
paints, and medicines. AI-Razi, or Rhazes in Lati n, made hundreds of di scoveries in his chemical
laboratory, writi ng up his fndi ngs in a book intriguingly entitled The Book ofthe Secret ofSecrets.
J abi r, known as Geber i n the West, carried out many i ngeni ous experi ments, i ncl udi ng
attempts to make paper that woul d not burn and i nk that you coul d read i n the dark. He i s
sai d to have used an al embi c sti l l for di sti l l ati on, one of the most i mportant techniques of
the period. I n thi s curi ously shaped gl ass vessel , a l i quid coul d be boi l ed down, al lowi ng its
separate pure parts to be col l ected as they condensed and tri ckl ed down the spout. Rose
water was one of the frst products of the di sti l l ati on process, a del i cately scented l i qui d vital
for favori ng foods and dri nks, and i n perfumes and cosmeti cs. AI - Ki ndi wrote a book on the
chemi stry of perfumes, whi ch contai ned 1 07 recipes for di ferent scents.
The early chemi sts di sti l l ed wine, not to make a dri nk, but to use the pure al cohol as a
di si nfectant or i nk mi xed wi th ground si l ver fl i ngs. Perhaps most useful of al l , they di sti l l ed
the thi ck crude oi l known as naf to produce the fuel kerosene, and i n the 1 2th century made
stronger aci ds by di sti l l i ng vi negar. Today, di stil l ation i s sti l l cruci al for refni ng oi l , and is used
wi del y i n the chemi cal i ndustry.
Duri ng the 1 2th and 1 3th centuri es, many Arabi c textbooks and writi ngs on chemi stry
were transl ated i nto Latin to reach a wi der audi ence. One particul ar set of works sai d to be
associ ated wi th j abi r was republ i shed many ti mes up to the 1 7th century, becomi ng the mai n
chemi stry textbook throughout medi eval Europe.
*
m
-- '


_
,';--:,3I



v
* g

\ ,
l _

y
'CVV|PC| Al 'H|V| STPY
T
he systematic approach of Muslim chemists more than l, lOOyears ago
led to the discovery of a process that today affects every person and
every nation on Earth. And a product of this process, after water, is now
considered one of life's essentials. Who would have thought that the black
sludge known in Arabic as naft could have more than , OOOuses? Without the
process of distillation, and in this case of crude oil, we would have no gasoline,
kerosene, asphalts, or plastics.
listia.ion is a moans o| soaratinq iquios
t|rouq| oi||oroncos in t|oir ooi|inq oints, ano
|as ooon |novn to usim c|omists sinco t|o
oiq|t| contury ts |rst ano most ronovnoo ai
cation vas in t|o roouction o| roso vator ano
ossontia oi.s uro aco|o vas aso oo.ainoo
|rom t|o o.st..at.on o| v.no, v|ic| vas roo.coo
ano consumoo mainy |y nonusim communi
.ios, s.c| as Cnris.ians iinq unoor usim ru|o
Jaoir .on Hayyan ooscriooo a cooinq .oc|niquo
t|at couo oo aioo |or its oistiation !|o
oistioo aco|o ano aco|oic mas|os voro t|on
usoo in c|onica rocossos |or t|o roouction o|
acios, mooicinos. or|umos, ano in|s lor vritinq,
out not orin|s, as sam ro|ioits t|o consum
tion o| aco|o ano ot|or intoxicants
Jaoir vas t|o |rst to oooo t|o aomo.c st.
.n .|o oiq|t| con.ury. v|icn is s.i. .soo .ooay in
o.sti.at.on a|oratorios . coooo ano co.octoo
.|o nocossary iquios in .|o oisti|a.ion rocoss
Refineries, like this one i n Malaysia, produce gasoline
and kerosene through distillation from crude oil.
!|o voro aomo.c, i|o muc| c|om.ca tormi
nooqy comos |rom :|o Iraoic c|cn/j, v|ic|
moans t|o |oao o| t|o st.. !|o a.om|ic s:i.
|as tvo ro:or:s connoctoo oy a :u|o l: vas i: t|o
aomo.c s:i. t|a: .aoir oosoroo :|o |ammaoo
ajors com.nq |rom ooiinq vino ano sa.: ln |.s
c|omistry ooo| |o vroto Ino nro v|ic| ourns
on t|o mout|s o| oottos ouo to ooioo vino ano
sat, ano simiar t|.nqs vit| nico c|aractorist.cs,
v|ic| aro t|ouq|t :o oo o| itto uso, t|oso aro o|
qroat siqn.ncanco .: t|oso scioncos
!|o |ammaoo jrojorty o| a.co|o. vas usoo
oxtonsioy |rom Jao.r's timo 1|oro aro ooscr.j
:ions in miitary :roatisos |rom t|o ::| contury o|
oistioo oo qrajo vino oocominq an imjortant
inqrooiont .n t|o jroouction o| miitary hros 1|oso
manuscrijts also camo vit| varninqs t|a: suc|
oistiatos couo iqnito oasiy ano t|at t|oy s|ouo
t|oro|oro oo storoo in containors our.oo .: sano
Iinoi vas |amous |or |is jor|umo oist.
.a:ions, v|ic| |o vroto a|out in t|o oo/ o/ :/c
/c:s: o/ ic/.c cnc D:s::/|c::ons in :|o
nint| contury ln t|is, |o ooscriooo a oist.|a
tion jrocoss ano so ono can oistil vino usinq
a vatoroat| it comos out i|o roso vator in coor
Ilso inoqar is ois:ioo ano it comos out i|o
roso vator in coor
Ni:o co:tur.os aqo, lon lao.s |rom un.s.a
ooscr.ooo |ov si|or ni:qs voro juorizoo v.t|
o.st..oo vino to jroioo a moans o| vr.ti:q v.t|
sior Ho saio, !a|o sior ninqs ano qr.no :|om
vit| ois:ioo vino |or t|roo oays, t|on ory :|om
ano qrino t|om aqain vit| oistioo vino unti t|oy
oocomo i|o muo, t|on rinso t|om vit| vator
Is vo |ao sa.o, aco|oic orin|s aro /cc, or
|oroiooon, |or usims, out t|oir intoros: ano o.s
coory o| it t|rouq| oist.a:ion vas .::onooo to uso
.:s oononcia a:o |arm.oss oomo::s lts o.sco
ory |as q.o: r.so :o a |uqo numoor o| jroouc:s
in inoustrios |rom j|armacou:icas to cosmot
ics uc| o| t|oir vor| a t|ousano yoars aqo |ao
jractical ajjlication, ano vit| t|oir rosoarc| ano
C| I
A diagram wars of the presence of acid. The ancient
world knew no stronger acids than vinegm; but the
acids introduced by Jabir ibn Hayyan vastly increased
the range of experiments that could be carried out.
acqu.roo |:ovooqo |rom o:|or cuturos, :ov itoms
cou.o oo manu|ac:uroo suc| as .:|, acquors, so
oors, comon:s, ano .mita:ion joars
Imonq t|o |oy oxjo.imonts t|at mar|oo t|o
ooqinninq o| synt|otic c|omistry voro t|oso o|
Ilazi, v|on |o ooscriooo |ov o ootain morcuric
c|orioo as corrosio suoimato in n A|.s cnc
'c/:s T|is, coujoo vit| :|o oiscoory o| c|orioo o|
morcury, tooay usoo .: josticioos, insjiroo :|o ois
coo. o| ot|or synt|ot.c suosta:cos !|o oisco
ory o| co.ros.o suolima:o, ano t|o |act t|at it vas
cajaoo o| c|orinat.:q o:|or matorias, ooqan t|o
unoart|inq o| minora acios Corrosio suo.ma:o
tooay |as imjo.tant ajjications in mooicinos as
an astrinqont, stimulant, caustic, ano antisojtic
ln t|o |oo o| inoustria c|omistry ano |oay
c|omica.s, ono o| t|o qroatost aoancos o| mooi
oa t.mos vas t|o .soation ano manu|acturo o|
aum 'rom aum.nous roc|s, t|rouq| art.ncia.
voat|orinq o| a.unito I.um vas usoo .n jajor
ma|inq, jaint jroouction, a:o t|o jroouction o|
su|uric acio lt vas Jaoir v|o oiscooroo acios
i|o su|uric ano |yoroc|oric
. |CV|TPY
M
uslims are famous for intricate and elegant geometrical designs dec
orating their buildings, which you can read more about in the Art and
Arabesque section of this chapter. These wonderful designs could
not have happened without leaps made in geometry, or the measurement,
properties, and relationships of points, lines, angles, and two-dimensional and
three-dimensional fgures.
Sc|o|ars .n|or.:oo, oovo|ooo, ano oxtonooo
qoomotry |rom t|o roo|s, v|o too| a |oon
intorost, ano luc|io sont a lot o| timo on it in t|o
L|ccn:s or most avio mat|omaticians, t|oir
startinq oint into qoomotry is t|rouq| luc|ios
monumonta| ano timo|oss vor|.
T|o invostiqations us|ims unoortoo| in
qoomotry rostoo on t|roo Ho||on.st i||ars !|o
rst vas luc|io s L/ccn:s, v|ic| vas trans.atoo
in laq|oao in t|o oiq|t|contury Houso o| `is
oom. !|o socono vas tvo vor|s o| Irc|imooos
n :/c 'p/cc cnc ,/:ncc ano !/c Hcp:cjon :n
:/c :c/c T|o socono ono is nov unavai|a|lo in
roo| ano roac|os us t|rouq| t|o Ira|ic trans
|ation |y T|a|it i|n urra T|o t|iro ano hnal
i||ar is :|o oimcu|t vor| o| Io||onios o| orqa,
ca||oo !/c on:cs !|is aoaroo in oiq|t |oo|s,
vri:ton arouno 200 B.C.E. n|y |our o| t|oso sur
vivo in roo|, v|i|o sovon camo to us in Ira|ic.
ost o| t|o qoomotrical constructions o| |ot|
t|o roo| ano ls|amic vor|os voro uni|oo unoor
t|o t|oory o| conic soctions, v|ic| voro usoo in
qoomotrica| constructions, t|o oosiqn o| mir
rors |or |ocusinq |iq|t, ano t|o t|oory o| sunoi
als T|o sur|aco o| a so|io oou||o cono is |ormoo
|y oxtonoinq out straiq|t |inos qonorators) t|at
raoiato out o| t|o circum|oronco o| a circ|o, ca||oo
t|o |aso, ano ass t|rouq| a xoo oin:, oonotoo
t|o vor:ox, not on t|o |ano o| t|o |aso Conic soc
tions aro qonoratoo |y cuttinq t|o oou||o cono |y
a |ano into:soctinq t|o qonorators !|o s|ao o|
t|o ano soction t|at romains is ootorm|noo |y
t|o anq|o o| t|o |ano to t|o qonorators Iol|o
nios succoss|u||y arquoo t|at, ot|or t|an t|o circ|o,
on|y t|roo |inos o| conic soctions coulo |o qonor
atoo t|o o||iso, t|o ara|o|a, ano t|o |or|o|a
I|u Sa|| a|u|i usoo t|o t|oory o| con|c soc
tions to oovo|o a romar|a||o rocoouro |or t|o
(Let no one ignorant
of geomet1y enter. "
I NSCRI PTI ON ABOVE PLATO
'
S ACAOEMY
construction o| a roqu|ar sovonsiooo o|yqon, t|o
|otaqon I|u Sa|| alu|i vas ono o| a qrou o|
qi|too sciontists v|o voro |rouq|t toqot|or |rom
a|| ovor t|o oastorn soqmont o| t|o us|im vor|o
unoor t|o ausicos o| |oy mom|ors o| t|o inHuon
tial luyio |ami|y in laq|oao. Lmorqinq |rom t|o
mountainous roqions sout| o| t|o Casian Soa,
ano oriqina||y a ]uqq|or o| q|ass |ottlos in t|o so./,
or mar|ot, o| laq|oao, I|u Sa|| a|u|i turnoo
|is attontion to t|o stuoy o| t|o scioncos Ho vas
intorostoo in t|o vor| o| Irc|imooos, vritinq
a commontary on loo| l| o| n :/c 'p/cc cnc
,/:ncc His main |ocus |ay in conic soctions ano
t|oir uso .n solvinq ro||oms ro|atoo to t|o con
struction o| com|ox qoomotric o|]octs
lor instanco, |o oxlainoo |ov it vas ossioo
to construct, vit| conic soctions, a s|oro vit|
a soqmont simiar to a soqmont o| ono s|oro
ano ossossinq a sur|aco aroa oqua to a soq
mont o| a socono s|oro. Ho oaooratoo on a
nov instrumont t|at couo oo usoo lor oravinq
conic soctions, t|o comloto comass lut Iou
Sa| au|i |ao sot |is siq|ts on ovon qroator
amoitions ootailoo instructions |or t|o construc
tion o| t|o roquar |otaqon. Irc|imooos |ao
suioo a roo| roatinq to a roquar |otaqon
inscriooo vit|in a circo t|at suqqosts t|at it
ouq|t to oo ossioo to construct a |otaqon, out
t|is oio not qo quito |ar onouq| to rovioo an
actua rocoouro T|is is quito common i n t|o
aostract univorso o| mat|omatics. ccasionaly,
it is vory oimcult to oorivo a stooysto roco
ouro |or t|o construction o| cortain mat|omatical
oo]octs ln suc| situations, mat|omaticians con
corn t|omsovos vit| rovinq t|at at oast suc|
a rocoouro oxists, oavinq t|o oiscovory o| t|o
ootaioo rocoouro to ot|ors
Evon t|ouq| Irc|imooos qavo roo| o| t|o
oxistonco, t|o actual construction o| t|o |otaqon
oluooo t|o oost roo| ano uslim mat|omaticians
|or conturios, so muc| so t|at t|o tont|contury
usim sc|oar Iou alJuo romar|oo t|at or|as
its oxocution is moro oimcut ano its rool moro
romoto t|an t|at |or v|ic| it sorvos as a romiso
Cuo Iou Sa| au|i to ta|o u t|is c|alonqo
T|rouq| oolt maniuation, Iou Sa| a|ru|i vas
aoo to tamo t|o ooast, rooucinq t|o rooom to
t|roo stos, v|ic|, i| rovorsoo, vouo oao to t|o
construction. Ho saio to start vit| t|o construction
o| a roovant conic soction oasoo on t|o onqt| o|
t|o sioo o| t|o |otaqon. T|on qonorato a oiv.ooo
ino soqmont accoroinq to qivon roortions, ano
|rom t|o oiviooo ino soqmont, |orm a trianqo os
sossinq cortain roo:.ios linay, roouco t|o |o
taqon |rom t|o constructoo trianqlo
Iou Sa| is aso |novn lor |is oiscovory o|
a mot|oo |or trisoctinq a qivon anqo T|is vas
Tiles from Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain,
make a colorful design. Most Islamic tile designs
have geometrical and mathematical codes.
rolorroo to as t|o omma o| Iou Sa| au|. oy
Ioo ulJai aSi]zi, a younqor contomorary o|
Iou Sa|, ano usoo in t|o const:uction o| a roqu
lar ninosiooo olyqon, t|o nonaqon
novlooqo ol conic soctions vas roquiroo oy
instrumont ma|ors to onqravo t|om on t|o sur
lacos o| sunoials. T|o roo|s |nov t|at as t|o
sun tracos its circuar at| across t|o s|y our
inq t|o oay, t|o rays t|at ass ovor t|o ti o| a
vortica roo sot in t|o oart| |orm a oouoo cono,
ano, oocauso t|o ano ol t|o |orizon cuts oot|
arts ol t|is cono, t|o soction o| t|o cono oy t|o
|orizon ano must oo a |yorooa. T|is moti
vatoo ora|im ion Sinan, t|o qranoson o| T|aoit
ion urra, to ma|o a stuoy o| t|o suo]oct. His lilo
vas cut s|ort ouo to a ivor tumor ano |o mot |is
oomiso at t|o oarly aqo o| / in c. Yot |is sur
vivinq vor|s onsuro |is routation as an imor
tant hquro in t|o |istory o| mat|omatics, saio
J L. Forqqron, a contomorary vritor.
lorqqron t|on summarizos lora|im ion Sin
ans ac|iovomonts His troatmont ol t|o aroa o|
Measurements in nature often follow mathematical pat
ters, which inspired Muslim scholars. The golden ratio
is where the relative sizes of consecutive features form a
ratio such that the ratio of the larger size to the smaller
one is equal to the ratio of the sum of the two sizes to the
larger one, as seen here in the chambers of a mollusk shell
and the arrangement of the spiny center of a conefower
a soqmont o| a araooa .s t|o simost :|a: |as
como oovn to us |rom t|o or.oo :io: to :|o
lonaissanco in |is vor| on sunoia.s, .o troats
t|o oosiqn o| a ossioo |inos o| oias accoroinq
to a sinqo, uninoo rocoouro, ano it rorosonts
a |ros|, succoss|u attac| on rooloms t|at |ao
o|ton oo|oatoo |is rooocossors
ln roation to ractica qoomotric oosin, v|ic|
vouo oo usoo to omoois uoic ouioinqs as
mosuos, aacos, ano iorar.os, us.m qoomo:ors
voro intorostoo in ]usti|y.nq t|o cra|: o| t|o ar:isans
ano oxor.nq t|o im.ts o| t|oir ar: Io. Nasr a|
a:aoiv|o oioo in 950 ano is oot:or |novn |or |.s
vor| on music, |ioso|y, ano |is commontarios
on Iristotois crooitoo vit| a troatiso o| qoomotric
constructions |rom tools vit| various rostr.ctions
His vor| vas titoo. rat|or oxoticay, A oo/ o/ 'p:
::.c| u/:s cnc Nc:.c| 'ccc:s :n :/c Dc:c:|s o/
coc::cc| |:j.cs !|.s con:r.o.:ion o| Ilaraoi
vas a:or inco:oratoo oy Iou a`a|a, .n |is yo.:|
v|on Iarao. oioo, in |is ooo| n !/osc |c:s
o/ coc:, Nccccc /, c/:scn, rovioinq |ul
constructiona ootais ano ]ustihcations
!|o |ino o| roooms to v|ic| Io. a.`a|a
oovotoo |is attontion incuooo constructinq a
oronoicuar to a qivon soqmont at its onooint,
oivioinq a ino soqmont into any numoor o| oual
arts, ano constructinq a squaro in a qivon circo
ano various roquar oyqons vit| , , 5, c, 3, .o
sioos) I. t|oso const:.c:.ons voro to oo carrioo
out vi:| not|inq moro t|an a st:aiq|: ooqo ano a
rusty comass, a comass vit| ono nxoo ooninq
oomotry |ao socia siqnincanco also |or
usim artists, arc|itocts, ano caiqra|ors !|oy
|ao a |oon avaronoss o| to aHnity ootvoon moa
suromonts in naturo ano mat|omatica oxros
sions, ano t|oy voro constanty insiroo oy t|oso
ooo connoc:ions
Suc| moas.romon:s incuooo t|o qooon
:atio, a rat.o o| moasuromonts :|a: is .oasinq
to t|o oyo ano aoars a .ot in naturo, suc| as
in mous| s|os ano ant oavos ln aymans
torms, it moans t|o viot| o| an oo]oct is rouq|y
tvot|iros t|at o| its |oiq|t, or aroximatoy
.ci3. lt is aso caoo a qooon soction or ino, so
t|at i| a ino is oiviooo, t|o smaor art o| t|o ..no
.s to t|o .a:qor art o| t|o ino as t|o arqor art
.s to t|o v|o|o ..no !|.s turns out to oo arox
.mato|y t|o ratio o| 3 . ano is visioo in many
vor|s o| art ano arc|itocturo
Is vo as ooinq |ascinatoo oy t|oso qoomot:ica
occurroncos, artists voro also oo|inq |or t|o contor
o| any systom o| c|aos, so .|.s concot o| conto: in
torms o| roo:tion romainoo .|oir |ocus, too
!|o !//wcn c|'c/c, or Frot|ors o| lu:ity,
voro a qrou o| sc|o|ars in t|o ton.| cont.:y,
v|o rocorooo t|oir iooas aoout roortion in
t|oir Lp:s:|cs or Rcsc':| T|oy |nov o| t|o loman
canon o| Vitruius, a n rstcontury F C. L arc|itoct
ano vritor, v|o moasuroo t|o |uman oooy as a
systom o| roortion lt vas t|is iooa t|o !//wcn
consiooroo to oo oo|octio, as it vas contoroo on
t|o sacrum or t|o qroin, instoao o| t|o nao
V.truiuss nno.nqs voro oasoo on a roo
canon, ano t|is vas |ounooo on an anc.ont Lqy
tian ruo o| roort.on, v|ic| roatoo to t|o oac|
oono o| t|o qoo siris !|o sacroo oac|oono,
or D,c: iar, vas a rooynastic rorosontation
o| siris ano it rorosontoo sta|iity, onouranco,
ano qooonoss
|tor ainsta.nq rosoarc|, t|o !//wcn's ois
tos camo to a oi||oront concusion !|oy osta|
.s|oo t|at v|on t|o |uman oooy vas strotc|oo
ano ox.onooo out, t|o nnqortis ano t|o ..s o| t|o
toos touc|oo t|o ci:cum|oronco o| an imaq.noo
circo !|o contor o| t|is circo vas t|on t|o nao
ano not t|o qroin, i| t|o oooy vas t|at o| a c|io
unoor aqo soon !|is or|oct roortion, vit| t|o
nao oo.nq t|o contor, ooqins to oo oisroor
tiona.oy acoo a|tor t|o aqo o| soon.|o aqo o|
.nnoconco t oirt|, t|o miooint o| t|o oooy |s
at .|o nao s t|o inoiioua qrovs t|o m.oo.nt
oros unti it roac|os t|o qroin or sacrum
T|o roor.iona ratio rooucos an iooa hquro
|or roliqious aintinq !|o viot| is oiq|t sans,
t|o |oiq|t is ton sans, ano t|o miooint is on t|o
nao. !|o oiision o| t|o hquro is a oooy oiq|t
|oaos 'onq, a |oot is an oiq|t| o| a oooy, t|o |aco is
an oiq|t| o| a oooy, t|o |oro|oao is a t|iro o| t|o
|aco, ano a |aco is |our nosos or |our oars
`it| t|o nao as t|o contor o| t|o circo,
v|ic| rorosontoo t|o lart| ano t|o aco o| i|o
sustonanco, t|is oomonstratoo a oiino mani|os
tation !|oso oiino roortions voro ro|octoo
in cosmooqy. mus.cooqy, ano caiqra|y, ano
in a arts |rom .|o .ont| contu:y !|oy voro soon
as t|o |oy .o ! no.nq |armony ano, |or t|o mys
tics. cosonoss .o oo
lor oxamo, t|o natura |armony o| t|o nq
uro o| oiq|t vas soon oy usim sc|oars as t|o
oasic numoor, v|ic| motiatoo t|om to ma|o
moasuromonts in music scao, ootry, cal.qra
|y, ano artistic t|mos
!|oro is, o| cou:so, t|o v|oo |ascinatinq aroa
o| t|o aqoora.c qoomot:y o| Umar a||ayyam,
ano t|o qoomo.ric t|oory o| onsos oy I|1usi,
v|ic| voro oot| ncv no|os o| qoomot:y !o roao
moro aoou. t|oso o to .|o soc.ions at|oma.ics
in t|is c|ator, ano Vision ano Camoras in t|o
Homo c|ator

Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man" shows the pro


portions of the human body, which were discussed in
the tenth-century Epistles of the Ikhwan al-Safa'.
PT A!l TH|
:o|ot u|ammao so|o out aqainst t|o or
traya o| |uman or animal |orms in art Ho oio
not vant usims at t|o timo to roort to vor
s|iinq ioos, |quros, or t|o matoria voro, a
rols:amic ractico, v|ic| vouo ta|o attontion
avay |rom oo.
oomot:y oocamo contra to t|o art o| t|o
lusim voro I:tists |rooo t|o.r imaqination
ano croat.ity to roouco a totay nov art |orm
caoo t|o araoosquo, a oooomont o| qoo
motric art. Iraoosquo is a attorn o| many units
]oinoo ano intorlacoo toqot|or, al |ovinq |rom
t|o ot|ors in al oiroctions lac| inooonoont
unit is comoto ano caaoo o| stanoinq aono,
out a aro intorin|oo ano |orm a art o| t|o
v|oo oos.qn !|oso tvooimonsiona oosiqns
voro mosty usoo to oocorato sur|acos i|o coi
inqs, vas, carots, |urnituro,
ano toxtios
utstanoinq oxamos o|
t|is so|isticatoo art |orm
voro roconty oiscooroo
v|on t|o !o|ai scro vas
uncooroo in stanou. !|o
sc:o, vit| its :. inoiioua
qoomot:ic attorns |or va
sur|acos ano autinq, is t|o
vor| o| a mastor ouioor v|o
vor|oo in orsia ourinq t|o lato it| or ict|
contury lt is t|o oariost o| its |ino to |ao ooon
|ouno intact. lo|oro its oiscoory, t|o oariost
|novn lsamic arc|itoctura scros voro |raq
monts |rom t|o .ct| contury arouno lu||ara,
Uzoo|.stan
Iraoosquo can a|so oo |ora|, usinq a sta.|,
oa|, or |ovor, or a comoination o| |ora ano
qoomotric attorns, ano t|oso oosiqns oquay
|ascinatoo Lurooan artists `or|s |rom t|o
lonaissanco, laroquo, lococo, mooorn art ar
ticularly in t|o qrotosquo), ano stravor| al |oa
turoo t|o attorns
Loonaroo oa Vinci |ouno araoosquo |asc.
natinq, ano usoo to sono consiooraoo timo
vor|inq out comicatoo attorns !|o |amous
|not oosiqn vas vorn oy lnqanos .nq Honry
Vlll, ano it aoars in |.s
ortrait on t|o ooroor o| |is
coa| ano t|o curtains luror
usoo qoomotric attorns, as
oio la|ao !|o qrotosquo
oosiqns o| ./t|contury ronc|
The Lotfollah Mosque in Isfahan,
Iran, shows arabesque and inter
woven monumental cursive-style
calligraphy of Quranic verses
above and below the pointed arch.
({The staggering array
of geometric patterns
shows the way the
Muslim craftsmen explored
the concept of i nfmi t through
mathematical repetition. "
REPORTER RAGEH OMAAR TALKI NG ABOUT
THE ALHAMBRA I N GRANADA I N
THE BBC
'
S AN ISLAMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE
artist Joan lcrain s|ov it, ano iot|contury lta
ian artists caloo it atc|esc/:
no o| t|o oost |novn zot|contury artists
insiroo oy qoomotric art vas Lutc|man C.
Esc|or. Ho croatoo uniquo ano |ascinatinq
vor|s o| art t|at oxoroo a vioo ranqo o| mat|
omatica iooas, ano not surrisinqy |o orov |is
insira:ion |rom t|o tio attorns .soo in :|o
I|amora, v|ic| |o isitoo in io Ho sont
many oays s|otc|inq t|oso, ano ator saio t|at
t|is vas :|o ric|ost sourco o| insiration t|a: l
|ao oor :aoo
lt vas not ony t|o araoosquo t|at camo to
Euroo, in t|o .t| contury an imortant oroa|
t|rouq| |or Eurooan artists too| laco lrom
t|o usim vorlo t|oy imortoo oil aint. l n
t |o ast t|oy |ao ony usoo tomora aint on
vooo anos, v|ic| vas a suostanco maoo o| a
comoination o| oqq, vator, |onoy, ano oyo !|o
oxonsio insooo oi a.:t |ao a oramatic o||oc:
on Eurooan aintinqs, as it on|ancoo t|o coor
saturation o| lomis| ano Vonotian icturos
CLOCKSE FROM LEFT: A portrait of King Henry VIII, who
ruled 1509-1547 shows him with the Islamic knot-style pat
tern on the border of his cloak and on the curtain; he stands
on a Turkish carpet with its Ushak star. Ceramic tiles dis
play the Iznik blue patterns at Topkapi Palace in Turkey.
The Topkapi scroll from the late 15th or 16th century shows
individual geometric patterns for wall surfaces and vault
ing compiled by a Persian master builder.
2 +H| CP| l|
T
here are many types of decorative writing, like Egyptian hieroglyph
ics, or Chinese or Japanese scripts, but Arabic calligraphy developed
independently from all of these. It existed in Arabia even before Islam
in the seventh century, but Muslims signincantly developed it. They used it in
art, sometimes combined with geometrical and natural ngures, but it was also
a form of worship, as the Quran promises divine blessings to those who read
and write it. With the pen as a symbol of knowledge, the art of calligraphy was
an art in the remembrance of God.
`it| t|.s qroa. .motus to vrito artistica|y, a
nnal inqrooiont qao caiqra|y anot|or ou
arity ooost T|is vas t|o mystica ovor attrio
utoo to somo voros, namos, ano sontoncos as
rotoct.ons aqainst o.
T|o anquaqo o| Irao.c caiqra|y oo|onqs
to .|o |am.y o| anc.ont Somit.c |anquaqos, ano i.
comos in many scrits, t|o most |amous o| v|ic|
aro K./c ano Ncs//
T|o K./c scrit comos |rom t|o city o| u|a,
raq, v|oro it vas usoo oy scrioos transcrioinq
t|o uran in t|o u|a sc|oo o| vritinq. T|o ot
.ors o| t|is scrit aro anquar.
T|o Ncs// scr.t is ooor t|an K./c, out it
rosom|os t|o c|aractors usoo oy mooorn Ira
|ic vri..nq ano rin:inq lt .s ]oinoo u, a curs.o
scrit, ano rouno, ano |as a |ov somistyos Is
oarly as .|o .ont| contury, |amous caiqra|or
Iou'Ii ion uqla ooisoo a systomatic cas
sihcation o| t|o scrit accoroinq to qoomotric
r.ncios, ostaois|inq a unit o| moasuromon.
|or ottors ano croat.nq a |aanco amonq t|om
Ho coun.oo s.x cursio scrits, v|.c |ocamo
|novn as c|cj|c c|s:::c Ncs// ca|iqra|y
|ocamo moro ouar t|an K./c styo, v|ic| vas
oooooo oy t|o ttomans.
Fo|oro aor vas introoucoo, arc|mont ano
ayrus voro t|o main matorials |or coyinq t|o
uran, vritinq manuscrits, ano corrosonoonco
LEFT: World-famous Turkish calligrapher Hasan Celehi
instructs a student in the art of calligraphy. RIGHT: An
ancient Kufic script displays two Quranic verses (21
and 22, chapter 31); the circle in the center signifies the
separation between the verses.
1mL51LKT LLK NL K. 1mL NT51LKT L mATT I dN TAQZAN
An illustration by Karima Solbergfrom I bn Tufayl's Story of
Hayy i bn Yaqzan shows him with his adoptive "mother, " a
doe. Daniel Defoe's 18thcentury Robi nson Crusoe is very
similar to Ibn Tufayl's 12th-century Hayy i bn Yaqzan.
|
n earl y 1 2th-century Musl i m Spai n, a gifed
phi l osopher, mathemati ci an, poet, and medi
cal doctor was born. I bn Tufayl , or Abu Bakr i bn
Abd ai - Mal i k i bn Muhammad i bn Muh ammad
i bn Tufayl ai -Qaysi , to give hi s ful l name, became
known i n the West as Abubacer. He hel d royal
posts as an advi ser and court physi ci an to Abu
Yaqub Yusef, the Al mohad rul er of AI -Andal us,
and he i s remembered today for The Stor ofHayy
ibn Yaqzan, the ori gi nal manuscri pt of wh ich i s
now i n the Bodl ei an Li brary at Oxford. Thi s tal e
was i nspi red by an earl i er story from the nth
century physi ci an-phi l osopher I bn Si na, who al so
wrote a narrative cal l ed Hayy ibn Yaqzan about a
century earl i er. But was the story itsel f the i nspi
ration for the book Life and Strange Ad1entures of
Robinson Crusoe, by Dani el Defoe?
Hayy ibn Yaqzan means "Al i ve, son of Awake, " so thi s is "The Story of Al i ve, son of Awake, " whi ch
descri bes Hayy' s character passi ng from s l eepy chi l dhood to knowl edge by means of whi ch he can
ful l y contempl ate the worl d and hi s su rroundi ngs.
I t begi ns wi th Hayy as a chi l d, a pri ncess' s son whose bi rth was a secret. He i s cast upon the shore
of an equatori al i sl and where he is suckl ed by a doe and spends the frst Oyears of hi s l i fe wi thout
contact wi th any other h uman bei ngs. Hi s i sol ati on i s i n seven stages of seven years. Duri ng each
seven-year stage he i s hi s own teacher and l earns about hi msel f and hi s surroundi ngs.
The frst Engl i sh transl ati ons of Hayy i bn Yaqzan appeared i n 1 ]OQ. El even years l ater, Defoe' s
famous book was publ i shed. Many of Defoe' s contemporari es sai d hi s i nspi rati on l ay i n the experi ences
of Alexander Sel ki rk, a Scotti sh mari ner who passed more than four years i n sol itude on one of the J uan
Fernandez I sl ands. But the si mi l ari ti es between Robinson Crusoe and Hayy ibn Yaqzan are enough to
make it probabl e that Defoe knew the Musl i m work. From the i sl and shi pwreck to the angui sh of i sol a
ti on and struggl e for survi val , Robinson Crusoe bears many si mi l ari ti es with the ol der work.
arc|mont vas oura|o, ustrous, ano |uxurious,
t|ouq| ony ono sioo couo |o usoo ayrus vas
|ritto ano couo not |o orasoo, v|ic| maoo it
uso|u osocialy |or qovornmont rocoros lot|
voro oxons.vo, so v|on t|o c|oaor a|to:na:ivo,
aor, vas massrooucoo in t|o ato oiq|t| con
tury |y t|o usims, a|tor oa:ninq t|o a:t |rom
C|ina, t|o art o| vritinq |oomoo
Luroo camo .nto contact vit| Ira|ic caiq
ra|y t|rouq| :raoo ano qi|t oxc|anqo |otvcon
Lurooan ano usim roya courts It |rst,
Lurooans imitatoo Ira|ic caiqra|y vit|out
|novinq v|at it saio. ano !./c inscritions |rom
t|o l|n !uun osquo, |uit in Cairo in 3/, voro
rorooucoo in ot|ic art, |rs: in lranco, t|on in
ot|or arts o| Lu:oo `or|s suc| as t|o carvoo
voooon ooors |y mastor carvor an l:oous in
a c|ao o| t|o unoor orc| o| t|o Cat|oo:a. o|
Lo uy in ranco. ano anot|or carvoo ooor in
t|o c|urc| o| a Vauto C|iac noar Lo uy, aro
aso attri|utoo to t|o in|uonco o| t|o l|n !uun
osquo Traoors |rom Iman in ltay v|o visitoo
(Read: In the name of your
Lord Who creates, creates man
from a clot. Read: And your
Lord is the Most Bounteous,
Who teaches by the use of
the pen, teaches man
that whi ch he knew not. "
QURAN (96: 1 -5)-THE FI RST VERSE OF THE QURAN
REVEALED TO PROPHET MUHAMMAD
Cairo aro ooiooo to oo rosonsiolo |or t|o
transmission o| t|oso oosiqns into luroo as
t|oy |ao socia roations vit| latimio Cairo at
t|at timo
ln |is ooo| lcjcc, o/ !s|c, ro|ossor !|omas
Irnoo saio a cross t|at rooaoly oatos oac| to t|o
nint| contury vas |ouno in lroano vit| t|o |raso
csc|c/ /::s A||c/), or n t|o namo o| oo,
inscriooo in K:|c caliqra|y on it. ln ot|or art
|orms, osocialy aintinq, K.|c inscrition vas
aoooo |or stylo. oolo voro oravn to caiqra|y,
oon ltaian lonaissanco aintor ontilo oa lao
riano usoo it in t|o oocoratio ooqinq o| cot|os . n
|is aintinq Iooration o| t|o aqi
lo|oro ons, as vo |nov t|om tooay, camo
ot|or vritinq instrumonts incuoinq to jc|c,
or rooo on !|o most souq|ta|tor rooos camo
|rom t|o coasta anos o| t|o Iraoian ul | ano
t|oy voro aluaoo traoinq commooitios T|oir
onqt| arioo ootvoon .. ano o contimotors
ano ll. c inc|os) ano t|oir oiamotor qonor
ally moasuroo ono contimotor o. inc|) Eac|
styo o| scrit roquiroo a oi||oront rooo, cu: at a
socihc anqo.
n|s voro o| oi||oront tyos ano coors, vit|
oac| ano oar| orovn in|s most o|ton usoo, al oi|
|oroo in intonsity ano consistoncy Caiqra|ors
usually maoo t|oir ovn in|s, ano somotimos t|o
rocios voro cosoy quarooo socrots Sior ano
qoo in|s voro usoo on ouo oum, in |ront.s
iocos, |or iustrations, ano |or tito aqos. Co
oroo in|s suc| as roos, v|itos, ano ouos voro
somotimos usoo .n iuminatoo |oaoinqs n| ots,
ois|inq stonos, ano sano |or oryinq t|o in| voro
aooitiona accossorios usoo oy caiqra|ors
NAK NL L A PLN

n outstandi ng publ i ci st, confdant, a n d compani on of AI - Mu' i zz, the Egyp


ti an sul tan in qjj, wrote a book cal l ed The Book ofAudiences and Concur
rence. Hi s name was Qadi abu Hani fah ai - Nu' man i bn Muhammad, and here he
recounts AI - Mu' i zz commi ssi oni ng the constructi on of a fountai n pen:
"We wi sh to construct a pen whi ch can be used for wri ti ng wi thout havi ng
recourse to an i nk-hol der and whose i nk wi l l be contai ned i nsi de i t. A person can
fl l i t with i nk and write whatever he l i kes. The writer can put it i n hi s sl eeve or any
where he wi shes and it wi l l not stai n nor wi l l any drop of i nk l eak out of i t. The i nk
wi l l flow onl y when there i s an i ntenti on t o write. We are unaware of anyone previ
ousl y ever constructi ng [a pen such as thi s] and an i ndi cati on of ' penetrati ng wis
dom' to whoever contempl ates i t and real i ses its exact si gni fcance and purpose. "
I excl ai med, " I s thi s possi bl e?" He repl i ed, " I t i s possi bl e i f God so wi l l s. "
The story conti nues that a few days l ater t he crafsman brought a pen that wrote when i t was
fl l ed wi th i nk. The pen coul d be turned upsi de down and ti pped from si de to si de wi thout any i nk
bei ng spi l l ed. The pen di d not rel ease t he i nk except i n wri ti ng and i t di d not l eave stai ns on hands or
cl othes. Lastl y, i t di d not need an i nk pot because i t had i ts own, hi dden away.
,

--
`t
|
~.
^
Y
T
r

\
--
0
:
^
:
* **

7 7
The first chapter of the Quran in Jali Diwani style was gilded by
master gilder Mamure Oz from the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul.
^ :* :*

1
f 7

106 i!\I l ``l `l l L`` 1 l | |` lLll `l l|'\ | `L | | ` '| ` | l l t`1| `


$e
CPl CY|P
T
his alphabet lists j ust some of the words that have come from sources
in Muslim civilization and have passed into the English language with
their original meaning intact. It is only a small selection. The actual list
carries on into the thousands.
is |or admiral, |:on c:c| comnanoo:
o| |i|o c: c|/c/, or comnanoo:
o| .|o soas `|on .|o lurooans aoatoo c:
c|, t|oy aoooo t|oir ovn .atin ronx cc, roouc
.nq aomi:a `|on t|is :oac|oo Enq|is|, .a o
rronc|, i. st.|| moan. comnanoor, ano .t vas not
unti t|o .imo o| Enqanos Eovaro ' .|a. a stronq
naa| |in| |oqan to onorqo /is aso |o: arsenal,
|rom cc c|s:nc'c/, moaninq |o.so o| ma|inq/
.no.s.:y |.|o a |ac.o:y 1|.s vas oorrovoo .n.o
Vonotian ta|ian, v|o:o t|o ini..a o vas not ro
nouncoo ano oocamo czcn, v|ic| vas a|ioo
to .|o .a:qo naa ooc|ya:o .n Von.co !|o ooc|
ya:o .s |novn to t|is oay as t|o rzona|o Lnq.s|
acu.roo t|o voro o.t|o: |ron .a..an or |:om .|o
ronc| cscnc.c, usinq i. ony |o: ooc|yaros ly
.|o ono o| .|o .ct| cont.:y, i. vas coninq .n.o
mo:o qono:a .so as an amnuni..on s.o:o|ouso
.s |or barbican, |:om t|o :a|ic /c/ c|
/cjcc/ o: qato vit| |oos
is |or crimson, |rom j.:z:, v|ic| is roatoo
.o .|o j::z, t|o .nsoct t|at roo.coo .|o :oo
oyo j::z C is a|so |or caviar, v|.c| may cono
|:om a:s. /c,cco, moan.nq |ainq oqqs o: |rom
c/cvo, moan.nq a ca|o o| stronqt| or ovor or
oroao o| .oors, an a.usion .o .ts routoo a|rooi
siac uaitios t|ors t|in| it camo |:on /cv,c in
Tur|.s|, v|ic| moans hs| oqqs
.s |o: dragoman, an intor:otor or quioo
.n countrios v|oro :a|ic, !u:|is|. o:
o:sian is so|on, |ron .|o raoic :c,.cn ano
t|o oro, :occ, .o intorro.
is |o: El-Cid, t|o |o:o o| a Sanis| o.c
oom |:om t|o ...| contury |ron c|
'c,,:c, moaninq t|o oro
is |o: Fomalhaut, t|o or.q|.os. s.a: .n t|o
cons.o|at.on isc.s ust:inus, .|o So..|
o:n l.s|, z. |.q|.yoa:s |:om Lar.|, /c c|/.:
moans mout| o| t|o :s|
.s |or ghoul, |:om t|o rao.c j/.. moan.nq
.|o oomon is a|so |o: girafe |:om .|o
:a|ic Zcc/c
.s |o: hazard, |:om ,cscc v|.c| moans
|ay at o.co
is |o: Izar, nano o| a s.a: .n t|o cons.oa
..on noronooa, |:om .|o :a|.c c|':zc,
moan.nq .|o oi o: coo:.nq
.s |or jar, |ron,cc/ a .a:qo oart|on aso
J .s aso |or jasmine, |:om .|o o:sian
,cs:n
.s |or |ohl, |:om /./|, moaninq a |no ov
oor, o|ton o| an.inony. .soo .n oyo ooco:a
..on or as oyoinor
is |or lilac, |:om .|o :a|ic |:|c/, v|.c|
vas ta|on |:on t|o o:sian n |c/, noaninq
i:o.qo L is aso |or lomo:, :rom t:o lors.a:
|:.n, moa:i:q |omo:
is |or maEa :rom a: -rao.c voro c/:
,c/, moa:i:q ooasti:q or !as|y, io,
t|o sva:k sot : Sici|y a: u:usua|y or:a:o a:o
oomo:strat.o cockoro| .s ooscriooo as anoso
is aso :or mattress, com.:q :rom oo lronc|
c:ccs, v|ic| vas tako: :rom c:c/ a paco
v|oro somot:i:q is t:rov: a:o :cc/c, moa:
i:q to t|rov
.s |or nadir, a poi:t o: :|o co|ostia sp|oro
o.rocty Loov t|o oLsoror a:o oiamo:r.
ca|y opposito t|o zo:.t| : comos :rom ncc: cs
sc:, moa:i:q oppos.:o t:o zo:i:|
is |or orange, :rom ::o lorsia: nccg or
nccnj, moa:i:q ora:qo
is |or P|orlad, a s:ar i: :|o co:sto|atio:
Ursa i:or, :rom :|o -raL.c c|/cjcc,
moa:i:q t|o ca|
is |or qa:u:, ::o a:cos:or to t:o |arp a:o
zit:or, .:trooucoo oy -|laao. i: t|o :o:t|
co:tury, out usoo .: Poma: timos as a |roos:ano
i:q .:strumo:t
.s :or :|o c|oss pioco rook :rom t|o lor
sia: .//
is :or sofa; t|o soat vas oriqi:ay a: -ra
Lia: ru!ors :|ro:o a:o :as Loo: .: oxis
to:co si:co a:tiquity riqi:ay s.!c/ moa:.:q
o:q Lo:c| or oia: S is aso |or sugar |rom
t|o -raoic s.//c, moa:.:q suqar a:o |or so
long, :rom sc|c, a qroot.:q a:o qooooyo moa:
.:q poaco
is |or tabby, v:ic| moa:t s.|k cot|
vit| stripoo pa::or: a:o vas Lorrovoo
SCHOOL: \ORO 1'0\E R
. : :c3 |rom t|o lro:c| T|oy usoo :c/s, or
ric|vatoroo s.|k, |rom -raLic 'c::c/:, oriqi
:a||y moa:.:q ma:u:acturoo at a-ttaLiya|,
a s.LurL o| faq|oao y :c t|o p:raso taoLy
cat vas .: uso, a:o taLoy as a :ou: moa:i:q
stripoo ca: ooo|opoo oy :// T .s a|so |or
talcum povoor, v|.c: .s |rom t|o La:.: :c|c.,
:rom ::o -raLic :c|j t vas |rst usoo i: moo.
oa Lati: as :c|c arou:o ::, a:o i: Spa:.s:
Taco a:o lro:c: as :c|c i: :3z : orma:,
it is !c|/.
is |or Unukalhai, a star .: t|o co:sto|atio:
o: t:o Sorpo:t, :rom t|o -raLic '.n.j c|
/c,,c/, moa:i:q ::o :ock o: t:o s:ako
.s |or vizier, |rom wcz:, moa:.:q portor,
puLic sora:t |rom t|o oro wc:cc to
carry V is a|so |or Voqa t:o Lriq|tost star .:
t:o co:sto|at.o: Lyra :rom t:o -raL.c c|n:s c|
wcj' moa:i:q t:o |ai:q u|turo
is |or vaoi, a aoy or qu|y t:at roma.:s
ory oxcopt ouri:q t|o rai:y soaso: com
i:q |r.m t|o -raoic wcc:, v|ic: moa:s a|oy
.: a|qoora, moa:i:q a t|.:q is a: -raL.c
i:o::io: to so.o mat|oma:.c oquat.o:s
is |or yoghurt T:o oriq.:a uris: voro
vas ,oj..:, Lut .: :ao Locomo yoq:urt
oy t:o .:| co:tury T|o q .s so|t .: t:o urk
.s| pro:u:cia:io: Lut |aro i: L:q|.s| `cj .s saio
:o moa:, rouq||y, to co:oo:so i: !urkis|, v|i!o
,oj. moa:s to knoao
is :or zo:it|, t:o poi:: o: cumi:atio: or
t|o poa com.:q :rom :|o o Spa:.s:
zcn::, v|ic: vas :rom t:o -raoic sc:, moa:
i:q pat| par: o: t:o -raL.c p:raso sc: c'c's
moa:i:q :|o roao oor|oao, or oiroc:y aooo a
porso:s :oao
CHAPTER FOUR
1::s:-to:ss:|-:s-oot::.-w::|:
oo/:j-v-t,:|:jjo|:::.-o
t:s::-to:ss:|-|to,-w|/ws
o|:::s-|-.:s:t-|to:|too-:::j:|-o "
PROPHET MUHAMMAD, NARRATED BY ALHAKIM AND AL-BAYHAQI
MARKET
.\l 'L1+L .1 N'1L+l '` l.^`\ ^.`L.1`
.+ ^.`.\^`+ .+ `Lii1 l.^`
`l^11` +.l +`+1` i.i i'++
\1.`` l `lL`+ 1` 'L`'
WHETHER THROUGH BARTERING GOODS, GOLD, PAPER CURRENCY, OR DIGITAL TRANSFER, PEOPLE
have been making deals and acquiring produce in the marketplace for many millennia. For :,zcc
years, the Islamic world was a powerhouse of knowledge, infuence, and innovation, all driven by
a massive economy that bought and sold across three continents. Enterprising Muslims were
producing goods at a fast rate, and great leaps in technology across many industries from textiles
to chemicals meant that vast numbers of people were employed in these fourishing sectors.
Agricultural techniques, accompanied by research, improved irrigation, and landownership rights,
meant that the standard of living was raised as people ate abundant food. Farming innovations
included using pigeon manure for fertilization, a technique mastered in Iran where towers :8to z
meters high octo /cfeet;were dotted around the felds to house the birds. As these practices and
knowledge drifted west they were accompanied by coinage, checks, and paper, while treasures of the
world drifted back into the hustle and bustle of dynamic cities like Cairo. In this chapter you will peel
back the layers of commerce to uncover the marketplace that was not so different from ours today
LVFLI1. Muslim men and women bought and sold textiles, ceramics, and glass-as shown in this 13th-century painting.
IIO l\\i I NVLN- I I ONS: T i l [ ENDU R I NG LLC:\CY Of \1 US U:\1 CI VI L I ZJTI ON
. CP| CUlTUPAl |\ClUT| C`
T
oday, we are more detached from our food sources than we were a thou
sand years ago. Few of us work the land or raise our own animals. We
visit the local shops or supermarkets to sample delights from around
the world, and can savor mangoes from Pakistan, strawberries from America,
mushrooms from Holland, lamb from New Zealand, and beef from Argentina.
No longer do we have to wait for summer apples or rely on pickled vegetables
in winter; instead we just move along to the next shelf. But this concept of glo
bal food, not linked to local seasons and climates, is not new. What is new is
that today it is mostly fown in, and not grown on local farms.
. t|c ni.t| cc.tury, usim :armcrs vcrc mak
inq in.oat.o.s introoucinq ncv crops |rom a.
arou.o :|c voro occoinq .:tcns.c irr.qation
systcms, usinq qoLa. k:ovcoqc |or oca conoi
:io.s i. a sc.cn:.c vay anc promo:inq pract.ca
:arm.:q :|a: incuoco ..o..oua .anoovncrs|ip
!nis a|| mca:t t|cy couo |ac a oicrsity o| |ooo
prc.ous.y unaai.aLc
GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS
ci:q |rom a ci:ization o| traccrs us..ms
comLco t|c novn voro :or k.ovcoqc ano
Cotton, originally from India, was introduced as a
major crop in Sicily and Al-Andalus.
.n|ormation ] ourncyinq i. :|c |ars|cst o c.i
.onmcnts |rom t|c stccs o| -sia to :|c lyr
cnccs, oc:a...q a t|cy sav to prooucc |uqc
aqricu:ura manuas !|csc vcrc a scctacu|ar
cu.:ura unio: o: sc.cntic k.ovcoqc :rom :|c
pas: ano :|c prcsc:t, :rom t|c Ncar fast :|c
aq|rio, a.o -noaus.a, saio -mcrican |isto
rian S l Scott .: .o.
-s lro:cssor -norcv 'a:so. :rom :|c Ln.
crs::y o: !oronto sa.o t|c usim vor.o vas
a arqc unico rcqion v|ic| |or t|rcc or |our
ccnturics vas u:usuay rcccptic :o a t|at
vas ncv 't vas aso unusuay aLc to oi||usc
noc|tics -ttituocs, socia structurc .nstitu
tions, ..|rastructurc, scicn:inc proqrcss ano cco
nomic occopmcnt a| payco a art -no not
o:.y aqricu.turc out a.so o:|cr sp|crcs o| t|c
cconomyano many arcas o| i|c t|at .ay outs.oc
.|c cco:omyvcrc :ouc|co Ly t|is capacity :o
aLsorL ano to :ra:smit
'.t| t|is ast array o| k.ov|coqc com..q
|rom a oicrsity o: qcoqra|ic arcas usims
couo rcar :|c nncst |orscs ano s|ccp, ano cu|
tiatc t|c Lcst orc|aros ano cqctaLc qarocns
T|cy k.cv |ov :o hq|t inscct pcsts, usc :crtiiz
crs, ano vcrc cxpcr:s a: qra|tinq trccs ano cross
.nq pants :o prooucc :cv ar:ctics
Today, fresh food from around the world is readily
available in local shops and markets.
NEWCROPS
ln t|o anciont ooitorranoan voro, qonoray
sjoainq, ma.ny vintor crojs voro qrovn, ano
oac| no.o vouo qivo ono |arvost ovo:y tvo
yoars !|at vas oo|oro t|o noausian usims
arrivoo vit| croj rotation toc|niuos as vol
as nov crojs, many |rom lnoia !|oso nooooo
varm or |ot voat|or, v|ic| vas jroviooo oy t|o
onq summor oays, at|ouq| t|oro voro aso ory
mont|s vit| itto rain `it| t|o usim intro
ouction o| irriqat.on, t|ouq|, |our |arvosts oac|
yoar couo nov oo jrooucoo |or numorous crojs
Suotrojica| crojs, i|o oananas, voro qrovn
in t|o coasta jarts o| t|o country, ano t|o nov
crojs .ncluooo rico, citrus |ruit, joac|os, jums
si|, ajricots, cotton, artic|o|os, a.oorqinos,
sa||ron, ano suqarcano s vo. as .ntroo.c.nq
suqarcano to Sjain v|oro it |ao a |uqo imjact,
uslims too| it to Lt|iojia, ano to Zanzioar, nov
|amous |or .ts |iq|uaity suqar
.1 :\ IU ,f.T: r\GRI CULTL R:\ l Rf.\OLUTI ON III
"It is a blessed act to plant a tree
even if it be the day the world ends."
PROPHET MUHAMMAD,
NARRATED BY AL -BUKHARI AND AHMED
si| inoustry !ouris|oo, !ax vas cutivatoo,
ano .non oxjortoo Lsjarto qrass, v|ic| qrov
vilo .n t|o moro ario jarts o| Sja.n, vas co
|octoo ano turnoo into jrooucts i|o oas|ots ano
|oor covorinqs
asuoi, a tont|contury usim travoor ano
||storian, vroto aoout t|o introouction o| oranqo
ano c.tron troos T|o oranqo troo, s/c,c c|nccn;,
ano t|o citron troo, c|:::]] c|:ccwwc, voro
orouq|t |rom lnoia arouno oo A.H. :z c L ] ano
voro rst jantoo in man lrom |oro t|oy voro
carrioo v.a alasra into lra ano Syria ln a vory
s|ort timo t|oy oocamo numorous in t|o |ousos o
t|o jooj|o o| !artus ano ot|or Syrian |rontior ano
coasta tovns Voj .ic|y t|o troos voro sjrout
inq uj ovor ntioc|, aostino ano lqyjt v|oro
out a s|ort t|mo aqo t|oy voro un|nown

>`<4>`<t

--9

>`<9>`
-1

9>`<M

p"-"xp"-

p"-"x*p"-

p"-"xp"-

9>`<M
><>`
<1

<4>`<M
><>`<1
<4>`<>
pWxp"-"x
<-p"W<M
p"Wx-pWx
<>`~<M
pWx*p"W<1
< pWx- z
p"Wx-pW<
<-pWxM
p"-

<-pW<
<"p"Wx-M
p"Wxp"W<
<-p"WxM
p"-9p"W<:
<9>`~<>
><
>`~<1

p"Wx*p"W<
<-pWx-M
p
`
-
9
>`~<t

---
<
9
>`~<M
pWx*p"W<
<-pWx-M
p"Wxp"W<:
<-pWx-z
p
`Wx
9>`<t

p"W<p"W<
<x<
x"W<x"W<t
<"pWx-
p"W<p"W< t

9
>`~<>
p-xp"W<t
<9>`~<>
><9
>`~<t

p`Wx>`~<

p`x>`~<t

p`Wx
9
>`~<t

p
`Wx4>`~<t

--

9>

<9

>

<
`
>
`
>
e
<

"
>

>

>`~<9>`~
e
><
p"W<-pW
FROM LEFT: Some of the crops that Muslims brought to
and cultivated in southern Europe include citrus fruits,
dates, and fgs.
!|o trans|or o| suc| cros vas o|ton ouo to
t|o ont|usiasm o| inoivioua ooo, i|o oo
ala|man l, v|o, out o| nostalqia |or |is Syrian
anoscao, vas orsonay rosonsioo |or t|o intro
ouction o| sovora socios, incuo|nq t|o oato am,
to ma|o |imso| |ool moro at |omo in t|is nov ano
o| noaus, or Sain. varioty o| omoqranato
vas in:roo.coo |rom lamascus oy t|o c|.o| ]uoqo
o| Coroooa. uaviya ion Sai|, ano a Joroan.an
sooior namoo Sa|ar too| a |q cuttinq ano .antoo
it on |is ostato in t|o laqa roqion T|is socios,
calloo sc/: a|tor t|o sooior, sroao ovor t|o ano
IRRIGATION
s vo |avo soon, cros voro qrovn in t|o |ot
summors, ano somo o| t|o nov cros nooooo
moro vator t|an vas avaiao|o, suc| as suqarcano,
v|ic| |ao to oo vatoroo ovory |our to o.q|: oays
lico |ao to oo continuay suomorqoo Cotton
vas qrovn |rom t|o ono o| t|o it| contury ano,
accoroinq to mooiova |istorian lon lassal, |ao
to oo vatoroo ovory tvo voo|s |rom t|o timo it
sroutoo unti uqust !|o noausis voro so|
sumciont in cotton, ano oxortoo to Si]ilmasa
orocco)ano as |ar sout| as l|riiya. a roqion o|
|rica ranqos ano ot|or citrus ants voro aso
irriqatoo, as voro many ot|or |ruit troos ano ory
|arminq cros
So |ov voro t|oso vator oomanos mot` us
ims voro oxorts in raisinq vator oy sovoral
motors, quarantooinq a constant |ov oy usinq
oot| ums ano vatorv|oos, or no:cs ln t|o
Vaoncia aroa aono aoout 3,ooo no:cs voro ouit
to ta|o vator to t|o r|co antations
usims ouit uon t|o traoitiona uso o|
animals to ovor mac|inory, ano aso oovisoo
aovancoo qoarinq moc|anisms, ano ouq unoor
qrouno canas, or jcnc:s, :o ta|o vator t|rouq|
|ars|, oarron oosorts i|o t|o Sa|ara You can
roao moro aoout irriqation ano vator racticos
in t|o `ator anaqomont ano `ator Suy
soctions in t|is c|ator
or t|o vator to ma|o .t to t|o nolos, t|o ovo
o| t|o irriqat.on systoms |ao to oo corroctly cal
culatoo, ano usims |ao t|o aovantaqo o| t|o
aovancos t|oy |ao maoo in mat|omatics ly
usinq trianquation t|oy co..o accuratoy ma|o
moasuromonts o| |oiq|t.
lt vas not ony mat|omatics t|at |ooo aqri
cuturo, oocauso ma]or aovancos in astronomy
in it|contury !olooo, Sa.n, voro aso |avinq
an imact. s roortor laqo| maar says in t|o
llCs An !s/c:c H:s:oq o/ L:opc, astronomi
ca taoos voro usoo in aqricuturo . t|o taoos
s|ovoo timos |or antinq ano |arvostinq
NEW LANDOWNERSHIP APPROACH
!ho ast imjortant |actor |or this ooom in |ooo
jroouction vas tho oovoojmont o| a nov v.q
oro.s systom o| ovnorsh.j larmors cou.o nov
vor| moro |or thomso|vos ano tho community,
rathor than in misory, su||orinq oxjoitation
at tho vhim o| oiq anoovnors l t vas a rovo
lutionaty socia trans|ormation in lanoovnor
shij vhon aoorors riqhts voro introoucoo ny
inoivioua hao tho riqht to ouy, so, mortqaqo,
inhorit, ano |arm tho .ano, or |avo .t |armoo
accoroinq to his jro|oroncos
The Spanish Muslims
)
agricultural
system was "the most complex
)
the
most sci enti fc, the most perfect, ever
devised by the i ngenui ty of man."
1 9TH-CENTURY AMERI CAN HI STORIAN S. P. SCOTT
Lvory imjor:ant transaction concorn.nq aqr.
cuturo, inoustry, commorco, ano omj.oymont o|
a sorvant invovoo tho siqninq o| a contract ano
oach jarty |oojinq a cojy !hoso vho jhysi
cay vor|oo tho ano rocoivoo a roasonaoo jro
jortion o| tho |ruits o| thoir aoor, ano ootaioo
rocoros o| contracts ootvoon ano|oros ano cu
tivators havo s.rvivoo, shovinq that tho .anooro
rotainoo anythinq uj to onoha|
`ith thoso |arminq innovations, tho uaity
o| i|o incroasoo oramat.cay, ano an onr.choo
oiot |or al vas jossioo vith tho introouction o|
yoarrouno |rosh |ruit ano voqotaoos !hus, oss
nooooo to oo orioo |or vintor
Citrus ano oivo jantations oocamo a common
siqht, ano mar|o: qaroons ano orcharos sjranq
uj arouno ovory c.ty . this invovoo intonsivo
crojjinq, vh.ch couo havo .oo to oocroasoo soi|
|ortiity, out tho tochniuo o| intonsivo .rr.qa
tion coujoo vith |ort.ization tochni.os, us.nq
mainy jiqoon ounq, hao ooon mastoroo
\1 :\ R K rT: 1\GR I CU l T L R.\ L RE\.Ol L T I ON
nima husoanory ano sooctivo oroooinq
usinq animas |rom oi||oront aroas moant horso
stoc|s imjrovoo ano stronq camos couo carry
tho qooos o| tho Saharan caravans
nima jrooucts such as moat ano voo
oocamo jonti|u in jacos vhoro thoy hao ooon
a luxuty !his incuooo tho uso o| animal manuro
!ho nnouality jrooucts |rom tho aqhroo
roqion o| !unisia, qoria, ano orocco soon
oocamo |novn throuqhout :ho voro
No: ony voo|, ou: nov s.| ano cotton voro
oo|nq jroo.coo Cotton. oriq.nay |rom lnoia,
oocamo a ma]or croj in S|ci|y ano noaus,
ma|inq jrov.ousy raro uxury qooos avaiaoo
`ithin a rolativoy shor: jorioo, joojo hao accoss
to a v.oor ranqo o| :oxtilos |or cothinq, vhich nov
aso camo in a qroator varioty o| coors
"
1
he cul ti vati on of sugar cane in the
West spread from Khurzistan in Persi a,
and throughout the mi ddl e ages Shuster [the
anci ent Susa] was renowned for its manufac
ture on a l arge scal e. The art of sugar refni ng
was practised extensivel y by t he Arabs. Under
Musl i m rul e the growth and manufacture of
the cane spread far and wi de, from I ndi a to
Morocco. Through the Musl i m domi ni ons i n
Spai n and Si ci ly it reached southern Europe. "
GUY LE STRANGE, 20TH-CENTURY ORI ENTALIST
qq


---x--

q
$
P


---*

x
--

M
q

P
M
q


;--*
x
--

q
p
P


---*

x
--

M
q


--
-*

x
--

P
M
q

,
--
-*
x
--

--

t-x

;;

-
x

;
-
-x--
-
q

P
M
q
$

--*
x--

P
M
q
$

---

x
--

-
-

q
$
-

-
-
-
,

-
P
-
M
q
p
-
-
-

-P
,

*
-

-*

--9-

-
-

-
-
;-
-*x
--

---
-
----

---
-
----

---
-
--

---
-
--
-
,--
q
9
-

-
P
M
-
P

q
P
-

-
-

;-
x
-;

---
x
---

-jx

-*x

---

x
--
-

---

t-
j
x

-x

,;---
;

-
---

x
--
g

---
-
----

---
-
----

---
-
----

--

-
-
----

---
-
----

--

-
-

-
P
,

M
-
-

M
-
-

-
- g

-
P

M
-
P
--
-
-
----

--

-
-
---

---
-
----

--

-
-
-;t-
j
xt

y-

-
-

-
x

-
-

-x
*
-x

-P
-

M
-

M
q

-
-
;t-
j
x;t

-x;

IIq


e
y
y,
yen

*`

9
y

*
^
*
y"Wyeny"Wy

^*`
*
^
y"yeny"y

^
y"ye

y"y

*`
*
^
y"yeny"y

ye
y
y"Wye
y
y"ye
y
y,

yey"Wge
y
y"Wyey"y

^*

^*9
^
'

^
"
*

^
*
yWye
y
y


ye
y
yye
y
y"yeny"y

yey",
ye
y

'
4

yWyeyy

ye
y
y"ye n
^
`
*

*`

y"yeny",y
$ yey"ge
y
^*9

y"ye
y
y",
y
$

^
*

^
yye
y
yy
$

^
"^
'

^
y"Wyey"y
$ ye
y
yWye n

y
"

y
y9

"

"


ye

",
ye
y

*`
*9
*`

*`
*

*`
y

ny"ye
y
y"y
$ yeny"Wye
Q

9
,

*
*

^
`
*9
y

y"yeny"y
$

^
"
*

'

^
y
y,e
y
y"y
$ yeny"Wye
y
ny",e
y
y"Wy
$ yey"Wye
y
y
y,e
y
y,
$ yeny"ye

*
*9
y
`

*`
*9

*`
y

**4

*`

'

y"Wyeny"y

ye
y
y"ye n
ny"yeny,
$ ye
y
>
"ye n
ny"yeyy
$ ye
y
y"ye
y
yyey,
y
$ yenyye

*
*
9*

'

yyenyy

ye

yye n
^*
9
y

yWyey"Wy
$ ye
y
yyen
ny"yey"y
$ yeyye
y

*`
*9
y

yWyenyy
$ ye
y
y"ye n
y"yey"y
$ ye
y
y"ye n
^
`

y
yye
y
y"y
$ yeny"ye

y
`

>
"yeny"W y
1001 I NV E NT I ON: T I - I F lc NDU RI NC lH_i t\CY Of MUS l l .\ CI VI L I Zi\TI ON
.2 APV| `C `A`UAlS
F
or a garden or crop to bloom there has to be an ecological balance
between nurture and nature. The elements of soil, water, and human
intervention have to be in distinctly proportional amounts to ensure a
good fowering and harvest. lntheir bid to achieve maximum output without
destroying the things they relied upon, namely the soil and plants, Spanish
Muslims started a systematic study of agriculture, including soil chemistry
and soil erosion, hundreds of years ago .
uslim aqricuturo vas a sojhisticatoo a||air,
v|ic| rosutoo in an ocooqicaly |riono|y ano
vory jroouct.vo systom 1|oy |ao |arminq ooo|s
t|at oxj.ainoo ]ust aoout ovoryt|.nq in oota.l, ..|o
|ov to onric| t|o soi oy jovinq, normal ano
oooj |oo.nq, Jiqqinq, ano |arrovinq Soil vas
cassi|oo, ano so vas vator, accoroinq to its ual
ity on lassal, qaroonor to t|o omir o| !olooo,
vroto a :oo/ o/ Aj:c./:.c in io3 !|is cassoo
ton tyjos o| soi, assiqninq oach vit| oi||oront
i|osustaininq caja|ilitios accoroinq to t|o
soason o| t|o yoar Ho insistoo t|at |alov ano
s|o.lo oo jovoo |our timos ootvoon Janua:y
ano ay ano, in corta.n casos, |o rocommonooo
as many as ton jlovinqs|or oxamjo, |or cotton
crojs t|at voro jantoo |n |oavy ooitorranoan
coastal sois
A 14th-century Persian manuscript hom Al-Biruni 's
Chronology of Ancient Nations displays men at work
in the field; one uses a spade.
1RLU LL: The Calendar of Cordoba of 961 had tasks
and timetables for each month. March noted that roses
bloomed and quails appeared.
lon aIvvam, a :zt|ccntury ootan.st |rom
Scvic .n usim Sja.n, qat|crco toqct|cr jrc
v.ous s:uoics o| Crcc|, Eqyj:.an, ano crsian
sc|oars .nto anot|cr oo|: o/ Ajc.|:.c, v|.c|
|ao c|ajtcrs on aqricuturc ano anima |us
oanory, ano also qavc |armcrs jrccisc instructions
t incuoco 3 jlants, cxjainco t|c cultivation
o| morc t|an c |ruit trccs, maoc ooscrvations on
qra|tinq, soi jrojcrtics ano jrcjaration, manurc,
j|ant oiscascs ano t|cir trcatmcnts, qarocninq,
irriqation, amnitics octvccn trccs, ano occ|ccj
inq lt covcrco a you cou|o van: to nov aoou:
oivcs, |rom |ov to qrov t|c :rccs, t|c trcatmcnt
o| t|cir oiscascs, qra|t.nq, ano |arvcs:.nq oivcs, to
t|c jrojcrtics o| oivcs, rc|ninq oivc oi|, ano t|cir
conoitioninq T|cn t|crc vas a scction on jov
inq tcc|niqucs, t|cir |rcqucncy, timcs |or sovinq
ano |ov to sov, vatcrinq a|tcr sovinq ano ourinq
qrowt|, maintcnancc o| jants, ano |arvcstinq So,
vit| a t|is in|ormat.on an avio |armcr couo not
qo vronq, ano most o| t|is vas juois|co in Sjan
is| ano lrcnc| octvccn t|c cno o| t|c :3t| ano t|c
miooc o| t|c :t| ccntur.cs
!|cn t|crc vas tc rcmar|aoc tcc|nica accu
racy o| t|c |amous c|cncc o/ oco/c o/ _c1.
\1 :\ R " LT: f . \ R.I I NG .1 .\ NU:\ LS II
lac| mont| o| t|c ycar |ao tass ano timctaocs
lor instancc, arc vas v|cn hq trccs vcrc qra|tco
ano cary ccrcas ocqan to risc lt vas t|c timc to
jant suqarcanc, ano v|cn cary scason roscs ano
.|acs ocqan :o ouo _uais ajjcarco, si|vorms
|atc|co, ano mu..ct ocqan to ourncy uj rivcrs
!|.s vas aso t|c t.mc to .ant cucumocrs, ano sov
cotton, sa||ron, ano auocrqincs Lur.nq t|is mont|
mai orocrs to jurc|asc |orscs |or t|c qovcrnmcnt
vcrc scnt to jrovincia tax omcias. Locusts ocqan
to ajjcar ano t|cir ocstruction vas orocrco lt vas
t|c timc to jant imc ano magoram, ano vas aso
t|c matinq scason o| many oiros
!|crc vas no aqricutura stonc c|t untu:nco,
cvcn inoivioua crojs vcrc rut|css|y scrutinizco
l.cc |or cxamj.c, ao on lassa aov.sinq t|c usc
o| jots t|at |acco t|c risinq sun, t|cn t|c t|or
ouq| jrcjaration o| t|c soi oy aooinq manurc
vas rccommcnoco. Sovinq vas aov.sco octvccn
lcoruary ano arc|. lon alwvam qavc t|c sjc
cihc amount o| ricc t|at nccoco to oc sovn on
any qivcn sur|acc, ano |ov t|at s|ouo oc carrico
out. Hc aso sjo|c at cnqt| o| t|c vatcrinq jro
ccss, sjcci|yinq t|at ano s|ouo oc suomcrqco
vit| vatcr uj to a qivcn |ciq|t oc|orc t|c ricc vas
jantco Cncc t|c soi |ao aosoroco t|c vatcr, t|c
sccos vcrc covcrco vit| cart|, ano t|c ano suo
mcrqco vit| vatcr aqain
--

--\

--:

--:

-*

x;t-

-*

xst

--

--\

--\

--

--

--\

9-\
s-*
x
-

--\

--6

--6
K-
-

--

--6

-*

xs;-**

--\

-- \

--\

--\

--6
K
--

--6

--6

9-
K--"
--
\
---
--6

*-; -*

--
---
*-;t-

--6
K---
--

K---
9-

K---
--6
; -
-x;t-*

--
K--"
--
*
--
--
*

--6

--6
K-~--

K---
~--6

--6

9-6

9 ,;*
*

-
x
-;-

--6
---

---
9-

-~-"
9-
\
116 1 001 1 l \ E NT1 0NS: Ti 1 ' D\J R1 NC l. EG:\U 01 \\ US L I. CI VI LI /. \TI ON
(Wi th a deep love for nature, and a
relaxed way of life, classical Islamic
societ achieved ecologi cal balance,
a successful average economy of
operati on, based . . . on the acqui red
knowledge of many civilized
traditions. A culmination more
subtle than a si mple accumulation
of techni ques, it has been an
enduring ecologi cal success, proven
by the course of human history. "
LUCI E BOLENS, AUTHOR OF THE USE OF
PLANTS FOR DYEING AND CLOTHING
lico oxjorts aso |ocusoo on |q|tinq jara
si:os, coarinq vooos, ano vays o| |arvos:inq ano
sa|o storaqo T|o uso o| rico as a |ooo too| many
|orms, ano l|n aIwvam sjoc.hoo t|at t|o oost
vay to coo| ano oat rico vas vit| outtor, oi, |at,
ano mi|. In anonymous aut|or o| t|o Imo
|ao oynasty aso vroto a rocijo ooo| caloo !/c
oo/c oo/ o/ Mcj/:/ cnc Ancc/.s:c. v|.c|
incuooo many rocijos, |vo o| t|om vit| rico, a
so.noinq most ajjotizinq
I vory imjortant jart o| |arminq vas onsur
inq ho|o |ort.ity t o ac|.ovo a jor|oct oaanco
T|is vas t|orouq||y oxj|oroo, ano intorost
inqy, |as not c|anqoo muc| in a t|ousano
yoars, as mooiova usims voro aso iooray
ajjyinq manuro to t|oir holos lon aIvvam
statos t|at t|o oost manuro is |rom jiqoons, ano
oy tooay's stanoaros it vas oohnitoy onviron
montay |rionoy ano orqanic
lottoo across t|o ano in lran voro jiqoon
|oojs-arqo circuar tovors maoo |rom muo
oric|, vit| smaor turrots jro] octinq |rom t|oir
summits T|oy stooo at :3 to 21 motors co t o /o
|oot) i n |oiq|t ano voro constructoo |or cooct
inq manuro ano oroooinq moro jiqoons
l nsioo, tho tovors voro maoo uj o| sma
colli|o comjartmonts, li|o a |onoycomo T|o
quano or ounq accumulatinq ovor timo vouo
|o sjroao on t|o surrounoinq |.oos a|tor t|o
jiqoon :ovors voro coanoo onco a yoar l t .s
saio t|at a: ono timo t|oro voro as many as
, ooo o| t|oso jiqoon tovors outsioo ls|a|an
in l ran
LEFT: Rui ns of a pigeon tower still stand near Isfahan,
Iran. Muslims believed that the best organic fertilizer
was manure from pigeon droppings, and they used it lib
erally on their felds. RIGHT: Pigeons were bred primarily
to be used in the postal network for carrying messages.
'.-\ R KLT: f :\ R\1 1 N(j \1 r\ N U \ l
/
-
.~
~
An artist's re-creation shows Muslim farmers at work. Innovative farmers in the ninth century
were planting new crops, developing state-of-the-art irrigation techniques, using organic
fertilizers, harnessing global knowledge in local areas, and basing their agronomy on scientific
findings. This all led to an agricultural revolution, making fresh food available to more people.
II

P"


<>`<
p"-"xp"-
<>`<
"

p"-"x*p"-{
P
p
M
P

P
M

<>`<

P
M

<>`<

p"-"xp"-{

>`<9>`
-

p
M

x"p
M
{

p
M
P"p
M

P
M

9>`<
"
p-xp"-

>`<4>`

9><
"
p-x*p"-{

p
M

yP"p
M
{

p
M

yPp
M

p
M

yPp
M
{

x
P"p

p
M

x
Pp
M

P"
M

x
P
p
M

p
M

x
P
p
M

P
M

<>`<
"

P"
M

<>`<
"

>`<9>`

9><
"


<
9
>`<
"
p-"xp"-

p
M
"x"p
M

M

P"

P i
p
M
P"p


P
M

P i


P"p

P
>`<

>`

P
M

"


>`<

>`
<><

p"-"xp"-

>`<

>`

pP

p
M

x
P"p
M

pP
p
M
P
p

x
p
M

>`<4t>`

>`<
9

p
M

x4"p
M

P
p
M
P
p

x
Pp
M
"
P"p

x
P
p

yP
p
M
"
4"p

Wx
P

p
M
P"p
M

9
t
p
`x

P"p
M
P
p

x
P
p

l
P"p

x
P
t
p
M
P"p

l
p

*
9
-
P
p
M

x
Pt
p
M
Wx"p

l
9>`

4p`x
9

p
9
-

*-
4t>`Wx

P
p
M
Wx

p
M
Wy
p
M

II

"" -

-
t
-

-
-
t

'

x;t-
'

x
--
--
--

-
-

-
x

-
-

-
-

) -

*-

-
x

x;:
-=
,

t-
-

-
xtt
) -

-
x
-;:-

x
-----
-
J--
,

=----

:t-
x;t
) -

-
x
=-;:-

:t-
-

t:
)-

-
-

-
x

st--
--
---
-

--- -
----
-
,

-;--*

x
----
-
-
J----
----
-

x
--

x
-----
-

---
,
-----
-
---

-
,-
--
-
J--
-

-
--

---

e
-

-
-

-
x

*-

-
x

,
-

e
-

-
-
,----
-
----
-----

-; -
--
--
--

----
-
--
-
-

,--
-
g
z-
---
-
--
--

,----
z-
--
-
-
--
--
z-----

--
--

--

g
z-
P

--
-
: ---
g
z----
-
:=-st- -
z-
--
-
-
: -
-
P
-
z----
: ----
,-
---
: --
- -
z-
---

,
;---
,-
---
-
: ---
g
-
t-

--
P

g
-
-
g
--
:-
--=-
J'Il | ``l` Jl \``- 1 | l | l` |Lh l `l l l '\\ \ '\ L | `\ ! \l ll Z.'l '`
_ AT|P `A!AC|\|`T
W
hether it is Andalusia or Afghanistan, Chicago or Cairo, water is
essential for agriculture and sustenance. It is the source of all life.
Muslims inherited existing techniques of irrigation, preserving
some while modifying, improving, and constructing others .
T|oir onqinoo:inq aoancos voro jart.y oovn to
jroqross .n mat|omat.cs, v|ic| moant |yo.o.
oqy ano t|o mac|.nory |or ou.o.nq ir:iqat.on
ooicos voro constan:y |oinq roo..tionizoo
.oon:|con:u:y lors.an ma:|oma:ician ano
onq.noo: u|ammao aa:a]i taoo a|ou: :|o
o.inqinq to t|o su:aco o |iooon vators Ho
a.so cooroo suroyinq .nstrumonts, mot|oos o
oo:oc:inq sourcos o vato., ano .nstruc:.ons or
:|o oxcaa:.on o unoo.qro.no cono..ts
!|oso .noo.qrouno conoui:s o: :unno.s vo.o
ouq :o j:oont va:o: oss |y oajo:ation Ca.oo
jccc:s, :|o o.oost vo:o .n lo:sia ano vit| t|o
ooo.ojmont o| aqricu.:uro, ano v.:| mo:o c:ojs
oo.nq j.an:oo, t|oy |ocamo ossont.a ano jccc:
o.ioinq oocamo a nocossity, osjociay in :|o
o:y oni:onmont o| t|o .ooo Last La.or t|oy
camo to Coroooa, Sjain, mainq vator aa.a|o
o: u:|an oomostic uso
lors.a ano :ooay's q|anistan |ao :|ousanos
o vos. a. connoctoo oy t|oso unoorq.ouno cana.s
T|oy voro cons:ructoo to vit|stano jroLoms o|
si.:.nq ano roo ca.nqs. onsur.nq a continuous |ov
o| vator :|rouq| m.os ano mios o ormioaoo oos
o.ts ano |ostio to:rain ln somo aroas o| soio roc
:|o jccc: ajjoaroo as an oo:.ano st.oam. ano
t|on o.sajjoaroo aqa.n as :|o qoooqy c|anqoo
ln t|o qo:ian Sa|ara t|o:o vo.o a.so notvo:s o|
unoo.qrouno tunnos, caoo !ojjcs
The Nilometer in Rawada Island at Fustat, near Cairo,
was completed in 861-862. The octagonal column in the
center is used to measure the height of the water in the
Nile in cubits, an ancient method of measurement .
Horo a:mors a.so usoo a vator coc, a cojsy
ora, :o contro. vator uso o: ooryono in t|o aroa
as it t.moo, niq|: ano oay, :|o amoun: qoinq to
oac| |armo.
ln jar:s o| lran. oosjito t|o oxistonco o |yoro
o|oct..c oams ano mooorn .::.qa:ion sys:oms
jccc:s a.o st. a |a.mo:s ..|oino No.t|oast o S|i
raz. :|o jroc.ous ommooity o| va:o: is sti oo:ainoo
:om vo..s sujj..oo oy .noorq:ouno canas
ion :|o sca:c.:y o| va:o: .n t|oso |ot, ar.o
onironmonts, .: |ao to oo contro.oo ano .oqu
.atoo, ]ust as .: is :ooay !|o aut|o:it.os o| t|o t.mo
ayoo a c:uc.a roo. too l. l.aq, |yorau..c vors
Muslims were able to transport water over long dis
tances using a series of L-shaped wells connected to
one another. Forming an underground tunnel, called a
qanat-these are near Isfahan, Iran-they had "man
hole" covers for air circulation, which helped the water
fow through the tunnel. Qanats are still used today.
o a ast naturo, i|o oams, voro lot to t|o stato,
v|io t|o loca jojuation ocusoo its oorts on
ossor onos, i|o oca. va:o:raisinq mac|inos
l n Lqyjt, :|o manaqomont o :|o Nio vators
vas cruc.a. to oo:y sinq.o asjoc: o io lot|
Nuvayri ano ar.zi, oary Fqyjt.an :.:|
contury |is:or.ans, s:rossoo t|o :oo o| oam ano
vatorvay maintonanco o t|o Ni|o lt vas t|o
rosjonsioiity o oot| sutans ano arqo ano|oo
ors, unoor oot| yyuoios ano amlu|s, to oiq
ano coan canas ano ma.ntain oams. s .n l:a,
t|o su.tan too| oor :|o arqor s::uc:uros ano t|o
joojo :|o iossor onos ost ois:.nquis|oo omirs
ano omcia.s vo:o maoo c|io| sujorisors o| suc|
vor|s. Unoo: t|o am.u|s t|oro vas oon an
omcor caoo t|o Kcs/:/ c|J.sa, v|oso ]oo vas
to insjoct oams or oac| jroinco o Lqyjt.
`asto vas oannoo ano a. o.sju:os ano io|a
tions o| :|o vator .avs voro ooat v.:| |y a cou:t
v|oso ]uoqos voro c|oson oy :|o |armors t|om
so|os !|is court vas caoo :|o !riouna o t|o
`ators,' v|ic| sat on T|ursoays at t|o ooor o
t|o jrincija mosuo !on conturios lator, t|o
samo triouna sti s.ts .n Vaoncia out nov at t|o
ooor o t|o cat|oo:a.
lon aw.am, a :z:|contury oo:an.st, roors
to a orij irr.qa:ion :oc|niuo in |is cc/ c/ Aj
c./:.c, sayinq :|a: it consoros vator ano jro
on:s oorvatorinq o somo sjoc.os Ho ja:tia|y
ourioo vator| oo jots at t|o |aso o t:oos, vit|
sjocihcsizoo |oos or controinq t|o orijjinq
rato !|is toc|niuo is viooy usoo arouno t|o
voro nov
s us..ms voro accomj..s|oo cii ano
moc|anica. onqinoors, no:|inq camo in t|o vay
o t|oir oxtract.nq vator Lon i| :|o vator sourco
vas in a qorqo, t|o uso o soj|.sticatoo mac|.n
ory .i|o va:orraisinq mac|.nos ano jumjs
rooutionizoo t|o socioty

--9

'
--
'

:-j

xt

-
-

xtt-*

;:-

x
--

--
----

s;-
x
--

--
;:-
x
-

--

--

:
--*

x
--

-;--*

--

--

--

--

-
t
--

---

:
--

--

--

---

-
^

--
^
--
^
--
^
-;;*

*-t:-*
-

----

---

*-;;-
-

-;:-

-s;-*
-

;;-
j

x;

--

*-:-*
-
-t
--,

-6
s;-

x--
-

xtt-*

:
--*

x-

--

;:-*

x--
--6
----,

--

6
----
,

^
--
--9

-,
9-6
----,
-

x;t-*

;t-

-
xy-

-
-

-* -

--

----,
-

x;--

1
----,
- ;-

--

120

>"x>"-x
1 ---
--
1--*

x--
---
1 --
"-

-
----

-
- --
--
- *
x--
x>"x

-;--
--
-- -
x-
-- -

;-
j
x;

0 -
*

-
-

-
x
*

;--x
--
""

-
-

-
x
*

x--x
---
-- x

- - -
x-
-
-

x-
--
----
--" -
x*-
*--- -
x-*
--" -
x--^
=-;;
-
4--
"--"" -
4--*
--" -
4--
sx - -

s--- -
4---
x--
-
*-

-
0*-
-;; --
-- -
--^-
- -

-
4--
-

-
--
r---
--
x--*-
---*x-
- -^ -
---
r- -
^*"--
--
---
*

x;;-
x
--
*-;t-
x

-0*

x
*-

-jx

-
-

-
x

-
-

-
"

x
""
>
^
-

-

-0*

x
--
--
;t
jx

-0*
-

x
=--*-
101 I NV ENTI ONS: Ti l E FN DU RI NC LH)t\CY OF :'i US LI M CI V I LI Zi\TI ON
AT|P Lll lY
magine your life today without running water, where you have to walk for
miles to a river or well and then contemplate how to get it into your bucket
since you cannot get near the fast fow. This was the situation for Muslims
before their groundbreaking inventions of water-raising machines and pumps,
introduced about cOOyears ago .
!oy oo.soo nov tocniquos to catc, canno,
storo, ano i|t to vator, ano maoo .nqonious com
oinations o| avaiaoo ooicos, oravinq on toir
ovn |novooqo ano tat o| otor ci.izations
!o anc.ont Lqyjtians aroaoy ao to s/c
coo/ a simjo out o||oc:io contrajtion tat
too| vator |rom to rior .n a ouc|ot tioo to a
onq, jiotoo jolo To ouc|ot ao a countor
voiqt, ano it vas a sujjortoo ootvoon tvo
ji.ars on a voooon o:izon:a. oar lt is sti usoo
in Lqyjt tooay
Larqo vato.voo|s, or co.cs, ao raisoo vator
|rom |ast|ovinq vatorvays to iqor |ano s.nco
100 B. C.E. Vitruius, to loman vritor, arcitoct,
ano onqinoor, montionoo tis simjo yot jovor
|u. ooico i|o any vatorvoo, it vas turnoo oy
:o |orco o| |ov.nq vator aqainst jaooo com
jartmonts on its rim !oso nloo vit vator ano
too| it to to toj, voro toy omjtioo into a oao
:an| connoctoo to an aquoouc:. roaoy usoo oy
These norias, which raise water from the Orontes River,
are in Hama, Syria.
"It is impossible to over emphasize
the i mportance of al-Jazari's
work i n the history of engineeri ng.
It provides a wealth of instructions
for design, manufacture and
assembly of machines. "
BRI TISH CHARTERED ENGI NEER DONALD Hi ll, 1 974
t|o lomans ano lorsians, t|oy voro aoatoo ano
rooooooo oy t|o usims
T|o |rst usim mont.on o| nocs :o|ors to
t|o oxcaa:ion o| a cana . n t|o las:a roqion in
t|o ato soont| contury !|o v|oos at Hama,
on t|o rior Crontos in Syria, sti oxist, at|ouq|
t|oy aro no onqor in uso !|oy voro oiq v|oos
ano :|o .a:qost vas aoout zo motors cc |oot)
in oiamotor, vit| its rim ooinq oiiooo into :zo
comartmonts T|o no:c at urcia in Sain, a
Nora, is sti in ooration, at|ouq| t|o oriqina
\\ \ RIET: \TF R S L l| ' |Y IZI
Pages from a 13thcentury manuscript depict two water
raising machines designed by Al-Jazari. Water-raising
machines are driven by a water turbine through geared
shafts, which turn a sindi wheel carrying a long belt of
buckets. Al-Jazari made a wooden animal and placed it
on the rotating disc on the machine so people would not
think the automatic machine was driven by "magic"; they
thought it was driven by an animal, operating multiple
gears with partial teeth to produce a sequence of motion
in four scoops that took water from the river one scoop at
a time. This design included the frst known appearance
of a camshaft, which controled the mechanism.
v|oo |as ooon roacoo oy a stoo ono art
|rom t|is, t|o ooris| systom is ot|orviso irtu
aly unc|anqoo T|oro aro sti ots o| norias in
a:io.s arts o| t|o vo:.o, ano t|oy aro o|:on aoo
to comoto succoss|uy vit| mooorn ums
any usim toc|nooqists rocoqnizoo t|at
|arnossinq ovor |rom oot| vator ano animas
couo incroaso t|o amount o| vor| oono Tvo
q:oat .nnoato:s ano us.m onqinoors voro
Jazari ano Taqi aLin lot| carrioo out a
numoor o| oxorimonts, ouioinq romar|aoo
mac|inos t|at |ao oo to automatoo mac|inory,
-

x;t-

--x-
-

xst-*

>"-"x^>"-@
-^>-"x:
>"-"x>"-
->*-"x:
-*

x;t-

--x-

;;-
x-
--*

-*x;-

-
-x-

->*-"x
>"-"x>"-

>-"x>-
->*-"x

>-"x>"-

-*
xst-

>-"x>-

-x--

x--

-*--
"-"x>-@

-*

x;t-* @

>"-"x>"-

;t-*
x-
-x;t-*

-*
xs;-* @

>-"x>-
->*-"x:
>"-"x"-@
->*-"x:
"--@


>"-"x>"-@


> "-"x>"- @
x;;-
x-
-
-x; -*

;;-x-
-x- >"-@

-*
x;t-* -

>"-"x>"-

>"-"x>-

> "-"x>-

>"-"x^>"-@

>-"x>-
*-"x
>"-"x>"-\

>"-"x>"-@


>-"x>-@

>"-"x>"-

st-
x-

--\

>"->"-

>-"x>-

>"-"x>"-@


>"-"x>-

-*

x--*

-
x;
-
-

>-x>"-

>"-"x>-
->"-
>"-"x>-
122 1 001 J N\' E NT I ONS: f i l l' E 'i DU R I NG l l G. \Cl OF \\ LS L I ,\\ Cl \ J UZ:\TJ ON
.- .
II
,.-,.
*",J*
y"yeyy

9*
`

^
y.yey.y
eyWye
y"yeyy

*
"

^
y.yeyWy
ey"ye
y"Wyey"
eyWy*
y"Wyey"y
eyye
"*"

g".
'
Q
^

Q
`
y
ey"ye
yWyey"y
ey"y*
.

"yey" y
eyye
-y".yey" y
eyW ye
-y" yey" y

9*
" W y*
y.yey y
ey"ye

*`

'
4

*`
*
yey.ye
*

9*

`
'
*

`
'

*
e

"'

g
`
WQ
^

Q"Wy
+Wy+
y"W yey"Wy

y"yey"y
e"e

`
'
*

`
' ,
y
e
.

y
"
y
e
.

`
'
*
^

`
' ,
y
e
.

y
"
y
e
.

g"Q
^

Q"y
ey"Wy*
-y"yey"y

4
y"Wy
9

y.yey.y

^
*
"

'

^
y"Wyey"Wy
eyW ye
"e y
e
.

y
e
.

y
g
"Q
^

Q"

y
ey"ye
yWyey"y
eyye
yWyey"y
ey"ye
y"Wyey"y
ey"ye
y y*yy

^*
"

'

^
, y"W yey"/ y
yey ye
y"W yey"/ y
+Wy+
, y".
ey" y
yey"Wye
,
*
"

y
9

y"

y
ey.ye
,
*
"
*9
*`
*
yeyWye

Q
9
.

y"y*y"y
/
y".yey"y

^*
"

,
*
"

'

*`

'

y*y".ye
,
* `
9

*`
*
yey.ye
,
*
'

^
*
"

'

yey y*
,
*
"

'

^
*
"

yey.e
,y"yey y
yey"ye

*
"

'
9*
"

'

yey.ye
,yWye y" y
yey"ye
y".yey"y
y" ye
,y
`
. yey y
y*y".y
,
*
"

'
^*`

'

yey".y*
,y "yey" y
yey"ye
, Wy
9
y"Wy
v|.c| |as maoo suc| an onormous .mjact on
c.iization :ooay
.Jazari ioo in sout|oast Tur|oy in :|o ato
..t| ano oary t| contu:ios, ano vas omjoyoo
Ly :|o :t.qio .nq o| L.yarLa|ir arouno ::3o
s a s|ioo o:a:sman |o camo uj v|:| a.
i.qon.ous ooico o: .i|tinq |uqo amo.nts o
vator vit|out .itinq a |nqor Ho vas t|o |rst
jorson to uso t|o cran| . n |is crancon.oct.nq
roo systom. T|o c:an| .s consioo:oo ono o| t|o
mos: imjortant moc|an.ca o.scoor.os maoo,
Loca.so .t transatos :o:ary mo:.on into ..oar
motion Tooay, cran|s a:o .n a |inos o t|..qs
rom :oys to sorious mac|inory .|o car onqinos
ano ocomotios
.aza:. .soo a mac||no jovo:oo Ly an
anima. vit| a |.mo|oam, v|ic| vas mooo
uj a.o oovn |y an in:rica:o systom ino
i.q qoars ano a cran| |novn as a s.ioo:cran|
moc|anism. T|o cran|, as jart o| a mac|.no,
oio no: ajjoa: i n lurojo unti t|o ::| con:ury
v|on i: s:artoo a roo.ution in onqi.oorinq
An engraving shows the use of Egyptian shadoofs
fa,- in-igation.
AL-JAZARI'S RECIPROCATING PUMP
.Jazari oosiqnoo no va:o::aisinq mac|inos
Tvo o t|om vo:o .mjroomonts on t|o s|aooo,
ano ono rojacoo a.ima jovor vi:| qoa:s ano
vator jovo: tor :|o i.::oo.c:.on o :|o c:an|
s|at, |.s o:|o: raoica L:oa|t|:ouq| camo v|on
|o maoo a vatoror.on jumj T|.s inooo coq
v|oos, cojjor jistons, suctio. ano ooiory jijos,
ano onovay cac| aos T|o jumj suc|oo
vator, :o |o usoo .. i::iqaio. ano sanitat.on, uj
.. mo:o:s _ |oot).n:o :|o sujjy sys:om lt .s a
ory oa:y oxamjo o| :|o oouLoacti.j j:..cij.o
o| ono j.s:on suc|inq v|io t|o ot|or oo.io:s, ano
Jazari jo:|oc:oo :|o soas on t|o j.s:ons ano
t|o onovay ao to ma|o .t a vor|
l you oo: |o.: .|o ma|inq your ov. ::|
co.tury va:orra.s..q mac|..o v.:| roc.j:oca:.nq
j.mj, |o:o a:o ootai.s o| |ov it vo:|oo
Sim.a: to a va:or m., it vou.o |o Lu.: noxt to
a |ovinq rior v.:| |a o .ts jaooo in t|o orco.
c.:ron: T|is jaoo.o v|oo. oroo a. ..:orna qoar
inq moc|a..sm, jovo:.nq j.s:o.s, v|.c| mooo
it| :|o mot.o. o| t|o oor a:m, a.o a :ocijrocat
inq jumj vas croatoo
C.ac| a.os |ojoo to orav ano oxjo. t|o
va:or t|rouq| t|o jijos T|o in.ot jijo vas s.L
mo:qoo in va:or ano v|on :|o jis:o. vas juoo
ao.q :|o .onqt| o| .:s cy..noo: va:o: vou.o Lo
s.coo i. t|ro.q| t|o i.o: ao T|o out|ot
ao :oma.noo c.osoo our.nq :|is timo, Locauso
o qraity ano t|o jos|tion o| its j.ot join:
`|on t|o j.ston vas on .:s j.s| st:o|o, t|o
va:o: in :|o cyinoor vas |orcoo t|:ouq| t|o
.u:o: ao ano t|rouq| a. outot jijo :|at vas
na::ovo: t|an t|o .no: j|jo T|o .n.ot a.o
romainoo cosoo our.nq t|is t.mo, Locauso o
qraity ano t|o jos.:ion o .ts jiot joint.
|.s mot.on vas atornatoo Lo:voon o.t|or
sioo o| t|o ooico, a.o so v|on o.o s.oo vas
on .ts jus| s:roo, :|o o:|o: vas on .ts ju.
s:ro|o T|o:ooro :vo uanti:ios' o vator vo:o
Loinq :a.soo jor ono comj|oto :ooution o :|o
vatorv|ool, ano t|is carrioo on as onq as t|oro
vas novinq vator to orivo it.
TAQI AL-DIN'S SIX-CYLINDER PUMP
!|o ot|o: toc|no|oqica v|iz vas :ct|contu:y
Cttoman onqinoor Taqi aLin .on a'rou| a
lasio, v|o vroto a ooo on moc|an.ca. onqi
noo:inq ca.oo /c './|:c Mc:/oos o/ 'p::c|
Mcc/.ncs Is vo as tainq aLout vato: j.mjs,
|o a|so oiscussoo t|o vor|inqs o| a :uoimontary
stoam onqino, aoout a |unoroo yoars oo|oro t|o
oiscovory' o| stoam jovor
His sixcy|inoor jumj ano vatorraisinq
mac|ino |orm jart o| t|o stuoy o| t|o |istory o|
jajorma|inq ano mota vor|s, as t|o jistons vo:o
simia: to o:oj |ammors, ano t|oy couo |avo
ooon usoo to o.t|o: croato vooo juj |or jajor o:
to ooat onq strijs o| mota. in a s.nqo jass
!aqi aLin oxjainoo |ov t|o jumj vor|oo in
|is manuscrijt !|o sixcyinoor jumj |ao a vator
v|oo attac|oo to a onq |orizontal axo, or cam
s|a|t. v|ic| |ao six cams sjacoo aonq its onqt|
!|o rivor orovo t|o vatorv|oo, v|ic| rotatoo ano
turnoo t|o cams|a|. lac| cam on t|o cams|a|t
jus|oo a connoctinq :oo oovnvaro, ano a. con
noctinq roos voro jivotoo at t|o conto: It t|o
ot|or ono o| t|o connoctinq roo vas a oao voiq|t,
v|ic| i|too ujvaro ano juoo a jiston uj v.t| it
LEFT: Artwork shows Taqi al-Din's six-cylinder water
pump. The camshaft controls the motion of the connect
ing rods to produce a progressive motion of the six pis
tons, so water is raised continuously. TOP RIGHT:
A view of the camshaft and waterwheel. BOTTOM RIGHT:
A close-up of the pistons and cylinder block.
Nov a vacuum vas croatoo, ano vator vas sucoo
t|ro.q| a nonroturn cac va.vo into a jiston cy.
inoor I|tor t|o cams|a|t |ao rotatoo t|rouq| a
cortain anqo, t|o cam ro.oasoo t|o connoct.nq :oo
ano t|o jiston's stro|o onooo !|rouq| qravity, t|o
oao voiq|t jus|oo t|o jiston oovn, |orcinq vator
aqainst t|o cac| valvo, out t|o cac| vavo cosoo, so
t|o vator |ao to qo t|rouq| anot|or |oo ano .nto
t|o ooivo:y jijos !|o ooauty o| t|o moc|anism
vas in t|o sync|ron.zat.on ano contro soquonco o|
a| t|o jistons, v|ic| voro jroviooo Ly t|o anqua:
a:ranqomont o| t|o cams arouno t|o s|a|t
ln a timo Lo|oro oojonoonco on mac|inory,
v|on vo voro not surrounooo oy cars, oicy
cos, or ooctric jumjs, t|oso oiscovorios roay
c|anqoo socioty |oso mac|inos vouo not oo
massmanu|acturoo, out many tovns vouo |avo
a vator jumj No onqor voro joojo |oavinq
vator containors arouno. o: va.tinq t|oi: turn to
uso t|o s|aooo| lnstoao t|oy stooo oy jumjs o:
aquooucts, vaitinq to catc| t|o jrocious iqu.o
qat|oroo oy t|oir vatorv|oo|s, ]ust as vo vait |or
t|o vator to |ov |rom our |aucots
126

9
-

-4
-
;t-

xt

---

4

"
"

-
"
-4-
"
-
----
t-=
-;t--

-
"
-4
-
*
-

4
"
"
"

"
-4-
"
-

4-`
"4

-
"
W
-
""

-
;

----
--
--

"
-4-`-

4-
"4-
-
"
W

-
-
""
W

-
-
"

y
"
W
y
*
"

:-=-s;-
x
--

x
--
----
-;t--tt

-
"
-4-`-
-
-
--
-
"
"
--
"
-
-;t--t:

---"

"

-4-
"
-
--

"
-4-
"
-
---

x
--

"
"

4
;-

xt:-

t-=-;;-

-
"
^-4-
*
-
-- --

"
-4-
"
-
---
--4

"
-
xs;-;t
t-

xt-

x

;=-s;-

;-

x;;-

x
x
-
-

x
--

xs;-

---

-
---
-
"
-4-
" -

4-
"

4
-

-
-

-
x

-
-

-
x

x;t

x;t

"
^-4

"
-
---

"
-4-
"

---

x
--

---

x
--
---
---

x
--

--

-- -
--

x---
;:--;:

x
-
-

x
---

x
--
---

---

x
--
----
---
-
"
-4

"
-
---
'
"
-4-
"
-
-
"
^-4
-
"
-4-
"
-

4-
"
-4-
'
"
-4-
"
-

4-
"
-

" -4-

"
-4-
*
-
-
--

---

4--4-
--;t-
1 001 I N\TNTI ONS: T i l E E NDU R I NC LLGACY Of :S I. I M CJ V I LL\TI ON
_ AVS
0 ams are some of the largest civil engineering structures ever built and
they play a vital role in civilization. Without dams, more foods would
ravage lands, irrigation would not have been as large-scale, and we
would not have hydroelectric plants pumping out power today.
rc| oams, |ut:ross oams, omoan|mont oams,
`us.ms o.it many oams in a ric| a:ioty o
st:ucturos ano o.ms con:.:ios aqo !|o oosiqn
ano aost|otics o t|o mos: .mj.oss.o o :|oso
oams voro jrooucoo |y :|o q|aoios o| !uni
sia noar t|oir caj|ta, ayravan, in t|o n.nt|
contury la|ri, an it|con:ury qooqraj|o:
ano |istorian rom sout|orn Sjain, oosc.iooo
ono as c.rcu.ar in orm anc o| ono.mous s.zo ln
t|o conto. r.sos an oc:aqona tovor cooroo oy a
jai|on v.t| |ou: ooors onq sorios o arcaoos
o arc|os ros:inq ono ujon t|o ot|o. onos on t|o
sout| s.oo o t|o :oso.oir.'
ln l:an is :|o o|ar oam, t|o o|oost |novn
arc|oo oam, v|.c| is a|ou: /oo yoa:s oo !|is
oam, io many o its oos.qn, |ao a coro o ruooo
masonry sot in mo.tar !|o mor:a. vas maoo
|rom imo crus|oo v.:| t|o as| o a oca oosor:
j.an:, ma|inj it stronq, |aro, ano imjorious to
crac|.nq !|on t|o:o vas :|o imj:oss.oy curoo
usay|a| oam, v|ic| vas o motors |iq| 3..
oot) ano zo motors onq c/ |oot) l: vas ou.t
noar ooina, nov .n Sauoi ra|ia
ln tooays |q|anis:an, t|:oo oams vo:o
comjo:oo oy Su:an a|muo o |azni in :|o
.t| contury noar |.s caji:a. c.ty Cno, namoo
Khaju Bridge, also a dam, on the Zayandeh River in Isfahan,
Iran, was built in the mid-17th centwy by Shah Abbas Uof
the Safavid dynast. The bridge was set on a stone platform
and divided by sluices, which regulated the Row of the river .
({Historians of civil engi neering have
almost totally ignored the Muslim
period, and i n particular historians
of dam building, such as there have
been, ei ther make no reference to
Muslim work at all or even worse,
clai m that during Umayyad and
Abbasid times dam building,
irrigation and other engineering
activi ties sufered sharp decline and
eventual extinction. Such a view is
both unjust and untrue."
NORMAN SMITH, HISTORY OF DAMS, 1 971
a|tor |im, vas locatoo a |unoroo |iomotors c.
mios) sout|vost o| aou. lt vas . motors |iq|
.o |oot) ano ..o motors onq /.. |oot)
Lam construction .n usim Sjain vas
immonso, ano t|o masonry t|oy usoo vas a
tyjo o| comont t|at vas |aroor t|an stono
itso| Lac| o| t|o oiq|t oams on t|o !u..a
lior |ao |ounoations t|at qo : |oot into
t|o riorooo, vit| |urt|or sujjort jroiooo
oy rovs o| voooon jios T|o soio |ounoation
vas nooooo ouo to t|o .io.'s orratic oo|aior
ln t.mos o| ||oooinq its |ov vas a |unoroo
timos qroator t|an norma. oro t|an ton con
turios ator, t|oso oams sti continuo to moot
t|o irriqati on nooos o| Vaoncia, roq.irinq no
aooition to t|o systom
!|o ci ty o| Coroooa, on t|o r.or .aoaqui
ir, jrooaoy |as t|o ooost suriinq lsamic
oam in t|o country. ccoroinq :o :.t|contury
qooqraj|o: lor|si, |t vas ouit o| q.Ltiyya
stono ano inc|.ooo marL.o jiars !|o oam
|oovs a ziqzaq courso across t|o rior, a
s|ajo t|at s|ovs t|at t|o ouioors voro aiminq
at a onq crost in oroor to incroaso its oor|ov
\\ \ RIET: D.' \ \\S IZ
The reservoir on the wadi Mwj al-Lil near Al-Qayrawan in
Tunisia, built by the Aghlabids in the ninth century, is one
of the oldest surviving reservoirs in the Muslim world.
cajacity lomains o| t|o oam can st. oo soon
tooay a |ov |oot aooo t|o riorooo
To ouio suc| immonso struct..os, us.m
onq.noors usoo soj|.sticatoo anosuroyinq
mot|oos ano instrumonts, i|o astroaoos ano
aso triqonomotric cacuations Lams vo.o ou.t
o| car-|.||y cut stono Loc|s, ]oinoo toqot|or oy
iron oovo|s, v|io t|o |o|os in v|ic| t|o oovos
nttoo voro noo oy jourinq in moton oao !|o
oo o| cra|tsmans|ij ano sujoriority o| oosiqn
atta.noo moans t|at a t|iro o| a soont| ano
oiq|t|contury oams aro sti intac: T|o ot|or
tvot|i.os voro oostroyoo oy conturios o| var
|aro, |rom t|o armios o| onq|is K|an anc t|o
onqos to !imur t|o Lamo' s |oroos
us.ms voro aso .nostinq in q.oon
onorqy' v|on t|oy usoo storoo vato. |or m.|
jovor. l n |uzistan, at t|o luiluaiti oam on
t|o Liarqar, t|o m.|s voro instaoo in t.n
nos c.t t|.o.q| t|o roc on oac| s.oo o| t|o
c|anno, constitutinq ono o| t|o oar.ost oxam
jos o| a |yorojovor oam, ano it vas not t|o
ony ono in t|o uslim voro not|or oxamjlo
vas t|o or.oqooam at Liz|u, v|.c| vas usoo to
jro.oo jovor to ojo.a:o a no:c, a |uqo vator
v|oo, v|ic| vas _Oc.oits in oiamotor, ano suj
jlioo vator to a t|o |ousos o| t|o tovn any
suc| |yorauic vor|s can stil oo soon tooay

>X>

Xd>X"

y4g"
"y

X>`X"

<4>X"

X4>

g"
"y4g"W
*
y4
>
"
X
4
>
"
X
4
>
"
W

X
4
#
"Wy4

>
"
X4
>
"
W
X
4
>
"y4

>
W
X
4
>
"W
*
X4
>
"Wy4

#
"
X
4
>
"
W
y 4
>
"
X4

>
"Wy

>
"
+
X4
>
"W
X

t
> ~Xd>
Xd>X

4

y4
>
"
X4
t
>~X>

g"Wy4

g"
"

<>`

>~X>

g"Wy4

#
"Wy4g"

#
"
"y4g"
+

g"y4
#
""
+
128 I OOl I N VE NTI ONS: T i l L E NDUR I NG LLCACY OF `| |`\ CI VI LI Z.ATI ON
O | `lV| llS
T
o produce anything, energy is needed, and before oil-powered machines,
energy came from sustainable sources. Some energy in the Islamic
world more than a thousand years ago came from water, and was
harnessed in machines like the crank-rod system, which took water to higher
levels and into aqueducts to quench the thirst of towns. Water drove mills to
grind wheat, but in drier parts of the Islamic world there was not enough water,
so alternative power supplies were sought.
no t|inq t|o ast ooso.ts o rao.a |ao v|on :|o
soasona stroams ran ory vas vino, ano :|oso oosort
vinos |ao a constan: o..oc:ion ano oov .oqua..y
rom t|o samo j.aco T|o vinom. vas so s.mjo
yot o||oct.o t|at .: qu.c|y sjroao a oor :|o voro
rom its soon:|contury lorsian o.|q|ns. ost |is
:orians oo.oo t|at it vas t|o Crusaoors v|o in:ro
oucoo vinomis to lurojo in t|o :.t| contury
lorsian |ao como to t|o socono Ca.ij| Umar,
v|o .oiqnoo or ton yoars rom c, ano caimoo |o
couo ou..o a mi ojoratoo oy v.no, so :|o ca.j|
orooroo |im :o |ao ono ou.|t tor t|is, vino
jovo. oocamo viooy usoo :o run mistonos or
qrino.nq corn, ano a|so to orav uj vator or irr.
qation T|.s vas oono !rst in t|o lorsian jro.nco
o S.stan, ano |asuoi, an rao qooqraj|or v|o
.oo in t|o tont| cont..y, ooscriooo t|o .oqion as
a count.y o vino ano sano Ho aso vroto, ]
c|aractoristic o t|o aroa is t|at t|o jovo. o :|o
w.no is usoo :o orio jumjs or vato.inq qaroons
Lar.y vinomis voro tvostory ouio.nqs ano
voro |.i: on :|o tovo.s o castos, |itojs, or j.at
orms n :|o ujjor story voro t|o m..s:onos, ano
in t|o ovor ono vas a v|oo, orion oy t|o six or
:vo.o sa.s :|at vo.o cooroo vi:| a|ric T|oso
:u.noo t|o ujjor mi|.stono T|oso ovo. c|amoor
va.s voro jio.coo |y our onts, vi:| :|o narrovor
ono :ovaro :|o in:or.or, v|.c| oiroctoo t|o v.no
onto t|o sa.s ano .ncroasoo its sjooo
`inomi..s rom t|at :imo voro ooscr.ooo as
conta.n.nq a mistono a:tac|oo to :|o ono o a
voooon cy.noor T|is vas |a a mo:or v.oo .c
oot), ano ._ :o . mo:o.s |.q| ,n,to : : oot),
s:anoinq or:icay in a tovor ojon on t|o no.t|
oast sioo to catc| :|o vino oovinq rom :|.s
oiroc:.on. T|o cyinoor |ao sa.s maoo o ounoos
o| o.s| or jam oaos, attac|oo to t|o s|a|t o t|o
axo T|o v.no, oovinq into t|o tovo., jus|oo t|o
sa.s ano turnoo t|o s|at ano mistono
T|o introouction o t|o vinomi |ao a qroat
o||oct on t|o sc|onco o moc|anica onqinoor.nq
ano moant t|at nov traoos voro oorn
(Behold! a gi ant am I!
Alof here in my tower,
Wi th my grani te jaws I devour
The maize, and the wheat, and the 1e,
And grind them i nto Rour.
I look down over the farms;
In the felds of grai n I see
The harvest that i s to be,
And I Ri ng to the ai r my arms,
For I know i t is all for me. "
EXCERPT FROM
"
THE WI NDMILL,
"
BY HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW
i

Wind turbines turn in a field of rapeseed in France. Attempts to use environmentally


friendly energy have revived the call for the use of wind power.
:v\ iRKF. T: WI NDMI LLS 129
y-

y
an
y

y
go-
y
-
"ya

g,yag,ye
gany-"yon

gag, "yon
y-
"yon
y
-
"y
goy
-
"yo

goy-"yo

gagyya
gyyangyye
gagyya
gyya-g*yye
gagyya-
gyyogyye
gagyyan
gyya-gyye
gongyyan
g*,gogyye
ga-gyya-
gyya-g*yye
gogyyan
gyya-g*yye
gagyyan
g,gangyye
ga-g*yyo-
g*yya-gyye
ga-gyya
gyya-g*yye
yagyyan
gyya-gyye
g
4
g*yy
4

g"yy
4
g*yye
g
4
g"yy
4

g"yy
4
g"yye
g
4
yy
4
-
g"yy
4
g*yye
g
4
g"yyo

g"yy
4
g*yye
g
4
g"yy
4

g"yy
4
g,g
goy
-
"yo-
g,gag,ge
g
4
gyya

g*yy
4
g"yye
g
4
g*yy
4
g"yy
4
g*yy
ga

g"yy
4

g*yyo

g"yye
g
4
g"yy
4

g"yyog"yye
go

g"yy
4
g
g"yy
4
g*yye
ga

g"yyag
gyy
4
g"yy
g
4
gyya
g"yya

g"yye
ga

g,y
4

go
-
n
,"g
g
4
gyy
4
ng
gyy
4
g*,ge
pyy

"

4
g"yyo

g"yye
ga

gyy
4

go
-
-,"g
g
4
g*yy
4

g*yy
4
g"yye
ga

g"yy
4

g*yy
4
g"yye
g
yWy
gyya-g*yye
a
g"yy
4

g"yy
4
g"yye
g
pyWy

g
4
g"yy
4

gyyo
g"yye
oy"yo-Q
gyya
,
-gyye
gog"yy
4
Q
gyy
4
g"yye
g
pyWy
p

4
-g"yy
4

gyyagyye
a-gyyan
gyya-g*yye
pyWy

4
g"yy
4

g*yy
4
g*yye
py-y

"

g,"ga
-
n,"
g
y
y

g,yang,
I_Z 1001 I NVF NTI ONS: T i l E ENDU R I NC LFC;\CY OF \\ USLJ ,v\ CI V I LI Z!I ON
, +PAl|
T
rade has a long tradit10n in Islam and
Prophet Muhammad, and many of his com-
panions, were tradesmen. Because 1t played a maj or part of Islamic hfe,
trade was governed by a well-developed body of legislation covering con
tracts, exchanges, loans, and market conduct.
To as: notvor| o :raoo stro:c|oo oo: an omjiro
t|at coursoo v.:| an ococtic co.oc:.on o mo.
c|an:s ano qooos oo ano v|.to qoo, as sa: vas
novn, :raooo nor:| ano oast rom t|o |..can
Sa|a.a .n:o orocco, Sjain, ano r:anco, v.t| ossor
quantitios ma.nq t|o.. vay into :ooco, !ur|oy,
Lqyt, ano Sy.a Covrio s|os t|oy voro a cur
:oncy in :|o ..t| contury) vont rom t|o a.oios
Seljuk caravansaries still stand in Konya, Turkey.
Caravansaries were charitable foundations and provided
facilities, stch as food and shelter; to travelers for free.
They were the "highway service stations" of their time.
to `ost rica lot:ory ano jajo: monoy camo vost
rom C|.na, out t|o jajo: cu:roncy oio not catc|
on in Cairo !.ao.o.s a.so :ovoo a.onq v.:| :|o
qooos s|oi|s ano sutans, viso mon ano jiqr.ms
!|o .ano traoo jass.nq aonq :|o S.| louto
vas t|o |oartooat o| :|o us.im oconomy. !|o soa
traoo vas ma.ny aonq t|o ooitorranoan s|oros
o rica ano Lurojo !|o jort o .aqa .n sout|
orn Sjain vas a conto. o| .mmonso tramc, isitoo
oy traoors rom a| countr.os, osjociay t|oso rom
t|o morcan:..o rojuo.cs o ltay, i|o :|o ono
oso 'on lat:u:a saioo :o nato.a on a onooso
ooat oocauso t|oy oom.na:oo t|.s jart o :|o :raoo
.ou:os, ano o saio, T|o C|ris:.ans troatoo us
|ono:aoy ano too| no jassaqo monoy :om us'
n t|o c:ovooo q.ays o| .aqa, :raoo:s oar
to:oo t|o commooitios o oo:y count:y rom si||s,
voajons, ]ovory, ano qiooo jottory, :o t|o oo.i
cious |rui:s o Sjain
oxanoria vas a maor jort at t|o mout| o
t|o Nio ota, sji.nq into t|o ooitorranoan
Soa n :|o Sj.co lou:o, i: vas t|o qa:ovay into
lurojo |or qooos com.nq |.om t|o lnoian coan,
t|.ouq| t|o loo Soa ano oovn :|o N.o lt |ao tvo
|aroo.s, a usim ono in t|o vos: ano a C|:.s:.an
ono in :|o oast, v|ic| vo:o soja:atoo oy t|o .sano
o| l|aros ano its onormous iq|t|ouso, novn at
t|.s timo as a vonoo. o t| vo.o
lost stojs aonq t|o .oaos, caoo caraansa
:ios, aciitatoo traoo Caraansarios voro c|ari
:ao.o ounoations, jroio.nq traoo:s vit| t|roo
oays o| roo s|o:o. ooo ao in somo casos,
ontorta.nmont at .oquar intora.s o aoout o |.o
motors :3c m..os) aonq .mjortant t.aoo routos
s t|o morc|ants ca.:ioo t|oir va.os across
t|o vor.o, t|oy aso too ls.am v.t| t|om 'j
t|o C|inoso coast .n uanqz|ou, nov Canton,
a coony o usim ano Jovis| morc|ants vas
vo ostaois|oo in t|o oiq|t| contu:y usim
morc|ants jonotratoo rica, ano it vas initiay
loroo. morc|ants v|o carrioo lsam across t|o
Sa|ara nomaos .n nort|oast |rica, v|oro
traoo routos .n|oo t|o loo Soa v.t| t|o Ni.o,
quic|y |ocamo usims
Somo contors .n t|o ls.am.c vor|o constitutoo
t|riinq communit.os ouo to t|oi. .mjo.tant jaco
in commorcia. oxc|anqos ayravan in !un.
sia ano Si]imasa in orocco voro oosc.iooo oy
t|o tont|contury traoor lon Havqa in |.s oo/
o/ :/c Ro.:cs o/ :/c K:njcos ayravan, t|o
arqost tovn in t|o aq|roo, surjassos a ot|o.s
in its commorco, |ts ric|os, ano t|o ooauty o its
oazaa.s l |oa.o .om ou aHasa, t|o |oao o| t|o
juo.c troasury t|at t|o .ncomo o a jroincos
ano oca.tios o t|o aq|roo vas ootvoon soon
|unoroo ano oiq|t |unoroo milion oinars
\1 ;\ RKf. T: T R!\ Df
(The Arabs, masters of an empi re
extendi ng from the Gulf of Gascony
to beyond the Indus, i nvolved in
commerci al enterprises
reaching i nto Africa and Baltic
Europe, brought East and West
together as never before. "
ROBERT LOPEZ, HI STORIAN OF THE COMMERCI AL
EXPANSI ON OF THE LATE MEDIEVAL PERI OD
Lurojo, s.a, ano |r.ca .mjortoo ast amounts
.om lsamic anos, incuoinq onamo|oo qassvaro,
toooo oat|orvor| o a sorts, tios, jottory, jajor,
carjots, caroo iorios, ilustratoo manuscrijts,
motavor| incuo|:q Lamascono svoros ano os
sols, nno cotton cot|, ano ric| s.l| |aorics
usim toxti|os, mota, ano qass jiocos voro
|iq|y jrizoo, as voro soajs amu| qit ano
onamooo qass, a aoorintonsio uxury jroouct,
|as ooon uncooroo oy arc|aoooqists on t|o no:t|
orn s|oros o t|o lac| Soa, as vo as in Scanoina
ia, t|o Hansoatic jorts, ano aastric|t in Holano
NU5L N LAKAVAN5
-- .
M
usl i m caravans were huge processi ons of peopl e, thei r
goods, and ani mal s that travel ed enormous di stances
and reached the farthest horizons. Their objecti ve was ei ther pi l
gri mage or trade, and i t was these tradesmen who went as far
as Chi na in thei r caravans that bound thi s di stant l and to I ndi a,
Persi a, Syri a, and Egypt.
' .
Some of the camel caravans were so bi g that i f you lef your
pl ace you woul d not be abl e t o fnd i t agai n because of the vast
number of peopl e. Food was cooked in great brass caul drons and
Camel caravans carried given to the poorer pi l gri ms, and the spare camel s took those
traders across the Muslim world.
who coul d not wal k. Sheep and goats went with the caravans,
provi di ng mi l k, cheese, and meat. Camel mi l k and meat was al so eaten, and the dried dung of these
ani mal s was used as fuel for the campfres. Fl at bread, or pita bread, was made al ong the way from fl our,
salt, and water. Water was carri ed in goat and buffal o ski n bags, and water poi nts were wel come si ghts.
The i ntense heat of the day i n the deserts meant that caravans travel ed by ni ght wi th torches to l i ght the
way, maki ng the desert gl ow with l i ght, and turni ng ni ght i nto day.
133

-6

-
x;;-

--6

-
-

--

-:
--

x
-

x:-*

--
q

--
q

x
-
-
,

x;;-
,

-:
--

x
--


-- 6

x;t-

x;;-

-
xt;

,
-:
--x
--

-
-

--

-:
--
x
--

--

g
---

-;t-

--
,
g
--
-
,
-

x
--
,
g
--
-
,
--

,
-
- -- ,
-
x;t-
;

- ;;-
,

---x
-
- t
;-
,

--
;
-
-

-- ,
--
,
-;t---,
--
,
ga
--,
-s;-
;

,
g
-
y
--

-
x

t-
,

- st-
,

--6

--

y
--
y

,
;t-*--

-
x:
-

- -

--6
;t--

,
--6
g

n
--
,
--
,
g

n
--,
--
q


--

,
g
---,
--
,
ga
--
-

--

-t;---,
--

x
--

g
-
-

g
-
-
"

-
-

z
-
-
"
g
-
-

g
-
-

g
-
-

x;t-*

"--" -

x
--

x
--9

:t
-

x
=
-

g
-~-

x;t-


*
-*" -
---

x;t

-
---
-
*
"-
-"-*

*
--
*
-

-t

-
--
*
"-
"-
g
-"-
--


yeyy

*
W --

*
-- -

xs


=
g
-
x
--"-
-
*
-

*
e
-"

g
-

-
-
e
-
*
-
--
"-
*
"

*
-

g
-
-
~-*-
-9

=--= -
- --

*
= -
*
= -
* -*
"
e

*
-

g
*
-

"

-
-

g
*
-

z
-
-
"

-
~-

z
-
-
"

g
-*~-

=-s;-*-

:
-
~-

st

-*~-

=-s;--
=
-
~-

st

g
-*~ -

e
y
y
W
ye

y
g
y
y

g
-
-
"

g
-
-
-

g
-*~-

-
=
-= -
-= -
-
e
-
*
-

*
-
g

t-g

x
~--
-
*
-
- - -
- --
=-*-
!l I NVENT I ONS: T I- l L LN DU RI NG LLG!C:Y Cl ;'\ US I | ` CI VI LI Zf\TI ON
: +|XT| l|S
T
extiles drove much of medieval trade, and they were an exceptionally
important part of the economy worldwide. It is estimated that textile
manufacture and trade at this time would have kept the maj ority of the
working population busy.
ly t|o m|on|nt| contury t|o toxt|.o aor|c o| us
|m Sja|n |ao oarnoo an |ntornat|ona. rojutat|on,
ano oon :|roo contur|os ator Sjan|s| s.|s v|t|
qooon |oroors ano ornamontat|on voro usoo at
t|o marr|aqo o _uoon loatr|co o ortuqa
!|o Sjan|s| .s|ms |ao as muc| oo|cacy
ano cratsmans||j |n t|o|r vor| as t|o amous
C||noso art|sans. ln Coroo|a aono, t|oro voro
,ooo voaors ma||nq carjots, cus||ons, s||
curta|ns, s|av.s, o|ans, ano Corooan oa:|or
or t|o s|ooma|ors o Lurojo, a. o v||c| ouno
oaqor ouyors oory|oro. T|oy voro a|so jro
ouc|nq sujoro vooon stu|s, osjoc|ay ruqs ano
tajostr|os, maoo |n Cuonca, Sja.n !|oso voro
usoo as jrayor mats as vo| as :a|o ano |oor
oocorat|ons |n t|o|r ooaut||u. |ousos
ln noaus, t|o jroouc:|on o Lastorns:yo
cot| vas concontratoo |n :|o tovns o |aqa
ano mor|a, ano oocauso t|oy voro jorts t|oy
voro aso t|o nrst to roco|o t|o nov styos ano
:oc|n|uos lrom us..m Sja.n :|o no toxt|.o
.noustry sjroao v.ooy uj .nto Lurojo
lart|or oas: ano a|onq t|o oo|:orranoan
s|oros, toxt||os voro maoo |n:o co:||nq ano t|o
ou| o |ouso|oo urn|s|.nqs Nomao vomon
voo ton: oanos, saooooaqs, crao.os, ano ot|or
trajj.nqs or t|o|r moo|o |os Lon |n t|o uroan
con:ors ano ja.acos, urn.s|.nqs voro ma|ny o|
carjots, coors, curta.ns, ano |anq.nqs o ar|ous
k|nos lnstoao o| c|a|rs, joojo sa: on cus||ons
ano oanoo aqa|ns: oostors, cooroo v|t| co:|
v|oso ua..:y ano r|c|noss ro|octoo t|o.r ovn
ors nanc.a s:atus
Toxt|os voro .mjortant jo|t|ca :oo.s as vo.
T|oy maoo a|s| o|jomat|c q|ts, ano .t vas cus
:oma:y to rovaro ||q| omc.as ano ot|or aor
.:os, a: :oqu.ar |ntoras ano on sjoc.a occas|ons,
L1!.Muslim silk was so popular with the new bour
geois European society that local industry was threat
ened; so in 1700 the British goverment introduced a
mandatory act restricting its import. RIGHT: A silkworm
perches on a mulberry branch in a modern-day Turkish
carpet factory. In the 1620s, King James I of England
was so fascinated with Persian silk that he tried to
establish his own silk industry.

Mi\ RKlT: TEXTI LES


A 19th -century manuscript from the book Album of Kashmiri Trades shows a dyer at work dyeing cloth.
Iq

4
"

=
"

4
*"

"

"^
+

4
*"

"

"^

"

^
*

"
=
"

"


"

^
*

x
+

:
"
+

*
^
*

x
+

^
*

x
+

x
+

^

+

^
*

x
"
=^

*
"

*
^

x
"
=^

^
*

x
"

^
*

x
"

x
+
^

"

"
+

x
"

Q*
"

"

"

"

"

*"
"
"
^

x*

^
"W

"
=
"
"
^
"Wx*
^

^
"Wx

^
+
W
_
"

Wx

`
^
"

^
"W
_

"

"

Q*

=
*

"

"
=

_x

"

_x
+

"

^@
x

x
"

P=
"

_x
"

x
*"

"

P
"

"

"

"
*

Y
^

Wx

^
"

"

^@
_x
^
*

QY

Y
"

"

*
_
+=

""

_x
+

_x
"

^
`

_x
+

^
`
""

^@
x

QY
"

Y
"

*"

4
"

"

"

136 1001 I NVENTI ONS: T H E. E. NDURI NC L EGt\CY OF !\ LS L I M CI VI l. I Zi\TI ON
vi:| ro|os o |.nor, :uroans. ano o:|or qarmon:s
voon . n t|o ruors' ovn |o.sos .t vas a|so :|o
caij|s' jroroqatio. ano a|tor ..o t|at o :|o
am.. su|:ans, to jro.oo oac| yoar :|o nov
/swc, t|o r.c|y ornamon:oo qarmont t|at oi|oo
t|o !c'/c/ at occa
u array o toxtilos vas aa.aoo in t|o
lsamic vor'o `oo ano linon voro j:ooucoo
in quantity rom lran :o Sjain, ano aooit.ona
sujjios o| ..non voro imjortoo s.nco it vas so
joj.ar Co:ton, na:io to .noia, vas jro|a|y
The Ka'bah in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is covered by kiswa,
a cloth richly decorated with golden calligraphy. This is
the place that Muslims around the world face when they
do their daily prayers. It is a four-walled room normally
covered by kiswa. The entrance to the room is on the left.
The Ka'bah was originally built by Abraham and Ismail
on the location believed to be the frst place of worship
in histo1y by Adam. Before Mohammad, Arabs used it to
house their statue gods, but these were destroyed by the
advent of Islam; now there is nothing inside. The room
is cleansed eve1 year by the king and his guests, and
nobody else is allowed inside. The lanter on the left
houses a footprint believed to be that of Abraham. As
part of the rituals, Muslims circle the Ka'bah seven times
hailing God's Oneness.
nrst jroo.coo on a arqo scao .n t|o ooitorra
noan ator :|o usim aoanco lt qrov .n Syria
ano la|ost.no as vo|., ano |rom so.:|orn Sjain it
on:oroo in:o Lurojo Loa:|or vas a|so an imjor
tan: .nous:ry, ano in :|o roiqn o ansur in
t|o :zt|con:ury mo|ao oynasty in loz, t|oro
voro 3c tannorios ano ic oyo vor|s
Somo tovns ano citios voro intornationay
rocoqnizoo or t|o.r jrooucts S|iraz vas |amous
or .ts vooon cot|s, laq|oao or |ts |aoac|in
|anq.nqs ano :a||y s.|s |uzistan or |a|rics
o| camo's or qoats |a.r, |urasan or its so|a
coors, Tyro or .:s carjots, lu|ara or i:s jrayor
ruqs, ano Horat or .:s qo.o orocaoos. No sam
jos o t|oso jroouc:s rom t|.s jorioo |ao sur
ioo t|o voar ano toar o timo t|ouq|, at|ouq|
toxtio jiocos rom ot|or jorioos can oo ouno in
`ostorn musoums ano co|octions o Lastorn art.
no o :|o most jroc.ous raqmon:s is :|o si.|
cajo o| an Lqyj:ian amu| sutan, on v|.c|
vas inscr.|oo :|o oarnoo Su:an.' oa:inq |rom
t|o ..t| con:ury T|.s vas |o.no in St ary's
C|urc|, Lanz.q
Lurojos |ascina:ion vit| usim toxt.|os qoos
oac| to t|o iooo Iqos, v|on :|oy voro imjor:oo
oy Crusaoors ano traoors. !|oy voro so auoo
:|at lojo Syos:or l vas ourioo in uxurious lor
sian si|| cot| uoon L|oanor, t|o Cast.|ian orioo
o| inq Lovaro l, orouq|t Inoausian carjots to
Lnqano as jrocious itoms o| |or oovry in :z
ly t|o :/t| contury, traoo rolations vit| Lnq
ano voro ooominq, coincioinq vit| t|o joa| o|
lorsian toxti|os l n :c:c, t|o lors.an s|a| croo
itoo Lnqano vi:| ,ooo oaos to oncouraqo
traoo, ano a|:or :|is lorsian si| vas a: t|o :oj
o| t|o ist o| imjorts !|roo yoars ator, t|o s|.j
Royc| Annc orouq|t in :: oaos o| lors.an si|,
v|ic| camo ia Surat to Lnqano !|o |inq a: t|o
timo, Jamos l , vas so |ascinatoo vit| lors.an si|
t|at |o consiooroo ostaois|inq a sil| inoustry in
Lnqano Ho acquiroo si|vorms ano maoo sjo
cia arranqomonts |or t|oir nursory a: |.s coun:ry
ostatos ano `|ito|a qaroons Ho aso orooroo
lronc|man Jo|n lonooi, t|o manaqor o| .|o
roya s.| vors, to comjio a troatiso ooainq
vi:| toc|niquos o| si| jroouction, v|ic| vas
juois|oo in :czz
Irouno t|o samo timo, traoo vit| lnoia vas
jroinc, t|an|s to t|o actio roo o| t|o Last lnoia
Comjany in introoucinq lnoian c|intz to Lnq
ano !|is |aoric vas cotton jaintoo v.t| usim
oomonts, v|.c| jroiooo a mooo |or Lurojoan
co:ton as vo| as vajajor jroouction.
ly t|o :/:| contury, toxtios imjortoo |rom :|o
usim voro voro a t|o raqo v.t| t|o nov oour
qoois Lurojoan socioty, ano oca inoustry vas
t|roatonoo. Loca si| voaors comjlainoo in :c3,
v|io lronc| ano lritis| si| ano voo morc|ants
souq|t oans on t|o Last lnoia Comjany, unvi
inq to su||or comjotition |rom t|o |oroiqn toxti|os
!|o lritis| qoornmon: roactoo .n :/oo oy
.ntrooucinq a manoatory act ros:rict.nq :|o
.mjort o| s. |rom usim |anos, v|.c| aso
jro|ioitoo t|o imjortat.on o| lnoian c|intz, ano
lorsian ano C|inoso |aorics
\\ \ Rff r: TLXTI LE S I_
An illustration from Maqamat al-Hariri shows a girl
working at either a spinning wheel or a spool-winding
machine in Baghdad, Iraq.
lino si| oio not como on|y |rom lorsia, as t|o
Tur|is| toxtio inoustry jrooucoo it as vol. lt vas
|ouno in outstanoinq quaity in lursa, v|oro si||
voaors jrooucoo stunninq jiocos oocoratoo
vit| zni| !ora moti|s You can roao moro aoou:
t|oso in :|o lo:tory soc:ion lrom |oro, si| ano
oot roac|oo t|o su:ans' |ouso|oos, ano voro
usoo in t|o Cttoman |ouso|oo on so|as, oians,
ano curtains, oocominq ossont.a |or t|o intorior
oocor Laoy ontaqu, aoout v|om you can roao
in t|o lnoculation soction o| t|o Hosjita c|aj
tor, montions t|o |amo o| !ur|is| toxtios ano
aomiroo !ur|is| oross s:yo oy voarinq it |orso|.
Inot|or :3t|contury ont|usiast o| !ur|is| |ao
ric ano oross vas :|o .n|uon:.a| Sviss artist Joan
Ltionno Lio:aro, v|o ioo .n lstanou |or no yoars
ano orossoo i|o a natio Tur|. His |omao jortraits
o| sittors on Su|tano qroaty |ojoo :o sjroao t|o
|as|ion o| !ur|is| oross t|rouq|out Lurojo
`o |ao jrooucts tooay t|at stil ooar t|oir
usim namos, li|o musin |rom t|o city o|
osu|, v|oro .t vas oriqinay maoo, oamas| |rom
Lamascus, oaoac|.n maoo in laq|oao'), qauzo
|rom aza, cot:on |rom t|o Irao.c .:n, moaninq
rav co:ton, ano sa:in |rom Zay:un., namoo oy
us|ims a|tor t|o C|.noso jort o| !soutunq |rom
v|oro t|oy imjortoo i:.
g,ag,
py

-
"yon
s
y
-
ypy
-

y
o
y
-
yon
s
y
-
"yy,

y
-
"y

py
-
"

t
a
-

t
s

,"o
-
n,
4
gy4g"

g"
"y4g"

y
ag",a

y
-
"ypy
-
"

g*
Wy4g"

y
a

g"ya
g"
y
ag*,
py W
ya

g"Wy4g*
W
y
y
a

g"y
a

j
g"Wy4
g*
W
g
4
py-y

""
g,
y
"
y
-

ps

g"yg"Wy
y
ag"ya

g
g "y

g* g

g"y4g

g
y
ag"yaj
g"y
ag"g
y
ag"yag
g"yag
"g
y
ag"yaj
g*
Wy
ag"Wv
yyyya-j
y
-
"ypy
-
"

g"y4g"
ypy
yya

g,
y
a

g"

gWy
p
g
Wv

g"y4g"Wy
y
ag"ya

g
g"y
4
g"
y4
g"yaj
g *y
4
g"

ypy
yya j
gy

g*
g
y
ag"y
aj
g"y

g"
g
y

y yyaj
g,y
4
g*
g

y4g"y4
g
g"Wyag",
"
y
y
a

gya

ypy-
"yon
g ,ya

g
",

g"
y4g"
"y
pyyya-,
g,yag"
y
g
"Wya,
g y
py

g"Wy4g"

Q
y
a

gya

y4g"Wy4
g
g"ya

y4g"Wy4
g
g "ya

p
gyy- g
g,y

g*,Q
y
a

g"ya
,
g",yag",

g
y

n
y

g"Wy4g"
Q
yyyya- ,
g ya

g
",

g"Wy4g"

Q
1001 INV I NTI ONS: TI-l E ENDURINC | |'AC` Of MUS LI:1 CIVI L J LJTION
Al |R
P
aper seems such an ordinary product t oday,
but it has been fundamental t o modern
civilization. Think of all the pieces of paper
you use every day-from magazines, TV guides, and newspapers, to paper
towels and greeting cards.
Loon |unoroo yoars aqo .s.ims voro manu
act.r.nq jajor in laq|oao a:or t|o cajturo o
C|inoso jrisonors in t|o oatto o Taas .n /:
!|o socrots o C|.noso jajorma.nq voro jassoo
to t|oir caj:ors, ano jajorma|inq vas qu.c||y
ro|:oo ano trans|ormoo into mass jroouction
oy t|o mis o| laq|oao ano sjroao vostvaro
to .amascus, !ioorias, ano Syr.an !r.joi s
jroouction .ncroasoo, jajor |ocamo c|oajor ano
o oottor quai:y, ano i: vas t|o mi|.s o Lamascus
t|at voro :|o ma]or so.rcos o sujj.y :o Lurojo
!|o Syrian ac:orios oono|:oo qroa:y rom
ooinq aoo to qrov |omj a rav matoria v|oso
|oor onqt| ano stronq:| moant .t jrooucoo
|iq|qua..:y jajor. Tooay, |omj jajor is consio
oroo ronovaoo ano onironmonta|y rionoy, it
aso costs oss t|an |a.| as muc| to jrocoss as
vooo|asoo jajor
s vo| as |omj, usims aso introoucoo
.inon as a suosti:uto or t|o oar| o :|o m.oorry,
a rav matoria| usoo oy to C|inoso T|o inon
ras voro oro|on uj, soa|oo in vator, ano or
montoo !|oy voro t|on |o.oo ano coaroo o|
a|a.ino rosiouo ano o.rt !|o coan raqs voro
|oaton to a ju.j oy a :rij |ammor, a mot|oo jio
nooroo |y us..ms
!|oy aso oxjorimontoo vi:| rav ma:orias,
ma|inq co:ton jajor usim manuscr.j: on
t|is oa:inq rom t|o ::| contury vas o.scooroo
in :|o i|rary o t|o Lscoria in aorio
ly cOO, jajor jroouc:ion |ao roacoo Lqyjt,
ano jossi|.y t|o oariost cojy o t|o uran on
jajor vas rocorooo |oro in t|o ton:| con:ury
lrom Lqyj:, it traooo art|or vost, across Nort|
|rica to orocco i|o m.c| oso, |rom t|oro
.: crossoo t|o s:raits in:o usim Sja.n arouno
LV.A vatman forms a sheet of paper in Kashmir,
India, 1917-an ancient method of making sheet paper.
bLLU!A 17th-century manuscript shows the paper
making process.
950, v|oro :|o noausians soon too| i: ., ano
t|o :ovn o| Jatia, noar Vaoncia oocamo |amoo
|or its manu|act..o o| t|ic|, qossy aor ca.oo
'/c::/: `it|in 200 yoars o| i: ooinq rooucoo
in laq|oaos m..s, ao. vas .n qonora. uso
t|rouq|out :|o lsam.c voro
!|is moant :|at rooucinq ooo|s oocamo oas
ior ano mo.o cos: o||oc:io ooca.so aor .o.acoo
t|o oxonsio ano raro ma:oria|s o| ay..s ano
arc|mon:, so mass ooo roouction vas t.iq
qo.oo lo|oro :|.s, .oouction |ao ooon com.ox
ano |iq|.y so||sticatoo com.ox in :|at .t vas
oono t|rouq| t|o aoor o| coy.s:s, ano so|ist.
catoo oocauso o| :|o s|i|oo |anos .nooo T|o
amount o| aoor in roouct.on oocroasoo out t|o
so|istication o| t|o cra|:smans|. romainoo, so
in :|o us.m voro |unoroos, oon t|ousanos,
o| coios o| ro|oronco ma:orias vo.o maoo aai
aoo, st.muatinq a |o.ris|inq ooo| :.aoo ano
|oarninq Coiousy t|o roo.tion in oooma|inq
vas to |aon muc| ato. a|tor t|o uso o| rin:.nq
mac|.nos in Lu.oo
T|o oxansion o| aor manu|acturinq
onqonooroo ot|or ro|ossions, |i|o :|oso o| oyors,
in| ma|ors, manuscr.: c.a|:smon, ano ca.iqra
|.sts, t|o scioncos aso oono|:oo T|o ionoor
inq !unis.an lon laois, |.om t|o it| con:ury,
ooscr|ooo t|is in |is ':c! o/ :/c '.:/-s vrit.nq
aoout t|o oxco|onco o| t|o on, :|o roaration
o| tyos o| cooroo |n|s, t|o coorinq o| oyos ano
mix:uros, socro: vrit.nq, ano t|o ma|.nq o| aor
T|o nrst aor mi in C|ristian Luroo vas
ostaois|oo in looqna .n 1293, ano oy 1309 :|o
rst uso o| aor in Lnqano vas .ocorooo `it|
a| t|.s aor ano mo.o c|oay rooucoo ooo|s,
:|o oi||usion o| |novooqo in:o ano arouno
Luroo soo u
Lan|s| |istorian Jo|annos looorson saio t|a:
oy manu|act.rinq aor on a |a.qo sca.o, t|o
usims accomis|oo a |oa: o| cruc.a siqnin
canco not on|y :o :|o |is:ory o| ls.amic ooo|s out
aso to t|o v|o|o vo..o o| ooo|s
\1 . \ Rf-L | 1 ' \ 1 ' 1 R I_Q
OLLLKAI NL PAPLK
M
usl i ms devel oped techni ques for deco
rati ng paper that are sti l l used today i n
writi ng paper and books. One was marbl i ng,
whi ch gave the paper a vei ned fabri c l ook, and
was used to cover i mportant manuscri pts.
The word for marbl i ng i n Tu rki sh i s ebru,
whi ch means cl oud or cl oudy, or abru, whi ch
means water face. Ebru comes from one of the
ol der Central Asi a l anguages, whi ch means
"vei ned fabri c or paper. " I ts ori gi n mi ght ul ti
matel y go back to Chi na, and i t was through
the Si l k Route that marbl i ng came frst to I ran
and then moved toward Anatol i a, pi cki ng u p
the ebru name.
At the end of the 1 6th centu ry, trades
men, d i pl omats, and travel ers comi ng from
Anatol i a brought the mar bl i ng art to Europe
and after the 1 550s i t was prized by European
book l overs, and became known as "Turki sh
paper" or "Turki sh marbl ed papermaki ng. "
Later, i t was wi del y used i n I tal y, Germany,
Fra nce, and Engl and.
Texts about ebr u, l i ke Discourse on Deco
rating Paper in the Turkish Manner publ i shed
in 1 664 by Athanasi us Ki rcher, a 1 7th-century
German schol ar i n Rome, al so spread the
knowl edge of marbl i ng art.
Marbled paper was prized by 1 6th-century
Europeans, who called it Turkish paper
4

ye-x

x
e
-R

"

"
4

"

y4
X
"
4
X

"

"
4
"

y+
-x

-
e
-R
,"
*
,"
y

ye-
x

-
+-
R

"
"
4

"

qe
t
,

.
x
+-
R

"
"
4
"-
qe
a
,

.
x
e-
R

"
*
"
"

ye-
x

-
+-
R

"
*
"

ye-
x

-
e-
R
"
4 Wx
y4
z*W
y4
R
x "WW*x"-x
y 4
,"
4
R
x"WW*x "WW
<*x"WW*
x"WW*x "WW
Xy
X
,y4
,
"WW
<*x"WW R
,
A
y qp
xW
y

** R
,"
W
y4
,"
W
y

-
-

yq-
x-
e-x
,

y4,
*W
y
"
y4,"
W
y
* R
,"
W
y4,"
W
y
"
y
*
,
W
y4 X
X
"y
4 W
y
"
ye-x-"x
e
-R

"
W
y4,"
W
q
"
y
*z
"
W
y4
R
,"

e,"
W
y
"
y4
,
"W
y4 R
,"
y4,"
W
y
4
*
,
"W
y4
,"
Wz*
,"
W
y

y4
,"
W
y4 R
z
"
W
y4
,
"W
y
4
y4,"
W
y4
,"
W
y4
,"
W
y
4

,"
W
y4,
"W
y
"
y4
,"
W
y4 R
,"
W
y4
,"
W
y
"
ye-
x

-
e
-R
,
A
qe
t
,
A
y

y 4
,"
W
y4 R
, "
W
y4
,"
W
y

y4
X
"
y4
h
X
"y4X
"

"y
y4
X
"Wy
*

h
X
"Wy4
X
"y

x-x

x-

X
"y
*

X
"y

,
*

y
""
,
4
z

x-x

x-

:
4 Xy*
,

ye

,
Ax:

qp
x

ye
s
,y4,"
Wx
y
,"
Wz4
h
,
y
x

Ax:

,"
W
y4z
". q
:
y4,"
Wz4s
,"
W
y4
,"
W
q

y
,"
W
y4
I
,
W
q4
,"
W
q

y*
,"
W
y4
I
,"
W
y4
,"
"
x
4*
"
*
z

A
g

-
-

y
6xg-g
qp

,
e
.
z
y


,
e
.
z

x-x

x-

qe

,.ye
s
,
A
ye

, .
"
y
xg-gx

ge
-

g+
-
-

,
A

-
x

xg-g

g
e
-
t

""

"

ge
-

A
g
e
-
-

,
A
ye
a
,
A
. lCTT|PY
F
or more than a thousand years, Muslim lands
produced some of the world's :nest ceramics and
pottery. They were traded, bought as ornaments,
and used domestically in cooking, lighting, and washing.
A millennium later, these pots have been turning up in Euro
pean archaeological digs.
'o: ma|.nq vas a sor.ous ous.noss ano traoo
!|o .ato :t|contu:y |.s:orian aq:izi saio
.n Cai:o La..y t|oro is t|:ov. on :o :|o :o|.so
|oajs to a auo o| somo :|o.sa.o o..a:s
:|o oisca:ooo romains o :|o :oo|aoo cay .n
v|.c| miso.o:s j.: :|o.r mi, c|oososoiors
:|oir c|ooso, ano :|o joor :|o rations t|oy oat
on t|o sjot .n t|o coos|ojs
l n t|o oast, jottory co.to:s ooo.ojoo at
laq|oao a.o Sama:ra, l:aq lxcaations at
Samar:a, :|o :osioonco o t|o caij|s rom 33
to 33, s|ov us t|oy |ao qazoo a.o unq.azoo
jots. incisoo ano s:amjoo, ano t|at t|o:o voro
t|:oo main :yjos C.o vas v|i:o, oocoratoo
vi:| sjo:s o: jsouooca.q:aj|ic motis i.
cooat o|uo !|o soco.o vas oocoratoo in joy
c|:omo, tvoto.o strijos, i.sj.:oo oy C|.noso
sto.ova:os o t|o !anq jo:.oo in t|o soont|
a.o oiq|t| cont.:.os !|o t|.:o jot
:yjo |ao a sjoc.a. .us:o:, a oocoration
t|a: oo|oo mota..c
!|oso jo:s vo:o s|i|...y maoo
in a simi.a: vay :o :|o mooo:n
jot:o:'s v|oo :ooay. :|o. o:ioo
ano :oo | . ..ns |oy oocamo
cooctors .toms ano icons o|
ooauty ano a:t |ocauso v|a:
:|o us.ims o.o |o::or t|an t|oso
ooo:o :|om vas :o imjroo ano
i.t:oouco nov vays o qazinq, coor
inq, ano oocoratinq :|oir jottory
T|o lomans |ao sj:oao mos:.y :oo oa:t|o.
va:o v.:| s|iny q:oon o: yoov.s| orov. q.azos
:o oo.tor:a.oa. cou.:rios inc.o.nq Lqyj: ly
aoo..q moro .oao, t|o oary us.ims j:ooucoo
a smoo:|o:, moro |:i.ant |n.s| :o t|o jot a.o
maoo i: imjo:moao.o so i: cou.o |o|o .q.ios
T|o o|as.o jotto:s t|o. :oo| :|o oao q.azo
a.o aoooo t.. ox.oo to .:, oocauso :|oy vo:o
::yinq :o n.o a vay o| ma|inq ju:o v|.to jor
coa|., .|o t|o oxjons.o C|i.oso a:.oty !|o
:av mato:ias o| l :aq ano C|ina voro tota.y
o.oront, so t|o rosourco|u .sim jo::ors
.ntrooucoo a oas| o :in oxioo instoao !|is
causoo qroator ojacity ano :|o oxact v|i:o hn
is| t|oy vo:o oo|.nq or
Not sa:.snoo, t|o jo::o:s maoo in.oations
i . t|o oosiqn. jrooucinq :|o o.uoonv|ito
oocorat.on, v|.c| vas .a:or rooxjo:too :o
C|. na, v|oro .: oocamo |uqo.y jojuar
a.o sj:oao to :|o.r jo:co.ai. !|o o.uo
onv|ito co:am.cs vo:o a sourco o| j:.oo
or t|o o|as.o jotto:s, v|o aoooo
t|oir siqna:.:o to muc| o| :|o.:
vork . o.o o| t|oso s|q.a
t.:os a jo::or .amoo oavay|
roor:oo to |.mso as scc: '
c: |.':c: c ` :o.nq us
t|a: |o vas t|o cra:sman o :|o
JLV: Andalttsian geometric tile segments.
BLLU. This 14th-centwy Mamltk ltster
fritware jar was fotnd at Trapani in Sicily.
caij|, a .o|o.onco to t|o caij|a. j.omotion ano
jatronaqo o| cra|ts ano jot:ory .n jartic.ar
ln t|o oiq|t| contu.y, jo:tors vorinq .. l.aq
ooo|ojoo a mys:orio.s jrocoss caoo ustor
.|.s vas ooscr.ooo as an oxt.ao.o..a.y mo:a
ic s|oon, v|ic| .ia.s oo. jroc.o.s mo:a.s in .:s
o||octs, a| out turn..q o|oc:s o| c|ay :o qo.o,' oy
V jroso.tor man. a.. .. :|o llC's /: :/-
Ac.cc:s Do |o 's /- !s'. 'o|o
Lustor j.oiooo t|o r.q|: ..q.oo.on:s |or jro
ouc.nq t|oso in a c|oaj a.o accojta|.o vay, as
ls|am j.o|i|its t|o uso o| qoo ano s.o. osso|s
!|o toc|niquo .nooo mixi.q si|or or coj
jor oxioos vit| a. oart|y o|ico, s.c| as oc|or,
ano t|on .noqar or qrajo ]uico vo.o aoooo as
a mooium !|o o.q|t|contury lraqi jottors o.s
cooroo t|at .| :|oy jaintoo jat:o.ns vit| :|.s
m.xturo o. t|o q|azoo coa:inq o| t|o c|ay, :|on
jut t|o vot jot in:o a k.n |or a smoy a.o suo
o.oo soco.o : r.nq, a :|.. ayor o| mota. vas o|t
|tor v.jinq o|| :|o as| a.o oust, an amazinq .r.
ooscon: qov camo :|.ouq|
.\ t\ R !F T: I'OTTfc R Y 141
`|at vas |ajjoninq vas t|a: t|o cojjor ano
sior oxioos sojaratoo o.t .. :|o hri.q, |oainq
mota| as a t|.. : .m on t|o su.|aco as ti. qazo S.
o. .o|t a ja|o yo.ov or qooon a.o s.o.y o||oc:,
a.o cojjor jrooucoo a oa.ko., roooor ..|y coo:
T|o i..oosco.co o| t|oso to.os a.ioo accoro.nq
to t|o |a. o| ..q|: Lxq..sito mo.oc|.omos a.o
jo|yc|romos, i. qo.o, q.oo., |rovn, yoov, ano
.oo, in a |u.o.oo a|most |..o t..:s, vo.o joss.||o
Loco.a:oo :ios vo.o aso maoo .. t|is vay
!|o .ic| co|ors o| t|oso squa.os, ano :|o.. |ar
mon.ous como..a:io.s, qao mosquos ano ja
acos a roqa| sjonco:
!|is |usto. toc|niq.o |rom laq|oao jassoo
t|rouq| :|o usim voro, ano .int|con:..y
ay.avan .. Tunis.a s:ar:inq jroouc.nq us:or
tios as vo.. no|or cont..y |ator it .oac|oo
Sja.n .c|aoo.oqica |nos at aoinat aa|ra,
:|o ca..j|ato's c.:y noa. Co.oooa uncooroo
a |.qo amount o| jottory vi:| jat:orns :|at
In Baghdad and Samarra, skilled craftspeople made
pottery in a si mi lar way to modem potters.
,.ez,.q+
qe-,.ye-,
,.qez,.y+
qe,.qe,
,.yez,.y+
qe-,.qe-,
,.qe-,.ye
qe,.yez,
,.qez,.q+
qe-,.yez,
,.qez,.q+
qez,.qez,
,qp,
qez,.qe-,
,.e,.ye
qem,.yez,
,.qez,.y+
qez,.qez,
,.yez,.y+
qez, yez,
, ye-, q
qez, qez,
, yez, y+
qe-, ye-,
, qez,.q+
qe- ye-,
+-
e
,
- e
,
-

.
g
e
,
-

.g
qe-, qez,
, qeg,y
qez,.qez,
g yz, y e
yq , qez,
,.qe-, qe
qe-, qez
, ye-,.y+
qez, qe-,
, qe-, y
gyqqg
,.qe-,.y+
y
-,
e-
,qp
y
y+
-
,e-g
,
yg,

qe-,.ye-,
, qe-,y y+
qe-, ye-,

, yez,.y+
qe-,.ye-,
, qez, y+
qe-, qe-,
, ye-, ye
qe-, ye
, ye-, q+
q e-, yez,
, ye-, y +
e-e

,
e
.

,
e
.
-
y

,
e
.
-

,
e
.
-
y

e
,
-.g
,
-

,.qe-, q
qe-, qe-,
,.qe-, q+
qez,.qe ,
, qe-,
y

qez,.qem,
, yq
x
yq
y
+-,e-g
,.qez,.q-
yq-
yg
, qez,y q-
qe-,y qe-
, ye-,y ye
ye-
x
,
e-g
,.ye-,y y-
,yyg
,.ye-, ye
ye-,e-g
, yez, q-
e-, yez g
, yez, y-
ye-,e-g
, yez,.y-
qe-, qez g
, ye-, y
qe-, qe- g
, ye-,.y-
qe-, qez g
,.
ye-, y
ye
-
,e-g
,yqp,

+-,e-g
,.qez,.y-
ye-
,e-g
, q -,
q
qez,.ye-
, qe-,.q-
ye-,e-
,qp,yy
y
+-,e-g
, qez,.y
-
qp
e
.
z
qgg

142 1 001 I NV F NTI ONS: T i l L I N DU RI NC | | C!Y C| \\ | |l \\ C| \l L | ZA1| C`


|ao ooon maoo vit| manqanoso orovn |or t|o
jaintoo inos ano cojjor qroon |or t|o cooroo
sur|acos |ov conturios ator, noaus |ao
its ovn contors o| jroouction suc| as aqa,
jrooucinq qoo ustor ois|os ano arqo ]ars i|o
t|o .|amora Jar
llC jrosontor mani Zain, on /c: :/c
Anc:cn:s D: o /o 's, saio, !|oso amazinq
asos t|o |amora Jar] voro oriqina|y usoo
|or stor.nq oi ano qra.ns lut . n t|o ja.acos o|
t|o caij|s t|oir oosiqns too| on an oxtraoroi
nary ooauty no |or t|oso v|o sav t|om, t|oy
NU5L N PLLKT
,_l ong with the Chi nese, the potters ofthe
Arab world produced some of the most
sophi sticated and beautiful pottery known to
the medi eval worl d. When these Arab wares
managed to reach the Christi an west, they were
hi ghl y prized and regarded as l uxury items. "
J OHN COTTER, LEADI NG ARCHAEOLOGIST, WRI TI NG ABOUT
THE ISLAMI C POTTERY FOUND AT THE LONGMARKET
EXCAVATI ON I N CANTERBURY, ENGLAND
A market stall displays potter in North Africa.
must |ao t|ouq|t t|oyo |oon maoo |rom jro
cious mota.s
Croinary joojo nooooo jractica| jots, ano in
Sjain t|o most jojuar jot vas a j6oas, v|ic|
carr.oo vator on t|o no .c, a vatorv|oo, v|ic| you
can roao a|out in t|o `ator Sujj.y soction o| t|is
c|ajtor lt oocamo t|o un.orsa. unq.azoo jot, ano
must |ao ooon t|o mainstay o| t|o rura jottory
.noustry unti it vas rojacoo oy t.n |airy roconty
((Arabs invented the technique that
makes these clay pots i nto art."
BBC PRESENTER AMANI ZAIN TALKI NG ABOUT
LUSTER GLAZE ON HH~ HL .NLcN5 l K U5
s vo as jrooucinq t|o nocossary vator
carryinq jots. Sjanis| us.ms at t|o ooqinn.nq
o| t|o ..t| contury voro roj.acinq lyzant.no mosa
.cs v.t| tios ano c:.|c,os T|oso voro ooauti|u
tios in o.uo ano v|ito, cooroo vit| qoomotr.c, |o
ra, ano ca|iqraj|.c jattorns T|oso q!azoo |aionco
tios o| aqa aro sti|. |amous `o |nov t|at t|o
o|uo qazo o| cooa|t ox.oo v|ic| t|o cz.|c,os aro
oocoratoo vit|, camo |rom t|o oast to aqa,
|rom v|oro it sjroao to urcia, t|on to C|ristian
Sjain ano Vaoncia at |oqinninq o| t|o :t| con
tury, ano t|on to larco|ona
uroy vas aso a t|ri.nq jottory contor
oocauso cra|tsmon crovooo |oro, to t|o city o|
onya, as t|oy |oo |rom inaoinq onqo|s T|o
coajso o| t|o su.tanato o| onya at t|o ooqinninq
o| t|o ..t| contury orouq|t t|o coram.c jroouc
tion o| nato.a to a stanosti, out it vas to |a\o
a or..ant ro\.\a. v|on t|- Cttoman !ur|s maoo
lursa t|oir caj.ta .n :zc T|o c.ty roso aqain, vit|
no |u..oinqs cooroo in coramic t.os
lon |us.or .n jroouction t|an lursa vas
lzn., v|.c| vas t|o roa contor o| t|o inoustry,
ano .t |our.s|oo |or tvo conturios |rom t|o ono
o| t|o :.t| cont.y :yjica| lzni ooc.rat.on vas
Iznik potters in Turkey made this serpent dish in the
early 16th century.
jaintoo on slij, in cooat ouo, turuoiso, ano qroon
|rom cojjor), outlinoo in oac| vit| an amaz.nq
tomato roo in ov ro.o| !|o jattorns. maoo uj
|rom roctanquar tios, voro a |ora motios, vit|
|our Hovors traoitionay ooinq usoo !|oso voro
t|o roso, ]asmino, carnation, ano tuij
usim jottors monojoizoo t|o s|ils o|
qazo ano ustor oocoration |or moro t|an ton
conturios, ano t|o jottory o| tooay is inoootoo to
t|om lrom t|o jottors o| Sjain ano Siciy, nov
mooos ano mot|oos o| jottory j:oouction, mato
rias, ano coo:s ontoroo Furojo !.n q|azo vas
not |novn .n Furojo unti usims .ntroo.coo
it to Sjain in t|o nint| contu:y
T|oro is jonty o| oioonco tooay t|at usim
jottory oio traol outsioo Sjain, as aaqan jot
tory |as ooon |ouno in Fnqlano, /jiocos ol oor
is| ustor voro oiscooroo oatinq oac| to t|o ato
:t| ano :t| conturios, ano anot|or zz jiocos voro
|rom t|o :t| contury oro roconty, in :o, oxca
ations in onqmar|ot in t|o contor o| Canto:oury
uncooroo a arqo amount o| ls|amic .stor ano
turuoiso ouo jotto:y
Jo|n Cottor, v|o vor|oo on t|o Cantoroury
hno, vroto aoout |ov usim jots camo to oo
.\\ t\ RKET: IOTTERY 143
in Lnqano Somo jots may |ao maoo t|oir
vay oac| to Fnqano in t|o oaqqaqo o| Crusao
ors rotu:ninq |rom t|o Hoy Lano not|or
jossioiity is t|at mooioa jiqrims oit|or to t|o
Hoy lano or to t|o |amous s|rino o| St Jamos
at Comjostolla in Sjain miq|t |ao orouq|t
oac| t|o occasiona lsamic jot as a souoni:'
Cn raro occasions t|o routo vas moro oiroct. `o
|nov, |or instanco, t|at in :z3 Lloanor o| Castio,
t|o Sjanis| vi|o o| Fnqanos lovaro l, orooroo
|our t|ousano jots o| Mc|:/ |or t|o roya |ouso
|oo ln t|is caso Mc|:/ amost cortainy ro|ors to
aqat|o main contor |o: noausian ustor
varos ai|a is t|o raoic namo o| aqa)
:t|contury ustor ois| vas |ouno at a sito
caoo lossoms lnn in Lonoon, oocoratoo vit|
t|o troo o| li|o ano vit| Kunc inscrijtions !|oso
voro jojuar in noausia ano Nort| |rica at
:|at timo, ano voro cojioo viooy in Lu:ojo
maz.nqy, t|o ois|s ontry into Lnqano vas
rocorooo in :o in t|o accounts o| t|o Nov Cus
tom on qooos imjortoo ano oxjortoo at t|o jort
o| Sanovic|, Kon: !|o ois| .s nov at t|o uio
|al usoum o| Lonoon
not|or |amous coramic orano o|t to us oy
uslim jottors is t|o socaoo aioica varo
T|o story startoo at a]orca ano ot|or laloaric
ls|anos, v|ic| voro unoo: usim ruo unti
.zo lta!.an s|ijs, ma.ny onooso ano Vono
t.an, o|ton caoo t|oro to cooct tinqazoo
jottory ano rocrui: oo:is| jotto:s, v|o orouq|t
to Sici!y t|o a]orcan jottory styo T|is vas
qraoualy ostaois|oo as a oaoinq styo, oocom
inq ronovnoo as a] oica' or aioica
Sinco t|o :t| contury, aiolica |as roac|oo
an astonis|inq ooqroo o| jor|oction, usinq t|o
samo jroouction ano oocoratio toc|niuos as t|o
noausians ano Fqyjtians Lator, ltaian artists
ooo|ojoo it .n:o nov ar.otios, i|o uooio ustor,
v|ic| camo in qroon.s| yoov. stravoo:ry j:n|,
ano a ruoy roo !|is aioica jattorn |as oominatoo
t|o coramic inoustry in ltay til t|o jrosont timo

>
"
-

x4
p>
"
-

>"-"x>"-@

>"-"x>-@

4>
"
-x
t
>-xgp>
"v

>
"
-

x4

>
"-

>"Wx>"-@
X>"x;
>"Wx>"W-
X>"-"x;
>"Wx>"W-
->"Wx;
>"-"x>"W
1
X>"Wx;

--

-
>"Wx>"W+
->"Wx
>"Wx>""+
->"-"x;
>"Wx>"W
4
p
>"Wx
>-x>"W

"'
<
"
>

x
"

-
"-

>"-Q>"W+
X>"Wx
>"-Q>"-
X>"Wxs
>"Wx>"W
v
->"Wx

<4
>
" -Qs
>-"x>"W+
->"-"x
>"Wx>"W+
X>"-"xs
>"-'x>"-"
v
<4
>" Wxs
>-'x>"W
->"-"x;
>"Wx>"W
4
p>"
-

x
>-xb>
"

>"Wx>"W+
->"Wx*;
>"-"x>"-
->"Wx;
> "Wx>"W
x>"-"x;
>"Wx>"-&
->"Wx;
Wx>"W
1
->"Wx;
> "-Q>"-" -
->"-'x^;
>"-"x>"-

>"Wx^>"W-
->"Wx;
>
"
-x4
>
"
-
<>Wx;
>"Wx>"W
->"-"x;
>"Wx>"W-

>-xbt

<4
>
"
Wx;
>-"x>"-"-

>"-"x>"-@
<>"Wx;
>"Wx>"W-
4

Wx;
>-x>"-
&
->"-'x;
>"-"x>"-@
->"-"x;
>
"
x
g>"-

>"Wx>"-@
4
>"Wx ;
>-x>"W-
->"-"x;
>"-"x*>"-@
->"Wx;
>"-"x>"-@
- >"-"x
>"-'x>"-&
->"-"x
>"-"x>"--
-Wx;
>"-"x>"-@

>"-"x>"-@
\lASS l `lUSTPY
W
hat we know today about glass in the past has
come from archaeological digs and the writ
ings of travelers of the time. So we know that
13th- and 14th-century Syria was a great center of this
nne material, in the cities of Aleppo and Damascus. Ibn
Battuta described Damascus as a glassmaking center when
he traveled through there in the 1300s. Not only Syria, but
Egypt, Iraq, and Andalusia were all producing it in vast
quantities from the eighth century onward, and it was either
cut from crystal or blown in molds.
usims |ao in|oritoo t|o |amous loman q|ass
inous:ry oasoo in Syria ano Lqyjt, oooloj|nq
it vi:| oou|lo stamjinq in v|ic| a stamj vit|
oocora:io oosiqns vas j.ossoo onto |ot qass),
rooo.m qassoovinq vit| t|roao oocoration
continuinq rom loman ano lyzantino traoi
tions), moo |ovinq v|oro t|o qassma|or
|ovs t|o iquio q|ass into a j.ojaroo moo)
ano onqrainq ano cuttinq qass oit|or |y |ano
or vit| a v|oo T|oy aso joroc:oo qass ooco
.ation ano oxjanooo t|o a.ioty o j:ooucts to
.ncuoo oottos, |as|s, asos, ano cujs
ly t|o :t| contury, Syrian qass vas so |no
t|at morc|ants ano ouyors a oor t|o vorlo vo.o
ato: samjos, ano rocont oiqq.nq |as uncooroo
/ooyoaroo Syrian onamo.oo qass in Svooon
ano sout|orn luss.a, ano oon C|ina
Samarra, in lraq, vas aso amoo or its qass
Imonq t|o most stunninq nnos vas : ||c/o:,
or mosaic q.ass, v|ic| vas oio.ont |:om oarior
:yjos in its jocu..a. coor.nq ano oos.qn I|onq
sioo t|is, anot|or o t|o most ooautiu nnos at
Samarra vas a nint|contury straiq|tsiooo oov
in v|itis| qass
Samarra's q.assma|ors vo.o aso ronovnoo
o: ma|inq sma oottos or t|inqs i|o jorumos
Somo voro joars|ajoo, in ouo ano q:oon qass,
vit| our sioos ano a noary cyinorica noc|.
!|oso voro |oaio. ano roquonty ooco.a:oo
LV! The glassware industry flourished in the Muslim
world. ULLU. The inscription on this 14th-century
gilded and enameled Egyptian glass bottle reads,
"Gl01y to our Master, the Wise, the Just King."
vit| cuttinq. t Samarra, outstanoinqly ooautiu
raqmonts o nint|contury cutqass oovs vit|
stronqy styizoo oocorat.on |ao also ooon ouno
So muc| qass |as ooon uncooroo in oxca
ations at lustat, Co Cairo,' ounooo in :|o
cos C.E., t|a: rom t|o oiq|t| contury to t|o ator
iooo qos t||s aroa must |ao ooon a contor
ol jroouction T|o oarl|ost oatoo itoms, rom /o3,
aro coini|o voiq|ts, stamjoo vit| t|o namos
o ruors or qoornmon: oHcias T|oy camo in
a arioty o| coors, rom oar| qroon, iq|t qroon,
ano turquoiso, to v|ito ano jurjlo Somo ol t|o
most soj|isticatoo Lqyjtian qlass ossols voro
oocoratoo vit| lustor, t|o s|iny, somotimos
mota.c ooct maoo oy jaintinq cojjor or sior
oxioo on t|o suraco o t|o oo]oct, v|ic| t|on vas
nroo at a tomjoraturo o aoout cooC i::zl).
T|o qass inoustry vas not rostrictoo to t|o
oast, oocauso in lnoaus qass vas in t|o samo
qroat oomano as t|o jottory Jars vit| tvo, our,
or oiq|t |anolos, ano oovls vit| |anolos ano rios
|ao al ooon ouno !|o c|iol contors or qlass
vor|s voro i n moria, urcia, ano aqa, ano
MiRKE: CL\SS I NDUSTRY Iq
it vas moria t|at |ao a vorovioo rojutation
ass qooots oovn in t|oso t|roo citios imitat
.nq lastorn varos voro louno on t|o taoos o
noolos in tont|contury oon
T|o toc|niquo o cuttinq crysta vas saio to
|ao ooon introoucoo oy ooas ion lirnas in nint|
contury Coroooa, Inoaus. Ho vas a sc|oar ano
inon.or in t|o courts o 'oo ala|man ll ano
u|ammao l, v|o couo aso oocij|or t|o most
comjox vritinq ano aso attomjtoo to ny oy ouilo
inq ai:incia winqs `it| qass, |o unoorstooo its
sciontihc jrojor.ios ano contrioutoo to t|o oarly
oxjorimontation v|t| lonsos ano t|o iooa o maqni
yinq scrijts, |av|nq ostaois|oo noausias crystal
|nous:ry oasoo on minoo roc|s
So, qlass |ao a coloru |istory as it traooo
rom t|o lurnacos o Syria, Lqyjt, lraq, ano noa
lusia arouno t|o |novn voro, aoorn|nq joojo's
taoos ano |ousos as a status symool as vo as
jractica nocossity
LEFT: Glass from Samarra in Iraq was particularly famous
in Muslim civilization. This mosaic glass vessel shows a
colorful design. RIGHT: A glass blower in Venice, Italy.
_g

9_vg9_v
#
_

@
_
#
_

_
+

9vg g

>
_

_
*
_
:
#
vg

g
#>
__
+

_
:

gvgg

_
_
+

_
:
_

_
# _g_

gg__

+_v+_

g_gg

9_v
9_
#
_
+
_

_
_
_*_q
_vg_9_
_p_*<_

_
_
_
+
_
*<q<
_
_
_9v_
_

*_

q
+_

__*_
_gg_
_9_vg

_p_>_

_q_
+
_

__*

g+_vg

_gg_v
___
_vg9_
g_gg

+_vg9_v
_gg_*
_g9_
g_vg
_g_ _

__*_
9_vgg9_
_p_*<

pq
9_v_9_
_g_vg_

_p_*_

__*<_

_gg_*_p

_q_*_

_q_>_

_q_*_q

__
+
_

+_v

g
_
g

+_v

__
*
_

g__

__*

#
_*_

_q_*_

__*_
_
+
__

_p_
+
_

__
+
_

_q_*_q

_q_
+
_q
g9gg

+_
9

gg

gg

gg

gg
g

g_+

gg9

g_

_
gp
_

@
_
#

_
>
_

_
_

q
+
1 001 I NVE NTI ONS: T I-l E. LN DUR I NC LE Ci\CY Of MUS L I .V\ CI V I I _ I Z. \TI ON
2 |\|lS
A
s you have read, the glass, textile, pottery,
and paper industries formed the back
bone of a successful empire whose goods
were traded as far as China. Other vital industries
included goods from mines and the sea, like jewels
and pearls. Emeralds were extracted in upper Egypt,
turquoise taken in Farghana, rubies found in Badakhshan,
and carnelian and onyx obtained in Yemen and Spain.
!|o c.nnaoar minos o maocn in Sjain |ao a
vor|orco o somov|oro noar a t|ousano, somo
cutt.nq t|o s:ono oovn in :|o jit, o:|ors :rans
jortinq vooo or smotinq, ma|inq t|o vossos
or moltinq ano ronninq t|o morcury, ano man
ninq t|o |urnacos
surjrisinqy jrocious m.noo itom vas sat,
or v|ito qoo, at Haoramavt in Yomon), lsa|an,
rmonia, ano Nort| rica, v|ic| vas carrioo oy
qroa: camo| caravans !|rouq|out t|o qroator
jart o rica,' vroto Loo t|o rican, a |.storian
ano qooqrajor v|o roamoo rica ano t|o ooi
torranoan anos in t|o :ct| contury, sa|t is ontiroy
o :|o minoo vario:y, ta|on rom unoorqrouno
vor||nqs i|o t|oso or maroo or qyjsum.'
rocious stonos voro orossoo ano jois|oo
v.t| omory, ouno .n Nuoia ano Coyon Lqyjt ano
TOP: A 17th-century Indian gold pendant is inlaid
with flat-cut rubies and emeralds and a large faceted
diamond in the pattem of a fying bird against a leaf
background of rubies. BOTTOM: These beads have an
inscription of the name of God on each one. In the
Quran there are 99 names of Allah.
((The earth is like a beauti ful bride
who needs no man-made jewels to
heighten her loveliness."
KHALI L GI BRAN, LEBANESE WRITER
Suoa: oot| |ao aum, a:o parts o| vos:o:: Lqypt,
:o:ao.y :|o |amo.s Na::o: Vaoy, |ao nc:on,
v|.c| vas usoo |o: v|.to:.:q coppor, t|:oao a:o
i:o:, a:o aso |or curi:q oat|or : vas i: ooma:o
v.t| oyors, qassma|ors a:o qo.osm.t|s oa|o:s
ovo: mixoo i: i: vit| t|o.r oo.q| a:o coos usoo
it as a to:oo:izor |o: moat
lrom t|o soa camo t|o ooa.:.|uy smoot|
poar.s t|at oocoratoo ma:y :oc|s ac:oss :|o
vo:o loar oivi:q vas car:ioo o.t o: oot|
s.oos o| t|o lors.a: u|, i: t|o raoia: Soa
:oar S|.:a| a:o t|o .sa:o o| .s|, a.o:q :|o
la|ra|n coast tovaro t|o isa:o o| La|.a| a:o
i: Coy.o:
lrom t|o :.t| co:tury, lo: fat:uta :o|o:s to
poaroivi:q mot|oos T|o o.vo: attac|os a
coro :o |.s vais: a:o oivos, |o sa.o : :|o
oottom, |o n:os s|o||s omoooooo . : t|o sa:o
amo:q sma sto:os Ho o.sooqos t|om v.t|
|.s |a:o, or a |:i|o orouq|t oov: v.t| |.m o:
t|o p.:poso, a:o co||octs :|om i: a |oat|or oaq
su:q rou:o |is :oc| `|o: oroat| ais, |o :uqs
a: t|o co:o, t|o siq: |o: t|o ma: |o.oi:q i: .: t|o
ooa: :o p.|| |im up aqai: a|i:q o|| :|o |oat|o:
oaq, t|oy opo: .p t|o s|os, a:o cut out vit| a
|:io p.ocos o Hos| |rom .:sioo
T|oro vo:o cora roo|s .y.:q o| t|o coasts o|
No:t| A|r.ca, :oar Siciy a:o Saro.:ia Aorisi,
:|o :zt|co:tury qooq:ap|o:, q.vos a: accou:t
o| co:a qat|o:i:q Cora is a pa:t v|ic| |as
qrov: i|o troos a:o s.osoquo:ty po:rinoo
ooop .: t|o soa ootvoo: :vo vory |.q| mou:
:ai:s .t .s ! s|oo vit| a ma:yoopoo |omj
:aco, t|is .s movoo rom |iq| up i: t|o s|ip,
:|o t|roaos catc| t|o co:a| ora:c|os as t|oy
.\! AR K LT: I |\S 147
A 16th-century Arabic manuscript shows a furace for
making artificial rubies and sapphires. The Arabic text
on the manuscript describes how it works.
moot t|om, a:o t|o ns|ormo: t|o: o:av uj t|o
tac|o a:o pic| out :om it :|o vory co:s.oor
aoo qua:ti:y o| cora.
Co:a, ao:q v.t| poar, vas t|o: usoo to ooco
rato voapo:s a:o ma|o prayor ooaos a:o ]ovo|ry.
!ooay, i|o a| ]ovory, cora is vor: i: ma:y sty.os,
|rom .o:q st:a:os o| ooaos to carvoo camoos a:o
p.:s, out pricos or :|is mar.:o ooauty ca: :o as
muc| as $50,000 |o: a om.imotoroiamotor
z i:c|) ooao, as cora. roos aro oos:royoo a:o
co:a as a ovo oocomos scarcor
--
x
--

x
-

-
--

x
--

--
-:

x
--

----

9-

----

--*
--W--
--
--

--
X-*

-
----
--*
-:
-

--

-t-
----

---
-

-
-

--
--X-

--
-

^--

-
-

^
--^
--

--

-
----

--
----

--

--

--
----

9-)
----

--)
--
*
--

9-

-
x

--

9-
- ---

--
*

-:

--

--W
----

--
--
*
--

--
----

--
---

--

---

>--
----

--
->--

--
----J
--
->--J
--
----

--
---

--
*

-:

--

--)
-t--

--
---

--
----

--
--
^
--

--
--

--

-
----

--
t--

-J
--

-
x

-
-

-
x:

-
-

-
s
-

1001 I NV E NT I ONS: J l I lND\ RI NG llC : \C+ C| \1 USl l :vl CI Y I L/, \TI ON


'LPP|`CY
n the past money was alive, because camels, cattle, or sheep were used to
"pay" for goods. In the time of Ibn Battuta, the 14th-century Muslim trave
ler, the Maldives used cowrie shells as currency, as they were highly treas-
ured, and these reached distant regions such as Mali in West Africa. Today,
we use credit cards, notes, and coins, but this is a small quantity compared to
the amount of "invisible," intangible money shooting around the world as the
fmancial markets make their electronic transfers. One day our coins and notes
may be as useful as Ibn Battuta's cowrie shells would be today
Lar alsam, or t|o usim voro, sjroao i:s vinqs,
ovon unoor sojarato rulors or sutans, usinq qolo
ano silvor coins as its intornationa curroncy l| vo
aro qoootrott.nq tooay, vo oit|or ta|o t:avoors
c|oc|s or ris| |avinq our jursos |u o| oi||oront
curronc|os lut in t|o :t| cont.ry, ::avoo:s in t|o
us.im voro cou.o scou: ovory mar|ot noo| ano
c:anny ano uso oinars or oir|ams, |rom caj.ta cit
ios to t|o sma|!ost vi|aqo
Stoj outsioo t|o usim vorlo ano transac
tions voro a oi||oront story Aqain lon lattuta
can toll us a ot aoout t|o voro noary /oo yoars
aqo as |o |ao a surjrisinq hnancia oxjorionco
|n C||na !|o joojo o| C|ina ouy ano so
vit| jiocos o| jajor t|o sizo o| t|o jam o|
:|o |ano, v|.c| aro s:amjoo vi:| t|o su:ans
stamj l| anyono qoos to t|o oazaar vit| a
sivor o:/c or a o:nc . it is not accojtoo ano
|o is oisroqarooo
n t|o sovont| ano oiq|t| conturios, monoy
vas mosty maoo o| qoo ano silvor, ano usims
maoo t|oir coins accoroinq to t|o utan, v|ic|
says `|on you moasu:o, q.vo an oxact moasuro
ano voiq| vit| an accura:o sca.o S.ra ./)
lt vas t|o ca|ij|s rosjonsioiity to onsu:o t|o
j.ri:y ano voiq|t o| :|o coins T|o stanoaro vas
ostaois|oo oy t|o S|aria av as sovon mit|qas
o| qoo to ton oir|ams o| sivor Any coins t|at
oio not moasuro uj, |oroiqn curroncy, ano oo
coins voro orouq|t to t|o mint aonq vit| qoo
ano sivor ou|ion to oo ronnoo ano struc| into
nov curroncy At :|o m.nt tho ouion vas nrst
oxaminoo to ootorm|no its ju:ity ooo:o ooinq
|oatoo ano maoo acco:oinq to t|o ostaLis|oo
aoy stanoaros.
An artistic re-creation shows 14th-centur merchants
conducting business.
CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: showing the front and back
of each coin: Two early Umayyad coins, 691-692-the
lower coin shows the column placed on three steps
topped with a sphere, replacing the Byzantine cross. A
silver Nasrid dirham of Muhammed I, Granada. Early
Fatimid coins, Al-Mahdiya, 949. A gold Nasrid dirham
of Muhammed XI, Granada. A gold dinar of Caliph
Abd al-Malik from the Umayyad dynasty, 696-697.
lo:| oinars ano oir|ams voro usoo oy oi||or
ont usim r.|ors !|o nrst caij| to ma|o |is cvn
co.ns vas Umayyao Ca.j| Aoo aai| iLn ar
van, v|o ruoo |rom c3 to /c !|oso oinars voro
t|o nrst qoo coins vit| an Araoic inscrijtion, as
jrov|ousy monoy |ao ooon sivor Sassanian coins,
ano qoo ano cojjor lyzantino coins ly ma|inq
|is ovn coins in c: or cz, Caij| Aoo aai|
couo nov |ooj |is ruo |noojonoont |rom lyzan
ti.m ano uni|y a usims v.t| ono c.rroncy
!|.s nov coin vas cojioo |rom :|o lyzan:.no
curroncy, t|o soious lt vas s.miar in Lot| s.zo
ano voiq|t, ano on t|o |aco voro t|roo s:anoinq
nquros, i|o t|o lyzant.no coin, v|ic| |ao :|o
nquros o| Horacos, Horaclius Constantino, ano
Horac|onas. A oiq oi||oronco vas t|o Araoic tos
timony o| lsam surrounoinq t|o oosiqn on :|o
rovorso !|oro .s no ooity out Aa|, T|o no,
`.t|out lqua| Ano u|ammao is :|o jost.o
o| Aa|'
!|o lyzantino omjoror vas |urious v.t| t|is
oovoojmont, as nov monoy moant comjotition
ano |o ro|usoo to accojt it, rosjonoinq vi:| a nov
V\.\H|l C'Il| 'C Iq_
coin !|is anqoroo Ca.ij| Aoo aai|, v|o maoo
anot|or coin vit| an ujr.q|t nquro o| t|o caij|,
voarinq an Arao |oaooross ano |ooinq a svoro,
aqa.n v.t| t|o :os:imony o| sam on t|o rovorso,
v|oro :|o coin vas aso oatoo n|y oiq|t o| t|oso
oary Araolyzantino o|nars, oatoo accoroinq to
t|o nov samic caonoar, |avo survivoo
!|o coin t|rovinq continuoo, ano truo to |orm
t|o lyzantino omjoror rojioo vit| yot anot|or,
ano at t|.s joint in c/ t|o caij| |ao |ao onouq|,
ano introoucoo :|o |rst lsam.c coin vit|out any
nquros n oo:| sioos o| :|.s nov oinar voro
vorsos |rom :|o .ran, v|ic| maoo oac| jioco
an inoivioua mossaqo o| t|o |ai:| Ho t|on .ssuoo
AdL LOLLI N5

here are two fabl ed I sl ami c coi ns, the One


Thousand Muhurs and the One Hundred
Muhurs. The frst weighed in at 1 2 ki l ograms
(26. 5 pounds) of pure gol d and the second
was a baby i n compari son, being a mere 1 , 094
grams of pure gold. Their esti mated val ue today
i s about $1 0 mi l l i on and $4 mi l l i on, respectively.
The coi ns were ori gi nal l y mi nted for the
Mogul emperors J ahangi r, son of Akbar the
Great, in 1 61 3, and his son Shah J ahan, best
known for bui l di ng the Taj Mahal in 1 639. The
coi ns were presented to the hi ghest di gni tari es.
The One Thousand Muhurs was huge at
20 centi meters (8 i nches) in di ameter, and
over the centu ri es fou r or fve were menti oned
as havi ng been reserved for the ambassadors
of the powerfu l ru l ers of Persi a. Onl y one
comparabl e coi n i s recorded from a pl aster
cast in the Bri ti sh Museum, a Two Hundred
Muhu rs, l ast reported in I ndi a i n 1 820 and
si nce l ost. None of the l egendary gi ant gol d
Muhu rs are known to have survi ved, and it i s
assu med they were melted down for thei r bul
l i on val ue. But we know they di d exi st because
travel ers menti oned seei ng gi ganti c coi ns i n
the treasury of Shah J ahan.
p-
*

p-
p"y,
p-*
p-
p"y
p-*
p-1
p"y
p-*p-Q
yp"y
p-*

p-
p"y
p-*
p-
gQp"y
p-*p-Q
p"y
p""yqQp"
py
p-*p-Q
p"y
p-*
p-
gp"y
p 4p
*

gp"y
p-*
p-Q
p"y
p"ygQp-Q
py

"
"

"

p"y

*
"

[
p"y

p"y

"
"

"
[
p"y

""

*

p"y

"
"

p"yqp

"
"

4
"
1

"

"

"
1

#
"

"
1
p"y

"
"

"
1

"
"

"
1

p"yqp
yp"y
p"yqQp1
ypy

"
"

4
"
[
p"y
p-*p-Q
p"y
p-"*

p-

p"y
p-*

p-1
p"y

"
"
p"y

"
"

"
"
p"y
p"yqQp1
qpy
p-*p-Q
yp"y
p-*
p-
p"y
p""ygQp-
py,
p"ygp
py,
p-"*
p-Q
y

Qp"y,
pygQp
py,
pygp -Q
py,
p""yp
py,
p-*p-
p"y,
p-*
p-
p"y,
p-*
p-Q
p"y,
p-*

p-
p"y,
p-*
p-
4p
"
4
p
"
"4p
"

#
"
"y4#
"
"

p
""4p
"
"

#
"
"y4#
"
"

#
"
"y4#
"

IO IC| I NV[NTI ONS: Tf1 [ LN DURI NC l E GACY OF !\ US l i M CI V I LI ZI\ T I ON


(Fatimid coins
were of such
high quality and
so abundant
that they became
the most wi despread
Mediterranean world."
WIJDAN All, SCIENCE HI STORI AN
a oocroo mainq .t t|o ony curroncy to Lo usoo
t|rouq|out Umayyao .anos | romaininq lyzan
tino ano raolyzantino jiocos |ao to Lo |anooo
to t|o troasury, to oo motoo oovn ano rostruck
T|oso v|o oio not comjy |acoo t|o ooat| jonaty
!|o nov qoo oinars vo.q|oo a oi: oss t|an
:|o soious, ano t|o stato contro||oo :|o accuracy
o| t|oir vo.q|t aonq vit| t|o jurity o| :|o qoo
usoo Umayyao qo.o coins voro qonoray struc|
.n Lamascus, v|..o sivor ano cojjor coins voro
mintoo o.sov|oro
|tor t|is nrst co.n, moro o| oi||oront vauos
voro struc|, ano a|tor conquorinq Nort| |r|ca
aro Sjain, t|o Umayyaos ostaois|oo nov mints,
oac| jrooucinq coins vit| t|o namo o| t|oir city
ano oato o| m.n:.nq
!|o oinar continuoo :o oo :|o ma.n curroncy
usoo un:. /cz, v|on Ca.j| ansur ou.t laq|
oao ano t|o qo.o mint movoo :o t|o nov cajita
!|o namos o| jorsons rosjonsioo |or :|o coins
ooqan to ajjoar on sivor coins caloo oir|ams
lut t|oso |ao a s|ort i|o oocauso t|o noxt calij|,
Harun alas|io, aoanoonoo t|om v|on |o camo
to jovor in /3c Ho mintoo o.nars v.t| t|o namos
o| qovornors o| Lqyjt instoao, usinq t|o tvo activo
mints vo |nov aoout, ono in laq|oao ano t|o
ot|or in ustat, :|o soat o| t|o qovornor o| ljt
!|o lat.m.os, v|o ruoo ootvoon _O_ ano
::/:, usoo o.nars v.t| runc scr.jts, ano t|oso
oocamo t|o most vioosjroao traoo coins o| t|o
ooitorranoan vor|o oocauso o| t|oir |iq| qua|
ity ano oocauso t|oro voro so many o| t|om.
`|on t|o Crusaoors cajturoo laos:|no, :|oy
coj.oo t|oso coins .nstoao o| s:riinq t|o.r ovn,
ano t|oso ranqoo |rom oxco|ont cojios o| t|o
oriqina to oao imitations
lt vas |rom noausia t|at qoo oinars travooo
arouno lurojo |rom arouro /i: !|on, unoor t|o
Nasrio ru|o in ranaoa |rom :z3 to :z, t|o oinar
oocamo t|o oir|am !|oso co|ns voro |oavy, caro
|uy struc|, ano Loro onq oqonos vit| jassaqos
|rom t|o uran ano t|o ruors |ami|y troos Nono
o| :|o Nasrio coins s|ovoo a oa:o, Lu: t|oy aro
ioontihaoo oy t|o.r motto, Nono victorious savo
oo' t t|o samo timo, in t|o C|r.stian |inqooms
o| t|o nort|, rao ano lronc| curroncios voro t|o
ony onos usoo |or noarly oo yoars
|tor t|o ::| contury, t|o usim Ca.ij|
ato von: |rom ooinq ruoo oy ono ca|j| to
many sma oynastios, oac| jrooucinq t|oir
ovn coins Lio curroncios tooay, :|oy carr.oo
t|o namos o| various qovornors |rom t|o somi
inoojooont sta:os !|oso voro a. mintoo
inoojonoontly, ou: sti ac|novooqoo t|o nom
inal oaoors|ij o| t|o caij|
Li|o tooay, coins voro not t|o ony vays o| jay
inq C|oc|s voro arouno conturios aqo as vo
C|oc|' comos |rom :|o raoic sc//, a vritton vov
to |onor jaymont |or morc|anoiso v|on its oost.
nation .s roac|oo ln t|o :.mo o| Harun a.las|io
.n t|o nin:| contury unoor a |.q||y oovoojoo
Laninq systom, a usim ousinossman couo
cas| a c|oc| in Canton, C|ina, oravn on |is oan|
account in laq|oao. !|o uso o| sa|| vas oorn out
o| t|o nooo to avoio |avinq to transjort coin as
oqa tonoor ouo :o t|o oanqors ano oimcutios
:|is rojroson:oo lanors too| to t|o uso o| oi.s o|
oxc|anqo, o::ors o| crooit, ano jromissory no:os,
o|:on oravn uj to oo, .n o||oct, c|oc|s ln jromot
inq t|o concojt o| t|o oi o| oxc|anqo, sa, or
c|oc|, usims maoo t|o nnancinq o| commorco
ano intorcontinonta traoo jossioo
\\ \ RKE: CUR R F_ NU
K NL LA' 5 NT5LKT
1
welve hundred years ago, whi l e the cal i phs rul ed the Musl i m worl d, Ki ng Offa rei gned i n Engl and.
He i ntroduced si l ver coi ns to hi s ki ngdom-and al so mi nted a gol d coi n, the gol d Mancus, worth
jO si l ver coi ns. The extraordi nary thi ng about the Mancus was that it copi ed the Musl i m gol d di nar
of the Abbasi d Cal i ph AI - Mansur dated 1 ] A. . or ]]qC. |. , carryi ng on one si de the Arabic i nscri pti on
"There i s no Dei ty but Al l ah, The One, Wi thout Equal , and Mohammad i s the Apostl e of Al l ah. "
A si gni fcant di ference from t he ori gi nal di nar i s that Ki ng Ofa stamped hi s name on i t with the
i nscri pti on of OFFA REX. Schol ars have puzzl ed over why an Engl i sh ki ng woul d have made a repl i ca
Arab coi n. Some say he had converted to I sl am, but the more l i kel y expl anati on i s that it was produced
for trade, or for pi l gri ms to use as they travel ed through Arab l ands. The coi n most certai nly woul d not
have been made by an Arab crafsman because there i s no understandi ng of the Arabi c text: "OFFA
REX" is upsi de down i n rel ati on to the Arabi c Kufc scri pt, and the word "year" is mi sspel l ed in Arabi c.
The coi n was probabl y copi ed by Angl o-Saxon crafsmen.
Discoveries l i ke thi s have hel ped us to redraw the i nternati onal economi c and trade rel ati ons of 1 , 2OO
years ago. Ki ng Ofa' s coin i s evi dence of how far I sl ami c currency had traveled by the ei ghth century.
Archaeol ogi sts have found thousands of Musl i m coi ns i n modern-day Germany, Fi nl and, and Scandi
navi a, showi ng that thi s currency was transported and traded from Musl i m countries across Europe.
Ki ng Ofa was not the only non- Musl i m rul er to make an Arabi c coi n. An nth-century Spani sh Catho
l i c pri nce, Al fonso VI I I , ordered the mi nti ng of a decorative coin on whi ch the i nscri pti ons were written
in Arabi c and on which he referred to hi msel f as the "Ameer ofthe Cathol i cs" and the pope in Rome as
the " I mam of the Church of Chri st. "
King Offa of Mercia in England made a copy of the gold dinar coin of the Abbasid Caliph AI-Mansur dated 157 A.H. (774
C.E. . It is a near-identical replica, including the profession of faith in Arabic on one side (right) and the name
of King Ofa on the other side (lef).
II
pqp
p
p-*p-
p"
p-*p-
X*p- *
p-*p-
p"
p-*p-
p"
p-*p-
p
p-*p-
X*p- *
p-*p-
p"
p-*p-
p"
p"qQp

X*p-*
p-*p-
X*p-*

p"

p"

p"
p-*p-

y4
"#
y4
"
XX
p"
p"qp

X*p-*
p-*p-
X*p-*

y4
#y4

p"
p-*p-
X
X
p"
p-"*p-
p"
p-*p-
p"
p"qp

p
p"qQp-
p
p-*p-Q
p"
p-*p-Q
p"
p-*p-Q
p"
p"qp-
X*p-* '
p*p-
p"
p"qp-*
p
p-*p-*
p"
p-*p-*
p"
p"qp
X*p-"*
p*p
Xp*
p*p-
X*p-*
p-*p-
X*p*
p**p-

#
y4
#
p"
p-*p-
X*p-*f
p-*p
X*p*
p-*p
p"
p-*p-
p"
p-*p-
*p-*f
p"qp
X*p-*
p-*p-

"#
X*p-*
p-q-
X*p-*
p** p
qp* #
p*p-
-
-

''
f
"

r;r--

un)...:!ro
. . -
~
-~
~
J,``


i, t

-, _..=.a=.
~-_ \~~><..

' " ^
"
<~
. .
--~=.>



~-

- --i~~

,
l
`=
.

.:.
J:=

Ji$.

p

^ - .-

-

- ==
* --o J--

,
. _

__

"-. - /i=>

-~

~ - =-.._

>
-
.
- --
.~- -
.'

*
'``'-

"
,.o u. ,@.

-=~
L
-
.=
~o7

- =~'
.,,
- ~

-^--~ -.-
`'

, o -~J -

"

~ -
.~.--=`
~ '

- -

"'-"'u-.J.-.v.\..:. ;
-';.;.-.,

., - u- -'
=='

~~ - ~'^

^`*'

'__

s>
*^"""


-
--

c ~
~


'

'

=\-
-<

-
*
"'"' ``*
'

*

_
`^*~


_ ... u., ,=
~
. r:i:. .lt.;;!";u;e .;
~
^ ~
, '=+J
' -
+~.:(..

=` .~o -- . J 1i
.... ., ..;..

J <

--~~
-++
=...
-, - .
-~
'-
.>v- v

>~--~, '~
V >V
u\. ..=:~_
'. .
-^--= < ,
-~-+-~ - ?
,. : . ..=,` =


- -


w 5 '->1.L
.--~
~ +
`

~
~~~
=~g
"
"
1 ~-
'

~ \-

-

u,
~ -~

'-

' `'
` ,

.
**

~~ ~
.-
-=--


~
. ~
-.},v . .~ \~
~ --~


+, . .=
-- -
- ~~ , ~ ._
~` .-y |

-~

<-' V

---- -
, .. o
--
a

"
q 9=
'4-
~

=
`

*<
+-+
.


=.
>~
- ~ ~ ^

~Y
~`--
. -
=, _ \\
-
*

~
I= :I
.n.
J.-,~

.* +'

.,

-
. 8


>-1=.
~

CHAPTER FIVE
-:.:-:ss.:-.-,|tow|:.|--ts
t|-stt-s|t|-|:o|, :t-tt
t-s-tv-j|-t|w|-:t-.:sts,
t-stt-:tw|-:t:s.-:j "
ELEVENTH-CENTURY I BN SINA FROM HIS BOOK CANON

HOS PI TAL
'`ll +L lNL'l``+ l ``+L^`+` 'l l1'+l '
`L\ ll CC| 'l 'L1+l '` l |` `l `` |'` 1.'+L`
`'+|'' '| + ''LL`+ l `''LL+'` |L ^ll 'l `
l/\ `1 i\' .Nll '.1 `'\'LL\
MEDICAL CARE A THOUSAND YEARS AGO WAS FREE FOR ALL AND THE TREATMENTS HIGHLY
sophisticated. The hospitals of medieval Isl am were hospitals in the modern sense of the
word. I n them was the best available medical knowledge, dispensed for free to all who
came. It could even be sai d that they were a forerunner to the United Kingdom's National
Health Service, and they flourished as rulers of Islam competed to see who could con
struct the most magnificent ones. Some hospitals were huge, others were surrounded with
gardens and orchards, and most offered advanced social welfare to patients i ncluding
treatment by music.
The facilities they used were custom-designed and the surgical instruments were outstand
ing. Forceps are j ust one of the instruments still used today, designed by Muslim surgeons
more than a thousand years ago. Cutting-edge treatments, such as cataract operations, regu
lar vaccinations, internal stitching, and bone setting, were also part of standard practice, as
was a rigorous medical education in a teaching hospital.
OPPOSITE: Fifteenth-century miniatures i n Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu's Cerrahiyyet'ul Haniyye illustrate the treatment
of patients and show various surgical procedures.
1001 1 \: \ r NTI ONS: T i l l f C: DURI \(1 l l G:\Cl Of

.\\ li Sl l \\ Cl \ I I I Z:\TI Ol
. CS l| TAl |\|lClV|`T
T
he idea behind Muslim hospitals a thousand years ago was to provide
a range of facilities from treatments to convalescence, asylum, and
retirement homes. They looked after all kinds of people, rich and poor,
because Muslims are honor-bound to provide treatment for the sick, whoever
they may be.
lrom t|o oa:iost usim timos t|oso |osp.:as
vo:o |unooo oy c|ar|taLo :o.q.o.s onoov
monts. ca|oo wcj/ t|ouq| monoy |rom t|o
stato co||ors vas a.so .soo |or t|o main:onanco
o| somo |ospitas lt vas partly ouo to tis |uno
inq t|oy oocamo stronqhoos o| sc|onti!c mooi
cino ano an in:oqra part o| city i|o in oss t|an
tvo conturios
lo|oro t|o usims t|o roos |ao tompos
o| |oa.nq ln t|oso |oa|t| caro vas Lasoo moro
on t|o iooa o a miracuous cu:o rat|or t|an on
sciontinc anays.s ano pract.co roo| lyz
ant.no c|a:.:ao.o .nst.:.:.on. t|o .cnoooc/c:on
itoray travoo:s' |osto or inn) camo c|osos: to
Loinq a |osp.ta v|oro caro vas q.von :o t|o op
ors invaios ano t|o poor
lsamic |ospitas ooqan in oiq|t|contury
laqhoao ano in somo vays t|oso rosomooo
lyzantino travoors |ostos as t|oy aso oo|oo
a|:o: opors, t|o invaio ano t|o oostituto lut
t|o nrst orqanizoo |ospita vas o..t in Cairo
Lotvoon 3/z ano 3/ !|o |mao ion uun Hos
pita t:oatoo ano qavo mooicino to a.| pa:ionts
|roo o| c|a:qo `.t| tvo oat||o.sos, ono |or mon
ano ono |or vomon, a ric| iorary ano a psyc|i
atric vinq it vas an incroo|oy aovancoo institu
tion lationts oopositoo t|oir stroot cot|os ano
t|oir vauaoos v.t| t|o |ospita aut|orit.os |or
sa|o|oopinq oo|o:o oonninq spocia varo cot|os
ano ooinq assiqnoo to t|oi: ooos
t|or important |ospita.s incuooo a arqo
laq|oao. Hosp.ta o.i.: . n 3z, vit| a s:a||
o| z p|ysicians Tvo|t|contury Lamascus
|ao an ovon arqor |ospita t|o Nuri Hospi
ta|. Horo, mooica instruction vas qivon ano
oruqqists oaroo:s ano ort|opooists as vo
as ocu.sts ano p|ys|cians. voro accoroinq to
manuas composoo in t|o :t| contury oxam
.noo oy ma:|ot inspoc:ors on t|o oas.s o|
somo sot toxts
Ibn Tulun Mosque, Cairo, Egypt, was the first organized
hospital that provided free treatments and medicines
for patients.
HOSI' I Tf \1 : I I OSPI Tr\ l DFV ELOPMLNT
ALQATKAWAN mL5P 1AL
The AI-Qayrawan hospital in Qayrawan, Tunisia
l n a, Ca|:o |ao t|:oo immonso |osp|tas,
t|o most |amo.s vas t|o Ians.:| Hosp|ta..
`|on t|o .:|contury amu| ruo: o| lqypt,
I|ansur aavun, vas st.| a princo, |o |o
i v.t| rona coic ou:inq a m.||tary oxpoo|
t|on | n Syria !|o troatmont |o roco|voo . n t|o
Nuri Hosp|ta o| Lamascus vas so qooo t|at |o
vovoo to |ouno a simiar |nstitution as soon as
|o asconooo to t|o t|rono !ruo to ||s vo:o, |o
ouit t|o Iansuri Hospital o| Cairo ano saio,
|orooy oovoto t|oso wcj/s |o: :|o oonont o|
my oquas ano my in|o:.o:s, |or t|o soo|o: ano
t|o pr.nco, t|o |a:qo ano :|o sma.., t|o |roo ano
t|o savo, |o: mon ano vomon
!|o :zc Iansuri vas ouilt vit| |our
ontrancos, oac| |avinq a |ountain in t|o contor.
!|o |inq maoo suro it vas propory stal|oo v|t|
p|ys|c|ans ano |uy oquippoo |or t|o caro o| :|o
s|c|. Ho appo.ntoo mao ano |oma|o attonoan:s
to sorvo mao ano |omao pat|on:s v|o voro
|ousoo in soparato varos loos |ao mattrossos
ano spocia|:zoo a:oas vo:o ma.nta.noo l.nn|nq
vator vas prov.ooo in a aroas o| t|o |osp|:a. l n
ono part o| t |o ouiloinq t |o p|ysic|an|nc|io|
1
he ni nth-century AI - Qayrawan hos pi tal
was a state-of-the-a rt i nsti tute, wi th wel l
organ i zed hal l s i ncl udi ng wai ti ng rooms for
vi si tors, femal e nurses from Sudan, a mosque
for pati ents to pray and study, regul ar physi
ci ans and teams of Fuqaha ai - Badan, a group
of i mams who practi ced medi ci ne and whose
medi cal servi ces i ncl uded bl oodl etti ng, bone
setti ng, and cauteri zati on. I t al so had a speci al
ward for l epers ca l l ed Dar al -j udhama, bui l t
near the AI - Qayrawa n hos pi tal , at a ti me when
el sewhere l eprosy was deemed an untreata bl e
si gn of evi l . I t was fnanced by the state trea
sury, and by other peopl e who gave generousl y
to boost hos pi tal i ncome so that the best care
coul d be provi ded.
(([The hospi tal's] duty is to give
care to the ill, poo0 men and women
until they recover. It is at the service
of the powerful and the weak, the
poor and the rich, of the subject and
the prince, of the ci tizen and the
brigand, wi thout demand for any
form of payment, but only for the
sake of God, the provider. "
THE CONSTI TUTI ON ESTABLI SHI NG
THE AL -MANSURI HOSPI TAL, CAI RO
vas qivon a room |or toac|inq ano octur|nq
!|oro voro no rostr.ctions tc t|o numoo: o|
pat|onts v|o couo oo troatoo, ano t|o |n|ouso
oisponsary provio.o moo.c.nos |o: pation:s to
ta|o |omo
lrom :|oso oa:.y .ns:itut.ons, |ospita.s sproao
a ovo: t|o us|m voro, roac|inq Inoaus|a
. n Spain, Sicily, ano Nort| I|r|ca T|oso voro
I l | `` l `1| L`- Tl l f | `lC ll `L+ | . |C.\C` L| \ L| lV !`| | l Z1| `
a aomiroo oy luropoans, v|o ator oovo|opoo
s|milar systoms suc| as t|o Hospitaiors, nq|t
ors o| t|o |ospita, ostao..s|oo oy t|o lronc|
to troat t|o.r countrymon usim p|ysicians
participatoo in ostaois|inq scoros o| sout|orn
luropoan |ospitas suc| as t|o |amous Salorno
|osp.ta in sout|orn ltay
Hospitas o| t|o usim voro voro manaqoo
ocionty lor oxampo, lon Juoayr, a :zt|contury
travoor, praisoo t|o vay in v|ic| t|o Nuri Hos
pita prooaoy t|o oariost o| its |ino) manaqoo
t|o vo|aro o| pationts Ho sa.o, !|o nov ono t|o
Nuri Hospita.] is t|o most |roquontoo ano arq
ost o| t|o tvo |ospitas in Lamascus], ano its
oaily ouoqot |s aoout : oinar lt |as an ovorsoor
.n v|oso |anos is t|o ma.ntonanco o| roqistors
qivinq t|o namos o| t|o pationts ano t|o oxpon
oituros |or t|o rouiroo mooicamonts, |ooostu||s,
ano s|miar t|inqs. !|o p|ysicians como oary in
t|o morninq to oxamino t|o . ano to oroor t|o
proparation o| oononc.a. oruqs ano |ooos as aro
su.taoo |or oac| pat.ont
(He who studies medicine
wi thout books sai ls an
uncharted sea, but he who
studies medicine wi thout pati ents
does not go to sea at all."
SIR WILLIAM OSLER,
CANADI AN PHYSICIAN ( 1 849-1 91 9)
`|io travo.inq in t|o Noar last, lon .uoayr
aso notoo ono or moro |osp|tas in ovory
city in t|o ma]ority o| t|o pacos |o passoo
t|rouq|, v|ic| promptoo |. m to say .|at |os
p.ta.s voro ono o| t|o nnost proo|s o| t|o qory
o| lsam.
!|oso |ospitals voro aso |orvarot|in|inq,
tac|inq aimonts not on.y o| t|o oooy
The present-day Sultan Qalawun is now a funerary
complex. Earlier the site had housed the Al-Mansuri
Hospital in Cairo, Egypt.
nint|contury faq|oao |osp.ta., v|oro lazi
vor|oo, |ao a varo oxcusivoy |or t|o monta|y .
Univorsity |osp|tas voro t|o |ounoat|on o|
traininq |or nov mooica stuoonts, ]ust as t|oy
o|ton aro tooay liq|t |unoroo yoars aqo, t|oso
toac|inq |osp.ta.s proviooo |rst|ano practica
ano t|oorot|ca ossons |or stuoonts
!oac|inq vas oono oot| in qroups ano on a
onotoono oasis ]ust .i|o tooay. Locturos voro
|oo in a arqo |a| at t|o |ospita ano t|o suo]oct
mattor vas usuay a roao.nq |rom a mooica man
uscript oy t|o socalloo oaoinq out l|ysician.
|tor t|o roaoinq, t|o c|io| p|ysician or surqoon
as|oo ano ansvoroo uost.ons o| t|o stuoonts
any stuoonts stuoioo toxts vit| voi|novn
p|ysicians, ano sinco papor vas ponti|u i n t|o
usim voro, manuscr.pts t|at |avo vritton
on t|om |or porsona. ovn uso |avo ooon pro
sorvoo ln luropo t|oso samo toxts voro scarco
ano sooom ovnoo oy t|o stuoont.
foosioo toac|inq, anot|or part o| mooical
tra.ninq vit| qroups o| stuoonts |o|ovinq t|o
attonoinq j|ysician or surqoon on |is varo
rounos, vas soon as vory imjortant oro
aovancoo stuoonts ooso:voo t|o ooctor ta|inq
t|o |.story o| ano oxamin.nq ja:ionts ano aso
ma|inq jroscr.jtions |or t|om in t|o outjationt
oojartmont o| t|o |osjita.
no o| t|oso mooica sc|oos vas in t|o I
Nuri |osjita in Lamascus Unoor t|o oiroction
o| t|o j|ys|cian Iou aa]io ala|ii, t|o .zt|
contury ruor Nur aLin i|n Zanqi |ounooo t|o
|osjita. l: vas namoo a|tor |im ano |o o.ijjoo
.t vit| sujj..os o| |ooo ano moo.cation, v|i|o
aso oonatinq a arqo numoor o| mooica ooo|s,
v|ic| voro |ousoo .n a sjoc.a |a
lt vas a jaco |or a mooica caroor to oossom.
larly in t|o :t| contury, a j|ysician namoo I
La||var sorvoo in t|o Nuri |osjita at a ov
salary, t|on, as |o incroasoo in |amo, |is incomo
|rom jrivato jractico orouq|t |im muc| voat|
I I OSI ' ! J r\ l : J I OSI ' ! Tt\ l . D E VUOJ'!v\ ENT 157
ano |o startoo a mooica sc|oo| in t|o city !|is
caroo: routo .s |amiiar to many j|ysicians tooay
any :onovnoo j|ys.cians tauq|t at t|o mooi
ca sc|oo, ano j|ysicians ano jracti:.onots somo
timos assomooo oo|oro t|o s.!tan, Nur aLin, to
oiscuss mooical suo]octs It ot|or timos t|oy is
tonoo to t|o t|roo|our octuros t|at Iou ala]io,
t|o oitoctor o| t|o |osjita, qavo |is jujis Imonq
t|o vo|novn usim j|ysicists v|o qraouatoo
|rom t|o mooica sc|oo voro lon Ioi Usayoia|,
a ::|contury moo.ca. |istorian, ano lon aNans,
v|oso oiscovory o| t|o .ossor c.rcuation o| t|o
o.ooo, aso in t|o .:| contury, mar|oo a nov stoj
in oottor unoorstanoinq |uman j|ys.ooqy.
LEFT: A miniature illustration shows an Ottoman
chief physician. RIGHT: The entrance to the Nur al-Din
Bimaristan or Hospi tal, i n Damascus, Syria, makes an
i mpressive statement. The building now houses the
museum of Arab medicine and science.
158 ! I I NVLNTI ONS : T HL EN DUI\ I NG L LC1\CY OF MUS L I M CI V I L I Zt\TI ON
.2 l !STPUV|!TS C| l|P||CT| C!
f someone showed you a tray of surgical instruments from a thousand years
ago, could you tell the instruments apart from modern tools? If you are think
ing that the thousand-year-old ones would be rough and crude, read on to
fmd out more.
l| vo ]ournoyoo oac| to tont|contury sout|orn
Sjain vo couo oo| ovor :|o s|ouoor o| a c.t
t.nqooqo surqoon ca.oo Iou asim |aa| ion
aIooas aZa|ravi, a man |novn in t|o `ost as
Ioucasis Ho vouo |avo aroaoy vritton A|!cs:/
|is mooica oncyclojoo.a, in v|ic| |o .ncluooo a
troatiso caoo n 3u_ v|.c| introoucoo a staq
qor.nq co..oction o| moro t|an zoo surqica toos
Ijart |rom somo s|otc|os o| instrumonts carvoo
in anciont lqyjtian tomos, t|is may |avo ooon t|o
nrst troatiso .n t|o |istory o| mooic.no :o i.strato
surq.ca instrumonts n |ac:, t|oir oos.qn vas so
accurato t|at t|oy |avo |ao ony a |ov c|anqos in a
mionnium, ano it vas t|oso ilustrations t|at laio
t|o |ounoations |or surqory in lurojo
Ia|ravi iustratoo oac| instrumont usinq
coar |anooravn s|otc|os ano a.so jroviooo
ootaioo in|ormation on |ov ano v|on it vas
usoo lor oxamjo, in cautorization |o statos
Iccoroinq to t|o ojinion o| t|o oary j|ys.
c.ans] cau:orization .s.nq qoo .s oottor t|an
v|on usinq iron n o.r ojinion t|o .so o| iron is
quic|or ano moro corroct
Ho vroto aoout t|o scrajor c,co] too ano
i:s uso v|on troatinq a ns:ua in t|o noso Loc
tors qivo t|o namo 'nstua to v|at .aymon ca| ' a
quil.' `|on you |avo troatoo it vit| cautory or
vit| caustic accoroinq to t|o instructions qivon
jroviousy, ano it is not |oaoo, t|oro is no coar
mot|oo o| troatmont oxcojt to cut oovn on t|o
tumour at its rijoninq ano ot out a t|o |umio
ity or jus t|oroin, till you roac| t|o oono `|on
t|o oono is roac|oo ano you soo nocrosis or
A 1964 Syrian commemorative stamp shows an artist's
impression of tenth-century Spanish Muslim surgeon
Al-Zahrawi.
oacnoss, scrajo .t v.t| an .ns:r.mon: |i|o :|.s
jicturo lt is caoo rouq||oao' ano is maoo o|
noian iron ts |oao is rouno li|o a outton out
is onqravoo vit| mar|inqs nnoy onqravoo, i|o
t|oso o| a no or a rasj laco .t on t|o si:o o| t|o
oisoasoo oono ano sjin it ootvoon your nnqors,
jrossinq oovn a littlo vit| your |ano, ti you
aro suro al t|o oisoasoo oono |as ooon scrajoo
avay Lo t|is sovora timos |on o: t|o jaco
oo orossoo v.t| stanc|inq ano styjtic romoo.os
Ino i| t|o jaco |oas ano Hos| is qonoratoo
t|oro ano t|o ov o| sanios jus |rom a vouno]
is stayoo ano t|oro is no roturn a|tor oavinq |or
((Al-Zahrawi remai ns a leading
scholar who transformed surgery
i nto an independent science based
on the knowledge of anatomy. His
illustration and drawing of the
tools is an i nnovation that keeps his
contri bution alive, refected i n i ts
continuous i nfuence on the works of
those who came after him. "
L. LECLERC, 1 9TH-CENTURY
FRENCH MEDI CAL HI STORI AN
|orty oays, ano t|oro is no svollinq, ano not|inq
omorqos, you may |nov it is por|octy |oaoo '
!|o caso o| urot|ra stonos vas t|o suo]oct o|
many paqos o| stuoy Za|ravi oovisoo an ins:ru
mon: c|:s/c/ :|o ori) |or c:us|inq t|oso Ho
saio, a|o a s:oo roo vit| a trianqu|ar s|arp ono
tio a t|roao proxima to t|o stono ost it sips oack
lntroouco it qontly ti it roac|os tho stono, turn it
rouno to por|orato it urino comos out immooi
atoly, pross on t|o stono |rom outsioo ano crus| it
oy your nnqor, it oroa|s ano comos out vit| u:ino
l| you oo not succooo :|on oo cuttinq'
Commontinq on t|is, oo||roy Lovis ano ar
tin Spin|, rocont transators o| .Za|ravis |oo|
ooscr.ooo t|o oriq.nai:y o| t|o ins:rumon: !|is
oovico o| oucasis ooos soom to |avo |oon in
a mannor a truo lit|otriptor a stonocrus|inq
machino usoo to s|attor urinary stonos| many con
turios oarior t|an t|o mooorn ora ano compotoy
lost siq|t o| ano not ovon montionoo oy t|o qroat
m|oooora surqoons lranco ano laro no: oy l:cro
Cmot|o ooyon o| qonitou:inary s.rqory.
lon Zu|: a :z:|con:ury Sovio p|ysician
improvoo on t|is oovico oy nxinq a oiamono at t|o
ono o| t|o stoo roo s vo as o:is, Za|:av. aso
manu|acturoo a |ni|o to por|orm cystolit|otomy
I I OS I' ITAL I NS TRU.YN TS OF P E RI- E CT I ON IQ
:|or instrumonts oiscussoo oy Zahravi
incuoo cautoriza:ion toos o| various s|apos ano
sizos, scapos, vory s|a:p |nivos t|at aro usoo |or
ma|inq a var.oty o| .ncis.ons, |oos usua..y vit| a
s|a:p o: o.unt |a|c.rcuar ono t|at aro sti usoo
ano namoo in t|o samo vay ount |oo|s voro
insortoo in t|o voins to coar oooo cots, s|arp
|oo|s voro usoo to |oo ano li|t small piocos o| tis
suo so that t|oy couo oo oxtractoo ano to rotract
t|o ooqos o| vounos), |orcops, mota instrumonts
vit| tvo |ano.os usoo in moo.ca oporations |or
pic|inq up, pu..inq ano |oo.nq :issuo crus|inq
|orcops usoo :vo avs |o: crus|inq ano romov
inq urinary oaooo: stonos, ooivory |orcops |ao a
somic.rcuar ono oosiqnoo :o pu| t|o |otus |rom i:s
mot|or, an instrumont sti usoo tooay).
So, rat|or t|an unsop|isticatoo toos, surqica
instrumonts |rom uslim civiization ooar muc|
:osomoanco to t|oso vo sti uso tooay
A 1__zwoodcut illustrates cauterization, which appears
in a work by Al-Zahrawi, also known as Abulcasis, in the
Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona

" --;
^
IZ !|\l ! NV F NT I ONS: T I-l E. LN DU R I NG L E Ct\CY OF MUS l. l ;\\ CI V I LI ZI\TI ON
. UPC|PY
M
odern surgery is a highly sophisticated culmina
tion of centuries of innovation by dedicated people
bent on saving lives. This life-saving ethic was beating
in the heart of Muslim southern Spain a thousand years ago, where the
Muslims performed three types of surgery: vascular, general, and orthopedic.
Cno o| t|o most |amous usim surqoons at t|is
t.mo ivoo in Croooa at t|o |o.q|t o| :|o ls.amic
jorioo AZa|rav|, or Aoucasis, oosorvoo,
t|ouq|t, jract|coo, ano rosjonooo to oac| o| |is
jationts vit| s|il ano inqonuity So muc| so t|at
|o vas rocoqnizoo in |.s oay as an ominont sur
qoon ano vas cour: j|ysician to t|o ruor o| A
Anoaus, Aansur
Ho rovolutionizoo surqory oy introoucinq
nov jrocoouros, moro t|an 200 surqica instru
monts. ano qivinq oo:ai.oo acco.n:s o| t|o |..
oonta, j|armacoutica, ano surqica oiscij|inos
o| |is timo. His ooo|, A|!cs:/ aso ostaolis|oo
t|o ruos o| jractica mooicino oy omj|asizinq
t|o oos ano oonts .n a.most ovory mooica s|tu
ation oncoun:oroo
AZa|ravi |as a ist o| |irsts to |is namo
ano roaoinq |.s curriculum vitao is imjros
sivo Nov jrocoouros |o introoucoo incuooo
catqut |or intorna stitc||nq, v|.c| .s s:i usoo
|rom t|o s|mjost to t|o most comjicatoo sur
qory tooay. Catqut sooms to oo t|o ony natu
ra suos:anco cajaoo o| oissovinq ano ooinq
accojtoo oy t|o oooy
At|ouq| A.a|ravi vas t|o nrst to uso ca:
qut in surqory, it vas Allaz| v|o vas t|o l rst
to uso anima. s|ooj) qut |or suturos AZa|ravi
aso usoo tv.stoo !oors |rom strinqs o| musica.
instrumonts |or surqica jurjosos
losjonoinq to oac| caso vit| |nqonuity, |o
rovoutionizoo mooica jrocoouros in many
vays i|o usinq oono rojacomont |or ost toot|,
ooscrioinq |ov :o connoct souno toot| to :|oso
t|at voro ooso oy qoo or s:vor viro, |ntroouc
| nq a surqical troatmont |or saqqinq oroasts,
oo.nq t|o !rst :o uso cotton to contro oooo
inq, jor|orminq a trac|ootomy, roq.ary usinq
jastor cas:s, ano |or stonos in t|o urot|ra |o
introoucoo t|o toc|niuo o| usinq a nno ori
insortoo t|rouq| t|o urinary jassaqo
TOP: Al-Zahrawi introduced catgut for internal
stitching in the tenth century, and it is still widely
used today. BOTTOM: Moder surgical tools used in
today's operating rooms differ little from those
invented by Al-Zahrawi.
|
.
~

. , &
`-

, , , . . , . -
, ~" ,.= ,

v .
, \
,.._
` " '

-~-~
--~ .
:\ _
- J
,
,< - ~ ' s~ . . ,. ._


-J
- - `
* ^
Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu from Amasya, Turkey, showed various sur
gical procedures in his 15th-century Cerrahiyyet'ul Haniyye.
1-! 0SP I T!\ l. : S U RG E RY 163
1001 I NV E NT I ONS: T H F I N DU RI NG |. |C : :\CY OJ MUS l l ;'\ CV I LZ!\T I ON
Ho aso ootailoo |ov to romovo a uri:ary oao
oor sto:o a|tor crus|i:q it vit| a: |:strumo:t |o
oos.q:oo Ho o.scussoo simjo surqory .i|o :oso
joyj romova a:o comjicatoo jrocoouros i|o
t|o romoval o| a ooao |otus usi:q sjocial |orcojs
|o oovisoo Ho mo:tio:s cautorizi:q or our:i:q
t|o s|in :o ro|iovo jai: a:o |ov to corroct s|ou
oor oisocatio:
`|t| a |is i::ovatio:s |o |ojt |is jatio:ts
i: mi:o, a:o i: oroor :ot to |r|q|to: t|om i:
|is surqica ojoratio:s |o i:vo:too a co:coaoo
|:i|o to ojo: aoscossos ln t|o caso o| to:sioc
tomios, |o |oo t|o to:quo vit| a to:quo oojros
sor, a:o romovoo t|o svolo: to:sil |oo|:q it
vit| a |oo| a:o s:ijji:q it o|| vit| a sc.ssori|o
i:strumo:t. !|is |ao tra:svorso o|aoos, v|ic|
cut t|o qa:o a:o |oo it |or romova |rom t|o
t|roat so t|o jatio:t oio :ot c|o|o
IlZa|ravi o|sjayoo a so:sioo a:o |uma:o
roucta:co to u:oo:ta|o t|o ris|iost a:o most
jai:|u ojoratio:s, as |o vas avaro o| t|o ois
com|ort t|oy i:|ictoo o: jatio:ts !|is vas
a oocisivo oroat|rouq| i: t|o roatio:s|ij
ootvoo: t|o s.rqoo: a:o t|o jatio:t
lor t|o nrst timo i: mooica vriti:q, I
Za|ravi oovotoo a c|ajtor, C|ajtor c:, o| |is
surqory ooo to t|o toc|:iquo o| romovi:q uri
:ary oaooor sto:os i: vomo: n '.jcy vas
o:ly o:o o| t|o 30 ooo|s to ma|o uj A|!cs: /
so t|is ma|os you ajjrociato t|o amou:t o|
vor| |o oio
Ho aso ooscr.Loo .: oo:ai |is ov: toc|:iquo
o| romov|:q uri:ary oaooor sto:os i: maos,
aooi:q sovoral roh:omo:ts to t|o toc|:iuo
ooscriooo | : t|o toxt '.s/.:c 'c/::c i: Hi:ou
mooici:o lot| Ilazi a:o Ia|ravi strossoo
t|at t|o |::or i:c|sio: s|ouo oo smaor t|a:
A thousand years ago, patients were treated in hospitals
for a wide range of health issues-just as they are today.
t|o oxtorna ono to jroont .oa|aqo o| urino !|o
stonos s|ouo not oo juoo out out ox:rac:oo
oy |orcojs, ano o.q onos s|ouo oo oroon ano
ooioroo out oit oy o.t T|is oomons::a:os :|oi:
ca:o to ao.o oamaqo to t|o t.ssuos, oxcossio
oooo.nq, ano |orma:ion o| any u:ina:y ns:ua
AZa|:av. aso saio oory jioco s|ouo oo
{(Surgeons must be very careful
when they take the kni fe!
Underneath thei r fme i ncisi ons
stirs the Culpri t-Li fer'
EMI LY DI CKI NSON, AMERI CAN POET
:omooo oocauso oon i| ono .s .o|t .: v. incroaso
in sizo T|.s aoico is sti. s:rossoo novaoays
n qynoco:oqy, |is vo:|, a.onq vi:| t|a: o|
ot|or us.im surqoons, vas jionoo:.nq Ho qao
instruc:ions |o: train.nq m.ov.os on |ov :o jo:
|orm unusua oo.orios ano romoo t|o a|:o:oi:t|
Ho aso oosiqnoo ano introoucoo aqina. sjocua
!|oro vo:o many ot|or mooica ooctors
ano surqoons in :|o usim voro v|o carrioo
out qrounoo:oa|inq vor|, incuoinq on Sina
in t|o it| contury, v|o vas |rom jrosontoay
Uzooistan Ho vroto cnon, v|ic| aoorossoo
:|o oroaot| o| mooicino, ano you can roao moro
aoout |.m in on Sinas lono l:acturos
n t|o ojin.on o| on Sina canco:, c|scc:cn
.n Arao.c, vas a coo tumor :|at o.o no: qo:
.n|amoo, ano vas jainoss at nrs: Cor:ain
|orms oocamo ja.n|u ano o|ton incurao.o v|on
t|oy :oac|oo an aoancoo oo Ho saio can
cor qrov out o| t|o con:or ust .i|o t|o oqs o| a
crao, |rom v|ic| it too| i:s namo T|o into:na.
canco:s ajjoa:oo vi:|out t|o jation: s ava:o
noss ano oosjito :|oir jain jationts couo io
qui:o onq v.t| t|om. !|o on.y |orms o| canco:
ujon v|ic| t|o surqoon cou.o .ntorono voro
t|o imitoo canco:s Horo t|o
inc.sion |ao to oo jor|oct, so
a o| :|o tumor vou.o oo
ox:ractoo Hovoor. sur
qo:y vas not a.vays
concus.o ano oo|ni:o
|or t|o cancor couo
o|:on roajjoar on Sina,
in |act, ao.soo aqa.nst
l | C>l' l J.- S U RGERY 165
t|o amjuta:.on o :|o |omao oroast |o:
it |ao:oo t|o sjroao o| :|o oisoaso Ho suq
qostoo t|a: ox.oo o| cojjor or .oao at|ouq|
unao.o to curo t|o canco:, cou.o oo omciont .n
stojjinq :|o sj:oao o| :|o o.soaso
on Sina, i|o AZa|ravi, sjo|o on many
tojics Cn t|o roton:.on o| urino ouo to a o.ao
oor stono |o oxj.ainoo | t|o jationt ios on
|is oac| ano |is ou::ocs a:o :a.soo ano |o vas
s|aon, :|o s:ono moos avay |rom t|o jas
saqovay u:.no s:roams out, .: may aso oo
oasy to jus| avay :|o s:ono oy a |nqor .n :|o
:octum | t|a: ooos no: vo:, uso a cat|otor
:o jus| :|o s:ono oac| | it vas oimcu: :o oo
jassoo oo no: jus| |aro !|is is simiar :o |ov
mooo:n urooqists |anoo an oost:uctinq josto
rior uro:|ra s:ono 1|oy jus| it oac| oit|or oy a
cat|oto: o: onooscoj.cay
Accoroinq to on au||, a .t| contu:y Syr
ian j|ysician su:q.ca :roa:mont o| a:qo oaooo:
s:onos vas oasio: :|an t|at o| sma. onos oocauso
t|o .arqo onos o.:|o: s:ojjoo .n t|o urot|:a o:
vo:o in t|o ca.:y o| t|o o.aooor, ano |o:o t|oy
cou.o oo mo:o oasi.y |o.:
lrom a :|.s oioonco, vo can soo t|at a t|ou
sano yoars aqo ai..nq joojo voro troatoo in
|osjitas ano .oooo a|tor .ncroo.oy vo. Uni|o
tooay vo oo no: |ao suria. :a:os o: stat.stics
o| succoss, ou: vo oo |ao cojious no:os |rom
t|o qroat su:qoons o| t|o t.mo !|oso notos o|
jracticos ano rosoarc| c|anqoo su:qory irroors
ioy. |o: t|o oot:o:mont o| a, oon t|oso o us in
t|o z:s: contury
166 JO I I NVENTIONS: THE. EN DU RING LCi iiCY OF MUSL I:'\ CI VI LI ZI\ION
. lCCl '| PCLlAT| C`
T
he ancient Greeks thought that the liver was the ori
gin of the blood, believing food reached the liver from
the intestines through the veins. In the liver, blood
would be :lled with "natural spirit" before it continued the
j ourney to the heart.
!|on aon a roo| p|ys.c.an ano sc|oar .n
t|o socono con:.ry C. . , maoo urt|or oosora
tions Ho sa.o t|at t|o o.ooo roac|inq t|o riq|t
s.oo o :|o |oart vont t|rouq| inisioo poros in
:|o caro.ac soptum :o t|o ot sioo o :|o |oart.
Horo it mixoo vit| a.r to croato spirit ano vas
t|on oistrioutoo to t|o oooy
or cont.r.os t|.s oxp.anat.on vas accoptoo
as t|o :r.:| unt. `i.iam Haroy por|ormoo
qrounooroa|.nq rosoarc| in:o :|o c.rc..at.on o
t|o o.ooo ano t|o |.nct.on o| t|o |oart .n :/:|
contury L.ropo Ha:oy arq.oo :|a: :|o |oart
vas at t|o contor o| :|o c.rcuatory systom, ano
|o vas |novn as t|o porson v|o oiscooroo |ov
our oooo :raos arouno our ooo.os
lu: in .z a o:y impor:ant manuscript vas
ouno ano maoo |novn :o t|o voro oy an Lqyp
t.an p|ysician Lr u|yi aLoon a.!attav. !|is
oiscoory rooaoo a muc| oar.or nrs: ooscrip
t.on o pu.monary circua:ion
T|is manuscr.p: ocn:c, on :/c Anc:
oy o/ :/c cnon o/ Avccnnc, vas vritton oy
'on aNas, a usim sc|oar oorn in Lamasc.s,
Syr.a .n :z:o ano ooucatoo a: :|o |amo.s Nuri
Hosp.:a. `|on |o qrao.atoo |o vas .nitoo to
Ca.ro oy t|o sutan o| Lqyp: to vor| as t|o pr.n
cipa o| t|o Nasiri Hosp.:a o.nooo oy Sa.aoin
s vo. as |ainq a ousy proossiona caroor
as a p|ysicia: ano .oqa a.t|ority, lon aNa!s
vroto a n.moor o| ooo|s on a ar.oty o suo]oc:s
i:cuoinq ocn:cy on :/c Anc:oy o/ :/c
cnon o/ Av:.cnnc
iconna aso |novn as lon S.na) vas a
joymat| v|o oxcooo in p|iosop|y, av, ano
mooicino lon aNa|ss troatiso, a common:a:y
on iconnas monumon:a cnon, vas qro.no
oroa|inq its ovn vay in it, lon aNa! s accu:atoy
ooscr.ooo t|o pu.monary circuation oxpaininq
:|o roo o t|o |oart ano unqs ano omp|as.z.nq
:|at o.ooo vas pur.noo in t|o unqs, v|oro .: vas
ronnoo on contac: vit| :|o a.r .n|a|oo rom :|o
atmosp|oro ou:sioo :|o oooy
n |ov :|o o.ooo's pu.monary c.rcu.atory
systom vor|oo, lon a.Na!s oxp.ainoo t|at t|o
systom vas oasoo on :|o moomont o oooo
rom ono c|amoor o| :|o |oart :o t|o unqs ano
:|on oac| to a oi|oron: c|amoor o :|o |oart.
ccoro.nq to |im oooo on|ancoo v.:| .:a
pnc.c air rom t|o unqs) |ovoo t|rouq| t|o
artor.os to a parts o t|o oooy His innoation
vas to say :|at :|o onous oooo |ron t|o riq|t
on:rico o| t|o |oart to oo on|ancoo vit| air
|rom t|o unqs) |ao :o pass :|ro.q| t|o unqs
oo|oro on:orinq :|o .o|t on:r.co, at v|.c| point
it co.o ontor :|o artorios as artoria| o.ooo
ln |is ovn voros |o saio |o oooo |rom
t|o r.q|t c|amoor o| t|o |oart must arr.o at
t|o ot c|amoor out t|oro .s no oiroc: pat|vay
ootvoon t|om !|o :|.c| sop:um o| :|o |oart .s
not pororatoo ano ooos no: |ao .s.oo poros as
somo poopo t|ouq|t or inisio.o poros as aon
TOP: A title page from a book translating the work of
Greek physician Galen. It was only through Arabic that
the work of Greek scholars such as Galen could be found.
"The thick septum of the heart is not
perforated and does not have visible
pores as some people thought, or
invisible pores as Galen thought. "
I BN AL-NAFI S, MUSLI M SCHOLAR
t|ouq|: T|o oooo |rom t|o r.q|: c|amLor must
|ov t|ro.q| t|o pu.monary artory :o :|o unqs,
sproao t|rouq| its suos:anco, oo mi:q.oo v.t| a.r,
pass t|rouq| :|o pumonary voi: to roac| :|o .o|t
c|amoor o| t|o |oart'
ln mooor: .a:quaqo, :|.s .s trans.a:oo as |o
.ovs looo t|a: |as vasto i: .t comos .:to :|o r.q|t
atr.um :|ro.q| :|o arqo vo.: caoo :|o vo:a cava
lioo vit| t|is vas:oric| Looo. :|o riq|: a:r.um
t|on co:tracts pus|i:q t|o Looo t|rouq| a o:o
vay va.vo i:to t|o r.q|t vontrico l: :ur: t|o riq|:
vontric.o n|s ano con:racts, sono.nq t|o oooo
in:o t|o p..mo:ary artory v|ic| con:oc:s v.t|
:|o .nqs T|oro, .: :|o capiarios, :|o oxc|anqo
l l OSPIT;\ L: f\ LOOD CI RCU U\TI ON
o| caroo: o.oxioo ano oxyqon taos paco T|o
o.ooo .s :ov oxyqonric| as it o::ors :|o pu
mo:ary voi:s, ro:urni:q :o t|o |oar: v.a :|o |o|t
atrium !|o o|t atr.um n.|s ano contracts, pus|i:q
oxyqonric| oooo t|rouq| a o:ovay vavo in:o
t|o o|: vo:trico !|o o|t vo::rico co::racts, |orc
inq t|o o.ooo i:to t|o aor:a, |rom v|ic| its ]our:oy
:|rouq|o.t t|o Looy ooq.:s
T|oso impor:a:: oosorvat.o:s voro not |:ov:
.n uropo u:ti yoars .ator, v|on :oroa
Ipaqo o| lou:o tra:s.atoo somo o| lo: a
Na:s's vri:inqs i:to ati: .n :/. oovinq t|is,
a :umoor o| at:ompts voro maoo to oxpa.: :|o
p|onomo:o:, .ncuo.:q oy ic|ao. Sorvotus in
|.s Loo /s::cns Rcs:::.:o .n : a:o loa
o.s Co.omLo i: |is ooo| Dc c nc:occ .n .
li:ay i: vas Sir `..am Haroy, i: :cz3, v|o vas
croo.too vit| |or t|o o.scovory o| c.rcuatio:, v|io
lL: aNans romai:oo :|o pio:oor o| :|o .ossor,'
or pumonary, c.rcuat.on
.t vas o:.y .: ./, / yoars a|:or |is ooat|,
t|at lL: a.Na|s vas croo.too vi:| :|o o.scovory
1mL dLLLO L| KLULA1 LN 5T51LN
|
n t he 1 3th century I bn al - Nafs
expl ai ned the pul monary bl ood
ci rcul ati on system, i . e. , the sys
tem of oxygenati on of oxygen- poor
bl ood by the l ungs. The ri ght ven
tri cl e of the heart pumps deoxygen
ated bl ood to the l ungs th rough
the pul monary arteri es where it i s
oxygenated and then returned to
the l ef atri um of the heart th rough
the pul monary vei ns. I n the 1 7t h
century Wi l l i am Harvey di scovered
the ful l bl ood ci rcul atory system
i n whi ch the bl ood retur ns to the
heart from the body extremi ti es
the bl ue ar rows to the heart on
the di agram) .
Ven a
cava
Ri ght ~ ~
atri u m
R i ght -
vent r i cl e
Body
Aorta
Left
atr i u m
Left
vent r i cl e
Oxygenated blood
Deoxygenated bl ood
l l` | `A' S C`| PACTUP|S
bn Sina, known as Avicenna in the West, was so highly regarded that
he was compared to Galen, the ancient Greek physician, and was known
as the Galen of Islam. Because of his great fame, many nations com-
peted to celebrate his anniversary, Turkey being the nrst in l_,, OO years
after his death.
!o ajjrociato |is contriout.on in oovo|oj.nq t|o
j|iosoj|.ca| ano mooica sc.oncos, a| momoors
o| UNESC cooo:a:oo a t|o.sano yoa:s a|tor |is
oirt| .n .3o
Ho vas oorn in |s|ana, nov . n Uzoo|istan,
ano o|t aqo z., sjonoinq t|o rost o| |is i|o . n
va:.ous lorsian tovns, oocominq a ronovnoo j|.
|osoj|or ano mooica ooctor T|rouq| |.s i|o |o
comjosoo z/c vor|s, a vri::on in :aoic, oxcojt
|or a |ov sma ooo|s vritton .n |is mot|or tonquo.
lors.an. Un|ortunatoy, most o| t|oso vor|s |avo
ooon ost, ou: t|oro aro s:i c3 ooos or
troatisos avaiaoo in lastorn ano `ostorn
iorarios
Ho vroto on a oranc|os o| scionco, out
|o vas most intoros:oo in j|iosoj|y ano
moo.c.no, so somo rocont |is:orians ca.|oo
|im a j|i|osoj|or rat|or :|an a j|ys.cian, out
o:|ors say |o vas t|o lrinco o| t|o l|ys.c.ans'
ourinq t|o iooo qos
!|o ma]ority o| |.s vor| vas in mooicino
lorty:|roo vor|s voro .n t|.s aroa, z in j|:.oso
j|y, zc in j|ysics, : in :|oooqy, . in jsyc|o
oqy, ._ in mat|omatics, zz .n oq.c, ano .n uran
intorjrota:.on Ho aso vroto on ascot.c.sm, ovo,
ano music ano |o a.so vro:o somo s:orios
A|_cn.n / c|:// or ooc o/ Lcws :n Mco:
c.nc vas |is most imjortant vo:|, ano .s |novn . n
lnq.s| as :|o cnon t vas v:itton in raoic, ano
|as ooon oosc:.ooo as t|o mos: |amous mooica
toxtooo| ovor vritton, oocauso it is a un.ouo ro|
oronco |u| o| a |novn mooica |novooqo
((Medi ci ne was absent
unti l Hippocrates created i t,
dead until Galen revived i t,
dispersed until Rhazes [al-Razi} col
lected i t, and defci ent
unti l Avicenna [Ibn Sina}
completed i t. "
DE POURE, EUROPEAN PHYSI CI AN
qat|oroo |rom many c.v.izations uj to
|is timo
ly t|o .z:| contury t|o osson:.as o| t|o
cnon voro conoonsoo to ma|o t|o .ooas
moro roao.|y accossio.o, ano common:ar
.os vo:o vr.tton to cari|y t|o contonts T|o
most jojuar s|or: vo:sion vas ca|oo /c
onc:sc oo/ o/ Mco:c: nc, vri::on .n Syria
oy on aNa|s, v|o oioo in :z33
|o cnon vas maoo .j o| |vo ooos
T|o |:s: vas conco:noo v.t| qonora| moo.
ca jrincij|os, :|o socono vit| matoria
moo.ca, t|o t|i:o vit| o.soasos occ.r:.nq
.n a ja:t.c..ar jart o| t|o oooy, :|o |o.rt|
vit| oisoasos not sjoc.|c to ono ooo.y
ja::, s.c| as |ovors ano aso traumatic
in]urios suc| as |:acturos ano o.socations
o| oonos ano ]oints !|o |na ooo con
ta.noo a |orm.|a qivinq :ocijos |o: com
jouno :omooios
lLMM fBlLFl >
LaouNo|ciur.
Lu|dcm
bmmd:v
KOo arndrtnmmmm
n Itnrp
cu|o. ___,
The cover of the Latin edition of Ibn Sina's Canon
of Medicine
T|o |ourt| ooo| |ao tvo :roatisos, ono vas
caoo lracturos as a `|oo, ano t|o socono vas
lracturos o| lvory lono Sopara:o|y'
lracturos as a `|oo ooscriooo t|o causos,
:ypos, |orms, mo:|oos o| troatmont, ano compica
tions o| |ractu:os, ta|inq aoout |:act.:os in on
ora, v|io lrac:uros o| lvory fono Sopara:o|y'
oo|oo a: :|o spoc.a| c|arac:or.st.cs o| |racturos o|
oac| oono on Sina, oy usinq t|is |orm o| oxp|a
na:ion, vas vory c|oso to |oov.nq :|o |orma: o|
mooorn moo.ca| toxtooos
Ho orov attontion to t|o nocossi:y o| no: spin:
inq :|o |ract.ro .mmoo.ato|y, aov.s.nq postpon
inq it ooyono t|o n|t| oay. Tooay, t|is .s ca|oo
t|o T|oory o| Loayoo Sp|intaqo, ano lro|ossor
oorqo lor|ins :3z:/), v|o vas oasoo at
St T|omas' Hospita in onoon, .s consiooroo :|o
pionoor o| t|is t|oory
| | C | ' | 1\ | | H` S | `A

|\C`l l^C1| Hl IQ
{'nyone who wants to be
a good doctor must be an
Avicennist. "
OLD EUROPEAN COMMON SAYI NG
Ln Sina ta|oo aoout v|at is nov caoo
lonnot:'s |racturo :33z' a t|ousano yoars
oo|oro lonnot:
T|o arranqomont, compro|onsivonoss, ano
mot|oos o| oxpanat.on o| t|o cnon voro sim.|ar
to t|o |ayout o| mooorn mooica toxtooos vi:|
roqaro :o cass.|ca:.on, causos o| oisoasos, opioo
miooqy, symp:oms ano siqns, ano troatmont ano
proqnosis T||s maoo t|o cnon t|o most viooy
.soo mooica ooo| in oot| us|im ano l.ropoan
countrios, i: vas |novn to luropoans in :|o .z:|
contury |rom t|o Lat.n transat.ons o| oraro o|
Cronona l: romainoo in uso in moo.ca sc|oos
a: ouva.n ano ontpoior unt.| t|o :/:| contury
ano accoro.nq :o t|o ]ourna o| UNlSC it vas
sti in uso a: lrussos Univorsity unti .o, vo
into t|o aqo o| mooorn mooicino
The school of Salerno is depicted in this 14th- to 15th
century Latin translation of the manuscript Canon of
Medicine by Ibn Sina.
CANCN C| uD| C| N
L L|Lo |LL
A Book ofMedical Knowledge from Many Civilizations
LEGACY: h uehced medc8 r8ctce uht the 1 gthcehtury
LOCATION: Per5 8
DATE: 1Oth-1th cehtury
KEY FI GURE: bh h8, khowh 85Avcehh8, doctor 8hd oym8th

he nth-century schol ar I bn Si na wrote and taught widely on medi ci ne, phi l osophy, and
natural sci ences. Known i n the West as Avi cenna, hi s most i nfl uenti al book was AI-Qanun
f a/-Tibb-transl ated as Code of Laws in Medicine, but known most commonl y as the Canon.
I n the Canon, I bn Si na col l ected together medical knowledge from across ci vi l i zati ons,
creati ng a master reference work. Made up of fve vol umes, the book covered medi cal pri n
ci pl es, medi ci nes, di seases of vari ous body parts, general di sease, and traumas.
I bn Si na descri bed i n detai l the causes, types, and compl icati ons of fractures, and the
vari ous ways to treat them. He advised agai nst spl i nti ng a fractured l i mb ri ght away, but
recommended waiti ng fve days-a procedure now uni versal l y adopted. I n hi s writi ngs, he
i ncl uded detai l ed i nstructions for understandi ng traumatic i nj uri es to every bone-and even
described a thumb i nj ury now known as Bennett's fracture hundreds of years before the
schol ar afer whom it i s named.
One hundred and forty-two properties of herbal remedi es were i ncl uded i n I bn Si na' s
Canon. With hi storical roots i n Egypt, Mesopotami a, Chi na, and I ndi a, herbs had been
i mportant to heal th i n anci ent Greek and Roman soci eti es. I n earl y Musl i m ci vi l izati on, an
i ncrease i n travel and trade made new pl ants, trees, seeds, and spi ces avai l abl e, al ong with
the possi bi l i ties of new herbal medi ci nes.
The Canon was certai nly comprehensive-but when I bn Si na wrote it, nearly a thousand
years ago, he coul d not have foreseen how l ong i ts wi sdom woul d l ast. Gerard of Cremona
transl ated the Canon i nto Latin i n the 1 2th century, and soon the medical commu. nities of
Europe were al l usi ng the book, l i ke the doctors of Musl i m civi l i zation before them. By the 1 3th
century, concise Latin versi ons of the Canon had been publ i shed, al ong wi th commentaries to
cl ari f its contents. The Canon was sti l l consulted by some doctors unti l the early 1 8oos.
I bn Si na wrote prol ifcal l y al l hi s l if-and on many topi cs. Al ong with vari ous medi cal
books, he wrote 26 books on physi cs, 31 on theol ogy, 23 on psychol ogy, 15 on mathemati cs,
22 on logic, and several i nf uenti al works of phi l osophy. He al so found ti me to write about
love and musi c.
Al ong wi th other schol ars of Musl i m ci vi l izati ons, I bn Si na questi oned superstiti ous
bel i efs and sought to devel op a rati onal understandi ng of the Earth' s systems. He di scussed
sources of water and the formati on of cl ouds i n hi s writi ng, i ncl udi ng i n The Book ofHealing
a comprehensive chapter on mi neralogy and meteorol ogy, exami ni ng how mountai ns form,
the concept of geological ti me, and what causes earthquakes.
172 l I|| | `\ l `1l L`>- 1 l l l |`|L | `C ` Ll \\ L ll .\\ I| V l | l Z. \'l \`
O `CT|lCCK C| TH| .CUl| ST
N
early every medical book by Muslims a thousand years ago covered
some aspect of eye diseases. Their studies were limited only because
animal eyes were used instead of human eyes, because the dissection
of the human body was considered disrespectful. However, that did not stop
the oldest pictures of the anatomy of the eye from being constructed.
usim oyo surqoons or op|t|amooq.s:s o :|o
tont| to t|o t|.rtoont| conturios voro por|orminq
ojorations, o.ssoct.nq, oiscovorinq, ano vritinq
aoout t|oir nno.nqs in toxtooo|s ano mono
qrap|s Iccoroinq to lroossor Julius Hirsc|
oorq, an ominont zot|contury orman proossor
o| mooicino, o op|t|amooqy tox:ooo|s voro
prooucoo, ano : o t|om sti oxist tooay
ooorn torms voro usoo io con]unctiva, cor
noa, .voa, ano rotina porations on oisoasos o
t|o ios i|o trac|oma, a |arooninq o t|o insioo
o| t|o io, voro aso common pract.co !|o troat
mont o qaucoma, an incroaso in t|o .ntraocuar
prossuro o t|o oyo, unoor t|o namo o |oaoac|o
o t|o pupi, vas popular, out t|o qroatost sinqo
contrioution in op|t|amooqy oy t|o usims
vas in t|o troatmont o cataracts
!|o torm or cataract .n Iraoic is c|c' c|
nc.:| ||'cyn moaninq vator oosconos .nto t|o
oyo,' v|ic| roors to t|o vator accumuat.nq in
t|o ons, ma|inq . t soqqy ano couoy
!o rostoro vision, Iavsii, rom tont|
contury lra, oosiqnoo a |oov noooo ano
insortoo it t|rouq| t|o imous, v|oro t|o cornoa
]oins t|o con]unctiva, to romovo t|o cataract oy
suction !||s typo o cataract oporation, amonq
ot|ors, is sti carrioo out tooay vit| somo
aoooo mooorn toc|niuos, suc| as |roozinq t|o
ons oooro suction
Scholars in Muslim civilization took eye diseases very
seriously, just as physicians do today.
lrom |is s:.oy ano prac:ico |o t|on vro:o t|o
oo/ o/ /occs n :/c !cc:cn: o/ yc Dsccscs,
v|ic| oiscussoo 3 oisoasos !|is manuscript
No. 3) can oo ouno in t|o lscoria Liorary in
aorio, Spain
Unti t|o zot| contury, Ilavsii's vor|
vas ony avaiaoo in Iraoic ano a it|contury
Hoorov trans.ation !|o orman vorsion vas
maoo as rocont.y as :o oy lroossor Hirsc|oorq,
v|o vroto t|a: Iavsii vas !|o most c|ovor
oyo surqoon o t|o v|oo Iraoian Litoraturo'
AfW
1W
K m
IJ
O V O
m V O K
Z m V L !
! O C V H h M
m L C H L E ]
K L V H Z C C
N r m L L - o _
Z E V O K N O H C

| | C|` | 1^ | C1l. lCCl C| 1 |l CC| |S1 173




.
. t
The anatomy of the eye is illustrated in a 12th-century manuscript that refers to the trea
tise on ophthalmology by Hunayn ibn Ishaq, a ninth-century Christian from Baghdad.
During Muslim civilization, Muslim and non-Muslim scholars worked side by side.
174 1 001 I NVE NTI ONS : TI-l [ E ND U RI NG LEC/\CY OF MU S Li v\ CI V I LI ZATI ON
A contomporary o| Aavsii ano t|o most
|amous o| a t|o ocuists o ls.am vas Ai .on
sa, aso |rom tont|contury faq|oao, lraq Ho
vroto t|o No:c/oo/ o/ :/c c.|:s: ano t|.s vas
t|o most compoto toxtooo| on oyo oisoasos,
v|i c| vas trans.atoo into Latin ano printoo
in Vonico in :./ Aqa.n lro|ossor Hirsc|oorq
ano |.s |o..ov oyo surqoon . Lipport trans.atoo
it into orman . n :o, ano t|o Lnqis| vor
sion, oy Amor.can ocu.ist ano acaoom.c Casoy
`ooo, appoaroo . n :c
j
M
usl i m physi ci ans have been i n
the forefront of t he effort t o pre
vent bl i ndness si nce 1 OOO L. L. , when ai
Razi became t he frst doctor t o descri be
the refl ex act i on of the pupi l . At about the
same ti me, . . . ai - Mawsi l i i nvented the
techni que of sucti on- removal of cataracts
by the use of a hol l ow needl e. "
OPTOMETRY TODAY,
A PUBliCATION OF THE ASSOCI ATI ON OF
OPTOMETRI STS, ENGLAND, MARCH 28, 1 987
({During thi s total darkness
i n medieval Europe, they
{the Muslims] lighted and
fed the lamps of our science
[ophthalmology ]-from
the Guadalquivir {in Spai n]
to the Nile {in Egypt) and
to the river Oxus {i n Russia}.
They were the only masters
of ophthalmology i n
medieval Europe. "
PROFESSOR JUli US HI RSCHBERG
CONCLUDI NG HI S ADDRESS TO THE
AMERI CAN MEDI CAL ASSOCIATION, JULY 1 905
lon lsa' s ooo| No:c/oo/ o/ :/c c.|. s: vas
t|o aut|oritat.vo :oxtooo on op|:|amooqy |or
conturios, ooscr.oinq :o oyo o.soasos, incuo
inq sovora |orms o trac|oma ano op|t|am.a
lt .s aso t|o o.oost us..m vor| on op|t|a
mooqy t|a: .s comp.oto ano survivos in t|o
oriqina stato Lr Cyri Lqooo, a zot|contury
lritis| moo.ca |istor.an, vroto !|o |rst part
is oovotoo to anatomy, t|o socono to t|o oxtor
na. oisoasos o| t|o oyo. ano t|o t|.ro part to
intorna. oisoasos o| t|o oyo v|ic| aro not vis
ioo upon inspoc:ion !|o noaros: approac|
t|at Ai ma|os to t|o mooorn concoption o| oyo
oisoaso as a mani|ostation o| qonora oisoaso is
v|on |o urqos t|o practitionor to roa.izo t|at
oo|oct.vo vis.on may Lo ouo to a oisoaso o t|o
stomac| or orain ]ust as muc| as to an incipi
ont cataract '
Ln sa vas no: t|o ony oyo surqoon to urqo
t|at o.soasos o| t|o oyo cou.o oo siqns o| ot|or
aimonts Aou lu| u|ammao ion ansur
iLn Aooua|, |novn as AJur ani, rom ior
s.a a.ouno .o33, vroto a ooo ca.oo !/c ..j/:
o/ :/c ,cs :o c|aptor ooat v.t| oisoasos
:|at ay |iooo:, L.t v|oso s.qns vo.o c.oar .:
:|o oyos a:o vision, io :|. ro norvo para.ys.s.
L.ooo o.soroors. a:o :oxici:y
A: ocu.ist v|o |as Loo: immorta.zoo in a
L.st .n CrooLa. sout|or: Spa.:. .s u|am
mao iL: assum iL: Asam a.|a! q. Ho ivoo
a:o practicoo . : CrooLa, vr.ti:q a Loo ca.oo
/c R:j/: .: oc n p/:/c|:c D.j T|o Loo
is :ot ]ust co:! :oo to t|o oyo Lut qivos oota..s
o| t|o |oao a:o o.soasos o| t|o L.ai: oportor
aqo| maar sa.o i: t|o llCs An 's'c:c ::s
:o, o/ .opc t|a: A|a! q.s troatmo:t o|
t|o oyo oisoaso trac|oma vas carrioo out u:ti.
`oro `ar l His Lus: i: t|o mu:icipa| |ospita.
o| CrooLa vas oroctoo .: .c_ :o commomo
rato :|o 3oot| a::ivorsary o| |.s ooa:|
HOSI ' I L\ 1 : NOHBOOK Of THE OCULST
l : t|o U:itoo i:qoom :ooay. cataracts
aro :|o mos: commo: causo o| Li:o:oss i:
poopo ooor t|a: _c Lut t|oros qooo novs
|rom :|o loya. Co|oqo o| p|:|amo.oqis:s
Ca:aract surqory |as oxcoo:t o.:comos a:o
maos a: o:ormous oi||oro:co to patio:ts'
ivos Hu:oroos o| t|ousa:os o| ca:arac:
opora:io:s tao p.aco ovory yoar i: t|o Un.too
. :qoom. mainq it t|o most commo:.y
por|ormoo o octivo oporation i: t|o cou:try
`|o vo.o |avo t|o.q|: t|at Aavsi. s
vor . : :|o to:t| co:tury vou.o |avo aio
:|o |ou:oat.o:s |or a: .:crooiL|y popuar
z:stco::ury surqory
By the 13th century, eye surgeons were already investi
gating the eye's structure and developing new ways to
tackle disease.
.7 l `CCUlAT| C`
V
accination today can be a controversial issue, and it
was rej ected when it was frst brought to England from
Turkey nearly _OO years ago. The Anatolian Ottoman
Turks knew about methods of vaccination. They called vac
cination Ashi, or engrafting, and they had inherited it from
older Turkic tribes.
Vaccination i s a procoss v|oro a porson i s q.von
a voaonoo or inac:ivo ooso o| a oisoasocausinq
orqanism !|.s stimuatos t|o immuno systom
to proouco ant.oooios to t|.s spocinc oisoaso
!ooay. t|o oovoopmont o| nov vaccinos ta|os
oiq|t to tvovo yoars, ano any nov vacc.no |as
to oo riqoro.sy tostoo Lo|oro |t can oo accoptoo
as sa|o
!|o !ur|s |ao oiscovoroo t|at i| t|oy inocu
atoo t|oir c|ioron vit| covpox ta|on |rom t|o
oroas:s o| ca:t.o, :|oy vouo not oovoop sma
pox !|.s |ino o| vacc.nation ano ot|or |orms
o| varioat.on voro in:rooucoo into lnqano oy
Laoy ontaq.. a |amous lnqis| ottor vritor
ano vi|o o| t|o lnq|s| amoassaoor at lstanou
TOP: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 1689-1762, introduced
the smallpox vaccination from Turkey into England.
BOTTOM: An 1802 caricature titled the "Cow-Pock" by
James Gillray shows Dr. Jenner vaccinating patients at
the St. Pancras Smallpox and Inoculation Hospital.
ootvoon :/:c ano :/:3 S|o camo across t|o !ur|
is| mot|oos o| vaccination ano |ocamo qroaty
intorostoo in sma.pox inocu.ation a|tor consont
inq to |avo |or son inocuatoo oy t|o omoassy
surqoon, C|aros aitano
`|io in lstanoul, Laoy ontaqu sont a sorios
o| ottors to lnqano in v|ic| s|o ooscriooo t|o
procoss in ootai n |or roturn to lnqano s|o
continuoo to sproao t|o !ur|is| traoition o| vac
cination ano |ao many o| |or roat|vos |nocu
atoo S|o oncountoroo norco opposit.on to t|o
(For more than two hundred years,
vaccines have made an unparal
leled contribution to public health . . .
Considering the list of killer diseases
that once held terror and are now
under control, includi ng polio, mea
sles, diphtheria, pertussis, rubella,
mumps, tetanus, and Haemophi lus
i nfuenzae type b (Hib), one might
expect vaccination to have achieved
mi racle status. "
RI CHARD GALLAGHER, EDI TOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL
MAGAZINE AND WEBSITE THE SCIENTIST
introouction o| inoculation, not ony |rom t|o
c|urc| aut|oritios, vo usoo to opposo any intor
vontion, out aso |rom many p|ysicians !|ro.q|
|or tonac.ty t|o.q|, inoc.ation oocamo incroas
inqy vioosproao ano ac|iovoo qroat succoss
!|o oroa|t|rouq| camo v|on a sc:onti!c
ooscription o| t|o vaccination procoss vas
suom.ttoo to :|o loya Socioty .n :/z oy L.
lmmanuo. !imoni, v|o |ao ooon t|o ontaqus
|amiy p|ysician in lstanou !|is vas |urt|or
auqmon:oo oy Cassom Iqa, t|o amoassaoor o|
A | S | ! 7! 7. ! 97
| o 1
lC>l` l J.\ l l `CCL I`l L`
~
C
X
7
W

f
f
C
Z
3
C
X

f
*
11
8 UPU$
A stamp issued by the Turkish Postal Authority in 1967
depicts the 250th anniversary of the first smallpox
vaccination.
!r.poi, v|o proviooo a nrst|ano account o| inoc
u|a:ion ano its sa|oty rocoro in !r.po|., !.nis, ano
Iqiors, v|ic| qavo vauaoo roassuranco aoout
t|o lonq sa|oty rocoro o| t|o practico in usl|m
countrios, ano |or v|ic| |o vas ooctoo |oov o|
t|o loya Socioty in ./z lnocuation vas t|on
aooptoo oot| in lnqano ano :n lranco, noar.y
|a| a contury oo|oro lovaro Jonno:, to v|om
t|o oiscovory |s attrioutoo
lt is curronty ooiovoo t|at in i/c Jonnor |oaro'
t|at covpox proviooo immunity to sma||pox v|on
|o sav t|o caso o| Jamos l|ipps, an o.q|tyoaroo
ooy, v|o vas |n|octoo v:t| covpox |rom a cut on
t|o |ano o| a mi|maio, Sara| No|mos
ln :c/, !ur|oy commomoratoo t|o zot|
annivorsary o| t|o !rst smapox vacc:nat.on
!|o stamp s|ovs a c|io ooinq inocuatoo ln t|o
oac|qrouno is an lsamic oomo ano in t|o |oro
qro.no a surqoon's scapo.
l Ol I NV F NT I ONS: T H E. tN DU R I NC L E. CiC' 01 NL> l l .\1 CI VI L I L/\TI ON
: |PlAl `|l| C| `|
A
thousand years ago gardens were also scienti:c ":eld" laboratories,
looked after by eminent scientists who wrote manuals on the medi
cal properties of plants. Herbal medicine was not seen as an alter
native medicine but was very much a part of medical practice, with many
hospitals keeping gardens full of herbs for use in medicines, and new drugs
were discovered and administered.
!|is |ino o| |oroa oiscovory |as ooon maoo sinco
t|o oavn o| civiization T|oro aro rocoros |rom
Lqyjt, osojotamia, C|ina, ano lno|a that ro|oct
a traoition t|at oxistoo oo|oro vo o|scovoroo vrit
inq. ln t|o `ost, t|o nrst |oroa a ooo| istinq
ano oxjaininq t|o jrojortios o| |oros)vas roo|

,L|:`_"
_
.' ' '^'
"`"'
An illustrated page from a 15th-century Arabic
botanical treatise
((And the leaves of the tree were
for the healing and the restoration
of the nations. "
THE BI BLE, REVELATION ZZ. Z
ano vritton in tho t|iro contury B.C.E. oy Liooos o|
Carystus, |oovoo oy Cratouas in t|o nrst contury
C.E. T|o ony vor| t|at |as surivoo, Dc Mc:c:c
Mcc:cc, vas vritton in c_ C.E. oy Lioscorioos
Ho romains tho only |novn aut|ori; amonq t|o
roo| ano loman |oroa.sts
s t|o usim anos qrov, mo.c|ants ano trav
oors camo across oxotic jants, troos, sooos, ano
sjicos jroviousy un|novn to t|om. !|oy co
octoo ano orouq|t oac| a |uqo numoor o| sam
jos o| rav .nqroo|onts, a|onq vit| |novooqo ano
in|ormat|on aoout t|oir uso, comoinq t|o vor|o
ano its |ars|ost o| onvironmonts, qoinq as |ar
anoo as t|o stojjos o| sia ano t|o lyonoos !|o
oiscovory ano vioo uso o| jajor aso moant t|at
ont|osjot ootaioo rocoroinq o| t|oir ]ournoys
ano oosorvations couo |o maoo
`it| t|is vast amount o| oata ano mato
ria, coujoo vit| thoir sciontinc mooica
|nov|ooqo, many nov traoitiona ano |oroa
mooicinos oocamo avaiaoo t|oso o.scov
orios moant t|at a |uqo amount o| in|ormation
vas ouit uj ano sjilloo out o| coossa oncyco
jooic vor|s

-'''. -|

- . ;>
,|
| ~ J, I ,
|CS|' | J :\ | ll l l |\ ^| l Ll C| ^l 179
CLOCKISE FROM TOP LEFT: A vine from a 15th-century Arabic botanical treatise. An illustration from Dioscorides'
De Materia Medica depicts the physician handing his student a mandrake root, which was regarded as a highly
effective medicine. A botanical species from a treatise by Ibn alBaytar of Malaga. The tapping of a balsam tree
as shown in a 15th-century Persian manuscript.
IO t|| I NV F NT I ONS: T H E ENDU RI NC LEC:\Cl OF .WS l l .\ CI V I L I Z/TI ON

#
`
_
.
_
=
~' '

__ ,. _,
lon Samaun, v|o o.oo in :z, vroto o||cc
::on o/ c:p|cs, Mco:c:nc| i|cn:s cno Rcs.|::nj
Mco:c:ncs !|is vas a cassihcation o plants ano
t|oir mooica proportios oasoo on t|o vor| o |is
prooocossors Iso in .|o :| contury, `Ln Sina .n
|is cnon .stoo :z proportios o| |oroa romooios
lotany, t|o sciontinc stuoy o pants, ano t|o
uso o plants in mooic|no vont |ano in |ano `|i|o
mon i|o Iou Hania aLinavari, caoo ''t|o a:|or
o mooo:n ootany, voro compiinq vast is:s o
pants in ooo|s i|o |is A !cc::sc on i|cn:s, ot|o:s,
||o Ilazi, a tont|contury mooica sc|oar, usoo
coc|icum as a oruq or t|o t:oatmont o qout.
Is Lo:any Locamo an acaoom.c sc.onco,
c|omis:ry vas aovancinq at an incrooio|o rato,
ano oot| t|oso oovoopmonts |opoo to propo
loroa mooic.no into t|o mainstroam Coup|oo
v.t| t|c appcaranco o improvoo vatcrrais.nq

.
' c. +. . = ~-
<.....,_. .
"~ -.---~''` '
The 13th-century treatise by Ibn al-Baytar of Malaga
depicts different botanical species-the example at left
is from the manuscript Al-Kafi and at right from the
manuscript Al-Filaha. The treatise gives the physiology
of plants and descriptions of their sowing environment
as well as their maintenance.
mac|inos ano nov irriqat.on toc|niuos in :|o
tont| contury, oxporimonta qaroons sproutoo
ano |oros voro cultivatoo
IInoaus, or usim Spain, vas a sprinq
Loaro or |oroa oovoopmon: ln ::|contu:y
Toooo, Spa.n, ano .ato: .n Sovi||o, t|o nrst :oya.
ootanica qaroons o luropo maoo t|oir appoar
anco lnitia|y :|oy voro poasuro qaroons, ou: t|oy
a|so unc:ionoo as tria qrounos or :|o acc|ima:.
za:.on o pants orouq|t |rom t|o .ooo last
You can roao aoout lon alaytar o aaqa in
t|o |armacy soction, out t|o oasis o: |is vo:|,
D:c::onc o/ S:p|c Rcco:cs cno Fooo, an
onormous j|armacooq.cal oncycojooia, ro|octs
|is ootanica s|is, .n t|.s |o st.oioo ,ooo oi||or
ont pants ano t|o.r mooica jrojortios
Cno o| t|o oost |oroa. mooicino ooo|s vas
jrooucoo oy |a|qi, v|o oioo .n :c !|.s
vas caoo !/c oo/ o/ ':p|c D.js lt vas
oxcoptionay accurato ano vas rojuois|oo oy
ax oyor|o| in Lqyjt in :z
ln t|o tont| contury, lon Ju]u vroto a com
montary on Lioscoriooss ooyoaro.o Dc Mc:c:c
Mco:cc ano transatoo it into raoic, aooinq many
nov suostancos suc| as tamarino, camj|or, san
oavooo, ano caroamom Ho a.so ioonti|oo many
nov pants ano t|o.r jrojortios aonq vit| t|oir
mooicina vauos |or troatinq various oisoasos.
vory simjlo out ma]or oroa|t|rouq| t|at
usims maoo in |oroa mooicino vas vatc|inq
|ov t|o |oro a||octoo t|o jationt. Nov t|is sooms
quito an oovious t|inq to oo, out t|oy voro t|o
ony onos usinq ano royinq on sc.ont.|c mot|oos
o| oxjorimontation ano oosorvation at t|a: timo
Lsov|oro in mooiova Furopo, ooos on |oros
voro raro ano |novn ony amonq a sma numoor
o| sc|oars, ano unti t|o ono o| t|o :_t| contury
many Lurojoans voro usinq t|o raoic toxts ano
raoic vorsions o| roo| toxts translatoo into
Latin So ootvoon .oo ano icoo t|oro voro aoout
7c oo.tions o| Lioscor|oos, t|o roo| sc|oar
l l OSPI Tt\ L : 1-I F R I\tL M[DI CI Nfc II
('nd in i t
)
thei r drink
is mixed wi th ginger. "
QURAN (76: 1 7) MENTI ONS GI NGER
AS ONE OF THE DRI NKS OF PARADI SE.
TODAY, GI NGER I S USED TO
RELI EVE NAUSEA AND VOMITI NG.
!|o succoss o| t|o Lurojoan sc|oars vas
moas.roo oy v|at t|oy oorrovoo |rom us
iim ootanis:s ano |ov t|oy maoo Lioscorioos
moro jrominont, out t|inqs voro not qo.nq voi
!|o onco qroat Saorno sc|oo vas in oocino
oocauso o| a ac| o| ao.ity in Latin, roo|, ano
raoic, ano t|oy Jio not |uy unoorstano t|o
roo| toxts as most o| t|o timo t|oy voro trans
ations o| transations
Lurojoan |oroaists voro |rustratoo oy iqno
ranco, mapractico, |auts in oar.or oao roo
:ransations, ano a|so |rom not ooinq aoo to
.oont.|y .nqroo.onts corroct|y oocauso t|oy voro
ooscriooo in oca. oia.octs t|is oo S|r !|omas
Llyot, a :ct|contury Lnqis| oipomat ano sc|oar,
to in|orm |is roaoors t|at |o oorivoo no unoor
stanoinq |rom t|o ancionts ano t|at t|oy qavo no
itto pro|yto concornynqo myno ovno |ot|o
lortunatoy, |oroa mooicino |as oono avay
vit| usinq mot|or's oooo, v|ic| vas somotimos
aoooo in cortain mooiova Lurojoan rocipos
!ooay, in t|o Unitoo .noom, ono lriton in nvo
usos comjomontary mooicino ano, accoroinq
to a rocont survoy, ono in ton usos |oroa|ism or
|omoopat|y. rouno :o miion is sjont on ois,
jotions, ano jills ovory yoar in lritain, ano t|o
compomontary ano altornativo mooicino inous
try is ostimatoo to oo vort| :c oiion annualy
lor usims tooay |oroa mooicino is roqain
imjortanco as many |oroa| p|ysicians
|avo startoo to omorqo, a|t|o.q|
in viaqos ano rura aroas |oroa
mooicino |as jorsistoo t|rouq| t|o
conturios as an intoqratoo jart o| traoition.
lHAPVACY
0 n nearly every business street and in most supermar
kets, a pharmacy or chemist can be found. But they
are not modern-day concepts, as pharmacies were
springing up in Baghdad, Iraq, more than a thousand years ago.
t t|o ooqinninq o t|o nint| contury j|armacists
voro |noojonoont jroossionas runninq t|oir
ovn j|armacios. !|oso amiyrun ous.nossos
ojoratinq in t|o mar|ots voro joriooicay osjo
ciay i n t|o :zt| ano it| conturios) insjoctoo oy a
qovornmontajjointoo oHcia, A/M./:cs:/, ano
|is aioos T|oy c|oc|oo t|o accuracy o voiq|ts
ano moasuros, as vol as t|o jurity o t|o oruqs
usoo, romovinq imjostors ano c|aratans vit| t|o
t|roat o |umiiatinq corjora junis|mont.
Hosjita.s o a t|ousano yoars aqo aso |ao
t|o.r ovn oisjonsarios, jrooucinq oruqs ano
o:|or j|armacoutica jrojarations
So t|o jractica sioo o j|armacooqy vas vol
oovolojoo ano sujjortoo oy sc|olars i|o Saour
ion Sa| in t|o nint| contury, v|o vas t|o nrst j|y
sician to ooscrioo a arqo varioty o oruqs ano rom
ooios or ailmonts, lazi, v|o jromotoo c|omica
comjounos in mooicino, lon Sina, v|o ooscriooo
/oo jrojarations, t|oir jrojortios, actions, ano t|oir
inoications, ano inoi, v|o ootorminoo ano
ajjioo t|o corroct oruq oosaqo, v|ic| ormoo t|o
oasis o mooica. ormu.ary
Ct|or inuontia sc|oars incuooo .Za|
ravi o Sjain, v|o |n t|o tont| contury jionooroo
t|o jrojaration o mooicinos oy suoimation ano
oistilation, v|ic| moant a v|oo ranqo o nov
oruqs coulo nov oo jrooucoo s |o |ao aroaoy
usoo catqut or intorna stitc|inq, |o aso aomin
.storoo oruqs oy storinq t|om i n catqut jarcos,
v|.c| voro roaoy or svaovinq So v|on you
:a|o a oruq cajs.o :ooay romomoor t|at .ts oro
runnor is moro t|an a t|ousano yoars oo
Za|ravis vor| A|!cs:| vas transatoo
into latin as L:/c 'cv::c:s ano too t|o roaoor
|ov to jrojaro simjlo ano moro comjox com
jouno oruqs Ho also qavo mot|oos o jrojarinq
suostancos suc| as it|arqo or oao monoxioo,
v|ito oao, .oao su|oo ournt oao), ournt coj
jor, caomium, marcasito .ron su||oo, yo.ov arso
nic, ano ..mo, ano n.morous vitr.o.s ano sats
ou aansur uva||aq oro|o nov qrouno
v|on |o vroto !/c |o.ncc::ons o| :/c !.c
iopc::cs o| Rccc:cs in t|o tont| contury T|is
ooscriooo arsonious oxioo ano |o |nov aoout
siicic acio. Cno uso o t|is tooay is in jis t|at
|oj orm a jrotoctivo momorano in oasiy irri
tatoo stomac|s Ho maoo a coar ois:inct.on
TOP: This 12th-century Persian pharmacy jar was used
by apothecaries to store dried herbs, minerals, and
other medicines. The glazed surface of pottery drug
jars could be easily cleaned. BOTTOM: An Arabic edition
of Dioscorides's De Materia Medica illustrates a
pharmacy with chemists preparing medications.
An Arabic manuscript with pharmacological tables
ascribed to 13th-century Ibn al-Baytar shows descrip
tions of symptoms, the location of the ailment, applica
tions of the medicine, and what dosage should be used.
ootvoon sooium caroonato ano jotassium car
oonato, ano orov attontion to t|o joisonous
naturo o| cojjor comjounos, osjociay cojjor
vitrio, ano aso oao comjounos
ln t|o :t| contury, liruni vroto ono o| t|o
most vauaoo vor|s in t|o |oo caoo !/c oo/
o/ |/ccco/ojy, qivinq ootaioo |novooqo o|
:|o jrojortios o| oruqs, ano outininq t|o roo
o| t|o j|armacy ano t|o |unctions ano outios o|
t|o j|armacist.
jrimary aim o| t|o j|armacists vas t|at
t|oir vor| |ao to oo oxjorty orqanizoo, ma|
inq it o| maximum jract.ca vauo to :|o ajot|
ocary ano mooica jractitionor. !|is moant t|at
t|oy listoo oruqs alj|aooticaly in .aoos |or
oasy ro|oronc:nq ano quic| usaqo, ano moo.ca
I I OS I ' ! Tf : l ' l l t\ R,\1 t\C1
oncycojooias voro avaiaolo as |u vor|s or soc
tions on mooical sjociaitios
!|oso oary oruq troatisos jassoo into Lurojo
vit| a t|is vi:a j|armacoutica in|ormation,
innuonc.nq :t|contury lurojoan j|armacists
i|o Jo|annos oo Sancto manoo ano iotro
ooano, a jro|ossor .n aoua, ltay, |rom :oc
to .:c `or|s t|at too| t|is lurojoan ]ournoy
incuooo ooo|s oy lon a`a|o o| Sjain, v|o
vas juois|oo in Latin moro t|an o timos His
main vor| vas caoo /c oo/ o/ ':p/c D.js
ano ran to oo jaqos, ta|inq z yoars to comjio
!|o Latin transation, Dc co:cccn::s s:p/:c:
/.s, is ony a |raqmont o| a |is vor|
!|o :t|contury aqa usim on al
laytar vas a |oadinq ootanist as vo as t|o
aut|or o| t|o arqos: j|armacooqica oncyco
jooia t|at |as survivoo to our timo D: c:: onoy
o/ ':p/c Rcco:cs cno |ooo ooscrioos moro
t|an , ooo ootanica. samjos istoo in aj|a
ootica. oroor. Latin vorsion o| t|o Loo| vas
juois|oo in :/3, ano its comjoto transation
ajjoaroo in :3z.
Lurojoan j|armacists voro truy insjiroo oy
t|oso vor|s, so opcno:. coc:c:o.,
vritton oy vo||novn .t|contury j|ysician
Salaoin o| scoo, vas oiviooo into sovon jarts
lt |olovs, oxacty, t|o oarior uslim catoqoriza
tion o| suo]octs
|ysician Luoovico oa lozzo !oscanoii
vor|oo at t|o lorontino Cooqo o| |ysicians,
v|ic| jrooucoo a :/t|contury ooition o| t|o
Lonoon D:spcnsc:oy !|is istoo ootanicas,
minoras, simjo ano comjouno oruqs |or oxtor
na ano intornai .so, oi.s, jis ano catajasms,
all rovoalinq a jossioo usim connoction
n intorost in usim j|armacy vas roconty
rovivoo Ly morican |istorian artin Lovoy
lo|oro |o oioo in :// |o |ao trans.atoo rao.c
tox:s ano .noart|oo |uqo ists o| t|orajoutic troat
monts, incuoinq comjouno oruqs, jis, jastios,
jovoors, syrujs, ois, otions, ano toot|jastos
Il I NVENTIONS: 1 l l ENDURI N(; LH);CY OF MUSLIM CIVILI ZiION
. `|l| CAl `C\l|lC|
M
uslim physicians of a thousand years ago would be happy to learn
that a few decades, sometimes centuries, after their deaths their
works were being translated into Latin, making them accessible to
the whole of Europe.
unis.a vas a |o:Loo o| mooica |novooqo
oocauso o| a p.onoorinq |ospita caoo
ayravan v|ic| vas ouit in 3o s vo. as
ooinq a practicinq |osp.:a ayravan |ao
moo.ca sc|oars prooucinq onormous mooica.
:omos o| |novooqo, v|ic| voro ta|on :o luropo
oy poopo suc| as Constan:ino t|o |rican
"The European medical system
is Arabian not only i n origin but
also i n i ts structure. The Arabs are
the i ntellectual forebears of the
Europeans.
DR. DONALD CAMPBELL,
20TH-CENTURY HI STORI AN OF ARABI AN MEDI CI NE
ln :|o :| contury, :|.s !unisian C|ristian
sc|oar :ransatoo moo.cai oncycopooias so :|oy
voro ava.aoo to Latinsjoa|inq Luropoans !|is
rovoutionizoo mooica stuoios .n Luropo, v|io
aso croatinq a qonoration o| pominont mooica
toac|ors Cons:antinos oost|novn trans.ation is
o| /c Ro,c| :oo/ oy tont|contury p|ys.cian i
ion ooas aa]usi, |novn in .atin as t|o icn
:cjn: l: vas printoo in Lyons, lranco, in :. ano
in laso., Sv.tzorano .n :o
!/c .:oc /o :/c cvc|c o:nj :o D:s:cn:
o.n::cs or !cvc|c's |ov:s:on vas a mooiova.
oostso..or vr.tton Ly j|ys.cian on a.Jazzar, v|o
practicoo ano stuoioo at ayravan |osp.ta.
L ILPS)HVAILD
ON Y^ IIJVOl NL,
LtbcrScholSalcrntanz.
UL 2 NmA1Hc1A @ 1 * ' `
rtm:qai/ad.mgntral/,
Ld -
oru

Irribit o
>
&
m. trr4- .

~=y
..
The cover of a 16th-century illustrated work shows
Constantine the African lecturing at the school of Salerno.
Constantine was an llth-centwy Tunisian Christian who
translated medical encyclopedias.
!|oro |o oioo in , moro t|an yoars oo oav
inq 24,000 oinars ano . quintars ono quintar
is 45 |ioqrams) o| ooo|s on mooicino ano ot|or
suo]octs His oqacy aso inc.uooo a troatiso on
vomons oisoasos ano t|oir troatmont Suc| vri:
inqs oarnoo |im immonso amo ano maoo |im
vory in|uontia .n moo.ova. vostorn Luropo
Constantino :rans.atoo cvc'cs |ov:s:on
.nto La:in as ':c::c. ,ccj:ncn::s ano Syn
os.os transatoo i: .nto roo| ano HoLrov as
coc: /cocuc/:, v|ic| jropooo i: :o intorna
tiona Lostso..or ano most roao status !cvc|c's
|ov:s:on vas a systomat.c ano compro|onsivo
mooica vor| accojtoo into :|o soca|oo A::cc||c
or As co:c:ncc, a comjonoium o| mooicai :oxt
ooo|s viooy usoo in moo.ca sc|oos ano unior
s.t.os at Sa|orno, ontjo|.o:, lo|oqna laris, ano
Cx|oro lt con:ainoo romar|aLo ooscrij:.ons o|
smajox ano moasos
!|o transatoo raoic vor|s soon oocamo joj
uar in a| contors o| oa:ninq inc.o.nq Saorno,
v|.c| vi:| its mooica sc|oo| vas a maor con:or
o| |oarn.nq i n Eurojo
Ct|or :rans|atoo mooica| vor|s t|at |ao a
ma]or imjact on Eurojo .ncuooo t|oso oy lon
Sina, novn as :|o lr.nco o| l|ysicians in t|o
`ost His ::|contu:y cnon vas ano:|or onor
mo.s mooica oncyc|ojoo.a, v|ic| romainoo t|o
sujromo a.t|ori:y .n t|o vor|o |or aro.no six con
tur.os His sciont.c, j|iosoj|ica|, ano t|oooqi
ca .ovs o|t t|oi: ma:| ujon many imjortant
nquros suc| as oor:us aqnus St !|omas,
L.ns Scotus, ano loqor lacon
!|o nrst |novn aj|aootica c|ass.|cation o|
moo.ca torms, istinq t|o namos o| .nossos moo
icinos, j|ysiooqica jrocossos, ano troa:monts,
vas ca|oo !::c/ c|Mc'c or /c :oo/ o/ c:c
`ri:ton oy zo., aso |novn as lLn a|T|a|aoi,
i: vas caoo K::c/ c|Mc'c oocauso :|o voro
c|Mc'c, vator, ajjoars as :|o nrst ontry
laz.s .oo.mo opc/cns:vc :oo/ co
oroo oory |novn oranc| o| moo.cino rans|atoo
into a:.n as L:/c on::ncns, i: vas jrooao|y t|o
mos: |iq|y rosjoc:oo ano |roq.onty .soo mooi
ca tox:ooo| .n :|o `os:orn vo:o |or soora con
:ur.os lt vas ono o| :|o nino ooo|s :|at comjosoo
:|o v|o|o iorary o| t|o mooica |ac.ty at t|o
Uniorsity o| laris in :
!|on t|oro vas :|o vor| o| Za|ravi, an
outstanoinq j|ys.cian i n CorooLa, sou:|orn
Sjain, aro.no t|o yoar :ooo !|o surqica jar:
o| |is oo|umo mooica vor| A|cs:/ vas
transatoo .n:o a:.n oy oraro o| Cromona
vit| arious oo.tions juois|oo i n Vonico in
:/, i n laso . n :_:, ano .n Cx|oro i n ://3
HOS I' ! Tt\L . : \\ E DJ C;\ L KNOWL E. DCE I
!|o ooo| oocamo a manua| o| surqory |or most
E.rojoan mooica sc|oos suc| as Saorno ano
ontjo||ior j|ayinq a contra ja:t i n t|o mooi
ca| cu:ric.|um |or cont.r.os
`asty, vo oo| at t|o vor| o: lLn a|Na|s, a
Syrian j|ysician v|o oioo in ..33 Ho |as |o|t .s
/c op|c:c :oo/ on Mco:c:nc, v|.c| vas com
jioo in 3o o|umos an.scr.j:s o| jort.ons o|
t|.s |uqo vor| aro nov aai|aoo .n cooc:ions in
Lamasc.s, ojjo laq|oao, ano Cx|oro, as vo|
as lao :o .n Ca|.|ornia, v|ic| |as a a:qo |:aq
mont in lLn aNanss ovn |anovritinq
uc| mooica| |novooqo a|so camo t|:ouq|
oiroct contac: vit| .s|im j|ys.c.ans as :|oy
:roa:oo somo Crusaoors Lon l.c|aro t|o ion
|oart vas troatoo oy t|o jorsona j|ysician
o| Sa|aoin
c |uss| t|cctor:cdition
Ll`'o
P`
I| |uSIlitI|
First published in 1858, Gray's Anatomy is a leading
medical encyclopedia today. It follows on the tradition
begun by Muslims, whose treatises gained equal popu
larity at universities.
CHAPTER SI X
..o||ot|to:s- jot-s:-t
w|:.|t:v-ts!w,tw-..t|-t-:o
|-o:t:|:.oos:s:jot-s
|-v-t.ost:j|.:ss "
0U8AN (9. /i)
TOWN
+'`ii:``l \ 'l +'+L 'l 1 `
NL1+` + l^ + `il l `l1L`+i l l`
'`J1` .``l i` iL|1' |+` + +T+
l'^ '` +' ''``N+' \l`` l'L`+l ``
LIFE IN CITIES LIKE NINTH- AND TENTH-CENTURY CORDOBA IN SPAIN AND BAGHDAD IN IRQ WAS
a pleasurable experience. This was high civilization with free education and health care, plus pub
lic amenities such as baths, bookshops, and libraries lined the paved streets, lit at night. Rubbish
was collected on a regular basis by a donkey cart and some sewage systems were underground.
Neighborhoods were peaceful, with houses off main thoroughfares, connected by narrow, wind
ing, and shade-giving streets, all within earshot of the local mosque. Business and trade were kept
to the main streets and public squares. Gardens, both public and private, were an imitation of
Paradise with attention and care to details. Huge water-raising machines could be seen pump
ing water from rivers into the felds and to the cities. The fountains of the Alhambra Palace in
Granada, Spain, still use the 6so-year-old water systems devised by Muslim engineers.
Advances in architecture saw huge mosques and crevice-spanning bridges. Domes and minarets
dominated the skyline and were so impressive that Crusaders took these designs, and sometimes
the Muslim architects, back with them to Europe to improve upon the Roman designs built there.
OPPOSITE: A 16th-century manuscript from the Hunername depicts daily activities of people in Istanbul's Topkapi Palace.
I 1|I | `` `1 | L` 1 | l ` lLl| `l ll' \'` Of :v\US L Lv\ !| \l l | ZJ| L`
. +C\` llA``| `C
J
ust as traditional European towns have certain features such as mar
ket squares, churches, and parks, Muslim t owns were also designed
according to the local population's needs, based on four main criteria:
weather and landscape, religious and cultural beliefs, Sharia Islamic law),
and social and ethnic groupings.
any o| t|oso citios voro in ! orcoy |ot c.mos,
so a ot o| s|aoo vas nooooo To jroioo t|is,
tovns voro jannoo vit| narrov cooroo
stroots, innor courtyaros, torracos, ano qaroons
lo i qi on vas ita to cu tura | i |o, so t |o
mosquo, io a c|urc|, |ao a contra josit.on
rouno :|o mosquo :|roaooo narrov, vinoinq,
quiot stroo:s t|at oo avay |rom t|o juoic j|acos
in:o cuoosacs ano jria:o .o
Socia. ano |oqa iss.os voro |anooo oy :|o
roiqious aut|orit|os, v|o ioo .n con:ra| jacos
coso to t|o main mosquo, :|o main juo|ic .nsti
:u:ion !|o av, |or oxamjo, sot t|o |oiq|t o|
t|o va.. aLoo :|o |oiq|t o| a camo| r.oor so a
jassorLy couo not soo into a jrojor:y
Hov ano v|oro joojo ioo vas oasoo on
|amiios ano qroujs o| jooj| o |rom t|o samo
|am.ios ano trioos v.:| s.mi.ar ot|nic oriqins ano
cutura .ovs Sojara:o quartors, caoo A/ycc,
oooojoo or oac| qrouj, so t|oro voro quartors
|or raos, oors, Jovs, C|ris:ians, ano ot|or
qroujs suc| as noausians, T.r|s, ano loroors
.n t|o citios o| t|o aq|roo, Nort| |rica Somo
Nort| |r.can citios voro oi.ooo .nto quar:ors |or
An aerial view shows the Andalusian village of Zuheros
in Cordoba, Spain.
.siims, C|ristians, ano Jovs, out t|is vas o|ton
vo.ntary ano not oxc..s.vo `it|in :|oso q.ar
tors t|oy |ao |.ns|ij so.oari:y, oo|onso, socia
oroor, ano s.miar ro.iqio.s jrac:icos
!|oso sojara:o q.ar:ors oio not jrovont :|o
socioty |rom ooinq socia..y co|os.vo, as t|o qon
ora trono ro|octoo t|o .ranic vorso ' man
.no, .noooo `o |avo croatoo you |rom mao ano
|omao ano maoo yo. jooj.os ano trioos t|at yo.
may |nov ano ajjrociato ono anot|or lnoooo,
t|o mos: nooo o| yo. in t|o s.q|t o| a| is :|o
mos: riq|too.s o| yo. noooo, ..a| is novinq
ano cq.aintoo' .ran .)
Noar t|o ma.n mosq.o vo.o oo a contra.
aroa |or socia| qat|orinqs, t|on a so.|, or mar
ot, ano t|on a citaoo. noar an o.:or oo|onsivo
va. s.rro.noinq rosioontia q.artors, a ] o.noo
oy an intricato stroot notvor| to t|o o.tor va..
!|o so. vas sj i t i nto aroas |or sji cos,
qo. o, |.s|, jor|.mo, ano m.c| moro. vi :| itoms
s.c| as canoos ano .nconso so.o coso :o t|o
mosq.o. !|oro vo.o aso Lo oooso.ors ano
oinoors noaroy, too
!|o citaoo., i|o a `ostorn casto, vas :|o
jaaco o| :|o qovornor, vit|in its ovn vas t
vas a oistrict on .ts ovn, vi:| its ovn mosq.o,
q.aros, omcos, ano rosioonco lt vas .s.ay .n a
|iq| jart o| t|o tovn noar :|o outor va
Noiq|oor|ooos c|.storoo aro.no mosq.os
ano co.o no: oo |ar:|or t|an t|o roac| o| t|o
m.ozzin s ca| to jrayor ionsoy jacioo, oac|
aroa |ao i:s ovn mosq.o, sc|oo, Laory, ano
s|ojs !|oy ovon |ao :|oir ovn qa:os, v|.c|
voro .s.ay c. osoo at niq|:
.. t|is vas s.rro.nooo Ly a vo..oo|onooo
va. vit| a n.mLor o| qatos, ano o.ts.oo t|o va.
voro .sim, C|rist.an ano .ovis| comotorios
..st Loyono t|o ma.n qato voro jriva:o qaroons
ano o.os ano aso t|o voo|.y mar|ot v.t| i:s
many an.ma stas
!|o most o!aoorato city o| .ts oay, t|o Nov
Yor| Ci:y o| :|o n.nt| cont.ry vas Coroooa
1Y` 1CY` | ` l.A`| `|
A painting illustrates a narrow Cordoba street,
a typical feature of old Muslim town planning.
!|o j|ys.ca s.oos o| CorooLa] rovoa an inqo
nio.s ano .nvon:ivo .sim cu.:.ro !|oy voro
coary orivon :o imjrovo on t|o jast, to mooorn
izo t|o c.:y ano ma|o it a oottor j.aco to ivo in,
not ].st |or :|o r.ors o.: |or ovoryono !|oro
voro oozons o| .iorar.os, |roo sc|oos, ano |o.sos
|ao r.nn.nq va:or, ano v|-:'s mo:o, :|o stroo:s
voro javoo ano :|oy voro |.t, :|o |.no o| amon.
:ios Lonoon ano laris vo..o not |avo |or a |.rt|or
sovon |.noroo yoars, sa.o rojor:or laqo| Cmaar
in t|o llCs An !s'c:c Hs:c, o/ .cpc
|o s:roo:.iq|ts voro oi L.rnors ano antorns,
it at s.nso:, ano oac| c.:y o.strict omjoyoo
joojo :o ma.nta.n t|om .it:or vas aso co
octoo on :|o oac| o| oonoys. v|ic| too| i:
o.ts.oo t|o ci ty va.s t o sjocia o.mjs |o
stroots voro orainoo Ly a systom o| qroat sovors
ano coanoo oaiy
.2 PCH| T|CTLP|
M
any European buildings today have distinct characteristics and fea
tures such as domes and rose windows on cathedrals, the arches of
train stations, and vaults in churches. It may surprise you to learn that
many of these were developed and perfected in architectural terms by Muslims,
and fowed into Europe a thousand years ago via southern Spain and Sicily.
Building designs and ideas were also taken home by scholars, Crusaders, and
pilgrims visiting Jerusalem as they traveled overland through Muslim coun
tries and cities like Cordoba, Cairo, and Damascus. These designs improved
upon the Roman designs, producing a spectacular mix.
lor us|ims, arc|itocturo |ao :o qo: across a
numLor o| .ooas. i|o Ia|s or oos .nnnito
jovor, v|ic| vas s|ovn .n rojoa:oo qoomotr.c
ja::orns ano araLosquo oos.qns Human ano
an.ma |orms voro raro .n oocorations Locauso
I..a|s vor| vas matc|oss So ins:oao. |.q|.y
s:y.izoo |o.aqo ano |ovor moti|s voro usoo
Ca!iqraj|y acooo a nna. touc| o| |oauty to t|o
Luioinq |y quotinq |rom t|o uran, v|io arqo
oomos, tovors. ano courtyaros qavo a |oo.nq o|
sjaco ano ma]ostic jovor
!|o oocora:.on o| t|oso |uio.nqs concon
:ratoo on visua aos:|otics, |ocauso at|ouq| ls.am
ojjosos unnocossa:y sjonoinq, .: ooos not ojjoso
|av.nq a com|or:aLo .i|o or on]oy.nq it, as .onq as
jooj.o ivo vit|in :|o Lounoary o| oos av ano
quioanco |is moans us.ms oo not |avo to ivo
misoraL.y !|o usim v.soom Str.vo |or your
oart||y ..|o as you ivo |orovor ano strivo |or your |oro
a|:or as you vi oio tomorrov' sums uj :|o us!im
attituoo to arc|itocturo, too, i| you aro qo.nq :o ma|o
somot|inq, ma|o .: mooosty ano |oauti|u.y
loso vinoovs aro a qooo oxamjo o| t|. s
Loo|inq at :|o |acaoos o| mos: Lurojoan cat|o
ora.s ano c|urc|os you cannot |oj not.c.nq t|oir
imjosinq |oauty ano |ov t|oy oocorato :|o va.s
a|ovo t|o main on:ranco Historians |avo con
noctoo t|o oriq.n o| t|oso |uqo c.rcuar vinoovs
:o ls.am, ano :|o six.o|oo rosot:os ano octaqon
vinoov on :|o ou:or va o| t|o Umayyao aaco
o| |irLat aa|]ar |is vas Lu.: in .oroan
|otvoon /. ano /c
!|o Crusaoors sav t|.s ano in:rooucoo .: in:o
:|oir Lurojoan c|urc|os. nrst in lomanosquo
The circular window at Khirbat al-Mafm; Jordan, from
740 to 750, i s thought to have influenced the design of
the stained-glass rose window in Durham cathedral i n
Durham, United Kingdom.
arc|itocturo :t| to :zt| conturios)in jacos i|o
Lur|am Cat|oora, ano ator .n ot|ic arc|itoc
turo !|o roso v.noov |ao a |unction o| ottinq
..q|t in. v|.o sujjosooy symLoizinq t|o oyo o|
t|o Loro Ct|ors, t|ouq|, caim t|o iooa is |rom
t|o loman ocuus, a circuar vinoov in t|o oomo
NA51LK AKLm 1LL1 5 NAN
1
he Sel i mi ye Mosque i n Edi rne possesses
the h i ghest, most earthqua ke- defyi ng
mi narets i n al l ofTu rkey. I t i s t he work of mas
ter archi tect Si nan, who was the architect for
the Ottoman Empi re. He desi gned and bui l t
a stagger i ng q]] bui l di ngs duri ng hi s l ong
career i n the servi ce of three s ul tans i n Turkey
duri ng the 1 6th century, acknowl edgi ng the
i mportance ofharmony between archi tecture
and l andscape, a concept that di d not surface
in Europe u nti l the 1 6th century. Hi s Turki sh
desi gns revol uti oni zed the dome, a l l owi ng
for greater hei ght and s i ze-a n outstand
i ng advance i n ci vi l engi neeri ng, whi ch l ater
became hi s trademark.
The Selimiye Mosque in Edire, Turkey
The Suleymaniye Mosque (1550-1557), designed by
architect Sinan, crowns one of Istanbul's seven hills.
The buildings include a madrasa, hospital, dining hall,
caravansary, hammam, hospices, and shops. It was also
an environmentally friendly design, containing a fiter
room that cleaned the air of soot from candles and oil
lamps before exhausting it into the atmosphere.
o| t|o lant|oon in lomo, |ut t|is vas moro li|o a
circuar ojoninq jiorcoo in t|o roo|.
!|is oxamjlo is ust a tasto o| v|at you vil
oiscoor i n t|o |oovinq soctions a|out t|o
arioo vor o o| us . m arc|itocturo ano |ov
it in|uoncoo |uioinq styos oor t|o contur.os
us.m arc|itoct.ro o|ton |as onironmon
tay |rionoy |oa:uros !o roouco smo|o jo
uti on |rom t|o t|ousanos o| cano os ano oi
amjs, Sinan oosiqnoo t|o intorior sjaco o| t|o
Sul oymaniyo osquo i n l stan|u so t|at t|o
soot vas c|annooo |y air circuation into a ntor
room |o|oro |oinq oisc|arqoo into t|o city T|o
cooctoo soot vas conoyoo into a vator |oun
tain, v|oro it vas mixoo ano stirroo to jroouco
|iq|qua!ity in| t|at vas usoo in ca|iqraj|y
!|i s in| aso rojooo |uqs ano |oo|vorms,
v|ic| jroonqoo t|o li|o o| t|o manuscrijts
1 001 I NV E NT I ONS: HI E EN DU R I NG LE.Gr'CY OF MUS L I M CI VI L I ZI\I ON
. PCH|S
A
rches are essential in architecture because they span large spaces
while also bearing huge loads. Strong and fexible, they have been
made bigger and wider, and today we see them in buildings from
shopping centers to bridges. They are so common nowadays that it is easy to
forget how advanced arches were for their time thousands of years ago.
.n t|o simpos: arc| t|o :|r.st comos |rom :|o
voiq|: o| t|o masonry on top o| :|o arc|, ano
sioovays |rom :|o c.mua:.o vooqo ac:ion o|
:|o vo.sso:s, or :|o arc| orics !|is q.os t|o
arc| o.ast.city ano it can Lo comparoo to a |anq
inq oao c|ain:|o arc| stanos as t|o .o+o c|ain
|anqs' !|is siont oynamism o| :|o arc| vas
|novn in t|o us|.m voro t|rouq| t|o say.nq t|o
arc| noor soops'
io ot|ors oo|oro t|om, .sims voro :|o mas
tors o| t|o arc| T|oy .ooo t|is moti| as m.c| as
t|oy |ooo pam :roos, .m.tatinq :|o c.ro o| t|o.r
qraco|u. Lranc|os in t|o.r constr.c:ions !|o sp|ori
ca naturo o| :|o uniorso vas an insp.ra:..n |or .ts
ooo.opmont, :oo
nov.ooqo o| qoomo:r, ano :|o .avs o| sta:ics
moan: t|a: ar.ous tos o| arc|os voro croa:oo
`|at .sims oio s:ruct.ray vas :o roouco t|o
t|r.st o| :|o arc| :o a |ov points, t|o :op ano sioos
!|oso couo t|on Lo oasiy roin|orcoo, oavinq ot|or
aroas |roo |rom s.pport, so iq|:or va.s ano auts
couo oo ouit, sainq mator.+ls .n o..oinq
LEFT: A portion of the west elevation of the Great
Mosque at Cordoba after the fourth enlargement
(961976) shows the following in brickwork: a nat arch
(lintel) immediately above the doorway, a semicircular
horseshoe relieving arch above it, blind cross arches
above the panel to the doorway, and a five lobed
(or cinqfoil) arch above the window. RIGHT: The clock
tower of Big Ben of the Palace of Westminster in
London shows the adoption of a series of arches of
the fivelobed form.
Hor seshoe a rch Poi nted a rch Ogee a rch
!|o lqyjtians ano :|o roo|s usoo .ntos v|.o
:|o lomans, ano a:or :|o lyzantinos, Lu.t somicir
c.ar arc|os, jossiLy Loca.so o| t|o aounoanco o|
stronq marLo !|o lomans usoo an ooo numoor o|
arc| oric|s v.:| a cajstono or |oystono ooinq :|o
tojmost stono in t|o arc| !|is s ajo vas s|mjo
to ou.o out not vory stronq !|o sioos vouo ouqo
outvaro, so t|oy |ao to oo sujjortoo oy masonry
jus|inq :|om oac| |n
. t|oso jrooocossors o t|o arc| voro in|oritoo
oy us.ms, v|o |ao qrano j.ans |or t|o.r mosquos
ano ja.acos lor t|oso, t|oy nooooo stronq arc.os
sjanninq qroat ois:ancos, v|.c| oo|oo qooo as
vo So t|oy oovoojoo nov orms i|o t|o |orso
s|oo, mutioi, jointoo, ano oqoo arc|, a crucia
or arc|itoctural aovancomont
The Horseshoe Arch
!|o |orsos|oo arc| vas oasoo on t|o som.circuar
arc|, out it vas oxtonooo siq|ty ooyono t|o somi
c.rco lt vas not so s:ronq out .oo|oo .mjrossivo,
ano vas t|o nrst usim arc| aoajta:ion, usoo in
t|o Umayyao roat osquo o| Lamascus, v|ic|
vas ouit ootvoon /oc ano /: ln lslam, t|o |orso
s|oo is a symoo o saint|ooo ano |olinoss, ano not
uc| as in ot|or cuturos Structuray, t|o |orsosoo
arc| qavo moro |oiq|: :|an t|o classica somicir
c.ar arc|
!|o |rs: :.mo :|o |orsos|oo arc| ajjoaroo on
Lurojoan soi| vas in t|o roat osquo o| CorooLa,
v|oso ouio.nq star:oo .n /c ano astoo o yoars
!|o arc| t|on travooo nort| v.t| to ozaraos, t|o
C|r.stian Sjanis| ivinq in noausia !|oy voro
1\ ` .\ICHl. S 195
I ntersect i n g ar ches
artists, sc|o.ars, oui.oors, ano arc|i:octs, movinq
Lotvoon :|o so.:|orn ano nor:|orn C|ristian jarts
o Sjain
!|oso arc| oosiqns couo oo |ouno in qroa: ius
:ra:oo manuscrijts, t|o arc|itocts mas:or jans,
oravn oy t|o ozaraos Cno vas ca|oo cc:.s o/
lc/cnc ano its aut|or, namoo aq|ns, vor|oo at
t|o monastory o St iquo oo Lsacaloa, noar loon
!|.s vas a arqo ro|iqious Luio.nq in t|o coris|
sty|o vit| |orsos|oo arc|os, ano vas ouit oy mon|s
arriv.nq |rom CorooLa in :
!|o |orsos|oo arc| is novn in lritain as t|o
ooris| arc| lt vas joju.ar .n Victor.an timos,
ano .soo .n arqo ou.oinqs i|o t|o rai.vay station
Intersecting arches at Bab Mardum Mosque, now called
Church of Cristo de la Luz, were built between 998 and
1OOOin Toledo, Spain.
1001 I NVE NTI ONS: T i l E EN DU R I NC LE G.CY OF ,v\ USl l \ -1 CI V I UZi\TI ON
ontrancos i n iorjoo ano anc|ostor !|oso voro
oosiqnoo oy Jo|n lostor in .3o, ano t|o arc|os
o| t|oso tvo ou.oinqs aro i|o t|oso in t|o ato
o| Cairo. !ooay, you can soo t|o |orsos|oo a:c|
.n t|o |ront qato o| C|oot|am Hi. Synaqoquo in
anc|ostor :3/o)
Intersecting Arches
usims voro so connoont o| t|oir mastory o|
t|o a:c| t|at t|oy carrioo out somo sjoctacuar
oxjorimonts vit| |o:ms ano toc|niquos o| its con
struction. Cno o| t|oso vas t|o introouction o|
intorsoctinq arc|os, v|ic| jro.ooo an aoo.tiona
structura oonus lt moant t|oy couo oui|o oiqqor
ano |iq|or, ano aoo a socono arc| arcaoo on toj o|
a n:st, ovor oo. !|is can oo soon oost in t|o roat
osquo o| Coroooa
The Pointed Arch
!|o main aoantaqo o| t|o join:oo arc| vas t|at
it concontratoo t|o t|rust o| :|o aut on a narrov
ortica aroa t|at couo oo sujjortoo oy a |yinq
outtross, a ma]or |oa:uro o| lurojoan ot|ic a:c|i
tocturo !|is moant t|a: arc||:octs couo iq|ton
:|o va.s ano out:rossos, v|ic| |ao jroiousy
ooon massio to sujjort somicircuar arc|os Ct|or
aoantaqos incuooo a roouction o| t|o atora
t|rust on t|o |ounoations, aovnq |or oo crovns
.n t|o arc|os o| t|o aut, ma|inq it sui:ao|o |or any
qrouno jan.
any joojo t|in| t|a: t|o jointoo arc|, on
v|ic| ot|ic arc|itocturo .s oasoo, vas an inon
tion o| lurojoan arc|itoc:s tryinq :o oorcomo
jroooms in lomanosquo autinq, ou: .t camo to
lurojo |rom Cairo ia Siciy vt| mantan mor
c|ants !|oy voro traoinq vit| lqyjt in :ooo, ano
it vas |oro t|at t|o ooauti|u lon !u|un osquo
o| Cairo oisj.ayoo .ts miq|:y jointoo a:c|os ln
lurojo, it vas nrst usoo in t|o jorc| o| t|o oooy o|
onto Cassino in :o/:, v|ic| ma|ntan morc|ants
qonorous.y nnancoo
t t|is timo in t|o ato :t| contury, onto
Cassino oocamo t|o rotirinq j|aco |or !unis.an
C|:istian sc|oar Constantino t|o |rican, v|om
you can roao aoout in t|o !ransatinq novooqo
soction .n t|o Sc|oo c|ajtor. j|ysician, trans
ator, ano oistinquis|oo sc|o.ar in mat|omatics,
scionco, ano t|oooqy, |o aso |ao a qroat ooa. o|
oxjorionco in us.im ouioinq :oc|niquos, qainoo
|rom t|o us.im la tim.o o| No:t| |r.ca Constan
tino vouo |ao unoouotooy qion |is ojinion
ourinq t|o ou.oinq jrocoss in on:o Cassino.
!|o joi ntoo a:c| vas jassoo nort| v|on
St. Huq|, t|o aooot o| Cuny in sout|orn lranco,
vsitoo onto Cassino in :o3 .o yoars |ator, vor|
on t|o t|iro c|urc| o| Cuny s:a:too ano it oontu
ay |ao :_o jointoo a:c|os in .ts aisos !|is vas
oostroyoo in .3:o lut t|o ]ournoy o| t|o arc| oio
not stoj t|oro, as t|o noxt jorson in .ts trao c|ain
vas ooot Suqor, v|o .si:oo Cuny ootvoon ::_
ano :: Ho ano |is onqinoors vont on to ouio
t|o c|urc| o| St lonis, t|o nrst ot|ic ouioinq
!|o aoojt.on o| jointoo arc|os ano o:|or
usim moti|s . n C|uny ano onto Cassino, t|o
tvo most |n|uontia c|urc|os in lurojo, oncour
aqoo t|o rost o| C|ristian lurojo to :a|o t|om
on i|o any nov |as|ion it rajioy sjroao across
The pointed arch, found in buildings like 12th-century
Bolton Abbey, United Kingdom, may have come to
Europe from Cairo's Ibn Tulun Mosque, built in 876.
muc| o| lranco, osjocialy in t|o sout|, t|on to
ormany in t|o mio:zt| contury, ano oontua.|y
to t|o rost o| Lurojo ln lritain t|oro voro many
ou|oinqs t|at |ao t|oso arc|os, a|most ai o|
t|om roiqious ouio|nqs
The Multi-foil Arch
lt vas in Samarra in lra t|at t|o hrst muti
|oi arc| vas oosiqnoo oo|oro jassinq into t|o
rost o| t|o usim .anos, incluoinq Sjain ano
Siciy, ano t|on to Lurojo lts nrs: ajjoaranco
vas in t|o v.noovs o| utava||i osquo,
ouit ootvoon 33 ano 3 in Samarra T|oso
vinoovs voro on t|o oncosuro ano sjannoo oy
cinloil arc|os
!|o muti|oi arc| roac|oo Nort| |rica ano
noausia, v|oro it oocamo ory jojuar, oocorat
inq most ooris| ouioinqs, osjociay Coroooa
osuo lrom t|o tont| contury, Lurojoans |o in
oo vi:| i: ano aoojtoo it in t|oir oui|oinqs, j.ans,
ano arts lts most jojuar .so vas in :|o tro|o|
|orm, v|ic| suitoo t|o concojt o| t|o !rinity in
C|ristianity Li|o many o| t|oso arc|os, t|oso soon
in t|o Coroooa osuo voro t|o main insjiration
LEFT: An Indo-Islamic version of the four-pointed arch
can be seen at the 16th-century tomb of Humayun out
side Delhi. CENTER: The interior of the Great Mosque of
Cordoba displays superimposed arches on the lef and
multifoil arches to the right. These were built in succes
sion between the eighth and tenth century. RIGHT:
A typical agee arch, known as a Gothic arch in Europe.
Ogee Arch
|tor t|o somicircuar arc|, ono o| t|o most imjor
tant arc|os vas t|o oqoo arc|, ot|orviso |novn
as t|o ot|ic arc| in Lurojo !|is is an ooqant
arc|, a styizoo oooojmont o| t|o jointoo arc|
!|o arc| curo .s constructoo in t|o |orm o| tvo
S' s|ajos |ac.nq oac| ot|or ano vas usoo mosty
|or oocoration, somotimos v.t| a stono |not at t|o
toj. !|o nov arc| oosiqn vas oooojoo in usim
lnoia, ano ator roac|oo Lurojo .n t|o :t| contury,
oocominq jarticuary jojular in ato ot|ic :ct|
contury arc|itocturo in Vonico, Lnqano, ano ranco
You can soo it ooryv|oro in Lnqano, ooca.so
a|most a| c|urc|os ano cat|ooras |ao a |u oqoo
arc|, or uso |: in :|o |orm o| an oqoo mo|oinq T|oy
aro usoo in oocora:io scroons, ontrancos, ano ator
ot|ic styos !|oy aro usoo in oocoratio scroons,
ontrancos, ano ator ot|ic styos
1 001 I N\TNTIOIS: THE LNDURI NG l E C,\CY OF ;\\ USLI \\ CI \'I LI Z:\TION
.`AUlTS
A
n architectural vault is a stone arch that makes a ceiling or canopy,
making it possible to have a roof over a large space made of bncks,
stone blocks, or a mixture of mortar and debris. Until metal girders
and trusses were introduced in the 19th century, the only alternatives to stone
vaults were long wooden rafters or stone lintels. These were much simpler
materials to use but were not as sophisticated and were more expensive, and
the building was limited by the length of the wood.
Vau:s, .o arc|os, voro .soo oy t|o lomans, out
usims :onnoo t|om so t|oy couo ouio o.qqor
ano |iq|or !|oy maoo vauts t|at voro as stronq,
out nnor, vit| :|innor curtain vas, so moro liq|t
vas ot in Un:i t|o ::| contury, mos: o| Lurojo
usoo t|ic| loman vauts, v|ic| nooooo rooust
as :|.c| as . moto:s, or c c |oot) ano s|ort vas
to car:y t|om, o.t v|on L.rojoans sav t|o us
im va..ts o| Co:oooa, t|oy ooqan :o .m.tato t|oir
oosiqn ano toc|n.quos Somo o| t|oso oocamo
tyjica o| :|o lomanosquo jorioo ton:| to tvo.vo
conturios) in Lurojo, ano t|oy voro hrst soon | n
qroat cat|ooras, i|o Lur|am |n Lnqlano
Rib Vaulting
!|o :oat osquo o| Coroooa, caoo :|o os
quita, vas t|o sj:inqooaro |or muc| o| Lu:ojoan
arc|i:octuro .:s vast |a o| joyc|:omo, |o:so
s|oo, ano .ntorsoctinq arc|os, rioooo vauts, ano
oomos al maoo t|oir vay nort|, ano it is vort| not
inq t|at rioooo vauts oo not ajjoar in c|urc|os
t|at oxistoo :|on, suc| as t|oso in t|o Loon roqion
vostorn Sjain), oocauso t|oy voro ouit oo|oro
t|o roat osq.o o| Coroooa
rioooo vaut vas a coiinq or canojy o| stono
t|at vas stronq:|onoo oy sinqo somicircuar arc|os
aoooo oonoat| t|o vaut to jrovioo oxtra s.jjort
!|oso aoooo ar.|os oo|oo .|o rios, ano t|oy suj
jortoo t|o crovn !|is moant a larqo amount o| t|o
Ribbed tunnel vaults at 12th-century Ste. -Marie-Madeleine
t|rust o| t|o vaut vas concontratoo on t|oso rios,
roiovinq t|o jrossuro on :|o vas, onaoinq :|o
ou..oor to mao t|om t|innor ano |.q|or
lnstoao o| usinq t|o oo ruooo mix o: t|o a:qo
massivo jiocos o| stono usoo oy t|o lomans, us
im arc|itocts introoucoo sma stonos or oric|s
ootvoon t|o rios, arranqinq t|om i|o :|o ou.oinq
o| a val in t|o oary staqos o| construction
!|o oariost |orm o| rio autinq vas :racoo to
t|o o.q|t|cont.ry ooasio a|aco o| U||ayoar .n
lraq !|.s arc|i:octura..y r.c| oosort jaaco con
:ains o.q|: :ransorso arc|os ano rioooo au.:s
!|is systom o| rios is aiso |o.no in many o| :|o
tunno auts o| t|o lioat o| Susa in !unis.a, ouit
in 3z:3zz, ano t|oso qroaty in|uoncoo t|o cross
auts o| t|o nao o| St. |iioort at !ournus, ouit at
t|o ono o| t|o D:| contury, o| Stoarioaoooino
at Vezoay ::o::z), ano o| lontonay oooy ::
::/) !|o iooa o| o.i.o.nq auts i|o t|is camo
|rom contac: vit| Ncr:| |r.ca. osjoc.ay t|o :ovn
o| Susa in !unisia
!|o cistorn o| lam|a |n a.ostino is maoo o|
jointoo arc|os stano.nq on cruci|orm jiors o|
masonry, v|ic| voro cooroo vit| six oarro auts
roin|orcoo vit| vals l t vas ouit oy Harun allas|io
in /3 similar aut vas ouit .n Susa, !un.s.a,
in t|o tvo main mosquos o| lanu latata 33:)
ano t|o roat osquo 3_o3_:) !|is iooa ajjoars
in t|o Notro Lamo o'rcia cat|oora, ouit in t|o
.zt| contury .n uyooLmo .n uorqno. lranco
TOWN: VAULTS
Gothic Rib Vaulting
s yo. |ao a|roaoy roao, r.oooo a..ts voro
novn to t|o usims moro t|an :_o yoars
oo|oro t|oy ajjoaroo in C|ristian ca:|ooras ano
c|.rc|os socono tyo o| r.o, v|ic| oocamo
|novn in Lurojo as :|o ot|ic rio, vas moro com
j|ox, ano it !rst ajjoaroo in t|o qroat mosquos o|
usim !oooo ano Coroooa
!|o rios o| Coroooa insjiroo Lurojoan arc|i
tocts ano t|oir jatrons to aoojt t|om in t|o
lomanosquo ano ot|ic moomonts, ano roay
:|o |is:ory o| ot|.c arc|itoc:uro is aso :|o |istory
o| t|o rio ano ry.nq outtrossos
lao aroum osquo .n o.ooo |as a un.quo
|orm o| rio au.tinq t|at a:or oooojoo .nto
t|o quaorijartito aulta au|t vit| sujjortinq
rios in t|o |orm o| o.aqona| ano i ntorsoctinq
arc|os, v|ic| is accojtoo as t|o or.qin o| t|o
ot|ic styo
Rib vaulting in the maqsura dome of the Great Mosque
of Cordoba was added in the tenth century.
200 1 00 1 I NVIc NTI ONS: Ti l E. EN DURI NG L E. Gr\CY OF t\ US I I M CI V I LI Zl\TI ON
!|is !olooo mosquo vas ouit oy usim arc|i
tocts usa ion Ii ano Sa'oa ootvoon 3 ano
:ccc lt vas in t|o s|ajo o| a squaro maoo uj o|
nino sma comjartmon:s, ano covoroo vit| nino
oi||oront rioooo cujoas or oomos Fac| oomo is
a litto vault sujjortoo oy in:orsoctinq arc|os t|at
.oo| .|o rios t|:ovn l! :|o most |antastic vay
across ono ano:|or.
lronc| art |istorian lio Lamoort saio, !|o
Irao arc|itocts . |nov ano omjoyoo in t|oir
vaults, sinco t|o ono o| :|o tont| contury, not ony
t|o samo jrincijo o| :|o r.o, out aso t|o systom
o| crossoo arc|os, a systom v|ic| oocamo ator
|novn in lranco as t|o quaorijartito vautinq.'
Simiar vautinq vas usoo in anot|or mosquo
t|at vas ator trans|ormoo into a |ouso namoo Las
LEFT AND RIGHT: These church roofs and cloisters
demonstrate Gothic rib vaulting.
({The Arab archi tects . . . knew and
employed i n thei r vaults, si nce the
end of the tenth century, not only
the same principle of the
rib, but also the system of crossed
arches . . . known i n France as the
quadriparti te vaulting. "
ELI E LAMBERT, FRENCH ART HI STORIAN
!ornorias in cO. lt aso |ao nino rioooo oomos
comoininq a varioty o| rios t|at oominatoo t|o con
:ral vaut, ma|inq it an imjrossivooo|inq |ouso
oocauso it aso usoo joyc|romo |orsos|oo ano
:ro|oi arc|os
Simiar rioooo oomos can oo soon in a larqo
numoor o| Sjanis| ouioinqs, osjociay t|oso
ouit oy t|o ozaraos !|oy can aso oo soon .n
c|urc|os ouit alonq t|o routo o t|o piqrimaqo to
Santiaqo oo Compostola, v|oro t|oso rios oocorato
t|o oomos o ouioinqs o t|o I|mazn c|urc|
.n Casti||o, !orros oo lo .n Navarro, ano .n :|o
yronoos in St Croix o'Coron, ano t|o |osp.ta o
St. laiso lios aro aso louno at t|o !ompar c|urc|
at Soqovia ano t|o :zt|contury c|aptor |ouso
at Saamanca
!|o t ravo i nq o t |o rios vas ouo to t |o
improvomont o roations ootvoon ozaraos ano
usims at t|o timo o Ioo ala|man l l l , as vo
as t|o qroa: cutura ano artistic ac|.ovomonts
o |is ro.qn ln t|is :imo o poaco ano tooranco,
art nouris|oo n oss cam timos, t|o capturo o
!olooan mosquos, incuoinq lao aroum, must
|avo qivon Luropoan artists ano arc|itocts vau
aoo ossons !|o ronc|, i n particuar, oonontoo
oocauso t|oy voro cosoy connoctoo to !oooo
ator it vas ta|on oy t|o Spanis| C|ristians
Muqurnus
!|o ast vaut vo v. visit is t|o staac:ito
vaut, or uuQJ|uCS. !|oy aro t|roooimon
siona orms maoo rom qoomotrical s|apos
ano carvoo into vauts, oomos, nic|os, arc|os,
1L" `- V.'LJ ZOI
LEFT: A honeycomb dome, or muqarnas,can be seen at
Alhambra Palace i n Granada, Spain. RIGHT: A muqar
nas vault is found at the entrance at Lotfollah Mosque
in Isfahan, Iran.
ano va| cornors Lovoopoo .n tont|contury
orsia, t|o iooa vas ator sproao oy t|o So]u|s,
a !ur|is| oynasty t|at ruloo across orsia,
Inatoia, ano !ur|oy ootvoon :c3 ano iz/.
ly t|o ato ::t| contury, t|o muqarnas oocamo
a common arc|itoctura oaturo a ovor t|o
usim voro
Cno o t|o oost oxamplos ol a muqarnas is t|o
|onoycomo o :|o I|amora aaco .n ranaoa,
oosiqnoo moro t|an /cc yoars aqo. !|o |onoy
como vaut o| t|o Ha| o :|o Iooncorra]os vas
orqanizoo in an oiq|tpointoo star maoo ol a
arqo numoor o intoroc|oo sma squinc|os o
ozonqo s|apos, pro]octinq rom t|o vas in cos
vory muc| i|o t|o |onoycomo !|oso symoo
izoo t|o |onoy ]uico, v|ic| t|o qooo ooiovor is
promisoo in araoiso t vas aso oosiqnoo vit| :c
vinoovs, tvo or oac| s.oo o t|o star, v|.c| ot in
an onormous amount o iq|t. !||s a |opoo to
rocroato in t|o I|amora aaco a vision o t|o
promisoo araoiso ano its otornaity, v|ic| vouo
rovaro t|oso v|o strovo to roac| it.
ZOZ !'I I NV E NT I ONS: TH f N DU RI N( , LEG!\CY OF \\ US L I .\1 CI V I I I /. \T I ON
. +H| CV|
T
he dome is effectively a three-dimensional arch,
and in Islamic architecture it had two main sym
bolic meanings: to represent the vault of heaven
and the divine dominance engulfng the emotional and physical being of the
faithful. It also had a functional use, which was to emphasize particular areas,
such as the nave, or the mihrab, while also lighting the inside of the building.
!|o oooojmont o| oomos |ao to oorcomo
t|o jrooom o| |ov to ma|o a squaro oay |rom a
oomoo, arc|oo s|ajo !|o lyzan:inos. lomans,
ano lorsians manaqoo t|is a consiooraLo timo
oo|oro usims oy usinq jonoontios, trianqu
a: soqmonts o| a sj|oro jacoo at t|o cornors
:o ostao|.s| t|o continuous circuar or o|ijtica
oaso nooooo |or t|o oomo !|oso jondontios
:oo| t|o voiq|t o| t|o oomo, concontrat.nq it at
t|o |our cornors v|oro it couo oo sujjortoo oy
t|o jiors Lonoat|
usims usoo jonoontios |or a v|io, out ator
oooojoo squinc|os t|at t|rov arc|os at t|o
cornors, croatinq sma nic|os !|o uso o| :|oso
cuminatoo in .mjrossio staactito squ.nc|os,
or auits, |novn as uuQJ|JSt|a: oocoratoo t|o
ins.oo o| :|o oomos
Semicircular Dome
!|o most common |orm o| t|o oomo is t|o somi
circuar |orm, v|ic| is t|o ooost ano most v.oo
sjroao Lary mosquo oomos vo:o sma ano
L.i.t on t|o crossinq oo|o:o t|o mi|:ao, as in t|o
mosquos o| ayravan c/oc/), ano t|o Umayyao
mosquos in lamascus /o/o/) ano Co:ooLa
/c/c) Cor :|o cont.rios oomos q:ov in sizo
ano numoor, ano voro ator usoo in t|o contor ano
somotimos coorinq t|o onti:o roo| o| mausoo
ums Unoor t|o Ct:omans, t|o s:zo o| oomos q:ov
to coor ontiro sanctuarios surrounooo oy smallor
oomos i|o t|oso in Suoymaniyo osquo
!raoit.ona.y, oomos |ao ooon maoo .s|nq a
mixturo o| mortar, sma stonos, ano oooris, out
t|is roquiroo a ot o| vooo, ano t|o masons |ao
TOP: St. Paul's Cathedral in London shows Sir Christopher
Wren's adoption of the Islam-inspired architecture of the dual
|of dome and towers. BOTTOM: Semicircular domes at the
Sultan Ahmed Mosque, or Blue Mosque, in Istanbul, Turkey.
{(The physics and philosophy
of the Arabians spread themselves
i n Europe, and wi th these
thei r archi tecture."
SI R CHRI STOPHER WREN (1632-1 723),
BRITISH ARCHI TECT
to vait |or it to oty !o ma|o t|o ou.oinq jrocoss
oasior, t|o voooon contorinq vas rojlacoo vit|
oric| coursinq ano t|o uso o| |our squinc|os maoo
o| raoiatinq som.circos to j:oouco a circuar oaso
|or t|o oomo
!|o uslims aso usoo rios, v|ic| onaooo
t|om to construct t|o oomo in a simiar vay to
rioooo autinq
The Bulbous Dome
!|o ouoous oomo, or onions|ajoo oomo, vas
|aoroo jarticuary oy t|o uq|as, v|o sjroao
it to orsia, t|o lnoian suocon:.nont, ano Sout|
sia So |amiiar tooay in oscov, lussia, ou
oous oomos nrst ajjoaroo in Lurojo in Vonico
v|oro t|oy voro usoo to oocorato t|o an:orns
o| :|o oomos o| St. ar|'s Cat|ocra !|o oomos
corrosjono to t|o oqoo arc| or ot|ic arc| as a
nov arc||toctura |as|ion a|tor its vioosjroao uso
in t|o usim voro, osjociay sia ano orsia in
t|o :t| contury !|o ou|oo.s c.joas |t aos:|oti
cay jor|octy vi:| :|is |orm o| a:c|
!|o ouoous oomo vas qraoua|y introoucoo to
oastorn Lurojo, hrst in voooon arc|itocturo oo|oro
stono, ano t|is jrooao|y camo |rom t|o osquo
o| t|o Lomo o| t|o loc| in Jorusaom, as vo as
|rom Syria v|oro iustrations in Umayyao mosa.cs
|ao ooon |ouno s|ovinq t|o oar|y ooolojmont
o| t|oso oomos
The Duality of Dome and Minaret
!|o ouaity o| t|o oomo ano minarot croatoo an
aost|otic ajjoal t|at vas imitatoo oy many `ost
orn arc|itocts, incuoinq S.r C|ristoj|or `ron
The imperial palace of Tsarskoe Selo outside
St. Petersburg in Russia dates from 1717
JL\`- J l I |\Nl
ln |is qroa:ost oor jro]oct, St. au's Cat|oora
in Lonoon, t|o usim in|uonco can oo soon in
t|o structuro o| t|o oomos, in t|o aisos, as vol as
in t|o uso o| t|o comoina:ion o| rounooo oomo
ootvoon tvo tovors Sir C|ristoj|or `ron stuo
ioo t|o arc|itocturo in Cttoman ano ooris|
mosquos, oocominq conincoo o| t|o usim
roots o| ot|ic arc|.toct.ro, os:aois|inq :|o Sara
con.c !|oo:y.
`ron oxjainoo !|is vo nov ca t|o ot|ic
mannor o| arc|itocturo so t|o ltalians caoo v|at
vas not a|tor t|o loman styo), t|ouq| t|o ot|s
voro tat|or oostroyors t|an ouioors l :|in| it
s|ouo v.:| moro roason oo caoo :|o Saracon
styo !|is mannor vas introoucoo into Lurojo
t|rouq| Sjain, oarninq |ouris|oo amonq t|o
raoian a t|o :imo t|at t|oir oomin.on vas in
|u jovor t|o j|ys.cs ano j|i.osoj|y o| t|o
raoians sjroao t|omsoos in Lurojo, ano vit|
t|oso t|oir arc|itocturo many c|urc|os voro ouit
a|:or t|o Saraconic nooo'
ZO l !II I NVENTI ONS: T l-l f. E NDURI NG llC^C: Of \WS L I \ '| V l l | Z1| C^
. O +H| l| P|
M
inaret comes from the Arabic word manarah, which means "light
house, " but not i n the meaning of sea lighthouse as some writers
thought. It has rather a symbolic si gni fcance referring to the l ight
of Islam, which radiates from the mosque and its minaret.
ly t|o oiq|t| contury, .n :|o roat osquo o|
Lamasc.s t|o minarot |ao oocomo an ossontia|
|oaturo o| .s|im ro.qious arc|itocturo ina
rots |avo tvo main jarts, t|o ovor jart |as a
stronq oino oaso vit| iitto or no oocoration
at a, ano t|o |iq|or jart is vory qraco|u ano
ric|ly oocoratoo !|is soctioninq o| t|o tovor is
soon in many Lnqlis| tovors suc| as Sir C|ris
toj|or `ron's St ary o lov !ovor
!|o oar|.ost s.rvivinq .sim tovor is t|o a|' at
o| lonu Hamnao, v|.c| vas Lu|t .n :oo/ .n oastorn
|qor.a `.t| its |uqo s.zo oxjross.nq t|o jovor o|
lonu Hammao, t|o tovor vas usoo as a vatc|tovor
as vo as a minarot t vas r.c|y oocoratoo, v.t|
ojoninqs jrov.oinq |iq|t ano rooucinq t|o voiq|t
o| t|o structuro `arious tyjos o| arc|os voro usoo
on t|o |ramos o| t|oso vinoovs, incuoinq tro|o.,
cinq|oi, som.circuar, ano joy oooo arc|os
t vas |oaturos i|o t|oso t|at rajioy in|uoncoo
t|o c|aractor o| t|o lomanosquo ano ot|ic tov
ors o| t|o `ost ooo oxamjos o| t|is aro t|o
C|urc| o| St ooonoio, Como, ltay :oc:o),
C|urc| o| St Lt.onno, ooayo aux Hommos at
Qal'at of Benu Hammad is the earliest surviving Muslim
tower of its kind, built in 1007 in Algeria. Features it dis
played-rich decoration and arch designs of the upper
sections-were later seen in the Romanesque and Gothic
towers in Europe.
Caon l:anco .occDco), ano St Lomuno at lu:y
.n Lnq|ano .z). n a| casos t|o in!.onco o|
a|a: lonu Hammao is .nquos:.onao|o ano t|o
L.rojoan traoo |.n|s v.t| No::| |r.ca must |ao
ooon :osjons.oo |or .ts t:ans|or
n Lurojo :|o tovo: nrs: ajjoaroo in t|o ton:|
contu:y lomanosquo jor.oo, o.t oocamo associ
a:oo v.t| ot|. c a:c|itoc:uro Somo ooiooo
t|o :ovor camo |rom :|o minarot as .t ooqan
ajjoar.nq in Lurojoan castos ano qato|ousos
v|on t|o C:usaoo:s camo |omo !|.s .ov .s
joss.o|y ouo to :|o incroasoo n.moo: o| :ovcrs
ajjoar.nq a| oor l.rojo a|tor :|o C:usaoos.
out i: .s ooiousy incorroct as :ovo:s as vo as
c|u:c| tovo:s ajjoaroo muc| oar.or
Sji:os voro noor usoo unti t|o minarot vas
ouit ano in Lnqano t|o:o vas no sj.ro oo|oro
.zoo, t|o |irst ooinq t|at o| St aus Ca:|o
o:a| .n Lonoon. nn.s|oo .n :z.. !|o sjiro vas
oostroyoo oy |iq|tn.nq .n :c: ano t|o c|.rc|
oy t|o :oat . ro o| onoon in :ccc, roo.it
oy `:on i n ./.o) !|o m.na:ots o| Joy.s|.
osquo in Ca.ro. ouit . n :o3 voro jartic.|ary
.n|uon:ia in l:ay ano Lnqano Squaros|ajoo
minarots con:.n.oo to in|uonco Lurojoan tcv
ors, as soon in a|azzo Vocc|io a: liazza ooa
Siqno:ia :z...) in tay .azza Lucao in
l:a|y is jar:.cuar|y s::i|inq v|on i: is comja:oo
to :|o Lmayyao osquo in Lamascus |o ta|
ian :ovo: |as t|o samo q:ao.a jroqross o| :|o
sq.ur s:-oJ towo: ano t: sur o. ou.s
oomo at :|o toj ono !|o arcaoo o| t|o cois:or,
v|.c| :|o :ovor omorqos |rom s|ovs a sim.ar
.sua ano struc:ura| comoination to :|o ono
usoo .n t|o 'mayyao osquo
!|is qraco|u|, circuar |orm o| m.naro: vas
aso .m.tatoo in ormany in ou.oinqs .o t|o
Ho| y jos:| os C|u:c| . n Cooqno : :o) in
m.ons Ca:|oo:a| :oo:z), ano in `o:ms
Ca:|oora ::| :o .t| conturios) in l|inoano
!|o Co|oqno :ovor |as jart.cuary oroat|:a|inq
jrojortions as it soars in:o t|o a.r
1C\ ` 1 |L l| KL
TOP: The church of St. Abbondio, in Como, Italy,
dates hom the 11th century. BOTTOM: The minaret
at the Umayyad Great Mosque in Damascus was built
in the early eighth centwy.
208 l ! I NVE NTI ONS: T H E ENDU RI NG LEC/\CY OF MUS L I M CI VI l i ZATI ON
.7 l `| lL|`T| Al l l|AS
A
lot of Muslim architecture reached Europe through captured artists,
and a development of the Norman style appeared at the same time
as the fust countercampaign against the Muslims in Spain and in the
Holy Land. One artist who was taken prisoner was Lalys. His new master was
Richard de Grandville of England, who had Lalys design the abbey of Neath
in South Wales in 1129. Lalys then became the architect of Henry l
!|o Normans |ro.q|t a ot to lnqis| arc|itoc
turo a|:or :|o.r :occ invasion !|oy aso occujioo
Siciy, v|oro t|oy maoo contac: vit| usims t
vas |oro t|a: t|oy |ocamo qroat |uioors ins:oao
o oostroyors ln |act, as laqo| Cmaar |rom t|o
llC's An Is|c.c H:s:o, o/ L.opc saio rc|i
tocturaly it:o roma.ns in Siciy |rom :|o usim
timo ano t|o |uioinqs t|at oo| lsamic aro no:
!|oy voro |u.t in t|o :t| con:ury |y t|o Nor
man conq.orors, v|o voro |ascina:oo Ly ra|.c
cu:uro !|o ..t|cont.ry Norman |.nq loqor ` l
o| Sici.y vas jart.c.ary jassionato a|out .s
im arc|itocturo Ho vas aso |uont in ra|ic
lt vas t|oso arc|itocturay lsamizoo Normans
v|o ator jayoo a oaoinq jart in |uioinq
Lurojo ot|icsty|o arc|itocturo aso oovoojoo
unoor t|oso Norman |inqs
"The 12thcentury Norman
king Roger !of Sicily was
particularly passi onate
about Muslim archi tecture.
He was also Ruent in Arabic. n
RAGEH OMAAR FROM
THE SSe'S AN ISLAMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE
lovaro l son: am|assaooria oxc|anqo mis
s.ons to orsia to mao a||ios o| t|o onqo|s,
v|o |ao ta|on t|o roqion ano voro onomios o|
t|o usims !|is m.ssion vas oo |y oo||roy
Lanqoy .n :zz ano as:oo a yoar lt incuooo
lo|ortus Scujtor, v|o .s t|ouq|t to |avo |rouq|t
|ac| vit| |im a num|or o| .ooas, suc| as t|o oqoo
arc|, v|.c| voro t|on in:rooucoo to Lnqis| arc|i
tocturo at t|o ono o| :|o .t| contury
Lator, Lovaro l |ao qooo contacts v.t| orsia,
ano |is c:usaoinq oxjor.onco j..s |is marr|aqo to
l|oanor o| Casti|o jrov.ooo |urt|or contact vi:|
usim Sjain !|oso con:acts aro commomo
ra:oo in Lnqis| |o|oro Ly orris oancinq, hrst
|novn as orisco !|o us..m contacts aso oo
to !uoor arc|itoc:uro, suc| as t|o s:ar joyqon
jan at `inosor, in t|o tovor o| Honry Vll ano in
The Palatine Chapel, in Palermo, Sicily, was designed
and decorated by Muslim artists in the reign of Norman
King Roger 1
t|o vinoovs o| |is c|ajo, ano t|o turrots o| `o
soy's qroat qato at Cx|oro, nov ca|oo !om !ovor
Ct|ors to ta|o oac| iooas voro jiqr|ms ano
artists visitinq Fqyjt, i|o Simon Simoon ano
Huq| t|o lum. nator. lot| voro lris|mon v|o
vis.too t|o Hoy Lano in .., ano v|o jassoo
t|rouq| Fqyjt ano sav t|o auso oum o|
ustaj|a as|a ..c../) in Cairo. !|is |ao
us|im jorjonoicuar oocoration t|at oocamo
a common |oaturo o| ot|ic arc|itocturo i n t|o
Unitoo inqoom.
!|o c|ajos o| t|o niq|ts !omjar Croor,
|ounooo oy nino lronc| |niq|ts in Jorusalom
in .i.c a|tor t|o hrst Crusaoo, voro ouit vit| a
contralizinq |orm, v|ic| vas oorivoo |rom t|o
city's lomo o| t|o loc| osquo. !|is |orm o|
c|urc| ator sjroao vost ano can oo soon in t|o
circuar !omjlo C|urc| o| Ic_ in Lonoon. !|o
rotunoa, v|ic| is ato Norman, ano t|o ot|ic
c|oir, ouilt in izo, |avo a numoor o| common
|oaturos, ano t|oy aro oot| suo]oct to :|o samo
qoomotric systom. Somo `ostorn sc|oars insist
t|at t|is systom camo to lurojo ano lranco |rom
t|o roo|s, osjocia|y ato ano V|truvius, out
ot|ors vonoor at t|is jor|oct timinq, quostioninq
1C\' | 'l lL| '1l .\ l | ll. :\S 209
The Taj Mahal, i n Agra, India, was built in 1630.
v|y t|o ronc| oio not rooiscovor ato oarior
or ator, out coinciooo vit| t|o timo v|on t|oso
|oaturos voro vory ovioont i n samic structuros
visioo to Crusaoors, ot|or travoors, ano traoors
not|or |amous ouioinq is t|o Ta] a|a,
in lnoia, ouit oy t|o uq|a sutan S|a| Ja|an
i n momory o| |is vi|o, umtaz a|a|, v|o
oioo v|io qivinq oirt| to t|oir .t| c|io !|o
mosquo is caoo t|o toaroroj on otornity ano
vas nnis|oo in .c3, a|tor usinq jrocious ano
somijrocious stonos as inay ano |uqo amounts
o| v|ito maroo t|at noary oan|rujtoo t|o
uq|a Fmjiro. !|o !a] a|a i s comjlotoy
symmo:r.coxcojt |or t|o tomo o| t|o sutan,
v|ic| is o|| contor in t|o cryjt room oolov t|o
main noor
oro amazinq lsamic arc|itocturo incuoos
t|o Cat|ooral osquo in Coroooa, Sjain, ano
t|o |amora a|aco in ranaoa. o| t|oso
still |ascinato joojo tooay, ano t|o !a] a|a
surjassos t|o |amora |or t|o most visitors
vit| :|roo mi|lion a yoar, v|io t|o |amora
oravs z. z miion or /,/oo joojo a oay.
210 1001 I NVE NT I ONS: TI-l E LNDURI NG L E. GiCY OF \1 l' S L I .\\ CI V I LI Z.\TI ON
: 'ASTl|S A`l ||lS
C
ities today are no longer designed with a potential siege mentality,
but look around the world and the fortincations of the past are now
accessible to us as tourist sites, such as the Tower of London.
lon t|ouq| t|o Lu:ojoan Crusaoo:s |ao sujo
:iority in ammun.t.on ano manjovor v|on t|oy
von: to Jorusaom :|o us.ms vo:o aLo to
sustain a:tac|s, ano |or a cons.oo:aoo timo !|o
imjross.onoss o| :|oir mi.taz st:ucturos ano cas
tos vas not os: on :|o Lurojoans, v|o too| t|oso
arc|.toctura iooas |omo vi:| :|om !|o .ninc.oo
oosiqns o| :|o castos o| Syria ano Jorusalom voro
.m.:atoo in `os:o:n anos vit| oy |oa:uros .io
:ouno :ovors arrov s.its oaroicans, mac|ico.a
:.ons jarajots, ano La::omon:s soon ajjoarinq
fo|oro t|o C:usaoors ost ita. oa:t.os to Saa
o.n in t|o :zt| con:ury most C|ristian mi|.:a:y
:ovors |ao squaro oojs Saaoins :ouno tovors
.mjrossoo ujon t|o Crusaoors t|o nooo to oao
ou: jro]oct.nq anqos oocauso :|oy oncouraqoo
!an|.nq |:o !|o :rs: :ocorooo lu:ojoan oxamjo
to aoanoon t|o squa:o ano aoojt t|o rouno tovor
vas Saono v|ic| vas ouit in :.zo
The Loopholes
!|o |ooj|oos or arrov s.ts in |orti|oo va||s, voro
|rs: usoo a:ouno zoo B. C. E. oy rc|.mooos to jro
:oct Syracuso !|oso .onq ano na:rov s.i:s moan:
a Lovman couo s|oot a: t|o onomy out Lo jro
toctoo |rom rotu:ninq |ro !|oy voro aso usoo .n
t|o |or:i|ca:.ons o| lomo ano voro imjrooo ano
jojuar.zoo oy usims in :|o aaco o| U|ay
oar an o.q|t|contury .:ai ja|aco ano :|o n.nt|
con:ury Sussa liLa: in !unisia !|o |rst rocorooo
uso o| :|om .n lnqano vas .n Lonoon in .:o
The Barbican
!|o oa:oican is a vaoo jassaqo aoooo to :|o
on::anco o| a casto .n |ront o| t|o main oo|onsio
va|| !|.s ooayoo :|o onomys ontranco in:o t|o
casto ano aso qao t|o oo|onoors moro ojjortu
nity :o |oo uj t|o attac|o:s oy |o:c.nq :|om into
a sma sjaco !|o onomy cou.o :|on oo attac|oo
|rom aLoo ano |rom t|o s.oos !|o voro oar
oican' is ta|on |rom :|o raoic /c/ c|/cjcc
moaninq qato v.t| |oos`
!|o ro:u:ninq Crusaoo:s o|ton orouq|t usim
masons vi:| :|om ano t|oy oui|t t|oso |oa:u:os
in:o t|o oo|onsos o| lurojoan castos in t|o ..t|
contuz !|oro voro a.so joaco|u jorioos in :|o
C:usaoos v|on t|o arc|.:oc:s ano Luioo:s v.t|
t|o Crusaoors cou|o va:c| ano .oarn |ov oca
usims oos.qnoo ano oui: :|oir |ort.ncat.ons
C|:.s:.an masons aso |ao to oarn t|oi: iinq,
osjoc.ay in t.mos o| joaco, ano somo o| t|om
European castles, like this one in Bavaria, Germany,
i mi tated the designs of castles in Syria and Jerusalem.
voro |iroo oy usims to |oj in rojair or in nov
constructions !|o story o| Luoos oo on:rou.
oomonstratos s.c| an oncountor as |o accomja
nioo St Louis on t|o Crusaoo ootvoon :zc ano
:z_, ano vor|oo at Ja||a ano :|on .n Cyjr.s
Bonding Columns
uslims also usoo oonoinq coumns insioo
mason:y to s:ronqt|on t|o vals !|oy |ao ta|on
ano oovoiojoo t|is :oc|n.quo |rom loman arc|i
toct ano onq.noor arc.s Vi:ruvius 'o..io !|o
va..s o| t|o |aroor o| cro voro o.it in t|is vay
lt vas t|o omir o| Lqyjt, |mao ion !..un, v|o
in cc instructoo t|at a |aroor oo o.it vit| :|o
stronqost |orm to rojo t|o vavos ano onomy
attac|s ai|o So timoor ooams voro insortoo into
t|o masonry o| t|o val, as stoo is tooay, to o.no its
tvo |acos toqot|or |tor t|o Crusaoors occu;a
tion o| cro in ::o, t|oy oarnoo t|is construction
toc|niquo ano introoucoo it .nto t|oir miitary
arc|itocturo, s.c| as t|a: .n Caosaroa in ...c
Machicolations
ac|icoations voro an imjortant |oaturo in us
im oo|onsos !|oso voro |oos or qajs in t|o
ovor|anq o| a jarajo: !|rouq| t|om oo|onoors
couo |ro arrovs ano oroj stonos or oi on t|oir
attac|ors. !|oy ajjoaroo |rst in asr a|Hayr noar
lusa|a in Syr.a .n /z, ano camo to Lurojo in t|o
:zt| contury, |rst at t|o C|toau ai||aro ou.t oy
lic|aro t|o Lion|oart, |oovinq |is roturn |rom
t|o Crusaoos !|on t|oy ajjoaroo in Norvic| in
::c/ ano in `inc|ostor six yoars ator Li|o many
o| t|oso oo|onsos, t|o roturninq Crusaoors oarnoo
t|o iooa |rom t|o usim voro
Battlements
lattomonts aro a sorios o| stono .noontat.ons ano
raisoo soctions aoooo to t|o tojs o| va..s o| L.i|o
inqs Criq.nay t|oy qavo covor to t|o oo|onoors,
out in mooorn timos t|oy aro oocorativo !|oy
oocamo jojular in Lurojo in t|o .zt| contury
TO\\ `- C^S1|l .` l bl|S
TOP: A drawing shows an early 16th-century model castle.
Two of these models would be wheeled into a large feld
and would hold 60 fghting men, in full army dress, ready to
practice militwy maneuvers. BOTTOM: The Crusaders were
impressed by Saladin's round towers and built similar
towers in Europe. This example is in Podzamcze, Poland.
vit| roturninq Crusaoors !|oro is a qroat io
noss ootvoon t|o oattlomonts o| t|o :t|contury
c|urc| at Cromor in Nor|o||, t|o a|azzo Ca oCro
in Vonico, ano ouioinqs in Cairo, suc| as t|o
.t|contury Zayn aLin Yusu| osquo, ano t|o
tont|contury z|ar osquo rosjoctivoy
t|o.q| t|o Crusaoos voro a ooooy timo, t|oro
voro intorsjorsoo momonts o| joaco, v|oro iooas
voro :a|oo aLo.t ano svajjoo !|o vast movo
mont o| joojo aso moant t|o movomont o| iooas,
v|ic| |ojoo Lastorn concojts miqrato to t|o `ost
ZIZ 1 001 I N v E NTI ONS: T I I F I N DU RI NC l. [(i \U Of .\ US l. l .\\ U\ I LZ. \TI ON
lLl l| C ATHS
S
pas and health clubs have sprung up over the world today, letting all
luxuriate in their steam and fme soaps, but this was not always the
case. In the so-called Dark Ages of Europe, the Roman bath became
particularly unfashionable.
|tor t|o oisintoqration o| t|o loman Lmjiro,
t|o lomans ano most o| t|oir juoic amonitios
o.sajjoaroo lor t|o lomans, t|o Lat| vas in
an oaoorato ouioinq comjox, comjoto vit| a
mooium |oatoo room or !cp:cc:., a |ot stoam
room or c|cc:., ano a room vit| a coo
junqo joo o. |:j:cc:. n somo o| t|o arqor
Lat|s t|o.o voro ot|or soctions vit| c|anq.nq
rooms caoo Apoc,:c.., a roaoinq rcom, ano
a sjorts aroa lut t|oso troatmont contors voro
|or t|o ric| ano jo|itica| oito on|y
`|i|o t|oso oat|s |o into oisrojai. as t|o
loman Lmj.ro qraouay colajsoo, on t|o ot|or
sioo o| t|o ooitorranoan t|o raos v|o |ao
ooon unoor loman ruo in countrios i|o Syria,
Men relax inside Cagaloglu Hamami, a Turkish bath,
or ham man, in Istanbul that was built around 1690.
in|oritoo t|o traoition o| usinq t|o oat| s t|o
lomans o|t t|o raos ano t|on usims qavo
t|om sjoc.a. i mjo:tanco oocauso o| l sam' s
omj|as.s on coan.noss |yqiono anc qooo
|oa.t| lojortor laqo| Cmaar jrosontinq t|o
llCs An Is|c.c H.s:o, o/ L.opc saio t|at t|oro
voro t|ousanos o| /ccs in a city o| qua:tor
o| a milion.
{(Indeed, God loves those
who turn to Him constantly,
and He loves those who keep
themselves pure and clean. "
QURAN (2: 222)
!|o oat||ouso, or /cc. vas a socia jaco
ano it ran|oo |iq| on t|o i.st o| i|os ossontias
!|o lroj|ot u|ammao saio, C.oaninoss is |a|
t|o |a.t|' Hammams t|on voro oaLorato a||airs
vit| ooqant oosiqns, oocor, ano ornamontat.on
Unoor amu| ano Cttoman ruo, t|oy voro osjo
ciay sumjtuous ouioinqs |n t|oi: ric| oosiqn
ano uxurious oocorations |urnis|oo vit| ooauti
|u |ountains ano oocorativo joos
T|o |ammam vas, ano sti is, a uniquo socia
sottinq |or somo usim communitios jayinq an
imjortant :oo in t|o socia activitios o| t|o com
m.nity s an intimato sjaco o| intoract.on |or
various socia| qro.js, .t Lrouq|t |rioncs, noiq|
oors roativos anc vor|ors toqot|or roquary to
unoorta|o t|o vas|inq ritua in a roaxinq atmo
sj|oro rouj oonos stronqt|onoo |rionos|ijs
ro|inooo ano qossij oxc|anqoo T|is t|orajou
tic ritua vas carrioo out oy oot| mon ano vomon
at sojarato timos, v.t| t|o vomon usuay oat|inq
in cay.iq|t ano mon in t|o ovoninq ano niq|t.
!|o intriquo ano sociaoiity at t|o |ammam
oio not ]ust stoj at scruooinq ano qossij as t:a
oit.ona.y t|o sottinq j.ayoo a siqni|cant roo in
matc|ma|inq n consorvat|vo commun.tios suc|
1C\` | ' ' l\ l l C l.\THS
The exterior o f the public bathhouse i n Tbilisi, Georgia,
is covered with dazzling and colorful tiles.
as t|oso o| Nort| |rica vomon v|o voro loo|inq
|or suitaoo orioos |or t|oir sons vouo qo to t|o
|ammam Horo t|oy |ao t|o jor|oct ojjortunity
to |avo a closor oo| at t|o oriootooo ano sooct
t|o most j|ysicay ht. Hovovor t|is traoition
|as qraouay ost .ts joju|a:ity as arranqoo mar
riaqos in t|oso soc.otios aro oocominq .ncroas
.nqy :aro anc t|o roo o| t|o .acios' j.oic Lat|
|as ooon rooucoo
lt is aso customary in many jarts o| t|o us
im voro |or t|o nov orioo to oo ta|on vit| |or
|r.onos to t|o |ammam, v|oro s|o is jrojaroo
qroomoo, ano aoo:noo .n styizoo oosiqns v.t|
/cnnc t|o |oroa jasto t|at oavos a rooois|
Lrovn coor on t|o |air |anos, ano |oot !|o
qroom .s aso oscortoc t|oro t|o niq|t oo|o:o |o
moots |.s orioo
!|o art o| oat|inq in |ammams is quicoo oy
many ruos suc| as mon must avays oo covoroo
LI | `|. `+ \``- 1 l `| L hl `\ I | \!` C| \ L` l | 1 !l \l l7.\ 1| \`
.n ovor qarmon:s, ano vomon a:o o:oiooon :o
ontor i mon aro jrosont uito a |ov ooo|s |avo
ooon vritton aoout t|.s, ono is A|Hcc cnc
!:s Mcnncs rom :|o n|nt| cont.:y oy ou .s|aq
lora|.m ion s|aq a.Haroi
!|o soj|.s:.cation o :|o oa:|.nq jrocoss .n
.t|contury laq|oao invo!voo jrivato c|amoors
ano t|roo :ovos ca.sinq lon lattuta to say, l
|avo novor soon s.c| an oaooration as a. t|is
.n any ci:y o:|or :|an laq|oao
s vo |avo saio, :|o oat| vas |novn to Lurojo
. n loman :imos, o.: .t o ou: o uso as lomo o.
.n t|o :z vo: oy S.: Jo|n roy c:c /c/c|,
vo can roao aoout oa:|inq attituoos any |o|o
t|at |at| oat|oo t|om in cooo vator |avo oyoo
Hunoroos o yoars .ato:, oat|s vo:o rooiscov
oroo o.:inq t|o Crusaoos v|on t|o Crusaoors
onco.n:o:oo .simsty.o oa:|s in Jorusaom
ano Syria !|is rooiscovory vas orio|, t|ouq|,
as numo:ous c|urc|os oannoo :|oir uso, jar:y
oocauso t|oy ooonqoo to t|o cu|:uro o .s..ms
t|o in|oos,' ano jarty ooca.so o :|o sjroao o
aou.:ory ano oao soxua. |aoits ano o.soasos o
ov.nq :|oir .mmora. .so, oocauso :|o manno:s
o t|o .sim |ammam voro no: o..ovoo
ly :|o ./:| con:u:y, |ammams voro :oois
covoroo v|on Lurojoans travoo:s oncounto:oo
!ur|is| oat|s !|is vas at t|o samo timo t|at it
oocamo |as|ionaoo :o uso asto:n oa:|s ano
.ovan:ino |ovo:s .n Lnq.ano, .n jacos s.c|
as .onoon anc|os:o:, ano ooos, :|is vas a
roa. c:azo !|o :rst !ur|.s| oat|, or /cjn:o, vas
ojonoo as oary as :c/ o o Novqato St:oot,
nov lat| St:oot, . n Lonoon, ano vas ouit oy
!.:|is| morc|ants !ur|is| oa:|s vo:o aso ou..t
. n Scot.ano, |n Loino.rq|, v|oro :|o amous
.:.ms|o.q| lat|s voro oosiqnoo oy .o|n lur
not i n :33z !|o oaoorato na:uro o t|o oat|
vas :oc:oatoo in a.. its qo:y, as t|.s containoo
a su.to o !..|is| oa:|s vit| a oomo sujjor:oo
on a o:.c ano s:ono s:ructuro, vi:| qoomot:icai
a::.co vinoovs .n ramos o| |orsos|oo arc|os
oanv|io :|o |acaoo vas ooco:atoo vi:| an
ooqant ooris| arcaoo vit| i :on qr..os in a
qoomot:ic ja:torn
So i t .s oo.ovoo t|a: t|o |ammam is :|o
oriq.n o| most o| :|o mooo:n |oat| ano tnoss
c.uos ano rot:oat conto:s nov |ouno aro.no
t|o mooorn vor.o Sa.nas, |ovovor, aro saio to
oo o Scano.navian |or.taqo Svoat.nq |us|os
ou: imjuritios ano |o.js us .oso |at S:oam ano
|o: vator .nc:oaso oooo c.:c..ation ano :a.so
:|o juso ano mo:aoo.c rato |o :o.axation .n
:|o A|ccn: t:ansatoo as :|o Fx:o:.or'), t|o
oquivaont :o t|o rost :oom o: loman Apoc,:c
:., ots t|o oooy ros: ano oono|t rom jrovious
oxo:c.so, v|i.o t|o socia. :n:o:act.on ano :|o
:iono.y atmosj|oro oono|t a.
The exterior of an old Turkish bath stands in the
shadow of Sir Norman Foster's famous building
known as the London Gherkin. The former bathhouse
is now a pizzeria.
A 16th-century Turkish manuscript shows a public bath on wheels as part of a procession on
craftsmanship that paraded in front of Sultan Murad III on the occasion of his son's circumcision.
TOWN: I' U l\ l . I C f\1\HI S
ZI !!!! | `Vl `Jl L` J l l l` |L| `\ lIC+ :\L\ Ll V\ L I l M L| Vl ll Z.`Jl C`
. +H| +|`T
T
ents these days conjure up images of rain-drenched campsites or beau
tiful wedding marquees. They have a practical and social function,
are large or small, and remain true to their roots from the time when
Muslims and Bedouin Arabs used them as a shelters and meeting places.
!|oy couo oo oaooratoy oocoratoo roya. struc
turos in a sultan's coromonios, v|ic| voro ooauti
|uy cooroo a||airs vit| si| crovns ano a raisoo
soction to aoo oxtra sjonoor ano ma]osty. lnsioo
voro com|ortaoo soats ano canojios, coor|u
carjots, jus somo o| t|o sutan's |avorito voaj
ons ano toio:rios !|o tont |o|ovoo :|o sutan . n
|i s travos |or var |untinq trijs, ano ot|or vis.:s
ano coromon.os
Eurojoans |o in ovo vit| t|o Cttoman tont
t|o nrst timo :|oy sot oyos on .t in t|o ooqinninq
it vas roso:voo |or royas ano :|o ric| |or q:ano
jar:ios ano roya coromonios !|o lronc| |inq
ouis XlV vas its qroatost aomiror ano |o |ao
many coromonia tonts, |c !.j.c !|oso usu
a.y accomjanioo ox:ravaqant jrocossions ano
roya ja:tios v.t| |rovor| oisjays His |as|.on
statomonts cauq|t on vit| t|o ros: o| t|o :oya.
|ouso|oos o| lurojo v|o o.o not vant to oo .o|t
out o| t|o atost crazo ano :|o tont oom.natoo most
o| :|o :/t| con:ury
ou.s XlV |ao a roa. into:ost in t|o lsamic
voro, ano |o qat|oroo |novooqo aoout it :|rouq|
travoors suc| as rano.s oo a louayooo.z
ano Joanlaj:.sto !avornior `a louayo ovon
arr.voo a: t|o roya court voarinq lo:sian oross
`ouis aso |ao in |.s sorvico tvo ronovnoo raoic
inqu.sts, auron: o'rvioux ano n:oino aano
ln Vaux|a aroons Lonoon ono o t|oso
tonts vas oui: .n :/, ano .: |oo a oin.nq aroa
vit| . taoos |o :vo mos: |amous !ur|.s| :onts
in Fnqano voro ouit arouno ./_o .n t|o qaroons
A 16th-centwy miniature from the Hunername, by
Mehmed Bursevf, shows the ascension to the throne
of Sultan Selim I. The various uniforms classify
ranks in the government. A senior officer is leaning
to kiss the hem of the sultan's cloak. Kissing the hem
is an Ottoman tradition to demonstrate loyalty
and obedience.
o| lains|i|, Surroy, ovnoo oy t|o Honorao.o
C|aros Hamiton, ano in Stour|oao, `i:s|iro,
ovnoo Ly Honry Co: Hoaro Jo|n larno. maoo a
vatorcoor ius:ration o| t|o :ont a: lains|i| a|:or
|o visitoo i: in ./c
!|o sito o| t|o tont at Stour|oao vas or.qinay
intonooo |or a mosquo vit| minatots, out t|o iooa
c|anqoo into a tont t|at vas oismantoo in t|o
:/os A t|iro !ur|is| tont vas ouit at Loqany,
`icov, ro.ano, Ly Lavio La !ouc|o in t|o ato
:3t| contury, out tonts novor roay cauq|t on t|oro
oocauso o| t|o voat|or
lurojoan imi:ation o| !ur|is| ton:s a.so too
on a ot o| t|o ls|amic arc|itoctura styos, ano in
t|o :3t| contury arc|itoct Jo|n Nas| jrooucoo
a tota oxotic oxtorior o||oct o| a loyal laviion,
v|ic| qroaty joasoo |is roya jatrons Ho usoo
t|o Lastorn sconory ooscr.ooo oy :3t|con:ury
anoscajo jaintor !|omas Lanio Lanio vas
aso :|o au:|or o| .cn:c| 'ccnc,, ano vas |iroo
as a consutant to |o.j oos.qn a lr.tis| rosioonco
vi:| suc| |oaturos as a ouoous oomo vit| cornor
c/c::.s ano ovor|anqinq oavos, cusjoo arc|os,
ano jinnacos lt vas Lanio v|o insjiroo Nas|,
v|o vas commissionoo oy Coorqo lV to romooo
an unnnis|oo structuro at t|o loya lav.ion in
lriq|:on So |o comoinoo ouoous oomos v.:|
concavos|ajoo roo|s, imitatinq t|o !.r|is|
caij|' s ton:s t|at covoroo t|o Lanquotinq ano
music rooms o| t|o ouioinq Ho aso usoo minarot
i|o s:ructuros to oisquiso t|o c|imnoys
!|is styo o| ouioinq sti oxorts a stronq inu
onco. ano ono sti survivos at Cantoroury lar| in
Hamjs|iro !|o roo| o| t|o lotunoa in Vaux|a
Caroons vas a tont vit| ouo ano yoov ator
nat.nq strijos, sujjortoo oy zo jiars Lnqis|
vritor Na:|anio `|ittoc| in :3z/ ooscriooo it as
a lorsian lavi..on
Ct|or |amous joojo to on]oy ano ovn tonts
incuooo lrancos Fmjross Josoj|ino, v|o |ao a
usim tont room at amaison, ano inq Coorqo
lV o|ton oinoo t|oro !|o arquoss o| Hort|oro,
TO\\ N: 1 |l 1l`1
nic|namoo t|o Caij|, |ao a tont room maoo |or
|im oy Locimus lurton at St Lunstans Houso
!|.s ournoo oovn .n .o anc vas roLui.: in a
oi||oront oosiqn
This Ottoman manuscript is a memoir of the military
movement during an expedition of Suleyman the
Magnificent against Hungary. The tents of different
colors possibly refer to different regiments pitched
around the River Ibri of Mitrovica, located i n the
Leposavic municipality of Kosovo. The writing insets
give a snapshot of the camp on 23rd Safar O.H.
(or May 24, 1543), and reveal that the regiments moved
six miles in two days.
218 1001 I N\' E N T I ONS: T HE f N DU RI NC U.G.>\C' Of \WS L\1 CJ YI LZ\TI ON
l|.V l| .K1. '.N||VA1.|`
W
hat we now think of as a garden summerhouse and the band
stand in the local park or town square came from what was called
a Turkish kiosk, or Koshk. This was a domed hall with open and
arched sides, attached to the main mosque under the Seljuks. Gradually it
evolved into the summerhouses used by Ottoman sultans.
!|o most |amous o| t|oso ioss vo:o t|o Cin.|i
os|| ano laq|oao os||. !|o Cini|i os| vas
o..|t a: t|o !oj|aj. a|aco, .s:anLu| in ./, Ly
u|ammao alati| ano |ao tvo s:or.os tojjoo
vit| a oomo, vit| ojon sioos ooroo|.nq :|o qar
oons o| t|o jaaco !|o laq|oao os|| vas aso
ouit at t|o !oj|aji lalaco in :c3:c, oy Sutan
urao lV !|is aso |ao a oomo ano :|o .ov it
qao o| t|o ja|aco's qa:oons ano ja: as vo as t|o
arc|.tocturo o| :|o c.ty o| ls:anLu, vas amazinq
Laoy `or:oy ontaqu, vi|o o| t|o Lnqis|
amoassaoor :o Cons:antinoj|o, vroto a ottor on
jri :, :/:/, to nno !|istot|vayto montioninq
a c/:os/, ooscrioinq i: as raisoo oy nino or ton
stojs ano oncosoo vit| q.ooo latticos, out it vas
Lurojoan monarc|s v|o orouq|t it :o Lurojo
!|o |inq o| oano ja:ticuary i|oo .t, as o.o :|o
|a:|orinav .| Lou.s ., Stanisas o| Lorraino, v|o
ouit |ios|s |or |imso| oasoo on |is momo:ios o|
|is cajtiity .n !u:oy. !|oso |ios|s vo:o usoo as
qaroon jaiions |or sorinq co||oo ano oooraqos,
out lator voro conortoo into t|o oanostanos ano
tourist in|ormation stanos oocoratinq many Luro
joan qaroons, jar|s. ano |iq| stroots
qooo oosiqns ooo, ano in t|is caso t|o
.os| oooo in:o v|a: vo nov ca| consorato
rios, qass rooms oui: in qaroons or on t|o s.oos o|
many Lu:ojoan |ousos !|o oariost consoratorios
voro :|oso maoo oy Humj|:oy loj:on |or t|o
loya aiion at lriq|ton. !|oy voro sumjtuous
a||airs, vit| corrioors connoctinq t|o jaiion to t|o
staoos, ano vit| a jassaqo o| hovors coorinq t|o
qass !|oy ]oinoo t|o oranqory, a qroon|ouso, an
aiary, an onc|osuro |or j|oasants, ano |ot|ousos
!|o j|oasantry aroa vas jartic.ary us.m in
concojt, as it vas an aoajtation o| t|o |ioss on t|o
roo| o| t|o jaaco in t|o lort o| a|aLao in noia
European glasshouses, or conservatories, evolved
from kiosks built at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul.
TOWN: FRO;v\ KI OS K TO CONS [ RVATORY 219
A 16th-century miniature shows Sultan Murad III and his sons sitting in a
kiosk from the Shahinshahnane-i-Murad by Mirza Ali ibn Hacemkulf III.
ZZO 1 001 I NVE NTI ONS: TH E E N DU R. I NC ! UG1\CY OF MUL;\ UVI I I /, \ r i ON
2 'APl|`S
S
unny days are spent cutting the grass while hoping it does not rain
too much. Insects are dealt with, moles are moved on, and birds are
made t o feel wel come. Lawns, with their herbaceous borders, domi
nate many gardens i n Europe, especially i n the United Kingdom. Back i n
the Middle Ages though, gardens in Europe were l i mited t o the courts of
nobl es or monasteries, and thei r mai n use was for herbs, vegetables, and
some fruits for sel f-sustenance.
lor usims, qaroons |avo avays ooon a
sourco o| vonoor ano orc|antmont oocauso
pants, troos, animas, insocts, ano a o| naturo
aro a oossoo q.|t o| a| ano a siqn o| His
roatnoss. lsam pormits us to uso, on]oy, ano
c|anqo natu:o, out ony .n ot|ica vays, so
lsamic qa:oons voro oosiqnoo to oo sympa
t|otic to natu:o, ano qaroons :o t|is oay on]oy
an oovatoo status in a usim s mino
aroons suc| as Loon voro ropoatoo y
ooscri ooo i n t |o uran as p acos o| qroat
ooauty ano soronity, ano as i ooa p acos |or
contomplation ano ro|oction !|oso |oavony
paraoisos voro rocroatoo ano sproao across t|o
usim voro, |rom Spai n to l noia, mainy |rom
t|o oiq|t| contury onvaro oout a |unoroo
yoars i ator, t|o oLasios i nnovatoo oos. qns
o| t|o. : ovn rom :|at poi nt on, qaroons v.:|
qoomotrica |.ovor ooos, s|aov cana|s, ano
|ountains voro ouit ovoryv|oro . n l samic o:
sia, Spain, Siciy, ano lnoia to provioo poaco|u
socusion |rom t|o outsioo voro Just a oo|
at t|o | |amora i n ranaoa, Spain, or t|o !a]
a|a in l noia s|ovs t|.s
a:oons voro not ony |or mooitation, many
|ao a practica |unction, ano rao ruors co
octoo pants . tc|on qaroons not ony sup
pioo |ooo, out a so qavo ri so t o a typo o|
raoic poot:y |novn as t|o cwc:,c, t|o qa:
oon poom, v|ic| con] uroo up t|o imaqo o| t|o
aroon o| araoiso
l t vas i n !o ooo i n i:t| contury us i m
Spain, ano ator in Sovio, t|at t |o |irst roya
ootanica qaroons o| Luropo maoo t|oi: appoar
anco !|oy voro poasuro qaroons, ano aso
tria qrounos |or t|o accimatization o| p|ants
oro.q|t |:om t|o . ooo Las: ln t|o rost o|
A 16th-century miniature shows Suleyman the
Magnificent. The Sarai gardens in Turkey of Suleyman
the Magnificent cultivated tulips.
TOWN: G;\ R DE NS ZZI
z
The Generalife gardens at the Alhambra, Granada, Spain,
show the geometrical planting and water features typical of Islamic gardens.
222 1 001 I NVL NTI ONS : T i l [ lN DU I" I NG ' '^C\ OF ,v\ US L I M CI VI L! ZtT I ON
uropo t|oso qaroons appoaroo aoout |.o con
:urios .ato: . n :|o un.ors.ty tovns o l t ay
!ooay, t|o in|uonco o t|o us| .m qa:oon can
oo v.oo.y soon i n .ropo :om :|o S:.ooort
Caroon in l. oronco to t|o loya lai . on i n
lriq|:on, nqano
lt vas not ust t|o concopt o| qaroons t|at
sproao vi:| t|o us . ms, oocauso t|oy aso
oro.q|t ovors :om t|o Last t|at you can
nov o.y oovn at t|o i oca. qaroon contor S.c|
traoiors incuoo t|o carnat.on, t.ip, ano i:.s
Somo poopo oo|.oo t|o voro tuip' comos
rm D.|/cno, v|.c| moans t.roan, as poop.o
usoo to voar t|o ovor on t|o.: t.roan t|ors
say t|o voro tu.p' .s a: anqic.zoo ors.on
{(Early Muslims everywhere
made earthly gardens that gave
gli mpses of the heavenly garden
to come. Long i ndeed would be
the l i st of early Islamic cities
which could boast huge expanses
of gardens. To give only a few
examples, Basra is described by
the early geographers as a
veri table Veni ce, wi th mi le after
mi le of canals criss-crossing the
gardens and orchards; Nusaybi n,
a ci ty i n Mesopotami a, was said
to have gO, OOOgardens of frui t
trees, and Damascus 11O, OOO.

ANDREW M. WATSON, AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION


IN THE EARLY ISLAMIC WORLD, 1 983
o c.|c/, v|.c| is lorsian |or tuip lrom lor
sia, t|o :u|ip :oac|oo Constan:inopo t|rouq|
an amoassaooria qit oxc|anqo, v|oro it vas
.arqoy pantoo in t|o Sarai qa:oons, ospocia|y
in t|o !op|api laaco in lstanou
!|o :u.p' s ] ournoy into Luropo |as ooon
|i|o a vo t|ouq|tout inasi on o porumo
ano coor lt star:oo in : v.t| Count qior
oo lusoocq, t|o Haosourq us:rianH.nqar
i an) amoassaoor to Su! oyman :|o aqni i
cont, v|on |o too| ono vit| |. m oou: ton
yoars ator, it roac|oo its nov |amous |omo'
in Hoano !|o Luo o So:monota, rancisco
Caotani, vas a tu. ip co|octor ano |ad :, :/ .n
|is lta|.an qaroon in t|o :cos !|o Huq.onots,
rancos porsocutoo lrotostants, too| t|o tu.p
A 17th-century manuscript shows Sultan Babur holding
a plan and watching his gardeners measure flower beds.
Tulips became hugely popular in Europe after they
arrived from countries in the Muslim world.
vit| t|om into o.||oront coun::ios as :|oy ||oo
l. na.y, i n t|o .c3os an Fn'.s|an ca|oo Si:
ooro `|oor o:o.|t it to l:i:a.n |rom t.o
Sora. a:oons o| Constant.noj.o
!|o carnation ano i:is voro . oss vo.| traooo
as |ovors out jojuar . n ooco:a:in lo:s.an
ano u:|.s| coramics `it| i:s |an s|ajo, t|o
ca:nation vas a succoss|. comoinat.on vit|
t|o t.ij in zni jo:to:y |.s oosin vas aso
cojioo . n L.rojoan oocora:ion ano ajjoaroo
. n a numoor o| amoot| c|aro:s, co:amics
jrooucoo at Lamoot|, Fnano, oatin |:om
.cco to ./oo
1.\' ^ C.\ |ll `
!|o iris vas usoo i n |orizonta. ano circuar
|orms oy lo:si an jotto:s, jart.cuary .noor
t|o Sa|aio oynas:.os i n :|o .ct| ano ./t| con
turi os !|o .:is vont on, | i |o t|o carnat.on, to
in|..onco Lurojoan oos. ns suc| as t|o lristo|
oo||:varo co:am.cs
!|o l:.tis| oo aroonin ano st. c.:iato
:|oso |.ovors, ano |.ovor s|ovs a:o ooomin
Cno o| t|o o. os: o| s|ovs .s C|osoa. ano i|
t|oso |i.ros a:o anyt|in to o oy, aroonin
ano aroons aro :ar |rom |aoi n Lac| s|ov
costs aoou: 3 mi . . on ano oo: s|ov voo|
co, ooo j.ocos o| ca|o, :.o, ooo cujs o| toa ano
co||oo, ano moro t|an .3, ooo rounos o| sano
vic|os aro soo as t|o |oon aroonors sustain
t|oir ajjotitos |or a t|ins roon
CL`TAl`S
F
ountains soothe the two senses of sight and sound at once.
They provide a calming atmosphere and screen out urban
noises like trafc, road drills, and barking dogs in today's
ever nois1er world. They also provide privacy, with quietly spoken
words not reaching others in the vicinity, and are a bath for birds.
`ator |oaturos aro an intoqra part o| qaroons
tooay, ]ust as t|oy voro a t|ousano yoars aqo in
t|o 'samic voro. T|on t|oy voro a o.spay o|
..t.ma:o voat|, as vator vas scarco, ano a vator
oispay vas roqarooo as a t|.nq o| vonoor loun
tains oocamo cornorstonos o| lsamic art ano
arc|itocturo, ano ono o| t|o oost oxamp.os is :|o
|ountain . n t|o Lion aroons o| t|o |amora,
Spain, v|ic| is moro :|an co yoars o|o t vas
commissionoo oy Sutan o|ammoo V |or t|o
Court o| ions, ano ou.t ootvoon : ano :_
!|o |ountain |as a rouno oasin, oncircoo oy
:. ions caroo |rom maroo t|at oriqinay vou.o
|avo ooon ric|y ja.ntoo, mosty in qoo !|o ions
roprosont t|o :z siqns o| t|o zooiac ano t|o :z
mont|s. `ator vas carrioo to :|om oy aquooucts
|rom t|o surrounoinq moun:ains, ano .t |ovoo
|rom t|oir mout|s via an oaoorato.y timoo sys
tom o| c|anno|s .n t|o |oor.
lac| |our ono ion vouio proouco vator |rom its
mout|, qivinq t|o improssion o| 12 mont|s oapsinq
as t|ouq| t|oy voro :. |ours. !|o sonso o| timooss
noss croatoo vas |iq|y siqnincant, oocauso t|o
maqnincont paaco vas consiooroo as a paraoiso
on Lart|, ano timo in parao.so .s nonoxistont as t|o
ovo..ors :|oro ivo in otorna. |app.noss
t t|o ooqo o| t|is qroat |ountain is a poom
vritton oy on Zamra|. T|is praisos t|o ooauty
o| t|o |ountains ano t|o povor o| t|o |ions, out it
aso ooscrioos t|o.r inqonious |yorauic systoms
ano |ov t|oy actuay vor|oo, v|ic| |ao oamoo
a t|oso v|o sav t|om. To t|is oay t|o systom |as
romainoo oxacty t|o samo t is us: qravity ano
vator prossuro
The Banu Musa Brothers' Fountains
us.m onqinoors sont a ot o| timo ano o||ort
invontinq various vays o| roprosontinq vator ano
controinq t|o vay it |ovoo, oocauso vator is con
noctoo vit| laraoiso. Somo o| t|o most .nqonious
TOP: Water features and fountains are a soothing sight
in gardens across the world. BOTTOM: The Lion Fountain
at the Alhambra, Spain, is more than 650 years old. It
is believed that the 12 lions form a water clock. Water
used to spurt out of the lions in a consecutive manner
such that the water emerging from the first lion indi
cated one o'clock, and so on for each hour.
TO\IN: FOUN T:\ I NS ZZ
1mL 1mKLL dA5 L51TLL5 L LU N1A N dT 1mL dANU NU5A dKL1mLK5
1
he bal ance was a pi pe t hat carri ed the water from the mai n reservoi r and had two posi ti ons:
hori zonta l and rai sed. When hori zontal , water went from the reservoi r to the l eft tan k, wh i ch
fed pi pes that went t hrough to the bud maki ng a s pear- shaped fountai n. As thi s was ha ppeni ng,
s mal l contai ners attached to the arm of t he bal ance s l owl y f l l ed wi th water. These eventu al l y ti pped
the bal ance arm to its rai sed posi ti on. When ra i sed, water from the mai n reservoi r was chan nel ed
i nto the ta n k on the ri ght, feedi ng the s h i el d-sh a ped bud. The s mal l contai ners on the si de sl owl y
empti ed, u nt i l the bal ance returned to i ts hori zontal posi ti on and the process repeated over and
over as l ong as there was water i n the mai n reservoi r.
Ll | y bhi 0l d 5pear
An illustration shows the three main designs of fountain by the Banu Musa brothers.
joojo to oo t|.s voro t|o fan. usa orot|ors .n
t|o oary nint| cont.ry
1|oso orot|ors, Ja|ar .|ammao, |moo, ano
|Hasan, vroto :|o oo/ o/ !njcn:o.s Dcvccs,
v|ic| incuooo |ountains t|at conti n.ousy
c|anqoo t|o.r s|ajo lor t|o n.nt| contury, ano
oon :ooay, t|oso |o.ntains jroo.coo a sonso o|
mystic.sm ano amazomont Loca.so o| t|o.r sj|on
oor ano ar.oty o| vatory s|ajos
"Surely the God-fearing
shall be among gardens
and fountains."
QURAN (5 1 : 1 5)
|o lanu usa orot|ors |ounta. n oos.qns
voro |u| o| |ino toc|nooqy, ||o vorm qoar
.nq, aos, oaanco arms, ano vator ano vino
:uro.nos t|is s|ovoo t|oir comjotonco as
oos. qnors, ano as cra|tsmon T|o :|roo oasic
s|ajos voro s|.oo, sjoar, ano . y, ano a| t|roo
couo omorqo |rom t|o samo |ountaininoooo,
:|o mos: oroat|ta|inq |ounta.ns voro t|oso
:|a: cou| o c|anqo s|ajo, |rom a sjoar to a
s|. o| o ano oac| aqa.n, at corta.n intoras f.t
|. rst a arqo osso| o| vator |ao to oo jacoo
|iq| aooo t|o |.untain ano out o| siq|t, :o
qio it su||iciont joss.ro to oLta. n t|o oos.roo
vator s|ajo.
Somo |ounta. ns .soo vorm qoars ano a
c| oor |o|ov nao| ao, so ca|oo sinco it is
s|ajoo | .o a |.mans nao. lt vas t|is ao
t|at oiroctoo v|oro t|o vator vouo qo to jro
ouco v|ic| sjo.t.nq s|ajo
|o .so o| t|o vorm ano v|oo to transmit
motion |rom t|o |ovinq vator to t|o roo.nq
ji jo vas a ma or oaj |orvaro i n t|o .non
t i on o| contro systoms onq. noori nq, v|i c|
vas ossont ia |or t|o i nont.on o| a.tomatic
mac|inos our.nq t|o .noustria roo| ut. on
lountains tooay aro carryinq on :|is trao.
tion o| incorjoratinq t|o |atost |ino toc|no| oqy,
Lu: nov t|is inoos . .q|t ano music .n t.mo
v.t| ots o| va:or. mi| onni.m a:or, vator,
jus |uman .nqonui:y, .s sti| amazinq us
CHAPTER SEVEN
!|-ott|.ss|-t:.o-s.t-w|ot.s:ot,
|--v- t|-t|st|ott|-s:sowo,s
v-tt..otoott..:otstott| "
I BN HAZM, A TENTH-CENTURY
MAN OF LETTERS FROM CORDOBA, SPAIN
WORLD
i1.`+ .+ .+ `'`' `.+L.1 i`'^`.
\'\.i ^\.i` +.N1 ` .`l 7i1'` `.N\.+'`
`.N.1 `i1'.+'` \1'|.1 ''^^L`'.+ '`
. .`l .i'` `''.1 `'`' .`l ''`'^'`
TODAY, EVERYONE CAN EXPERIENCE A DIFFERENT COUNTRY FOR THE PRICE OF AN AIR TICKET,
but globe-trotting is not a modern concept. Even though they did not have planes, trains, or
automobiles, medieval Muslims were inspired to travel as pilgrims on the annual hajj to Mecca,
to gain knowledge, and for trade. They were renowned for discovering their world. From their
experiences we have comprehensive travel books that show us the medieval world in detail.
Medieval Muslims were also making observations and calculations about their surroundings to
make sense of their environment. Al-Biruni discussed the theory of the Earth rotating on its. own
axis 600 years before Galileo, while also explaining the ebb and fow of tides. Others noted why
the sky was blue, causes of rainbows, and size of the Earth's circumference. Communications
were improving and the desire of one sultan a thousand years ago to eat fresh cherries initiated
the birth of pigeon post, or mail. The previous century saw Al-Kindi laying the foundations for
code breaking, which led to passing secret messages in times of war. Open this chapter to sense
the global vision of pioneers of a thousand years ago.
OPPOSITE: Muslim explorers were renowned for their eyewitness accounts of the world in which they traveled.
228 1001 I Nv E NT I ONS: T i l E f:NDURI NG l. [; \CY Of `L l | l \ I LZ!\TI ON
. llA`|T APTH
T
here was a time when the idea of the world as a tilting, wobbling,
land-and-sea-covered molten globe spinning on its own axis, while
t racing an elliptical path around a nery orb, would have been an absurd
suggestion. Only through centuries of observation and experimentation by
succeeding civilizations can we now be sure that this is really the case, and
it is called planet Earth.
to|omy .n :z/:: vas amonq :|o oar|ios: :|.n|
ors in t|oso qroat oooa:os s a qroa: ast.onomor
ano mat|omatician o antiquity, |o os:imatoo t|o
c|anqo .n onq.t.oo o t|o :xoo stars :o oo aoou:
: o. con:.ry. o. o soconos ann.a.y, v|on |o
ooscriooo t|o :|on suosoo Lart|con:o:oo
systom o :|o un.o.so ooay, t|is
moomont is |novn as t|o ro
cossion o t|o oq..noxos,
ano is unoorsooo as :|o
la.t| s.ovy voooinq on
its rota:ion ax.s :|ro.q|
its oro.:, causoo oy t|o
qra.ta:iona u. . s o
t|o sun ano to moon
on t|o Lart| s oq.ato
r.a o.qo
`|a: vo a.so |nov
:ooay is t|a: oo. a cyc.
ca or. oo o ., /3/ yoars,
:.s vo||o inr.oncos t|o t.mo
at v|.c| :|o lar:| is cosos: :o ano
|a.t|ost .om :|o s.n, ano u.timato.y, .t a.so
a|octs t|o :iminq o :|o soasons !|.s a.so moans
t|o stars ano consto|ations sovy o.it vostvaro
usim astronomo.s ootainoo incroasinq.y acc.
ra:o |quros aoo.: :|o rocossion o| :|o oq..noxos
t|an lto|omy |ao |o .onovnoo :ont|con:ury
laq|oao astronomo. u|ammao a|lattani sa.o
.t vas : in oo yoars, o. soconos or annum,
o .,3. yoars or a comoto .o:a::on Ion Yunus.
v|o oioo .n .oo, saio .: vas .' .n /o yoars o. :
soconos or annum, or a ro:ation in z,:/ yoa.s
|is coma.os amazinqy vo| v.t| t|o .osontoay
nquro o aoout o./ soconos or ann.m or aoout
./3/ yoars or a comoto .o:a:.on
l: is :|o la.t|s ax.s t.too :o t|o ano
o| :|o o||ijt.ca or|.t :|a: is t|o
main causo o t|o soasons,
so, or oxamo, v|on t|o
Nor:|orn Homis|o.o .s
:i.:inq tova.o t|o sun,
vo a.o 1 summor
s t|o us|.ms ois
cussoo t|o |onom
onon o| soasons :|oy
vo.o a|so stuoy.nq
ano ca|cuatinq t|o
t.t o :|o la.t|
Liscoo.inq :|o oxact
ooq.oo o t. t |ocamo a
matto. |or intonso oo..oora:.on
amonq as:r:nomo.s ano ma:|oma
:icians in t|o cont..ios o.ovinq lto.omy
n t|o ato tont| contu.y, a Ta .istan mat|oma:i
cian ano astronomor namoo |.]ano. ou.t a
|uqo oosoratory in layy, noar 1o|.an, l.an, to
oLso.o a so.ios o| mor.o.an :rans.:s o :|o s.n
T|oso ot |im ca|c..ato, v.t| a |.q| ooqroo o ro
c.s.on, :|o :i.: o| :|o a.:|s axis .o|a:.o to t|o s.n
1ooay, vo |nov :|is tit .s a.oximato|y .',
ano |uanoi moasuroo it as ooinq z.' :
so |o vas qu.to coso Usinq t|is in|ormat.on |o
aso comji|oo a |ist o| atituoos ano |onqituoos o|
maor citios
contury oo|oro :|is oiscoory, t|o oniq|:
onoo n.nt|contury caij| amun onqaqoo
a qrouj o| us|.m astronomors to moasuro t|o
Lart|s circum|oronco T|oy oio it oy moasur
inq t|o l onqt| o| t|o torrostria ooqroo, v|.c|
t|oy |ouno to oo c,ccc raoian mios or ..., 3:z
i|omotors c// mios), v|ic| orouq|t t|o cir
cum|oronco to o,.. |.omo:ors z, o:z mi|os)
Tooay, vo nov t|o oxact |quro o| t|o ar:|s c.r
cum|oronco is o,oc3 o |.omoto:s z,3/ mios)
at t|o Lquator, ano o, ooo c |iomotors .,3
mios) t|rouq| t|o oos, so t|o astronomors voro
not |ar o|| oit|or
ll.runi, an :t|contury joymat|, saio v.t|
a touc| o| ory |umor Horo is anot|or mot|oo
|or t|o ootormination o| t|o circum|oronco o| t|o
Lart|. lt ooos not roqu.ro va||.nq in oosorts Ho
cacuatoo t|o nquro oy us.nq a |.q|y comjox
qoooosic oquat.on ano vroto it a uj .n |.s ooo
n :/c Dc:c:nc::on o/ :/c ooJ:nc:cs o/ ::.cs
\rORI f): l' LNf_ T L\ RTH
Lon lorqqron, a .ontomjorary vr.tor, saio lt
oouotoss qaooonoo al.runis |oart to s|ov t|a:
a simjo mat|omatica arqumont comoinoo vit|
a moasuromont couo oo as vo| as tvo toams o|
suroyors tramjinq aoout in t|o oosort
| l. runi s ooo| aso maoo a systomati c
ano ootaioo stuoy o| t|o moasuromonts c| t|o
Lartls sur|aco Ho moasuroo atituoos ano on
qituoos, ano ootorminoo t|o antijooos ano t|o
rounonoss o| t|o Lart| Ho vas a man qonuino|y
a|oao o| |is timo, ano oon o.scussoo t|o t|oory
o| t|o Lart| ro:a:.nq aoo.: i:s ovn axis coo yoars
oo|oro Ca.|oo
any ooucatoo usims, incuoinq l.runi,
at t|.s t.mo too| .t |or qrantoo t|at t|o Lart| vas
rouno lon Hazm, a tont|contury man o| ot
tors |rom Coroooa, sa.o, T|o Lart| is sj|or.ca
oosjito v|at is jojuary ooiooo t|o jroo|
is t|at t|o Sun .s avays ortica to a jarticu|ar
sjot on Lart| T|is .s anot|or oxamjo o| v|oro
usim sc.on:ists voro carry.nq out qrounoo:oa
inq rosoarc| t|at vas oasoo on oosorat.on ano
oxjorimontation rat|or t|an |oarsay ano myt|
5LA5LN5 L 1mLTLAK
M

Aut umnal Equ i nox


o!
roIaIion
Wi nter
Sol sti ce
N
7

o`

-
"/nj

Observing the seasons of the year


led Muslim scholars to study and
calculate the tilt of the Earth.
Vernal Equi nox
7

N
Summer
Sol sti ce
lOOI I NVENTI ONS: T H E. ENDURI NG lE GACY OF MUS LM CI V I LZATI ON
.2 APTH C| |`C|
M
uslim civilization was outstanding in its natural outlook toward the
universe, humanity, and life. Muslim scientists thought and wondered
about the origin of minerals, rocks, mountains, earthquakes, and water.
T|o anciont lqytians, osootamians, lnoians,
Croo|s, ano lomans |nov o| cortain variotios
o| minora, rocious stonos, ano qoms. ost o|
t|o anos o| t|oso ooo oocamo art o| t|o
lsamic Stato or Cali|ato. Cnco t|oir vritinqs on
qoms ano minoras, i|o othor suo]octs, |ao ooon
transatoo into raoic in tho |rst _OOyoars o| t|o
lslamic vorlo, uslim sciontists ano oxlorors
carrioo on t|o vor| ano rosoarc|
T|o onormous aroa t|at t|o lslamic vorlo cov
oroo moant that uslims couo stuoy ano oovolo
oart| scioncos not ony in t|o ooitorranoan aroa,
as t|o Croo|s |ao oono, out aso in luroo, sia,
ano |rica novooqo o| minoras, ants, ano
animas vas qat|oroo |rom aroas as |ar avay as
t|o alay lsanos ano orouq|t toqot|or in ooo|s
such as :thcontury schoar lon Sina's !/c oo/
o| .c, v|ic| vas ossontiay an oncycoooia o|
|iloso|y ano natura scioncos.
lon Sina, |novn as viconna in t|o 'ost, vas a
truo roouct o| usim civiization at t|o |oiq|t o|
its scionti|c qrovt|, out |o is oottor |novn :ooay
in mooicino ano |iloso|y t|an oart| scionco.
Hovovor, in |is oo/ o| .c t|oro is an imor
tant c|ator on minoraoqy ano motoorooqy,
v|oro |o rosontoo a comoto covoraqo o| t|o
|novooqo o| |is oay roqaroinq vhat |aons on
t|o lart|. Throuq| its latin trans|ation it oocamo
|novn in lonaissanco luroo, v|oro it vas a
sourco o| insiration to t|o |ounoors o| qoooq.
ca t|ouq|t in luroo, mon suc| as :t|contury
Loonaroo oa Vinci, :/:|contury Nicoas Stono,
ano :3t|contury Jamos Hutton
lon Si na vas no: t|o ony usim sc|oar
v|o vas us|inq t|o oounoarios o| |novlooqo
Early nth-century scholar Al-Biruni spent most of his
time studying in India, where he correctly identified the
sedimentary nature of the Ganges River Basin.
not|or oi q namo in t|o |.oo o| oart| scionco
vas li runi, v|o vas a cont omjorary o|
l on Sina
lorn i n |var.zm in /, |liruni cannot
oo cooroo oy ony ono | aLo jro|ossiona|y,
oocauso |o vroto jro.|icay i n many aroas,
inc| uoinq mat|omatics, astronomy, moo.c.no,
j|i|osoj|y, |.story, j|a:macy, ano oart| sc.onco
or minoraoqy
KLLLLN Z NL LLN5
Gems and minerals fascinated ancient peoples.
j
|
bought some raw pebbl es br ought
from I ndi a. | heated some of t hem, they
became more red. There were two very dark
pi eces, one was wi th reddi sh col or, the other
was l ess red. I put both pi eces i n a cruci bl e
and di rected the fl ame at them for a peri od
suffci ent to mel t so mithqal of gol d. I took
the pi eces after they cool ed. I noti ced that the
l ess red pi ece became purer wi th a rose red
col or. The other, deep red pi ece l ost i ts col or
and became l i ke Sara ndi b [ now Sri Lan ka]
quartz. | then exami ned t hi s l atter pi ece and
fou nd t hat i t was softer than t he yaqut [ru by]
. . . I concl uded: When redness is l ost wi th
h eati ng, the heated materi al i s not yaqut.
Thi s concl usi on can not be reversed; i . e. i f the
h eated materi al stays red it i s not necessari l y
yaqut, because i ron stays red afer heati ng. "
1 1 TH-CENTURY SCI ENTI ST AL -BI RUNI INVESTIGATING RUBI ES,
FROM HIS BOOK TREATISES ON HOW T RECOGNIZE GEMS
\CH|| l\ H1l | SC| l^Cl
awe must clear our mi nds . . .
from all causes
that blind people
to the truth-old custom,
party spirit,
personal rivalry or passi on,
the desire for i nfuence. "
AL -BI RUNI I N VESTIGES OF THE PAST
qroat ooa| o| |is timo vas sjont . n lno.a,
v|oro |o |oarnoo t|o anquaqo ano stuoioo t|o
jooj|o, roiq.on, ano jacos 1|is |o vroto uj in
|.s ast ooo| caoo /cc:c|cs c/Icc:c s vo| as
sjoa|inq Hi:o., |o aso |:ov Croo|. Sans|rit, ano
Syriac, at|ouq| |o vroto a| |.s Loo|s in o:sian
ano rao.c H.s timo in lno.a moant |o |oo|oo
intonty at its natura| |istory ano qoooqy, ano |o
co:rocty ooscr.Loo t|o sooimo:tary naturo o| t|o
Canqos lasin H.s qroat minoraoqica| vor| vas
ca|oo !cc::scs oc How :o Rcccjc:zc cs, ano
it maoo |im a oaoinq sc.ontist in t|.s aroa.
Ct|or sc|oars maoo t|oir contr.Lut.o: to t|o
sc.onco vo nov |:ov as qoooqy
Ya|ya .Ln asavay| o.oo 3/) v:oto cs
ccc !/c: iopc::cs |inoi oioo aoout 3/)
vroto t|roo monoqraj|s, t|o oost o| v|ic|
vas cs ccc :/c !: /cs Lut v|. c| is nov ost.
Hamoani, a tont|contury sc|oa:, vroto t|roo
Loo|s on :ao.a .n v|ic| |o ooscriooo mot|oos
o| oxjoration |or qoo, s.o:, ano ot|o: minoras
a:o qoms a|o:q v.t| t|oir jrojortios ano oca
t.ons T|o tont|contury qrouj o| sc|oars |nov:
as '//wcc c|'c/c t|o lrot|ors o| ur.ty) vroto
an oncycojoo.c vor| t|at .ncuooo a jart on
minoras, osjoc.ay t|oir cassi|cation

C| t|o ono:mous numoor o| vor|s v:.tton on


t|o suL]oct o| minoras, stonos, a:o qoms, nuc,
|as ooon ost, out a |ov vor|s |ao surioo ano
aro nov .n jrint
1001 J NV L NT J ONS: T H E LNDURI NC l |+ \+ .| \LS | |'\ CJ VJ L I Z.\ TJ ON
. `ATLPAl lH|`CV|`A
t is children who usually ask us the difcult questions: "Why is the sky blue?"
"Where does the rainbow end?" "Why does the sea lap at the sand?" Today,
we take much of the natural world around us for granted, but Muslim minds
of the ninth century were thinking deeply about these questions out of a curi
osity to understand their surroundings, and Allah's creation motivated them.
lo|oro ano at t|o t.mo o| .on Hazm, v|o vas
a tont|con:ury man o| .ot:ors rom Coroooa,
astro oqors oo i ooo :|a: stars ano j. ano: s
|ao sou. s ano minos ano t |at t|oy .n..uoncoo
joojo l|n Hazm too| a moro jraqma:ic iov
ano sa.o, |o stars aro co|ost.a. |oo.os v.t| no
mino or sou 1|oy noit|or |nov t|o uturo nor
aoct joojo 1|oir o|oc: on jooj. o |ovoor
can oo t|rouq| :|oir j|ysica c|aractoristics
suc| as :|o o||oct o t|o sun s |oat ano rays on
:|o jano:s ano t|o ooct o| :|o moon on :|o
tioos o soas
not|or sc|oar o t|o .:|contury l.run.,
oxj.ainoo t|at t|o incroaso ano oocroaso in t|o
|o.q|t o :|o o|os o t.oos occurroo .n cycos on
t|o oas.s o| c|anqos in :|o j|asos o| t|o moon
Ho qao a ory iio ooscr.jt.on o :|o :ioo a:
Somna:|, a c.:y .n lnoia, ano tracoo it :o t|o moon
s t|oy s:uoioo t|o |oaons, somo sc|o.ars,
i|o ..inoi, common:oo on t|o |.uonoss o| t|o
s|y Ho o.o t|.s .n a s|ort troat.so vit| a onq t.:o
!cc::sc cn :/c c..c cc|c w/:c/ :s sccn :n :/c c:
:n :/c c:cc::cn c/ :/c /ccvcns cnc :s :/c.j/: :c
/c :/c cc|c c/ :/c /ccvcns oro simj.y, |o vas
to..nq jooj.o v|y :|o s|y vas ouo .no. saio
t|at .t vas ouo :o t|o mixturo o t|o oar|noss o|
t|o s|y vit t|o iq|t o| t|o a:oms o oust ano
ajor in :|o air, i.umina:oo oy t|o iq|: o :|o
sun H.s voros ..|o :|o onq:| o| :|o :it.o, oxja.n
.: u|y T|o oar| air a|oo us .s .sio.o oy :|oro
ooinq minqoo vit| it rom :|o iq|t o t|o lart|
ano t|o iq|. o t|o stars a coor m.ovay ootvoon
oar|noss ano iq|:, v|ic| is :|o |.uo coor lt .s o.
oon: t|on t|at t|.s coor is not :|o coor o| t|o s|y,
ou: moro.y somo:|inq v|.c| sujoronos ujon
our siq|t v|on |.q|t ano oar|noss oncountor it.
T|is is us: .i|o v|at sujoronos ujon our siq|t
v|on vo oo| rom oo|.no a transjaront cooroo
The moon looks larger than normal against a cityscape
in this photo illustration. Ibn alHaytham studied and
explained the visual effect of why the moon appears
larger than it is, concluding it is an optical illusion.
torrostria| oooy at or.q|t ooocts. as .n t|o sunr.so,
|or vo soo :|om v.:| t|o.r ovn coors minqoo
v.t| t|o coors o| t|o transaront oo]oct, as vo !:o
v|on vo oo| |rom oo|ino a .oco o| qass. |or vo
soo v|at is |oyono o| a co|or ootvoon t|at o| t|o
qass ano t|at o| t|o oo]oct roqa:ooo
inoi vas on t|o riq|t inos, |or t|o s|y is not
roaly |uo. in sito o| t|o con|usoo ano imossioo
iovs :|at assoo |or |novooqo. oon in |iq|y
ooucatoo c.rcos in |is timo Ho couo comoto vit|
t|oso .ovs oocauso |o vas a viooy roao man ano
oxcooo in sc.onco. mat|omatics ano music, ano
vas a |ys.cian in nint|contury laq|oao
lon aHayt|am aso von: aqains: t|o conon
tiona visoom o| |is oay lt vas c t|ousano yoars
aqo in Ca.ro t|at |o vas acoo unoor |ouso arrost
oocauso |o couo not roquato t|o |ov o| t|o Nio
as t|o cai| |ao as|oo |im to oo Ho |nov t|at
i| t|o anc.ont lqytians |ao not ooon a|.o to oo
it. t|on noit|or vou|o |o To sao |is s|.n ano
continuo |is stuoios. |o rotonooo to |o mao
!|o |ouso arrost su.too |im oocauso i: moant :|at
|o co..o concontra:o a |is timo on oosorinq
t|o rays o| iq|t t|at camo t|rouq| |oos in |is
vinoov s|uttors
T|o timo |o |ao |or oosoration ano oxori
montation moant |o couo oxain |onomona
i|o rainoovs, |ao o||octs. ano v|y t|o sun ano
moon soom to qrov in sizo v|on t|oy noar t|o
|or.zon Ho sa.o .t vas t|o o||oct o| t|o atmo
s|oro t|at incroasoo t|o aaron: s|zo usun
or moon as t|oy noaroo t|o |orizon, aooinq t|at
t|o incroasoo sizo vas a isual tric| ayoo oy t|o
|rain Ho s|ovoo t|at it vas t|rouq| atmos|oric
ro|raction t|at t|o iq|t o| t|o sun roac|os us, oon
v|on t|o sun is as muc| as : ooqroos ooov t|o
|orizon. ano on t|is oasis |o cac.a:oo t|o |oiq|t
o| t|o atmos|oro at ton m.os
ama aL.n a.laris., v|o oioo in arouno ::.
rooatoo ano imrooo on lon a.Hayt|ams vor|
oy oosorinq t|o at| o| t|o rays in t|o intorior
o| a qass s|oro Ho |ooo to ootormino t|o
\\ CHl l '\1Lll| | ' l | l'C.\ | ':\
Moon
Sun
Neap tide
%
Spring tides
*
TOP: The gravitational pull of the moon causes the
rise and ebb of tides, as described by Al-Biruni in the
early 11th century. BOTTOM: About the same time as
Al-Biruni, Ibn al-Haytham was describing the phenom
enon of rainbows.
ro|raction o| solar iq|t t|rouq| rainoros. ano |is
h noinqs onaooo |.m to oxain t|o |ormat.on o|
r.mary ano soconoary ra.noovs, v|ic| is osson
:iay t|o sit:inq u o| v|ito iq|t oy a r.sm
So noxt timo a c|io as|s you `|y` mayoo
toinq |im or |or aoout t|o vor| o| t|oso mooi
oa usims vouo oo a qooo startinq oint |or
a orsona ]ournoy o| oiscoory
l!\l l ``l ` 1l \`- 1 | | l l ` l C |` l `l |l\.\' L| `L Il `l 'l \ l || ZJ | \`
. \|CCPlHY
T
ravelers, explorers, and merchants: People living in Muslim civilization
were outward-looking, observing and recording their surroundings
near and far. Their interest in geography was partly due to the environ
ment in which they lived. They had to move, along with their precious focks
and herds, in search of fresh and better pastures, so knowledge of their sur
roundings including that of plants and wild animals was vital. In these circum
stances, the science of geography developed as a practical necessity.
!|o |oy jiqrimaqo, or t|o |a]], vas aso a au
a|. o sourco o| matoria| any j.qrims usoo
voroo|mout| accounts o| routos to occa ano
ooina, as t|oy camo |rom oistant roqions !|oso
voro ator jut in vritton |orm, so trao quioos
jassoo on to ot|ors |ojinq t|om on t|o .onq ano
oimcut ournoy o| t|oir |oy jiqrimaqo |rom a
cornors o| t|o usim voro
!|o or.ontation o| t|o mosquos tovaro occa
vas anot|or .mjotus to st.oy qooqraj|y, as vas
t|o nooo to nov t|o o.roction o| t|o a |a|
in occa |or oa.y jrayors lina|y, vars ano
inasions ano t|o jo|itica ano aoministratio
roq.iromonts o| t|o oxjanoinq us im voro
croatoo anot|or o. monsi on i n t|o soarc| |or
qooqraj|ica| |novooqo
`it| t|o oooojmont o| moro accurato astron
omy ano mat|omatics, q.ant stojs voro maoo
in t|o jroqross o| qooqraj|ica stuoy, as maj
jottinq Locamo ono o| its rosjoctoo |ranc|os
|varizmi, a nint|cont.ry lorsian sc|oar,
vas ono o| t|o oariost scionti! c ooscrijtio qooq
raj|ors ano a |iq|y taontoo mat|omatician
His |amous |oo|, /c !o o/ :/c c:/, insj.roo
a qonoration o| vritors .n laq|oao ano us|im
Sjain, or noaus, to unoart|, anayzo, ano
rocoro qooqraj|.ca oata
not|.r qooqraj|or namoo Su|raL, at t|o
|oqinninq o| t|o tont| contury, vroto a |oo|
ooscriLinq ar.ous soas, isanos, a|os moun
tains, ano riors o| t|o voro H. s no:os on t|o
luj|ratos, !iqr.s, ano N.o aro ory siqnincant,
v|io |is account o| t|o canas o| laq|oao is t|o
main |as.s |or t|o roconstruction o| t|o mooioa
jan o| t|at city !|.s roconstruction vas oono
Geographical knowledge developed i n Muslim societies
through travel.
in :3 oy Cuy o Stranqo, v|o incorroc:y roao
Su|rao's namo as :|at o| a vonovn |ysician
namoo lon Sarao.yun ,or in Latin, lon Soraion)
o Stranqo aso usoo vor| oy aYaquoi, v|o vas
|rom t|o nint| contury, in |is roconstruction !|o
tvo toxts, Su|rao's account o| t|o vator systom
notvor| ano aYa'quois ooscrition o| t|o |iq|
vays cominq |rom laq|oao, comomontoo oac|
ot|or ory vo.
Iuqaooasi vas a tont|contury us.m
qooqra|or Ho :raooo t|rouq|out t|o us
i m voro, oosorinq, corrooora:inq, voiq|inq
ano si|tinq oioonco, ta|inq notos ano vrit.nq
!|o ou:como o| yoars o| trao vas cs: D:v:
s: cns /c !ncw|ccjc o/ :/c Rcj:cns, como:oo
. n 3 lt aoaoo :o a arioty o| ooo v|i.o
aso ooi nq an ontort a. n. nq roao Li|o many
oo|oro ano a|tor |im, |is roasons |or sc|oary
rosoarc| voro oi.no ins.ra:ion `|at |o ro
oucoo vou.o oo a vay o| qottinq to |nov Coo
oottor, ano |o vouo aso rocoio ] ust rovaro
|or |is onooaor is qroat ooo| croatoo t|o
systomatic |ounoation o| usim qooqra|y,
WOR L D: G E. OGRAI HY
as |o in:rooucoo qooqra|ic tormi nooqy, t|o
arious mot|oos o| o.is.on o| t|o lart|, ano
t|o auo o| omirica. oosoration
no o| t|o oar.ost !ur|.s| qooqra|ors vas
a|muo aas|q|ari, v| vas a.so a vo.|novn
oxicoqra|or Ho orov a vor.o ma, v|.c| oo|oo
unusua ano ci rcuar, on a . nquistic oasis t
aoars in |is mastor.oco vor|, a :roatiso on
qrammar caoo cpcnc:. c/ !./:s/ D:c.cc:s,
comotoo in :o/ I consiooraoo ortion o| Con
tra Isia as vo. as C|ina ano Nort| I|r.ca voro
aso incuooo, out ..:to ooyono t|o Voqa in :|o
vost !|is is or|as oocauso it vas oravn oo|oro
t|o !ur|s ooqan to moo vos:
n t|o Dt| ano :.t| conturios, tvo us..m vri:
ors, I.lar. ano lon Juoayr, cooc:oo ano coatoo
t|o in|ormation assomo|oo oy t|oir rooocossors
into an oasiy o.qos:ioo |ormat !|o |rst o| :|om
vas t|o son o| :|o qoornor o| t|o ro.nco o|
Huoa ano Sa|tos .n Sain I.la|ri vas an imor
tant m.nistor at t|o court o| Soio v|o unoortoo|
soora. oi.oma:.c miss.ons Los.to |is ousy om
c.a outios, |o vas an accom.s|oo sc|oar ano
5UKVLTI NL
Surveying is a vital part of
construction today.
H
oman surveyors used a si mpl e tri angul ar l evel wi th a pl umb
l i ne t o " bal ance or equal i ze t he l and, " a tech ni que conti nued
i n Mus l i m and Chri sti an Spai n .
What the Romans di d not have was tri angul at i on, whi ch i s
a method sti l l used today i n surveyi ng and mapmaki ng. I t was
i ntroduced from the East in the astrol abe treatises of two Musl i m
Spani sh schol ars, Masl ama and I bn ai - Saffar, and Masl ama' s work
was transl ated i nto Lati n by J ohn of Sevi l l e i n the 1 2th centu ry.
A tenth-century book cal l ed Geometria gave detai l s of a vari ety
of tri angu l ati on procedures that coul d be used with an astrol abe,
especi al l y for produci ng strai ght boundari es to l arge areas of l and.
As today, teams of su rveyors carry out the chal l engi ng projects l i ke
surveyi ng i rri gati on canal s. I n ai -Andal us, these teams were cal l ed
muhandis, and in eastern Spai n they were known as soguejador
Today, tri angu l ati on is sti l l used to determi ne the l ocati on of an
unknown poi nt by usi ng the l aws of pl ane tri gonometry, but with the
hel p of advanced technol ogy, such as the Gl obal Posi ti oni ng System.
.~
An artist's rendering shows Al-Idrisi in the court of
Roger !of Sicily, with his circular map that showed he
knew that the world was spherical.
ossayist. Ho vroto an imjortant qooqraj|ica
vor| oootoo to t|o raoian oninsua, incuo
.nq t|o namos o| arious j acos Ro.:c cnc
!. njccs vas aj|aooticay arranqoo, incuo
inq t|o namos o| iaqos, tovns, aoys. ano
monumonts His ot|or ma]or vor| vas an oncy
cojooic troatmont o| t|o ontiro |novn voro
lon Juoayr o| Vaoncia, v|o vas socrotary
to t|o qoornor o| Cranaoa, Sjain, vas ono o|
t|oso v|o |aoituay roco:ooo |is |a]] ournoys
to occa T|oso /ooyoaroo trao ooo|s voro
o.rnas, q|inq a ootaioo account o| t|o oastorn
ooitorranoan voro His i:inorar.os ano roao
ooo|s a vont vo ooyono t|o scionco o| qooq
raj|y to incuoo ootany, cuinary in|ormation,
ano trao aoico
ln usim Sjain, t|o jassi on |or |oojinq
traooquos t|rioo, ano t|is insjiroo t|o com
jiation o| t|o most comjro|ons|o voro atas
o| t|o timo, oy t|o |i q|ly colooratoo sc|ol ar
lor|si Ho vas commi ssi onoo oy t|o Nor
man ||nq o| Sic.y. loqor ll, in :: to como
|rom Coroooa to Sici|y ano ma|o a maj |or t|o
|inq Ho sjont : yoars on t|is, on]oyinq oxatoo
status a: t|o ||nqs aormo court, in:oriovinq
t|ousanos o| traoors ano jrooucinq /o accu
rato majs, incluoinq somo torritorios jroiousy
unc|artoo
H|s vor| vas oasoo on t|at oono oy jroio.s
aut|ors as vo as on in|ormation |o qat|oroo
in Siciy s vo.. as roitorat.nq t|o |act t|at t|o
lart| vas a q|ooo, |o aso saio t|at t|o Lar:|
romainoo staoo in sjaco i|o t|o yo| o| an
oqq,' v|io qiinq accounts o| t|o |omisj|oros,
cl imatos, soas. ano qu|s His vor| sjocincay
containoo a mino o| oxco|.ont in|orma:ion aoout
:|o moro romoto arts o| s.a ano |r.ca
ln t|o ::| contury, Yaqut aHamavi :ouroo |rom
osu in lraq to oo .n Syria, ano :|o: a|os:.no,
Lqyt, ano lorsia Cny |our o| |.s vor|s |avo sur
v.voo unti. tooay. T|o oost |novn is |is Dc:.occ,
A bPmLKI LAL LLLdL
"

rab sci enti sts had l ong known t hi s


[that t he earth was round] but Eu ro
peans sti l l c l u n g to t he bel i ef t hat i t was
fl at . . . He [AI - I dri si ] al so i ncl uded a travel
gui de and map, surpr i si n gl y accurate for jO
years before Col umbus. I t descri bed Engl and
as ' gri pped i n perpetual wi nter. ' . . . I t i s an
essenti al i ngredi ent i n thi s I sl ami c schol ar
s hi p that hel ped shape European ci vi l i zati on. "
RAGEH OMAAR I N THE BBC' S AN ISLAMIC HISTRY OF
EUROPE ON 1 2TH-CENTURY GEOGRAPHER AL -I DRI SI
Muslim geographers agreed the world was round and
made detailed measurements ofthe globe.
\\ OR l . D: GEO() R. \ I' I I Y
"Wi dely recognised as bei ng
the greatest si ngle work of
geography i n the medieval era,
{Al-Idrisi 's book] also i ncluded a
travel gui de and map,
surprisingly accurate for __Oyears
before Columbus. It described
England as 'gripped i n perpetual
wi nter' . . . It is an essential
ingredient i n this Islamic
scholarship that helped shape
European civilization. "
RAGEH OMAAR IN THE BBC' S
AN ISLAMIC HISTRY OF EUROPE
o/ o.n::cs .: .s a vast qooqra|ica oncycoooia,
v|.c| summoo .j noar|y a moo.ova| |novooqo
o| t|o |novn voro, .nc.o.nq arc|aoo|oqy. ot|noq
ra|y, |.story, ant|roooqy, natura sc.oncos, ano
qooqra|y, ano qao cooro.natos |or ovory aco
Ho ooscriooo ano namoo most tovns ano cit
ios, qivi nq ootais o| t|oir ovory monumont,
ano t|oir oconomy, |i story, ouation, ano
oaoinq nquros
Li|o many aroas o| scio:co, toc|nooqy. ano
art, t|o ist o| orsonait.os ooo.catoo to t|o s:uoy
o| qooqra|y .s immonso any o| :|om struc
out into :|o voro :o qat|o. .n|orma:ion |rst|ano,
to quonc| a t|irst |or |novooqo ano unoorstano
inq, to sato t|oir curiosity, ano to loavo in|or
mation t|at vouo |o ot|ors !ooay, vo |avo
qossy maqazinos ano !V sa:oito c|anno|s to
oxorionco our vor.o t|ouq| somo oo| o
unoouotooy travo |or |oasuro, vo o|ton oarn
ano unoorstano t|rouq| ro|ossionas |rom our
armc|airs, u:i|o :.oso |rom :|o |ast mionnium
v|o voro quiooo oy curios.ty ano |ait| to ma|o
sonso o| t|oir surrounoinqs
A| | Dk| 8| ' 8wCk|DuA
N L LN P
|LLLPL |LooLPo
The First Map to Show Europe, Asia, and North Afica
LEGACY: Wth h5 m8the mo5t8ccur8te oh5 d8y, A dr5 o hed 8 oh_ he
o5k ed m8m8ker5 h Nu5 m c 8toh
LOCATI ON: bcy
DATE: 1 2th cehtury
KEY FI GURES: Adr 5 , Nu5 m5cho8r, 8hd K h_ Ko_er , Norm8h kh_ obcy
P
thousand years ago, accurate pl ans of countri es, conti nents, and waterways were
unknown. But as more peopl e began to travel the world for trade, expl orati on, and rel i
gi ous reasons, the demand for good maps i ncreased.
Some of the worl d' s most preci ous maps were drawn by great schol ars of Musl i m civi l i za
ti on, who assembl ed al l the geographi cal knowledge avai l abl e to them. They al so drew on
eyewi tness accounts of the medi eval worl d, whi ch ofen came from Musl i m geographers and
travelers who kept detai l ed di ari es as they j ourneyed.
I n the 1 2th century, schol ar Al - l dri si produced an atlas showi ng most of Europe, Asia, and
North Africa for the frst ti me. Al most 850 years ol d, the map was created centuri es before
Marco Pol o or Col umbus expl ored the worl d. Al- l dri si ranged wi del y, drawi ng on ol der knowl
edge and i nterviewi ng thousands of travel ers to make hi s map the most accurate of its day.
The Arabic text shows that Al - l dri si drew the map with the south to the top and north to the
bottom, as was customary then.
The map was commi ssi oned by Roger I I of Si ci ly, a Norman ki ng who had recently over
thrown the Musl i m rul ers. Nonethel ess, he i nvited Al - l dri si , who was at that ti me l i vi ng i n
Spai n, to make the map for hi m-a task that woul d take 1 5 years. Twel fh-century Si ci l y was
a gl obal crossroads for cul ture and ideas, and Al - l dri si became a respected member of the
ki ng' s court, before fnal l y returni ng to hi s home i n Morocco.
Al - l dri si drew I ndi a, Arabi a, Asi a, the Mediterranean, Europe, and northern Africa on a ci r
cul ar map, and made a l arge, si l ver pl ani sphere for l<i ng Roger. Peopl e had accepted that the
Earth was spherical si nce anci ent Greek ti mes, and Musl i m schol ars made detai l ed measure
ments of the gl obe. I n Al - l dri si ' s wri ti ngs, he cal cul ated that the Earth' s ci rcumference was
22, 900 mi l es at the Equator, about 1 0 percent adrif from the modern fgure. He al so wrote
about the hemi spheres of the Earth, its cl i matic zones, the seas, and gulfs.
I n earl y Musl i m ci vi l izati on, measuri ng and charti ng the Earth' s features was a key ai m
of mathemati cal geography and schol ars used sophi sticated astrol abes to hel p assess
hei ght and di stance. I n the ni nth century, Cal i ph AI - Ma' mun had commi ssi oned hi s astrono
mers to determi ne the Earth' s ci rcumference, which they did to withi n 1 25 mi l es of the fgure
we accept today.
240 !! I N \TNTI ONS: T H E E NDUR I NG LLG.ACY OF ."' US UM CI \' I L I ZATI ON
`AlS
M
aps have been helping people fmd their way for about _, _OO years,
with the earliest inscribed on clay tablets. The introduction of paper
enabled a leap forward in mapmaking, but the most recent carto
graphical revolution was with the development of Geographic Information
Systems, or GIS. This meant that in l,_ the nrst computerized, large-scale,
digitized maps appeared in the United Kingdom, and by l_, most of the
industrialized world was completely digitized.
lo|oro t|is mooo.n toc|nooqy, v|ic| .sos a
sys:om o| sato.utos ano roco.ors to comj.to jos.
t.ons on t|o Lart| majs voro |oinq maoo |rom
traoors ano ji.qr.ms accounts
T|o :rao |uq o.: soont|con:ury usims,
ano :|oy ooqan to oao t|oi. |omos |o. :.aoo ano
roiqious roasons, to oxj.oro t|o voro t|oy |ioo
.n T|oy va.|oo rou:os, somo:imos s.mjy qat|o.
inq |nov.ooqo aoout nov jacos ano v|on t|oy
.o:urnoo qao acco.nts o| :|o vays t|oy |ao :.oo
oon ano t|o joojo ano s.q|ts t|oy |ao oncoun
toroo i.st t|is vas |y vo.o o| mout|, out vit| t|o
introouction o| jajor to oiq|t|contury laq|oao,
t|o |.st majs ano trao q.ioos couo oo jrooucoo
lojorts voro commiss.onoo |y :|o o|asio
ca.j|s to |oj t|o.r jostmastors ooior mos
saqos to aoorossos v.t|in t|o.r omj.ro T|oso
acco.nts maoo uj t|o oo/ o/ Ro.:-s, ano t|is
oncouraqoo moro intonsio in|ormat.on qat|
orinq aoo.t |aravay j.acos ano |oroiqn anos,
inc..oinq t|o.r j|ysica |anoscajos. jroouc:ion
caja|i.:ios, ano commo.c.a. acti.tios
`|io usims voro oxjorinq t|o voro, in
Lurojo. |ov, oxcojt.nq :|o V.|.nqs oiq|t|::|
conturios). voro trao..nq suc| ois:ancos ano
t|o ao.aqo Lurojoans |nov.ooqo o| :|o voro
arouno t|om vas ..m.:oo to :|o.. .oca aroa, vit|
rajs usuay jrooucoo oy roiq.ous au:|oritios
|o qroa: E.ojo-n o:j|oro.s o| t|o :_t| ano .ct|
contu.ios vouo j.ooa|.y not |ao sot o||, voro .:
not |or t|o qooq.aj|ors ano majma|ors o| t|o
lsam.c vor|o
1|o majs vo |ao tooay aro .n t|o styo oi
L.rojoan majs o.t t|oy a.o ony a |ov cont.r.os
oo |o `nort|' t|at is conont.onay at :|o toj
o| a maj is arti|cia, |ocauso L.rojoan :aiqators
s:ar:oo usinq t|o Nor:| Sta. ano t|o maqnotic
comjass |or naiqation lo|oro t|at. t|o toj o|
:|o maj on lu.ojoan majs vas to t|o oast, v|ic|
.s v|oro t|o vo.o o.ion:ation' comos |rom. ln
moo.oa Lurojo. Jorusaom vas .s.ay j.acoo
a: t|o toj or .n t|o contor. oocauso t|at vas t|o
Hoy Lano
s. qni |i can: o. ||oronco |otvoon s ami c
majs ano Lurojoan onos vas t |at us| i ms
.s.ay orov t|om vit| t|o sout| |ac.nq .jvaro
ano nort| oovnvaro `it| usim oooojmont
o| moro accurato as:ronomy ano mat|omatics.
maj jottinq |ocamo a rosjoctoo oranc| o| sc.
onco, ano as |a. as us.ms voro concornoo, t|o
majs `ostorn cartoqraj|ors orov ator on voro
ujsioo oovn. vit| t|o no.t| |acinq ujvaro ano
sout| oovnvaro
ln ... sc|o.ars vor|.nq in 1.r|oys oj|aji
laaco usoum o.scooroo a soction o| an oary
:ct|contury maj o| t|o voro siqnoo oy a T.r|
is| cajtain namoo iri .|n Ha]]i o|ammoo lo.s
moan:nq aomira.) oa:oo u|a..am . ,= or
({Columbus studied Arabi c
maps . . . wi thout Jewi sh
or Muslim expertise
)
Spai n
would not have become the
greatest coloni al power i n
1 6th-century Europe. )
)
RAGEH OMAAR ON THE BBC' S
AN ISLAMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE
:: C. E. T|is ma is |novn as t|o |amous a
o| morica, ano vas maoo ony z: yoars a|tor
Coum|us roac|oo t|o Nov `orlo
`|on t|o iri lois ma vas o.scovoroo, t|oro
vas qroat oxcitomont vorovioo, |ocauso o| its
connoction vit| a nov lost ma maoo |y Coum
|us ourinq |is t|iro voyaqo to t|o Nov `oro
ano sont to Sain in i3 ln an inscrition in
t|o aroa o| lrazi, iri lois saio T|is soction
oxains |ov t|o rosont ma vas comosoo. No
ono |as ovor ossossoo suc| a ma. T|is oor
man |imso|] constructoo it vit| |is ovn |anos,
usinq zo roqiona mas ano somo vorlo mas,
t|o attor incuoinq ono ra| ma o| lnoia,
|our mas roconty maoo |y t|o ortuquoso
t|at s|ov a|.stan, lnoia, ano C|ina oravn |y
moans o| mat|omatica ro]oction, as voll as a
ma o| t|o `ostorn arts oravn |y Coum|us
T|o coasts ano isianos o| t|o Nov `oro]
on t|is ma aro ta|on |rom Coum|us's ma
No ot|or tracos o| t|o mas maoo |y Coum|us
|avo |oon |ouno
Vory rocontly, a voro ma |y t|o usim C|i
noso aomira Z|onq Ho vas oiscovoroo lt oatos
|ac| to :.:3 `o oo not |nov v|ot|or iri lois
|ao como across it.
C|arlos Haqooo, in icc, suqqostoo t|at t|o
iri lois ma s|ovs ntarctica o/ yoars |o|oro
it vas oiscovoroo') Nov t|ouq|, t|is t|oory |as
|oon t|orouq|y oiscrooitoo, ano it sooms moro
i|oy t|at it is t|o Sout| morican coastino,
WORL D: t\1\ J'S ZqI
v|ic| |as |oon |ont to con|orm to t|o animal
s|in arc|mont on v|ic| t|o ma vas oravn
so s|ovn on t|o ma aro t|o noos ountains
o| Sout| morica, v|ic| voro aqair: |rst soon |y
Saniaros in iz/, : yoars a|tor t|o ma's roouc
tion T|is |raqmont o| t|o :: vorlo ma s|ovs
t|o ao]acont coasts o| Sain, ano `ost |rica vit|
t|o Nov `oro, ano vas oravn on a qazolo s|in
iri lois oio not sto t|oro, |ut maoo a socono
voro ma in iz3, o| v|ic| a|out onosixt| |as
survivoo T|is covors t|o nort|vostorn art o| t|o
tantic, s|ovinq t|o Nov `oro |rom Vonozuoa
to Nov|ounoano, as vol as t|o sout|orn ti o|
Croonano Historians |avo |oon amazoo |y t|o
ric|noss o| t|o ma, ano roqrot t|at ony a |raq
mont o| t|o |rst vorlo ma vas |ouno T|o soarc|
|or t|o ot|or arts |as romainoo |ruitoss
From the seventh century on, Muslims have undertaken
the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, journeying thousands
of miles on horseback, by camel, or on foot. With the
introduction of paper, eighth-century hajj pilgrims
could produce maps to guide others.
Z/Z 1 001 1 \ E N I I ONS: Tl E f NDli RI NC l f. G:\U Of .\I U S LI .\\ CI V I LJ Z,\TI ON
LEFT: Christopher Columbus. RIGHT: A replica of
Christopher Columbus's flagship, the Santa Marfa.
So v|o vas :|.s .r. lois, ano v|y is |is con
trioution to mama||nq aosont |rom so many
|istory ooo|s
.ri lois vas oorn arouno :c in Caioi, ano
ooqan |.s mar.:imo |.|o unoor t|o commano o|
|is i|ust.ious unc.o, oma lois, tovaro t|o ono
o| t|o :t| contury Ho |ouq|t many naal oattos
aonqsioo |is unco, ano oocamo a naa com
manoor, oaoinq t|o ttoman |oot t|at |ouq|t
:|o o.:.quoso .n t|o loo Soa ano lnoian coan
l n ootvoon |is vars, |o rotiroo to Caioi
to ooiso |is nrst voro ma, |is !/c :oo/ o/
Scc Loc a manua o| saiinq oiroctions), ano a
socono vor|o ma in :z3 ysto.y s.rro.nos
|is onq si|onco ootvoon :z3, v|on |o maoo t|o
socono o| t|o tvo mas, ano |is roaoaranco in
t|o mio:ct| contury as a catain o| t|o ttoman
noot . n :|o loo Soa ano :|o noian coan sao
ono camo to iri lois, as |o vas oxocutoo oy t|o
ttoman sutan |or osinq a critica naa oatto.
Li|o a lot o| t|o in|ormation in t|is ooo| a|out
:oo: lnontions, no: m.c| o| it |as roac|oo t|o
rosont uo|ic, o.|as oocauso luroo |as con
contratoo on its ovn |istory, unsooinq its ovn
oramatic storios o| ocoan oyaqos, o.scoorios, ano
commorc.a ano co|on.a om.ros 1uris| mas
voro qion itto attontion, or vronqy ca||oo lta|ian
lut in actua |act, 1ur|is| nautica scionco
vas a|oao o| its :imo `it| ir. lois roson:inq
|is Nov `oro ma to t|o ttoman sutan in
::/, t|o 1ur|s |ao an accurato ooscr.tion o| t|o
moricas ano t|o circumnaiqat|on o| |rica vol
oo|oro many soa|ar.nq lurooans.
or|as t|o mos: amazinq ma o| t|o voro .s
t|at o| i acar lois, maoo in :c/, v|.c| oo.cts
t|o voro in suc| |ino ootai t|at it rosomoos
mooornoay mas ano vo can amost vonoor i| i
acar lois vas oo|inq at t|o lart| |rom t|o moon
:|o. .mor:an: mas .nc|uoo /o .oqiona mas
t|at .loris. maoo |or t|o Norman |inq. loqor ll, in
Siciy, v|ic| toqot|or maoo u an atas o| t|o voro
as it vas t|on |novn Ho intoriovoo t|ousanos
o| trao|ors. roo.cinq acc.rato mas c|artinq
roiousy unoocumontoo tor.i:orios lor t|roo
conturios, qooq.a|ors coioo |is mas vit|out
atoration oro can oo roao a|out t|is |ascinatinq
man .n t|o Naiqation soct|on o| :|.s c|ato.
WORL D: \\ r\ 1'5
A map by Turkish admiral Piri Reis, from his 16th-century book Kitab-i-bahriye, shows Cyprus.
| k| k| 8'8 uA
P NPl L ` lLL
LPo P` Lo PL L
The Oldest Surviving Detailed Map Showing the Americas
LEGACY: LXct h_ h t5e, P r Ke5'5 out5t8hd h_ m8 5howh_Amerc8 5 85o the
ohyrecord we h8vetod8yo8 o5tm8oLhr5toherLo umbu5
LOCATI ON: 1urkey
DATE: 1 th cehtury
KEY FI GURE: P r Ke 55 8 urk5h 8dm r8
|
n 1 929, schol ars worki ng i n Turkey's Topkapi Pal ace Museum di scovered a section of an early
1 6th-century Turki sh world map. I t was si gned by a captai n named Pi ri i bn Haj j i Mohammed
Rei s (meani ng "admi ral ") , and it was dated 1 513. Now known as the famous "Map of America,"
it was made onl y 21 years afer Christopher Col umbus had reached the New Worl d.
Piri Reis was born i n the second hal f of the 1 5th century i n Gal l i pol i , and began hi s maritime l ife
under the command of hi s i l l ustrious uncle, lemal Reis. He fought many naval battles al ongsi de
hi s uncle, and was later a naval commander, leadi ng the Ottoman feet that fought the Portuguese
in the Red Sea and I ndi an Ocean. To draw the map rediscovered in the Palace Museum, Piri Rei s
di d not rely on personal experience of travel i ng or sai l i ng, as you might expect. He assembl ed i t
by referring to 20 regional maps; an Arab map of I ndi a; four Portuguese maps showing I ndi a and
China; and a map "of the Western Parts," the coasts, and i sl ands, drawn by Col umbus.
I t was thi s l ast fact that made the redi scovery of Pi ri Rei s's map so exci ti ng to hi stori ans
worl dwide. The l ast map he menti ons was made by Col umbus duri ng hi s thi rd voyage to the
New Worl d. Col umbus sent i t to Spai n i n 1 498-but i t has been l ost for years. Now we can
l ook at Piri Rei s' s map and see what Col umbus must have recorded.
We know l i ttle more of Pi ri Rei s hi msel f. I n between fghti ng sea battl es, he retired to Gal
l i pol i where he devi sed hi s map of 1 51 3, and wrote The Book ofSea Lore, a manual of sai l i ng
di recti ons. I n 1 528, he made a second worl d map of whi ch about one-sixth has survived. Thi s
covers the northwestern part of the Atl anti c, and the New World from Venezuel a to New
foundl and, as wel l as the southern ti p of Greenl and. Hi stori ans have been amazed by the
ri chness of the map, and regret that only a fragment of the frst worl d map was found. The
search for the other parts has remai ned fruitl ess. Mystery surrounds hi s l ong si l ence between
1 528, when he made the second of the two maps, and hi s reappearance i n the mi d- 1 6th cen
tury as a captai n of the Ottoman fleet i n the Red Sea and the I ndi an Ocean. A sad end came
to Pi ri Rei s, as he was executed by the Ottoman sultan for l osi ng a critical naval battle.
Today, Piri Rei s' s map is the oldest-survivi ng detailed map showi ng the Ameri cas. It shows
that early 1 6th-century Turki sh nautical science was way ahead of its ti me. When Pi ri Rei s pre
sented hi s New World map to the Ottoman sultan i n 1 51 7, the Turks had an accurate description
of the Americas and the ci rcumnavigation of Africa wel l before many European rulers.
`
\

!'l I NVE.NTI ONS: T H L LNDURI NC U.GACY OF MUSL Ll CI VI LI ZI\T I ON


O +RA\|l|PS A`l XllCR|PS
n the early 1300s, Dar al-Islam, the Muslim world, was one of the greatest
lands, stretching over much of the known globe, bound together by the prin
ciples of Islam. Al-Biruni, an nth-century polymath, wrote in his The Book of
the Demarcation of the Li mi ts of the Areas that "Islam has already penetrated
from the Eastern countries of the earth to the Western. It spreads westward to
Spain [Al-Andalus] , eastward to the borderland of China and to the middle of
India, southward to Abyssinia and the countries of Zanj Zanj [meaning black
Africa from Mali to Kilwa (Tanzania) and Mauritania to Ghana] , eastward to
the Malay Archipelago and Java, and northward to the countries of the Turks
and Slavs. Thus the different people are brought together in mutual under
standing, which only God's own art can bring to pass."
T|o artorios t|at coursoo t|:ouq| t|is qroat oooy,
qiinq it i|o, voro trao.nq ano iqr.m rou:os
`it|. n t|is intormos|inq systom, ino.ioua
usim sutans ruoo, ano a.t|ouq| t|oro voro
miitary camaiqns oo:voon t|om a|tor t|o .t|
contury, an oro.nary us.m couo ass t|rouq|,
aooit somot.mos ony v.t| a assort
lon lattu:a saio, v|on qoinq .nto Syr.a, No
ono may ass :|is aco vit|out a assort |rom
Lqyt. as a moasuro o| ro:oction |or a orson's
roorty ano o| rocaut.on aqa.nst sios |rom
lraq a onqo.conquoroo country] T|is roao
.s unoor :|o looouins t n.q|t|a. t|oy smoot|
oovn t|o sano so t|at no mar is .o|t on it, :|on
:|o qoornor comos in t|o morn.nq ano oxaminos
t|o sano l| |o os any :rac| on it |o roqu.ros
t|o Iraos :o |otc| t|o orson v|o maoo it ano
t|oy sot out in ursu.: o| |im ano noor |ai. :o
catc| |.m'
!|o us.ms voro na:ura oxorors, s.nco
t|o uran saio oory aoooooioo orson s|ouo
ma|o a i.qr.maqo, or |a]], to occa a: oast onco
i n t|o.r i|o:.mo !|ousanos trao.oo |rom t|o
|art|ost roac|os o| t|o ls.amic omiro :o occa
|rom :|o soont| con:ury, oon t|ouql transor:
vas on |oot, v.t| ony t|o |or:unato onos rioinq .n
tonts on camos, on oxorion carriaqos, or astrioo
|orsos ano oon|oys Is t|oy traooo, t|oy maoo
ooscritions o| t|o anos t|at t|oy assoo t|rouq|
Somo o| t|oso voro t|o |rst accounts in Iraoic o|
many acos, .ncuoinq C|.na
!|o |rst ooscritions o| C|ina voro |rom :|o
oar.y n.nt| contury, v|on :raoo vit| t|o C|inoso
vas rocorooo in t|o orsian Cu| Iou Zayo Hasan
vas a us.im |rom Sira, ano :oo t|at ooa:s voro
sai..nq |or C|ina |rom lasra in :raq ano |rom Sira|
on :|o ors.an Cu.| C|.noso ooats, muc| arqor
t|an usim ooats, aso isitoo Sira|, v|oro t|oy
oaooo morc|ano.so oouq|: |rom lasra
or :|ousanos o| yoars, :|oso ooa:s sa.oo
a|onq t|o raoian coast. to usca:, :|on man,
ano |rom :|oro to lno.a I. a.onq t|o vay, traoo
ano oxc|anqos voro maoo, unt. :|o ooats roac|oo
C|ina ano t|o city o| Cuanqz|ou |an|u . n
rao.c), v|oro an imortant usim coony qrov
Horo, usim :raoors |ao :|oir ovn ostaois|
monts, ano oxc|anqos :oo| aco inoinq t|o
omorors omcia|s, v|o |ao |rst c|oico |or v|at
(And He [Allah] has set up
on the earth mountai ns standing
frm
)
lest i t should shake wi th you;
and rivers and roads; that ye
may gui de yourselves; And marks
and sign-posts; and by the stars
{men] gui de themselves.
))
qUkAN ( J 6. J J- J 6)
suitoo |.m rom |an|u, somo usim traoors
traooo as |ar as t|o omiro's ca.ta, |omoa,
v|ic| vas a tvomont| ]ournoy
lon 'a||ao vas a nint|contury traoor |rom
lasra v|o saioo to C|ina ano ooscriooo t|o C|i
noso caital as oiiooo into tvo |aos, soaratoo
oy a lonq, vioo roao Cn ono sioo t|o omoror, |is
ontouraqo, ano aoministrat.on ros.ooo, ano on t|o
ot|or ioo t|o morc|ants ano oroinary ooo
Lary in t|o oay, o|cias ano sorants |rom t|o
omoror's sioo ontoroo t|o ot|or, oouq|t qooos,
lo|t, ano oio not minqo aqain
C|ina, accoroinq to usim morc|ants, vas
a sa|o country ano vol aoministoroo, vit| avs
concorninq traolors ac|ioinq oot| qooo sur
oianco ano socur.ty lon lattuta saio C|.na
.s t|o sa|ost ano oost country |or t|o traoo:
man may trao |or n.no mont|s a.ono v.t| qroat
voat| ano |ao not|.nq to |oar
uqaooasi circa .ooo) vas a qooq
ra|or v|o sot o|| |rom ||s |ono in Jorusaom
many conturios oo|oro lon lattuta Ho aso is.too
noary oory art o| t|o usim vorlo ano vroto
a ooo| caloo cs: D:v:s:ons |o !now|ccjc o| :/c
Rcj:ons, comotoo arouno 3.
!|oro voro many ot|or trao.ors v|o touroo
t|o voro o| ls.am ano ooyono .Ya'q.Li vroto
t|o oo/ o| o.n::cs, v|ic| |o com.otoo in 3.
a|tor a onq timo sont traoinq, ano |o qao
t|o namos o| tovns ano countrios, t|oir ooo,
ruors, oistancos ootvoon citios ano tovns, taxos,
\I' OR J J): | 1\ r\\' f I f RS \ ' | f XI ' LORLRS
,,,,_.
|,, ,, _.,_. .
A 13th-century manuscript shows a caravan en route
to Mecca.
tooqra|y, ano vator rosourcos, lon K|urraoao
|oi|, v|o oioo in .., vroto tho oo/ o| Roccs
cnc |ov:nccs, v|ic| qao a ooscrition o| t|o
ma.n traoo routos o| t|o usim voro, ro|orrinq
to C|ina, oroa, ano Jaan, ano ooscr.oinq t|o
sout|orn sian coast as |ar as t|o lra|mautra
l.or, t|o noaman lsanos, aaya, ano Jaa
!|o .t|contury qooqra|or Yaqut aHamavi
vroto t|o oncycoooic D:c::ono o| o.n::cs
aoout oory country, roqion, tovn, ano city t|at |o
isitoo, a in a|aootica oroor, qiinq t|oir oxact
ocat.on, ano oon ooscr.oinq a tovn's monu
monts ano voa.t|, .story, ouation, ano .oaoinq
|quros ou aioa' vroto !/c '.vcy o| o.::cs
. n t|o .t| contury, ano t|is |ao a |uqo routation
|n vostorn Luroo, so t|at oy .co oxtracts aoout
|varazm ano !ransoxonia two roqions o| Con
tra sia)voro uois|oo in Lonoon
1 001 I NVE NTI ONS: TH E ENDU R I NG LEG!CY OF MUS LM CI V I LZATI ON
A 13th-centwy miniature depicts an eastern Muslim boat from the classical Arabic work of literature Maqamat al
Hariri. The Arabic writing refers to a sea voyage, and mentions a verse from the Quran referring to Noah's ark. This
is usually used as a blessing: "In the name of Allah, the one who protects the ship's sailing, seafaring and berthing."
usim :raoors ano t|o vor|s t|oy ot |ao
not ooon comjo:oy iqnoroo oy t|o `ost, as
Caorio. lorrano comjioo in t|o oary zo:| con
tury a qroat stuoy o accoun:s oy usim tra
o.ors o :|o lar Last ootvoon t|o soon:| ano
oiq|toont| conturios 1|is conta.noo toxts
in raoic, in lorsian, ano i in 1ur|is| Cno o
t|o oary traolors cooroo is t|o nint|contury
alYa'quoi, v|o vroto t|at C|ina is an immonso
{If anyone travels on a
road in search of knowledge,
Allah wi ll cause him to travel
on one of the roads
of Paradise. "
PROPHET MUHAMMAD,
NARRATED BY ABU AL-DARDAH
coun:ry t|at can oo roac|oo oy crossinq soon
soas, oac| o t|oso vit| its ovn coor, vino, ns|,
ano oroozo, v|ic| couo not oo ouno in anot|or,
t|o soon:| o suc|, t|o Soa o Can||ay v|ic|
surrounos t|o aay rc|ijoaqo] ony saiaoo
|y a sout|orn vino
Traoors rom t|o nint| ano tont| conturios
incuoo lon alaq.|, v|o comjaros t|o customs,
ooo oiots, cooos o oross, ritua.s, ano aso somo
o| t|o nora ano auna o| C|ina ano lno.a lon lus
ta| ocusos on a |mor |.nq surrounooo oy cO
]uoqos, ano |is orocious troatmont o |is suoocts
v|io inouqinq |imso in orin|inq aco|o ano
vino, out also ||s |ino ano qonorous troatmont o
t|o usims ou Zayo aso ooals vit| t|o K|mor
ano ano i:s ast jojuation, a ano in v|ic|
inooconcy, |o notos, is aosont. ou alara ovo|s
on lnoia ano its jooj.o, customs, ano ro|iq.ous
oosorat.ons Ho a|so ta|s o C|ina, sayinq i: |as
oo citios, ano t|at v|ooor traos in C|ina |as
to roqistor |is namo, t|o oato o |is ]ournoy, |is
qonoaoqy, |is ooscrijtion, aqo, v|at |o carrios
WOR L D: T RtV I. U. RS . ND EXPLORERS
vit| |im, ano |is attonoants Suc| a roqis:or is
ojt unti t|o ]ournoy is saoy comjotoo 1|o
roasoninq oo|ino :|.s vas a oar t|at somot|inq
miq|: |arm t|o traoor ano :|orooy orinq s|amo
to t|o ru|or
lorrano aso roorroo to .t|contury traoors
suc| as Za|ariya ion u|ammao aazvini,
v|o |as ot accounts o t|o marolous croaturos
t|at t|rio in t|o C|ina Soa notaoy ory arqo
|s| jossioy v|aos), qiant tortoisos, ano mon
strous sna|os, v|ic| ano on t|o s|oros to svaov
v|oo ouaoos ano o.oj|ants no lon Saio a.
aq|rioi, v|o qao t|o atituoo ano onq.tuoo o
oac| jaco |o isitoo, vroto muc| on t|o lnoian
Ccoan isanos ano lnoian coasta tovns ano citios
it|contury traolor, limas|qi, qios
ory ootaioo accounts o t|o isano o lumr,
aso caloo alay lsano or aay rc|ijoaqo Ho
says t|oro aro many tovns ano citios, ric|, oonso
orosts vit| |uqo, ta| troos, ano v|ito ooj|ants
so t|oro ios t|o qiant oiro ca.oo t|o R.//,
a o.ro v|oso oqqs aro i|o cujo|as 1|o lu||
oaturos in a story aoout somo saiors oroa|inq
ano oa:inq t|o con:onts o its oqq, so t|o qian:
oiro c|asoo ator t|om on t|o soa, carryinq |uqo
It is reported that Prophet Muhammad said, "Seek
knowledge even from as far as China."
roc|s, v|ic| it |uroo at t|om roontossy T|o
sai.o.s ony oscaoo vit| :|oir |ios unoor t|o
coor o| niq|t |.s story, i|o ot|or accounts oy
trao|o.s, |ormoo t|o oasis o many o :|o taos t|a:
onr.c| lsamic |.:o.aturo, suc| as /c AJvcn:.cs
o/ c:n/cJ :/c 'c:|o ano !/c !/o.scnJ cnJ nc
N:j/:s. !|o ric|noss o t|oso t|ousanoyoaroo
accounts |as insiroo many vritors ano ilm
ma|ors lon aoan vas an rao c|ronicor, ano
.n .: t|o cai| o laq|oao sont |im vit| an
omoassy to t|o |inq o t|o luqars o t|o .ooo
Voqa Ho vro:o an account o |.s ]o.rnoy. ano
t|.s vas caoo R:sc|c/ L.|o lon lattutas R:/|c,
t|o R:sc|c/ is o qroat auo oocauso it ooscr|oos
t|o acos ano ooo o nort|orn Euroo, i n
articuar a oolo caoo t |o R.s rom Svooon
Ho vroto, l |ao soon t|o lus as t|oy camo
on t|oir morc|ant ]ournoys ano oncamoo oy t|o
Volqa l |ao noor soon moro oroct |ysica
sjoc.mons. ta as oato ams, oonoo ano ruooy,
:|oy voar noit|or tunics nor catans, o.t t|o mon
voar a qa.mont v|ic| coors ono sioo o t|o oooy
ano oaos a |ano roo
!|is ooo| insiroo noo|ist ic|ao Cric|ton
to vrito Lc:cs o/ :/c DccJ, on v|ic| t|o |m !/c
FROM LEFT: An artist's rendering shows Ibn Battuta
dictating his Rihla, passing through a dangerous gorge,
and walking with his camel.
::/ c:c vas oasoo any ot|or usim t.a
o|ors |ao insji.oo oojo in mooorn timos on
lattuta's oqacy nov .ncuoos t|o vor|os a.qost
s|oinq ma namoo ator |im in luoai, as vo
as a music CL oy t|o o.man oano lmoryo vit|
trac|s .ncuoinq loat rom laq|oao
Ibn Battuta
lon lattuta vas ony z: on Juno :, :., v|on
|o sot out aono on |is oon|oy at t|o ooq.nninq
o a ,ooomio oorano ]ournoy to occa |rom
!anqior in orocco Ho ot |is lamily, lrionos,
ano |omotovn, ano voulo not soo t|om aqain or
z yoars Somo |o noor sav, oocauso t|o aquo
roac|oo t|om ooo.o |o roturnoo Ho wont to t|o
our corno.s o t|o uslim vorio oy va|inq, rio
inq, ano sa.inq oor /,ooo mios, t|rouq| moro
t|an o mooorn coun:.ios, many |nov |im as t|o
usim arco lo.o
His acco.nts |ao acoo t|o moo.oa| voro
oooro us, so vo |nov :|at qoo traooo |rom sout|
o t|o rican Sa|ara in:o lqyt a;o Syria, jiq:.ms
continuousy |ovoo to ano :om occa, s|o.s
:om t|o a.oios vont to `os: rica, jottory ano
jajo: monoy camo vost rom C|.na lon latt.ta
a.so |ovoo aonq vit| t|o voo ano :|o vax, qo.o
ano moons, iory ano s.. s|oi||s ano su.tans,
viso mon ano oov j..qrims Ho vo:oo as a jco.,
a ]uoqo. or su.tans ano omjorors, ano as a io.s
us.m |is oriinq orco vas ait| ano .oarninq on
t|o roao o| io, in qroat lsamic citios i|o Cai:o ano
Lamasc.s, ano :om t|o qroa: minos o |.s timo
lt is rojortoo. aooit somo contost .t, t|at :o|ot
u|ammao |ao saio, Soo novooqo, oon as
ar as C|.na,' ano on latt.ta too| t|.s ..tora.y H.s
ournoy oocamo a |.no o| qrano tou:. mixinq j:ayo:,
|us.noss, ano aoonturo. ano as a us..m |o unoo:
stooo cooos o| cono.ct t|ro.q|out ..t|contu.y
Lurasia, v|ic| incuooo oquaity, c|a:ity. traoo, qooo
citizons|.j, t|o ursuit o |novooqo, ano ait|
\fORI | T RAVLL L RS . \ ` | | ,. I ' l ORJ RS ZI
`|on |o :oturnoo to |.s nat.o c.:y t|roo
oocaoos .ator, |o vas a |amous vayaror, :ocoun:
.nq sto:.os o| oistant, oxot.c anos Somo simj.y
vou.o not oo..oo |im v|on |o ta.oo o t|oso
j.acos : vas t|on :|at t|o s..tan o| loz, ou
nan, as|oo |.m :o vrito oovn ..s oxo:ioncos in
a R:/'c a t:ao. ooo| ano vit| a roya sc:ioo, l|n
J.zay,, |o comj.o:oo t|o tas| in tvo yoa:s
Ho |as ot us vit| ono o t|o q:oatost |.sto:ica
ooos oor, in articuar, |is accoun: o moo.oa
ai .n `ost rica is t|o ony :ocoro vo |ao
o| .t tooay Nov vo can soo |is voro o| t|o :t|
contury v.t| ou: ovn oyos
LEFT: A manuscript shows tenth-centwy Ibn Fadlan's
Risalah, which was an account of his jourey into norther
Europe. RIGHT: An artistic re-creation shows Ibn Battuta
making supplications after reading the Quran. Muslims
usually make these supplications, or requests, to God,
after reading the Quran or fnishing prayers.
1 001 I NV E NTI ONS : T l- 1 1 N DU RI NG LEGt\C' Of \ L l| \ CI V I L I Z. \TI ON
.7 `A\| CAT| C`
t is widely believed that the Chinese developed the
compass for use in feng shui, and mariners later
developed it further for use in navigation. The earliest
evidence of the magnetic compass is found in the Persian
work called Collection of Stories by Muhammad al-Awf.
!|o yoar vas :z, ano t|o voyaqo vas ovor t|o
loo Soa ano t|o orsian or raoian Cu| !|o
comjass vas ooscriooo as |oiovs a |s| maoo o|
iron is ruoooo vit| a maqnotic stono ano t|on jut
in a oovi hoo vit| vator, .: rotatos unti .t stojs,
jointinq to t|o sout|
!|o |irst |u ooscr.jtion o| t|o uso o| t|o
maqnotic comjass |or naviqation in t|o lsamic
voro vas oy layla| aio]aqi in |is !/c oo/
o/ !ccs.c /o Mcc/cc:s |/o 'cc/ !cow|ccjc
o/ ':occs, vr.tton in qyjt in :z3z Ho ooscriooo
t|o uso o| a |oatinq comjass ourinq a soa voyaqo
|rom !rijo| i in Syria to oxanoria in :zz Ho
vroto t|at an iron noooo is ]oinoo crossviso vit|
a rus| ano jut in a oov |oo vit| vator !|on a
maqnotic stono is orouq|t coso to t|is oovico, ano
t|o |ano |oloinq t|o maqnotic stono ooscri|os a
circlo coc|viso aoovo it. !|o cross o| t|o noooo
ano t|o rus| |oovs t|is movo `|on t|o maq
not.c stono is suooon.y romovoo, t|o noooo is
sujjosoo to oo aliqnoo v.t| t|o morioian
`iov vooo or jumj|in hs| oosiqns t|at
|ao maqnotic noooos voro aso montionoo
!|oso voro soaoo v.t| tar or vax to ma|o t|om
vatorjroo|, as t|oy noatoo on t|o vator !|oy voro
|novn as vot comjassos, out t|oro vas aso a ory
comjass Horo, tvo maqnotizoo nooolos aro on
ojjosito sioos o| a oisc o| jajor, ano in t|o miooo
.s somot|inq i|o a |unno !|is |unno rotatos on
an axis, v|ic| is jivotoo in t|o miooo o| a |ox
soaoo vit| a jato o| qass to jrovont t|o oisc o|
jajor |rom orojjinq
1|oso oosiqns ano usos o| t|o comjass voro
ta|on to Eurojo oy us.im traoors, v|o oovo
ojoo t|om |urt|or.
Master Navigators
s vo as |av.nq oovoojoo nav.qat.on instru
monts, usims voro aso mastor naviqators |n
a]io vas suc| a jorson |rom Na]o, in raoia, in
t|o :t| contury t ran in t|o |amiy, as oot| |is
|at|or ano qrano|at|or voro M.'c||:, or mastors
o| nav.qat|on, |novinq t|o loo Soa in ootai Ho
|nov amost a t|o soa routos |rom t|o loo Soa
to East |rica, ano |rom last |rica to C|ina Ho
vroto at oast 3 troatisos aoout t|oso, somo in
jroso, ot|ors in jootry, o| v|ic| z aro sti avai.
aoo !|oso ta| aoout astronomica ano nautica
suo]octs, incuoinq unar mansions, soa routos,
ano t|o latituoos o| |aroors
lut t|o most .mjortant naviqator vas t|o .ct|
contury aomira .ri lois, v|oso oyoaroo ooo|
o| saiinq instructions, !::c/:/c/:yyc is |novn
in transation oy t|roo namos, !/c oo/ o/ :/c
Mc:ccr, !/c Ncvc| Hccc/oo/, ano !/c oo/ o/
'cc loc lt vas roconty juois|oo .n :. oy t|o
1.r|is| in.stry o| Cuturo ano !ourism, ano t|is
nov jrintinq incuoos a coor cojy o| t|o oriqina
manuscrijt, vit| t|o Cttoman toxt translatoo into
atin, mooorn !ur|.s|, ano lnq.is|
!/c oo/ o/ 'cc loc oy .r. lois vas a mari
nor's quioo to t|o coasts ano isanos o| t|o ooi
torranoan, ano javoo t|o vay |or mooorn soa
travo. lt vas aso |novn as a jortoan, ano vas
a comjro|onsio qu.oo to nautica ins:ructions
or saiors, containinq majs coorinq coast|inos,
vatorvays, jorts, ano oistancos o t|o ooitorra
noan coast lt qao saiors instructions ano qooo
|nov|ooqo o t|o oo.torranoan coast, is|anos,
jassos, straits, oays, v|oro :o s|o:or in :|o aco
o jor.ous soas, ano |ov to ajjroac| jor:s ano
anc|or lt a|so jroiooo oiroctions ano jroc.so
oistancos ootvoon jacos
lt .s t|o on|y u ano comjro|ons.o manua
coorinq :|o ooitorranoan ano oqoan Soas
oor maoo, vit| 219 ootai|oo c|arts l: vas t|o
jinnaco o moro t|an 200 yoars o oooojmont
oy ooitorranoan mar.nors ano sc|oars
T|oro voro tvo ooitions o t|o |anoooo|,
t|o hrst camo out in 1521, :|o socono no yoars
ator T|o nrst vas jr.mariy aimoo at sa.|ors, t|o
socono, on :|o ot|or |ano, vas c qi: rom liri
lois to t|o sutan lt vas u| o cra: oosiqns,
its majs oravn oy mas:or caiqraj|ors ano
jaintors, ano a|roaoy in t|o :c:| con:ury it |ao
oocomo a cooctor' s itom or moro t|an a con
tury, cojios voro jrooucoo, oocominq oon moro
uxurious as t|oy qao qooo ooscrijtions o
WORLD: NiI CfTI ON
"City vi ews) costumes) ships)
fora and fauna) and even
portrai ts found on certai n maps
have brought them
close to works of art.
)
}
PROFESSOR GUNSEl RENDA
HACETTEPE UNI VERSITY, ANKARA, TURKEY
s:orms, t|o comjass, jortoan c|arts, as:ronomi
ca naiqation, t|o voros ocoans, ano t|o anos
surrounoinq :|om. lntorostinqy, it aso roorroo
:o Lurojoan oyaqos o o.scoory, incuoinq t|o
lortuquoso oxjooition to t|o lnoian Ccoan ano
Coumous's oiscoory o t|o Nov `oro.
T|oro aro arouno 30 manuscr.jts o t|is !oo/
o/ 'cc loc scattoroo a oor iorarios in Lurojo,
out most aro o| :|o |rst orsion
oro can oo roao aoout iri lois in t|o ajs
soct.on o t|is c|aj:or, ano a|so aoou: Z|onq Ho,
:|o C|inoso us.m soa oxj|oror.
Muslim sailors developed navigation instruments and
became master navigators at sea.
| I ! N \l )T! OI\8 T H l F JDU RI NG LLG/\C OF \HS U\1 C| \ I I I ZiTI ON
: `A\Al XllCPAT| C`
M
ore than C_Oyears ago, a man was born who would revolutionize explo
ration by sea. His name was Zheng He, and he became the "Admiral
of the Chinese Fleet." According to Gavin Menzies, author of 1ge1,the
recent book on Zheng He, he sailed throughout the Indian Ocean. He navigated
to Mecca, the Persian Gulf, East Africa, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Arabia. He did
so decades before the journeys of Christopher Columbus or Vasco da Gama,
whose ships were less than a quarter of the size of those of Zheng He.
Z|onq Ho vas a usim v|o |ooo rosont
C|ina to t|o vorlo lurinq z3 yoars o| t.ao, |is
]un| s|is isitoo / countrios, ma|inq soon
monumonta soa oyaqos .n t|o namo o :raoo ano
oiomacy T|o oxooitions cooroo a oistanco ol
moro t|an o,ooo |iomotors i,ooo mios), ano
|is n.st |oot .nc|uooo ./,3/o mon on ./ s|is
lt vas |.|o a sma| :ovn o. an ontiro |ootoa| s:a
oium on t|o moo. Sa.inq vit| suc| a arqo |oot
into arqoy un|novn vators roquiroo qroat s|il
in manaqomont as vo| as sai.nq |o.o vas no
marqin |or orror, ano v|at |o ac|iooo is coma
raoo to us qoinq to t|o moon tooay
|onq Ho vas oorn ano namoo a Ho, ano |is
usim |a:|or ano qrano|at|o. maoo .qrimaqos
to occa, v|.c| onaooo |im to qrov u soa|inq
oot| raoic ano C|inoso s a ooy, |o vas ta|on
|.om |.s tovn o| .nm.nq, in onqo|.a, oy :|o
inaoinq C|inoso .nq oynasty Ho vas cas:.a:oo
ano oocamo a ounuc|, omoyoo as a |unct.onary
A stone statue of Zheng He stands in Nanjing's Zheng He
Memorial Hall.
in t|o .moria |ouso|oo, assiqnoo to t|o ro:inuo
o| lu|o Yan or |u li, a rinco |u L. ator so.zoo
t|o t|rono ano |ocamo t|o lmoror Yonq o
Cain onzios sa.o t|at |onq Ho vas a
ooout usim |osioos |oinq a orm.oa|.o so
o.or, ano |o |ocamo |. li's cosost aoisor. Ho
vas a ovor|u nq.ro, tovorinq a|oo |u .i,
somo accounts say |o vas oor tvo motros :a.
ano voiq|oo oor a |unoroo |i|oqrams vit| a
str.oo .i|o a t.qors' '
!|rouq| oooicatoo sorico ano or accomany
inq t|o ou|o on succossu| mi..:ary camaiqns,
a Ho vas avarooo t|o suromo commano o :|o
moria Houso|o|o qoncy ano vas q.on :|o sur
namo Z|onq Ho vas a.so |novn as t|o !|rooJovo
Lunuc| 'cnico /c:/:cn, v|.c| |as luoo|ist
connotations oon t|ouq| |o vas a us..m) ano
vas a mar| o| |onor |or t|.s |iq| a.aco omc.a.
!|oro voro quito a num|or o roasons |o von:
on t|o soon qroat !roas.ro S|i' oyaqos !|oro
vas scionti|c oiscoory ano t|o soarc| |or qoms,
minoras, ants, an.ma|s, or.qs ano moo.cino
v|.c| |ocamo .ncroasinqy .mortant as t|o oy
aqos mu.ti|.oo !|o omoror vantoo :o imroo
naiqationa ano cartoqra|ica |novooqo o|
t |o vor.o ano |ao a oosiro t o s.ov a| oroiqn
countr.os t|a: C|.na vas :|o oaoinq c.tura.
ano oconomic ovor So oorsoas t raoo vas
oncouraqoo t|.s moant ot|or co.ntr.os sooinq
t|o mass.o C|.noso s|is, t|oro|y |oostinq t|oir
rostiqo :|or nat.ons svoro a.oqianco to C|ina
t|ro.q| oiomacy, vi:| oca| ano roqiona| oao
ors ac|novooqinq oororos|i' o t|o imoria|
ovor country vouo t|on sono onoys to ay
tri|uto to :|o omoror.
Z|onq Ho maoo t|oso oyaqos |otvoon
:o ano : ano |o vas oinoo |y tvo ot|or
a|o ounuc| . oaoors, Hou Hsi on ano `anq
C|.nqHunq
`|at vas amaz.nq a|o.t :|o oyaqos vas t|a:
t|oy voro onq ano |iq|.y orqan.zoo |onq Ho
vroto, Sixtytvo o t|o .arqost s|ijs voro o oot
WORL O: ^ \` | E\I ' LOR\TJ ON

Fifteenth-centwy Zheng He and his crew used this navi
gation chart to chart the routes taken during his voyages.
.onq, ano at |roaoos: |oam :3o oot' !|oso aro
.nq .nits o : motor, or : oz |oot), so .: vo.o |o
./ motors |oot) |onq ano c motors :3 :oot)
vioo in our moasuromonts Z|onq Ho a|so vroto
t|at :|oy voro mannoo |y o :o oo mon oac|,
inc..oinq sa.ors, c|or|s, intorrotors, so|o.ors,
artisans, mooica| mon, ano motoorooqis:s n
t|o ourt| oyaqo |o sot out vit| o, ooo mon :o
ra|.a ano t|o mo.t| o t|o loo Soa
!|o C|inoso s|i|u. oors roa.zoo t|at t|o
qiqantic sizo o :|oir s|is vouo ma|o manouor
inq oimcut so :|oy instaoo a |aancoo ruooor'
t|at couo |o raisoo ano ovoroo orqroatorsta|..ty
S|i|.ioors tooay oo not |nov |ov t|o C|inoso
|ui.t a |ramovor| vit|out iron t|at co.o carry a
ooootonq osso Somo oou|:oo :|o s|.s oor
oxistoo, |.: .n .cz, t|o r.ooor ost o a troas.ro
1 001 I NVENTI ONS: T H L ENDUR I NG LL(; J\CY OF MUS L I M CI V I UZJ\T I ON
A rendering compares Christopher Columbus's boat,
which was 23 meters (75 feet) long, with Zheng He's
boat, which was 134 meters (440 feet) long.
vas |ouno |n t|o ru|ns o| ono o| t|o inq ooat
yaros in Nan]inq lt vas c |oot onq loinq rovorso
cacuations usinq t|o roortions o| a ty|ca
trao|tiona ]un|, t|o ostimatoo |ul |or t|is ruooor
vouo oo :z mo:ors oo |oot)
Cn ooaro t|oso miq|ty vossos voro arqo
quantitios o| carqo incuoinq si| qooos, orco
la|n, qolo ano s|vorvaro, coor utonsis, |ron
imomonts, ano cotton qooos T|oy aso carrioo
|vo animas|ncuoinq qira||os, zooras, or coos
tia |orsos', oryx, or coost|a staqs, ano ostr|c|os,
or camooiros'-vatortiq|t ou||oaos to |oo
ivo |s| ano also rov|oo oat||ousos, ano ottors
t|at voro sont out to rouno u |s| into arqo nots
!|o s|is voro aoo to trans|or vator |rom |oat|nq
vator tan|ors to t|o|r |oos, ano t|oy couo com
municato oy moans o| haqs, lantorns, ools, carrior
|qoons, qonqs, ano oannors.
inq account o| t|o voyaqos sa|o !|o s|is
v||c| sa|l t|o Sout|orn Soa aro i|o |ousos. `|on
t|o|r sa|ls aro sroao t|oy aro i|o qroat couos |n
t|o s|y, ano t|oy voro ooscriooo cooctivoy as
svimm|nq oraqons, oocauso a voro oottoo v.t|
oraqons' oyos to |o t|om soo
ly t|o ono o| Z|onq Hos hoot's sovon voyaqos,
C|| na vas unrivaoo in nava toc|nooqy ano
ovor, ano C||na a|so oono|too |rom many oxotic
soc|os ooinq introoucoo, suc| as t|o |rst qira||o
|rom |rica lt vas initially m|s|oonti|oo as t|o
q||n, t|o un|corn contra| to C|inoso myt|ooqy
ccoroinq to Con|uc|an trao|tion, a q|in vas a
saqo o| t|o utmost visoom, ano oonovolonco vas
|olt |n |ts rosonco
lt is ooiovoo t|at Z|onq Ho o|oo |n lnoia on |is
vay |omo |n : `|t| |is ooa:| ano t|o roviva
o| Con|ucian ||oso|y, t|o C|inoso Lm| ro
oocamo invarooo||nq ano ovontuay soaqo|nq
traoo vas oannoo ln oss t|an a |unoroo yoars,
|t vas a caita o||onso to sot sa| |rom C||na in a
mutimastoo s|ij ln .z, t|o C|inoso omjoror
orooroo t|o oostruction o| al ocoanqoinq s|ijs
T|o qroatost nay in |istory, v|ic| onco |ao
,oo s|ijs t|o U S Nay tooay |as arouno oo),
vas qono
ln :3, at t|o 3ot| anniorsary o| Z|onq Hos
oyaqos, |is tom| vas rostoroo T|o nov tom|
vas |uit on t|o sito o| t|o oriq.na| ono . n Nan]inq,
ano roconstructoo accoroinq to t|o customs o|
ls|amic toac|inqs t t|o ontranco to t|o tom| is a
inqstyo structuro, v|ic| |ousos t|o momoria
|a. lnsioo aro jaintinqs o| t|o man |imso| ano
|is naiqation majs
{We have . . . beheld in the
ocean huge waves like mountains
rising sky high, and we have
set eyes on barbarian regions
far away, hidden i n a blue
transparency of light vapors, whi le
our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds,
day and night conti nued thei r
course rapi d like that of
a star, transversing the savage
waves as if we were treading a
public thoroughfare. "
ZHENG HE I N HI S BI OGRAPHY, MING SHIH
!o qot to :|o tom|, t|oro aro novy aio stono
torracos ano stojs !|o stairvay to t|o tom| is o|
z3 stono stojs o.iooo into |our oqua soctions
T|is rojrosonts Z|onq Ho's soon ]ournoys vost
varo nscri|oo on toj o| t|o tom| aro t|o ra|ic
voros A||c/. A//c, or Coo ls Croat
!|oro voro no ot|or s|ijs in t|o vor|o as |iq as
or vit| as many masts as Z|onq Ho's !|oso voro
|oatinq citios on t|o moo ost o| t|o s|ijs voro
\ORLD: ^.\\\l. EXI'L.OR/TI ON
|uit at t|o lraqon lay s|ijyaro noar Nan]inq, t|o
romains o| v|ic| can stil |o soon tooay
Zheng He's Seven Epic Voyages
1. 1405-1407: Visitoo C|amja lnooc|ina), Jaa
ano Sumatra, Coyon ano Cacutta, lnoia
2. 1407-1409: Saioo to Siam ano lnoia, stojjinq
at Coc|in
3. 1409-1411: `ont to numorous jlacos in t|o
last lnoios usinq aacca as a |aso, ano isitoo
uilon in lnoia |or t|o hrst timo
4. 1413-1415: !|o noot sjit uj Somo vont to t|o
Last lnoios aqain, ot|ors |asoo in Coyon) vont
to lonqa, t|o aoios, ano t|o orsian sultanato
o| Crmuz !|is oyaqo jroo|oo so muc| intorost
:|at a |uqo num|or o| onoys isitoo Nan]inq in
:.o arqo noot t|o |olovinq yoar |ao to ta|o
t|om |omo aqain
5. 1416-1419: T|o acinc squaorons vont to Jaa,
lyu|yu, ano lrunoi !|o lnoian|asoo onos vont
to Crmuz, oon, oqaois|u, om|asa, ano ot|or
last |rican jorts lt vas |rom t|is trij t|at t|o
qira||o vas |rouq|t |ac|.
6. 1421-1422: Saioo t|o samo soas as |o|oro, incuo
inq moro jorts in sout|orn ra|ia ano last |rica
T|o |oot isitoo o statos in tvo yoars |rom lornoo
in t|o oast to Zanquo|ar anzi|ar) in t|o vost !|is
suqqosts t|o squaorons |ao sjit uj aqain, usinq
a|acca as t|o main ronoozous jort, v|.c|, |ooro
t|o aoont o| raoio, vas an incrooi|lo ac|ioomont
7. 1431-1433: T|is |na oyaqo, v|on Z|onq Ho
vas oo, osta||.s|oo roations vit| moro t|an zo
roams ano sutanatos |.om Jaa to occa to Last
|rica No ono |novs |ov |ar oovn t|o Last |ri
can coast t|o C|inoso vont, |ut t|oro aro accounts
t|at t|oy rounooo t|o Cajo
1001 I NV F NT I ONS : T HE. EN DU I I NG l. [(j ;\C\ OF ,'\ US l l :'\ CI V I LZt\TI ON
\lClAl'CVVL`| CAT| C`
C
ommunicating information-whether electronic or paper-based-can
be a risky process. To avoid vital secrets falling into the wrong hands,
messages are scrambled (encryted) so that only someone with the
right code can unscramble it.
I |amous caso o| oncrytion vas ourinq `oro
`ar ll v|on t|o Cormans usoo a tyovri:ori|o
mac|ino, ca.oo Lniqma, to oncryt mi|.:ary mos
saqos oo|oro ayinq t|om on t|o raoio !|oso
voro oocrytoo oy a qrou o| ois| cooo oroa|ors
|rom t|o Ci|or luroau ano lritis| cooo oroa|ors
|rom lotc|oy ar|
((The birth of cryptanalysis
requi red a societ which has
reached a high standard of
development i n three discipli nes,
namely linguistics, statistics and
mathematics. These condi tions
became available at the time of
al-Kindi who had command of these
three disciplines and more. "
DR. SI MON SI NGH, THE CODE 800K, J 999
T|oso zot|con:.ry rooom soors voro carry
inq on t|o cooooroa|inq :rao.:ion nrst vri:ton aoout
oy nint|contury oymat| Iinoi |rom laq|oao
It t|is timo t|o mai vas ooioroo oy oiros, so mos
saqos |ao :o oo iq|t in voiq|t, ano t|o con|oontia
onos voro oncrytoo Ho roout.onizoo crytoqra
|y v|on |o vroto A Mcc.sc:p: oc Dcc:p/c:cj
gp:ojcp/:c Mcsscjcs art o| t|is incuooo a
ooscrition o| t|o mot|oo o| |roquoncy anaysis,
v|ic| moans |o noticoo t|at i| a norma ottor is
roacoo vit| a oi||oront ottor or symoo, t|o nov ot
:or vi ta|o on a| t|o c|aractoristics o| t|o oriqina
ono '| vo oo at t|o lnq..s| |anquaqo :|o ot:or .s
t|o most common, accountinq |or 13 orcont o| a|
lottors So, i| c is roacoo oy t|o symool r, r vouo
oocomo t|o most common symoo., accountinq |or
13 orcont o| t|o nov symoo.s I cryjtanayst can
t|on vor| out t|at r act.a..y rorosonts .
From stuoyinq t|o Iraoic toxt o| t|o uran
cosoly, Iinoi noticoo t|o c|aractoristic ottor
|roquoncy, ano .aio cry:oqra|ys |ounoat|ons,
v|.c| oo many cry:oqra|ors |rom L.rooan
lonaissanco s:atos to oo|so ot|or sc|omos to
comoat it. lon t|ouq| Iinoi ooolooo mot|
oos t|at onao.oo qroator oncrytion ano cooo
oroa|inq :, :oo yoars aqo, t|o actua voro cryt
ana.ysis' is ro.a:ioy rocont ano vas |rst coinoo
oy a man namoo `iiam Friooman in :zo
Froquoncy anaysis is nov t|o oasic too |or
oroa|inq cassica ci|ors or cooos t|at uso :|o
oasic, ain toxt a.j|aoot l: ro.os on .inquist.c
ano statistica |novooqo o| ain toxt anquaqo,
ano qooo rooomsolinq s|ils
ooorn ci|ors aro a ot moro comox, out
oac| in t|o oays o| `oro `ar , lri:ain ano Imor
ica rocruitoo cooo oroa|ors oy acinq crossvoro
uzzos in ma]or novsaors ano runninq contosts
|or t|oso v|o couo so|o t|om t|o |astost
Air Mail
!ooay, vo t a|o osta communi cat i on |or
qrantoo, out onco, t|o iqoon ost vas t|o ony
air mai' aaiaoo
ln a ooo| aoout carrior jiqoons, t|o us|m
sc|oar lon oo a.l|a|ir vroto t|at normay
t|oro vouo oo a|out 1,900 j|qoons |n t|o |o|ts
o| t|o c.taoo o| Cairo, t|o communicat|on noro
contor o| t|o t|mo
lNuvayri, a usi m c|ronicor, tos t|o
story o| a tont|contury at.m|o ca|j| caoo
' z|z v|o ono oay, in Ca.ro, |ot a oosiro to oat
|ros| c|orrios o| a ||no qrovn in n:ioc| !|o
oroor vas sont oy carrior ji qoon to laaoo|,
An Enigma machine was used to encrypt military
messages in World War I. It was Al-Kindi in the ninth
century who laid the foundation of cryptography.
WORl D: GLOBtL C0.1 MUNI C'I ON
noar ntioc|, ano |rom t|oro, ooo jiqoons voro
rooasoo. oac| v|t| ono c|orry in a s|.| oaq tioo
to oac| oq Just t|roo oays a|tor oxjrossinq |is
oosiro, t|o ca|j| vas soroo a |arqo oov contain
inq :,zoo |ros| c|orrios |rom Looanon, v|ic| |ao
arrioo oy sjocia air mai ooiory
dKLAKI NLLLOL
( _ne way to sol ve an encrypted mes-
sage, i f we know i ts l anguage, i s to
fnd a d i fferent pl ai n text of the same l anguage
l ong enough to fl l one sheet or so, and then
we count the occurrences of each l etter. We
cal l the most frequentl y occurri ng l etter the
' frst, ' the next most occurri ng l etter the ' sec
ond, ' the fol l owi ng most occurr i ng the ' thi rd, '
and s o on, unti l we account for al l t he di fferent
l etters i n the pl ai ntext sampl e . . . Then we
l ook at the ci pher text we want to sol ve and
we al so cl assi fy its symbol s. We fnd t he most
occu rri ng symbol and change it to the form of
the ' frst' l etter of the pl ai n-text sampl e, the
next most common symbol i s changed to the
form of the ' second' l etter, and so on, u nti l
we account for al l symbol s of the cryptogram
we want to sol ve. "
0. 1 4
0. 1 2
0. 1 0
O
c
0. 08
O
O
< o. o6
O
>
0. 04
O
D
0. 02
O
Al -KI ND I IN HIS NI NTH-CENTURY A MANUSCRIPT ON
DECIPHERING CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGES
.

a b c d e f g h k l mn o p q r s t u v w x y z
LCIICl
A chart shows the fequency of
letter in a passage oftext.
260 1 001 I N\ E NTI ONS: r i l E EN DURI NC LfG:\C OJ \\ USL I ,\\ CI V I J I /. \TJ ON
. AP A`l \|AlC`PY
M
ilitary talk in the 13th century was sophisticated, and discussions
included grenades, sulfur bombs, cannons, rockets, and torpedoes.
One of the most important books on military technology was The
Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices by the Syrian scholar
Hasan al-Rammah, written around Iz,O. It was packed full of weapon dia
grams, including the frst documented rocket, a model of which is exhibited at
the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.
!|o C|inoso inontoo t|o |rst qunovoor !|oy
oooooo sa|totor, ono o| qunovoor's inqro
oionts, out rooaoly only usoo it in |rovor|s s
mani Zain in t|o llCs /c: :/c Anc:cn:s D:c |o
's saio, rosoarc| |as s|ovn :|at usim c|omists
oio oooo a ovor|u |ormua |or qunovoor ano
may vo |ao usoo it in t|o |rst |.oarms'
!|o C|inoso oio not uso it in ox| osions
oocauso t|oy couo not qot t|o riq|t roor
tions, nor couo t|oy uri|y otassium nitrato lt
vas not untii ::z t|at Huo unq C|inq vro:o


~ _.~~ ' ^c *
`uJ''--' '
- __, ..t .,'=. >|
, __|__,L|
-.:or= =._;' c'
...- ~~'.
_o~: _!,
_ __| j
=, . :.'= , ._; =.
_,_,|_ u;..:o
, i __gt_
t|o |rst C|.noso ooo| ootaiinq roortions |or
oxosios oout a |unoroo yoa.s oa:|ior, Hasan
allamma|'s ooo| vas t|o |rst to oxain t|o
uri|cation rocoouro |or otassium nit.ato, ano
it ooscrioos many rocios |or ma|inq oxooinq
qunovoor
LEFT: A 13th-century manuscript of Al-Rammah depicts
a trebuchet for flinging missiles. CENTER: Another
trebuchet is shown in a 14th-century Manual on Armory
by Ibn Aranbugha al-Zardkash. RIGHT: A 14th-century
Manual on Armory by Ibn Aranbugha al-Zardkash
shows a pedestal crossbow.
lor t|c lsamic armics co oy lay oars in iz
t|c usc o| qunjovocr in var jrovco occisivc
aqainst t|c .nvaoinq Crusaocrs t t|c oattc o|
aansura in Lqyjt, usim inccnoiary ocviccs
vcrc so tcrri|yinq ano ocstructivc t|at t|c lrcnc|
Crusaocr rmy vas routco ano inq Louis lX vas
ta|cn jrisoncr,' saio mani ain on t|c llCs
/c: :/c Anc:cn:s D:c /o 's
ly t|c :t| ccntury, t|c cannons usco oy t|c
Cttomans vcrc avcsomc ano tooay t|c lort Nclson
uscum in ortsmout|, U., |as c |uqc oronzc
cannon vciq|inq :3 tons lt vas o:iqina.y cast in
tvo jicccs, ano scrcvco toqct|cr, to ma|c .t casic:
to transjort occausc its ovcra cnqt| is morc
mctcrs :o |cct), vit| a oiamctc: o| o o mctcr
aoout z |cct) !|c cnqt| o| t|c oarrc aonc is morc
t|an nctcrs 3 |cct) ano t|c qunjovocr rcscr
voir is o.z3 mctcr o3: |cct) in oiamctcr No suc|
larqc sjlit quns cxistco in Lurojc oc|orc t|is onc
!|is novc| cannon vas cast in :o oy t|c orocr
o| Sutan c|mco ll. Hc vas vcry intc:cstco in
|rcarms, csjcciay in cannons Lurinq |is sicqc o|
Constantinojc, |c orocrco |is cannon mastcr to
cast a arqcr cannon t|an |ao cvcr occn sccn oc|orc
ano t|is onc couo |rc cannon oa|s uj to a m..c
Cn t|c muzzc is inscrioco in raoic Hcj, '
a|, !|c Sutan o|ammco |an son o| urao
!|c vor| o| amina i in t|c mont| o| la]ao. ln
t|c ycar 3o3 o| t|c Hc,:c cacnoar, or :o)
Sutan c|mcos cannon cnoco uj in a o:ts
mout| muscum occausc, a|tcr unsucccss|u
attcmjts oy t|c Lnqis| |or oo ycars to jcrsuaoc
t|c Cttomans to qivc it, uccn Victoria jcrson
a|y as|co Sutan oou. ziz |or .t our.nq |is visit
to Eurojc Cnc ycar atcr, t|c sutan scnt it as a
qi|t lt vas transjortco |rom t|c Laroanclcs to
Lonoon ano jacco in t|c muscum in :3o3 uccn
Victoria jcr|ajs vantco it occausc .t vas |novn
as t|c most imjortant cannon . n Eurojc'
usims aso ouit roc|cts ano t|c nrst tor
jcoo !|c roc|ct vas t|c socaco sc|movinq
ano como.stinq cqq ano t|c torjcoo vas a
\\ ORLD: \'1\ l t\ N D \\ F 1\ l'ON R1
clcvcry mooinco roc|ct ocsiqnco to s|im aonq
t|c su:|acc o| t|c vatcr. lt vas caco t|c cqq,
v|ic| movcs .tsc.| ano ourns,' ano Hasan a
lamma| s iustrations ano tcxt s|ov tvo s|cct
iron jans vcrc |astcnco toqct|cr ano maoc tiq|t
vit| |c t T|is maoc a |attcnco jcars|ajco
vcssc t|at vas |co v.t| naj|t|a, mcta n
inqs, ano qooo m.xtu:cs jrooao.y contain.nq
satjctcr|, ano t|c ajjaratus vas jrovioco vit|
tvo roos ano jrojcco oy a larqc roc|ct ' !|c
tvo roos vouo jrooaoy |avc actco as tai :.o
ocrs, v|ic a sjcar at t|c |ront vouo |ooqc into
t|c vooocn |u o| an cncmy s|ij to sccurc .t
oc|orc cxjooinq.
LUNPLWOLK
1
o make gunpowder: "Take from wh i te,
cl ean and bri ght [or fery] barud [ sa lt
peter] as mu c h as you l i ke a n d two new
[ ea rthen] j a rs . Put t he s al tpeter i nto one
of t hem and add water t o s ub merge i t. Put
the j ar on a gentl e fre unti l i t gets warm.
Ski m off the scum that ri ses [ and] throw i t
away. Make the fre stronger unt i l the l i qui d
becomes q u i te cl ear. Then pour the cl ear
l i qui d i nto the other j ar i n such a way that
no sed i ment or scum remai ns attached to i t.
Pl ace t hi s j a r on a l ow fre unti l the contents
begi n to coagul ate. Then take it off the fre
and gri nd i t fnel y. "
HASAN A L -RAMMAH DESCRI BES A COMPLETE PROCESS FOR
THE PURIFICATION OF POTASSI UM NITRATE IN HIS BOOK
THE BOOK OF HORSEMANSHIP AND INGENIOUS WAR DEVICES
Many gunpowder recipes are included in
Hasan ai-Rammah's 14th-century writings.
ZZ 1001 I NV[N TONS: T H F F NDU RI NG l f G;\CY OF MUS LL' CI VI UZJ! ON
.| Al| |N|ANl .N.V|
bn Khaldun was one of the last scholars of the classic medieval Muslim civi
lization. In many ways his writing, family story, and life refect the changes
that caused the decline, and eventual fall, of medieval Islamic civilization.
Born in Tunis in 1332 and died in Cairo in 1406, he explained how Islamic
civilization was undone.
Hc ocqan oy oo|inq at t|c various invaocrs
v|o .nocrminco it, ano |ov |.s anccstors vc:c
t|cmscvcs a||cctco oy suc| invasions Uj unti
:z3, t|cy |ao ivco in Scvilcuntil t|c C|ristian
Sjanis| aovancco to rcoccujy t|cir anccstra
|omc ano |is |amiys |omc vas os: as t|cy |co
H.s anccstors cscajco to Nor:| I|rica, v|crc |is
parcnts oico o| t|c jaquc
lon |aoun t|cn c|t nis nativc !un.sia |or
Lqyjt, in .3z, ano |is |amiy |oovco |im, out
t|cy |c. vic:im to yct anot|cr o| t|c scou:qcs o|
Ibn Khaldun wrote Al-Muqaddimah, or An Introduction
to History, during a period of enforced exile in Algeria.
({Human bei ngs requi re cooperation
for the preservation of the speci es,
and they are by nature equipped
for i t. Thei r labor is the only means
at thei r disposal for creati ng the
material basis for thei r individual
and group exi stence. Where human
bei ngs exist i n large numbers, a divi
sion of activi ties becomes possible
and permits greater speci alization
and refi nement i n all spheres of li fe.
The result is lIIH| {civilization or
culture] wi th i ts great material and
i ntellectual achievements, but also
wi th a tendency toward luxury and
leisure, which carries wi thin i tself
the seeds of destructi on."
FROM 1 4TH-CENTURY I BN KHALDUN' S AL -MUQADDIMAH
t|c oay, jiracy His |amiy vcrc |ico or ta|cn
cajt.vc, ano |c ncvcr sav t|cm aqain, nor o.o |c
cvcr say anot|cr vo:o aoout :|cm
!|c ast ycars o| lon |ao.ns i|c corrcsjono
to jossioly t|c as: ycars o| cassica usim sc|o|
ars|ij ano oriq|t civilization ly t|c cary :t|
ccn:ury, |av.nq |ost Sjain ano S.ciy, ano |avinq
onouroo t|o Cr.saoos ano t|o onqo .nas.ons,
t|o usim vor|o nov su||oroo t|o most ooas
tat.nq ons|auq|t o| T.mur t|o Lamo, aso |novn
as Tamurano, t|o o||octs o| v|ic| voro in jart
vitnossoo oy lon |aoun
losj.to t|o oomanos o| |.s vor as a uoqo
ano oijomat, |o manaqoo :o continuo |is aca
oomic rosoarc|, ano jrooucoo |is voro |istory
ca|oo oo/ o/ :/c lcssons cnJ -./:vc o/ Lc|y
cnJ './scj.cn: H:s:o, |.s oocamo |novn as
-|M.jcJJ:c/ or !n:oJ.c::on
!|o |M.jcJJ:c/ .s a qiqant.c onooaor,
a oiscourso on .niorsa |istory on |ao.n
oxjoroo ano imj|omontoo t|o .ooa t|at t|o oocu
montat.on o| |.story is no: .st a |.st o| corroct
|acts, out .s oojonoont on v|o is intorjrotinq
thom, v|at roqion t|oy como |rom ano v|on, as
vo as t|oir imjartiaity T|is vas a rooutionary
ajjroac| ano |is mot|ooooqy is sti .soo oy
|.storians tooay Ho comjotoy rooctoo jartia.:y
ano unc|oc|oo |acts n t|is vay, |o orouq|t in a
riqorous nov oimonsion to sc|oars|ij ano t|o
socia| scioncos, v|ic| jroiooo t|o oas.s |or arqu
monts oo|oro t|oy cou|o oocomo accojtoo as |act
Cno o| |is oost|novn stuo.os roatos to t|o
riso ano oocino o| cii|.zations, ano it .s t|.s t|at
aio oovn t|o |ounoations o| soc.a sc.onco, t|o
sc.onco o| cii|.zation ano soc.ooqy Ho oxjains
|ov c.i|.zation ano c.turo orooo t|oir ovn
ooc|.no |o|ov.nq a cycica| naturo T|oy r.so uj
ooca.so o| a common nooo |or jrotoct.on ano
oomination. roac| a joa| v|on t|o soc.a oonos
aro at t|o.r stronqost, oo|oro ooc|.n.nq, ano jor.s|
v|on qrouj s.jjort ano socia oonos oocomo
o.utoo oocauso o| un|oat|y comjot.tion ano
corrujtion at timos o| jrosjor.ty
ln lon |a|o.n s mino, t|o on|y :|.nq t|at
couo co.ntoract t|o ois.ntoqratio |orcos, in|or
ont . n oory nation, vas roiqion Ho sa.o t|at
lsam qao a community a astinq sjiritua| con
tont, a comjoto ansvor to a| jroooms o| i|o, t|at
.t |urnis|oo t|o comjoto ansvor to |.s omj.rica|
Y| lL SOCi i\ L SCI E NCL 1\ND ECONO,'\ I CS
dN KMALOUN
|
bn l<hal dun was a j udge, university schol ar,
and di pl omat, known for hi s works of soci ol
ogy, economi cs, commerce, hi story, phi l osophy,
pol i ti cal sci ence, and anth ropol ogy. He wrote
hi s famous AI-Muqaddimah or Introduction to a
Histor ofthe World duri ng a period of enforced
exi l e, taki ng refuge i n Al geria, whi l e runni ng from
Fez because of pol i ti cal unrest. The frst vol ume
gave a profound and detai l ed analysi s ofl sl ami c
soci ety, referri ng and compari ng i t to other cul
tures, and he traced the ri se and fal l of human
societies i n a sci ence of ci vi l izati on.
A contemporar artist's rendering ofIbn Khafdun
.nquiry into t|o orqanization o| t|o |uman raco
Ho vas a|oao o| |is timo .n oconom.c t|oory
lo.r conturios oo|oro oam Snit|, lon |ao.n
|ao aroaoy conc|uooo t|at aoor vas t|o so.rco o|
jrosjority Ho |ao aso oistinq.is|oo ootvoon t|o
o.roct sourco o| incomo in aqr.cuturo, inoustry,
ano commorco, ano t|o .noiroct so.rco o| incomo
o| cii sorants ano jriato omjoyoos T.oso
concojts may soom i|o socono na:uro tooay,
o.t t|oy voro qro.nooroa|inq /oo yoars aqo.
ano |ao jaoo t|o vay |or cassica oconomics
ano mooos ro|atinq to consumjtion, jroo.ction,
oomano, cost, ano ut.ity
CHAPTER EI GHT
.t:s:-w|.t-ot-t|-N:j|tot|-o,,
ot|-s:ot|-o
ot|-.--st:o|:-ssw:ooj,
-o.|::tst|:t "
QURAN i!. ll)

UNI VERS E
o+'`'^ 'oL. V+'l o o'`'^'i `o+L^`+o
o+'1| ^ii oi. o\`o l' `o i'i1
+L `''` 1L` l'`+'`o ''`o+il+'`o lll \+
THE NIGHT SKY AND THE CONCEPT OF THE UNIVERSE HAVE INSPIRED POETRY, MUSIC,
phi l osophy, and science for thousands of years, and it was no different in the Muslim
world of a millennium ago.
The wonders of the heavens inspired the fust successful manned fight :,zccyears ago as oth
ers were keeping a watchful eye on the night sky. Muslims needed to know the times of the
daily prayers that depend on the sun's position, the direction of Mecca from every geographical
location, and the moon's cycle for the Muslim lunar calendar.
From these impetuses Muslims also made epoch-making discoveries such as the frst record of
a star system outside our own galaxy and the third inequality of the moon's motion, and they
developed instruments that laid the foundation for modern-day astronomy. These included
celestial globes, armillary spheres, universal astrolabes, and sextants. This all began in the
eighth century with the frst observatory and accurate astronomy tables.
Today, these stargazing scholars, along with other eminent Muslims, are remembered as we
look up because areas of the moon bear their names and more than 165 stars have Arabic titles.
LVVLIL: A manuscript depicts the sextant in Taqi alDin's famous 16th-century Istanbul observatory.
STPC`CVY
W
hy did Muslims spend so much time looking at the
sky? First, there was a practical need to determine
the times of the daily prayers throughout the year, and these
times depended on the sun's position in the sky, as prayers were at dawn,
midday, afternoon, sunset, and evening. Muslims also needed to know the
direction of Mecca from every geographical location, and this could be
done by observing the position of the sun and moon. And the Quran had
some maj or revelations about the heavens that needed to be explored. A
fnal motivation was the calendar.
T|o us..m ca|onoar is a unar caonoar, so :|o
mont|s c|anqo accoroinq :o :|o j|asos ano jos.
:ion o t|o moon Lac| mon:| ooqins v.t| t|o nrst
siq|:.nq o| t|o croscon: moon !|.s .s osjocia|y
imjortant .n t|o us.m |o|y mont| o lamaoan
v|on us|ims ast our.nq :|o oay or ono mont|
lrom a. t|oso ro|iq.o.s mo:iations, astron
omy |ocamo a main concorn |or usim sc|oars
a t|ousano yoars aqo, ano v|a: t|oy jroo.coo
|astoo |or cont.rios Lurinq t|o lona.ssanco,
loq.omon:anus, a co|ooratoo ::|contury mat|
oma:.cian ano as:ronomor, |ao :o roy on us|.m
ooo|s |or |is sourcos, v|.o N.coaus Cojornicus
ro|orroo rojoa:ooy .n |.s |oo| Dc Rcvc|.:.cn./.s
to Zarqai ano la:tan., us|im astronomors
o| :|o ooont| ano :on:| contur.os
os: o| :|o qroa: as:ronom.ca o.scoorios
|ajjonoo in oosorator.os in t|o as:, out |or t|o
oo yoars t|at us..ms ru|oo Toooo in Sjain, i:
vas t|o con:or o voro as:ronomy T|o nov astro
nom.ca ta|os maoo |oro voro usoo .n Lurojo
|or tvo contur.os
osor.nq t|o sy vas an intonso acti.ty, ano
.: |ajjonoo on a oaiy oas.s v|on :|o sun ano
moon vouo |o s:uoioo as :|oy :rac|oo across t|o
|oaons T|is |ojoo :o ootormino so|ar jaramo
:ors ano j:oo.coo inormat.on on t|o onq.tuoos
ano |ati:uoos o :|o jano:s v|oso moasuromon:s
voro maoo a: intoras o :vo voo|s
ln nint|cont.ry laq|oao Caij| |a'mun
sot uj an intooct.a acaoomy, t|o Ho.so o `is
oom, to :rans|ato manuscrijts, v|ic| you can
roao aoo.t in t|o Sc|oo. c|aj:or monq t|o
|rst vors transatoo into raoic vas :|o |ox
anorian astronomor l:o|omys cc: o/ v|ic|
TOP: Muslim astronomers were skillful instrument
makers, paving the way for the development of modern
astronomy. BOTTOM: Scholars made daily observations
of the sun and moon, along with measurements of the
positions of the planets eve1y two weeks.
ooscriooo a .nivorso in v|.c| t|o s.n, moon, jan
o:s, ano sta:s :oovoo aro.no La:t| A|cjcs: as
t|o vo:| vas |novn :o raoic sc|oa:s, oocamo
t|o oasis or cosmooqy or t|o noxt 500 yoa:s
Yot t|o .s|.ms oovoojoo ano vont |a: ooyono
t|o Croo| mat|omatica. mot|oos o.no in t|is
troatiso n jartic.ar in t|o |oo o t:iqonomotry,
t|o aoancos maoo in .sim .anos jro.ooo :|o
ossontia| :oo.s o: t|o c:oation o| `osto:n lonais
sanco astronomy
!|o:o voro many .s.im astronomors v|o
contrioutoo |.qoy to t|o |o|o o st.oy.nq t|o
|oaons, ay.nq t|o o.noation o: astronomors .n
t|o .t.ro, o.t :|oso ominon: inoi.o.a|s stano o.t
Al-Battani, |novn in t|o `ost as |oa:oq
n..s, v|o o.oo .n ., v:oto !/c 'c/:cc c/cs,
v|ic| vas a vory .n|.ontia vo:| or cont.r.os
His vor| aso .nc.ooo timinq o| t|o nov moons,
cac.|a:.on o :|o |onqt| o| t|o so|ar ano s.oo
roa| yoar, t|o jrooict.on o oc|.jsos, ano t|o j|o
nomonon o| jara|ax Ho a.so joj.ar.zoo i not
o.scooroo, t|o |rst no:ions o tr.qonomotric ra
t.os .soo :ooay. ano maoo sor.o.s atora:ions to
toomys t|oor.os, v|.c| |ao ooon .soo as :|o
main astronomica| vor|s .nti t|on Ho maoo
t|o imjo:tant o.scovory t|at :|o motion o| :|o
soar ajoqoo. or t|o josit.on o| t|o s.n amonq
t|o stars at t|o timo o its qroatost oistanco |rom
t|o la:t|, vas no: v|a: it |ao ooon .n t|o t.mo o
toomy !|o Croo| astronomo: jacoo t|o sun
at onqit.oo c ooqroos, o.t lattani |o.no .t
at onq.t.oo 3z ooqroos !|is o.scrojancy vas
a oistanco :oo qroa: to oo acco.ntoo or oy any
inacc.racy o| moas.romont. ano tooay vo |nov
it .s ooca.so t|o soa: systom is moinq t|ro.q|
sjaco !|on. t|o.q|, it vas st.| |oiooo t|at t|o
lart| vas t|o con:o: o| :|o .n.orso, so t|.s con
c|.s.on co.|o not oo maoo
Al-Biruni ..oo |otvoon / ano 1050. Ho
statoo t|a: :|o lar:| rotatoo aro.no its ovn
U N I V F RS[: t\ STRONO,v\ Y
uAfter having lengthily applied
myself i n the study of this science,
I have noticed that the works on the
movements of the planets difered
consistently wi th each other, and
that many authors made errors in
the manner of undertaking thei r
observation, and establishing thei r
rules. I also noticed that wi th time,
the posi ti on of the planets changed
according to recent and older
observations; changes caused by the
obliqui ty of the eclipti c, afecting the
calculation of the years and that of
eclipses. Continuous focus on these
things drove me to perfect and
confi rm such a science. "
AL -BATTANI , ASTRONOMER AND
MATHEMATI CI AN (858-929)
axis, cac.|atoo :|o la:t|s c.:c.m|o:onco, ano
|xoo sc.onti|ca||y t|o oiroction o| occa rom
any joint o t|o qooo Ho aso vroto aoo.t 150
vo:|s, inc.o.nq _ troatisos on j.ro astronomy,
o.t ony six astronomica| vrit.nqs |ao s.rvivoo
Ibn Yunus maoo o|sorvations or noa:y 30
yoars rom // .sinq a a:qo astroaoo noary 1. 4
motors .c |oot) .n oiamo:o: Ho rocorooo moro
:|an 10,000 ont:.os o| .|o s.n's jos.tion tnrouq|
o.t a| t|oso oocaoos
'Abd al-Rahman al-Suf vas a ors.an ast:on
omor v|o ivoo ourinq t|o tont| contury Yo.
can roao moro aoo.t |im .n t|o Cons:o|at.ons
soction o t|is c|ajtor
Z J OOI I N' i: N I I ONC: 1| l l E NDU R I N( , l r G \C! Of L l l \I CI \' I I I L:\TI ON
Al-Farghani vas onc o| Caij| I.a'muns
as:ronomcrs v|o vrotc aoou: t|c astroiaoc, cx
jaininq t|c mat|cmatica :|cory oc|.no t|c in
s:rumcnt ano corrcc:inq t|c |au:y qcomctrica
cons:ructions o| t|c ccntra oisc t|a: vcrc cur
rcnt t|cn His most |amous vor|, t|c :oo/ on '.n
Movccn: cnc Lncyc|opcJ:c o/ ':c 'c:cncc, on
cosmoqraj|y, contains o c|ajtcrs, incuoinq
a ocscrijtion o| t|c in|aoitco jart o| t|c Lart|,
its sizc, ano t|c oistanccs o| :|c |cavcny oooics
|rom t|c Lart| ano t|c.r s.zcs
Al-Zarqali, |novn as Irzac|c or Izarquic.
in Lurojc, oico in :o3/ Hc jrcjarco t|c Tocoan
Taocs ano a|so maoc a soj|isticatco astroaoc
t|at couo oc usco at any qcoqraj|ica ocation.
Jabir ibn Am,v|o oico .n ::, vas t|c nrs:
:o ocs.qn a jortao.c cccstia sj|crc to mcasurc
cc|cstia. cooroinatcs Jaoir is sjcc.ay notco |or
|is vor on sjcr.ca. triqonomctry
Ibn Rushd, |rom :zt|ccn:ury Coroooa, vas
|novn .n t|c `cst as Ivcrrocs Hc vas onc o|
t|c most |amous ooctors in Coroooa, out |c vas
aso an as:ronomcr, ano .c is ocicvco to |avc
oiscovcrco sunsjots
Ibn al-Shatir vas a ::|ccntury as:ronomcr
ln t|c casc o| unar motion, |c corrcctco toc
my, v|osc imaqinco moon ajjroac|co |ar clos
cr to t|c Lart| t|an oio t|c actua moon I|tcr
notinq, as oio ot|cr usim astronomcrs oc|orc
|im, t|c s|ortcominqs o| t|c rcc|s janctary
t|cory, lon aS|a:ir sa.o, l t|crc|orc as|co I.
miq|ty oo to qivc mc insjira:ion ano |cj mc
invcnt moocs t|at vou|o ac|icvc v|at vas rc
quirco, ano oo, may Hc oc jraisco ano cxat
co, al jraisc ano qratituoc to Himoio cnaoc
mc to ocvisc univcrsa moocs |or t|c janctary
motions in onqituoc ano atituoc ano a ot|cr
ooscrvaolc |caturcs o| t|cir mo:ions, moocs
t|at vcrc |rcct|an oo|rom t|c oouots sur
rounoinq jrcv.ous moocs'
!raccs o| mcoicva lsam.c astronomy arc s:..
sccn tooay T|c voros zcnit| az.mut., ano t|c
namcs o| stars in t|c Summcr !rianqc, Vcqa,
Itair, Lcnco, arc a.| o| Iraoic oriqin
1mL d Km L NLOLKN A51KLNLNT
M
any bel i eve that astronomy di ed with the Greeks, and was brought
to l i fe agai n by Ni col aus Coperni cus, the 1 5th-century Pol i sh
astronomer who i s famous for i ntroduci ng the sun-centered theory of
the sol ar system, whi ch marked the begi nni ng of modern astronomy.
However, many h i stori ans now thi nk i t is not a coi nci dence that hi s
model s of pl anetar theory ar e mathemati cal l y i denti cal to those pre
pared by I bn ai -Shatir more than a century before hi m. I t is known that
Coperni cus rel i ed heavi l y on the comprehensive astronomi cal treatise
by AI -Battani , which i ncl uded star catalogs and pl anetary tabl es.
The mathemati cal devices di scovered by Musl i ms before Coperni
cus, referred to i n modern terms as l i nkages of constant l ength vectors
Nicolaus Copericus
rotati ng at constant angul ar vel oci ti es, are exactly the same as those
used by Coperni cus. The only, but i mportant, di fference between the two was that the Musl i ms' Earth
was fxed i n s pace, whereas Coperni cus had it orbiti ng around the sun. Coperni cus al so used i nstru
ments that were parti cul ar to astronomy i n the East, l i ke the paral lactic rul er, which had previ ousl y onl y
been used i n Samarkand and Maragha observatories.
A 15th-century Persian manuscript of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's observatory
at Maragha depicts astronomers at work teaching astronomy, including
how to use an astrolabe. The instrument hangs on the observatory's wall.
Ul \ L RS f: .\ : f RONO. \\Y
Cl \ | | | Z. \| C`
.2 .lS |P\ATCP| |S
F
rom the beginnings of human awakening, people have
marveled at the amazing canopy of stars and at the
movement of everything in the sky. Clearly, there was
order in the heavens, and many attempts were made to iden
tify the patterns in this order.
!|is |ao q:oat siqn.ncanco |o: i|o s.nco t|rouq|
:|oso oLsorva:.ons camo t|o Loqinn.nqs o| jro
o.ctivo sc.onco, ano nov vo can j:oo.ct t|o josi
:ion o| t|o sun in t|o s|y t|o moon, :|o :ininq
o| ocijsos, t|o c|anqinq jos.tion o| t|o j|ano:s
ano t|o stars
.s|.ns voro no: :|o n:st to s:.oy ast:on
omy, Lu: t|oy voro t|o |rst to oo it on a arqo
sca|o, v.:| nass.vo .ns:r.non:s i n oLso:vato:ios
Istronomica rosoarc| vas oxjons.vo, noooinq
cost|y oquijnon: ano t|o coojo:a:ion o! nany
astronomors ooo vo:| vas oono j:ovio.sy
vit| sna|, jortaLo .nstrumonts, ano to|ony
ca::ioo o.t |.s oLso:vationa| vo:| v.:| t|oso
!|oro vas ono nan, Ca|.j| I|anun, v|o
ru:oo |:on laq|oao |:om 3: :o 3, v|o roa|y
qavo astronony :|o jatronaqo ano .njo:us .t
nooooo to Locomo a ma]o: sc|onco Ho vas t|o
|rst jorson :o sot uj oLso:va:or.os !|o concoj:
o| a nxoo ocat.on v.t| a:qo ano nxoo .nstru
nonts, jroq:ams o| vor|, sciontinc s:a|| maoo
.j o| sovora as:ronomors, ano :oya| jat:onaqo
or amiat.on |ron :|o stato voro a| novo| iooas
.nt:oo.coo Ly Ia'mun Not|inq comjaraLo
can Lo |ouno Lo|oro t|o us.n astrononors
Not ony oio Ian.n Luio t|o nrs: oLsorva
tory .n ls|an, L.: |o aso arquaLy Lui|: t|o nrst
oLso:vatory in t|o vo:o o: .n |is:ory Iam.n
vas an on..q.tonoo |oaoor v|o jayoo a ma]or
jart i n so:t.nq uj t|o Ho.so o| `isoo, ono o|
t|o q:oa:ost .ntooct.a| acaoonios in |istory,
v|.c| yo. :an :oao aLo.t in t|o Sc|oo c|ajtor
!|o oa:|iost oLso:va:orios vo:o 1
:|o IS|annasiya| q.arto: o| laq|oao ano on
ount asiyun at Lanasc.s, ano t|oso oo to
:|o omorqonco o| xoo jacos |or sjociaizoo ano
cooc:ivo vo:k naor tas| o| suc| oLsorvato
:ios vas to construct astrononica taLos !|oso
|ojoo i n :|o ca|c.ation o| janota:y jos.:ions
|.nar j|asos, ocijsos, ano .n|ornat.on |or caon
oa:s !|oy o|ton .nc|.ooo oxj|anat.ons o| as:ro
nomica| ins:rumonts Iamuns oLsorvator.os
jroja:oo soa: ano |.na: :aLos ano |ao a star
cata|oq, j|.s somo janota:y oLsorvat.ons
I: IS|anmasiya|, astronomors oLsorvoo
t|o s.n, :|o noon, :|o j|anots, ano somo nxoo
stars |o rosuts o| t|o vor| oono |o:o voro
j:osontoo .n a Loo| caoo t|o M.:c/cn Z.,
or /c:/cc !c/|cs, v|oso a.t|o: is sa.o to |avo
Loon .Ln ILi ansou:
Ct|or oLsorvato:.os voro L.i: a|| ovo: t|o
.s|in vo:o suc| as :|o a:aq|a CLsorva
to:y |ounooo Ly H.|aq. |an, t|o Sama:|ano
CLso:va:ory o| Uuq| loq, t|o a.| S|a|
CLso:vatory at ls|a|an, ano :|o TaLriz CLso:
va:ory o| |azan |an
|o araq|a CLsorvato:y vas conjo:oo in
..c in lran to t|o so.t| o| !aLriz, ano its |oun
oa:ions a:o sti| :|oro !|o main vor| oono in
araq|a vas t|o j:oja:a:ion o| nov as:ronomi
ca| taL|os ano t|o oLsorvatory iLrary containoo
no:o :|an /O,OOO Loo|s Inonq :|o on.nont
Many observatories were built in the Muslim world
during the golden age of discovery.
astronomors assoc.atoo vit| to oosoratory
voro Nas.r aL.n a.Tusi ano u:| aLin a
S|.razi, vo .s crooitoo vit| to oiscoory o| :|o
:ruo causo o| :|o ra.noov Nasir aLin aTusi
roaroo :|o l||anio Ta|os ano to cataoq
o| |xoo stars, vic| romainoo in uso |or soora
con:ur.os :|rouqout :|o voro n as:ronomor
|rom araq|a vas son: :o C|.na, ano t|o oynas
t.c c|ron.cos o| t|o Yuan ooar rocoro o| |ov |o
oosiqnoo an .nstrumont |or oosor.nq :|o |oa
ons, vic| vas oroctoo on :|o Croat `a..
Uuq| loq vas to .:|contury ruor o| :|o
Timur.o Lmiro, v|ic| s:rotcoo oor con:ra ano
Sout|vost sia s vo as |oinq to ru.inq su.tan,
o vas an astronomor ano mat|oma:.c.an v|ic|
oo |im to |uio a :|roos:ory oosor.a:ory |or so.ar,
unar, ano .anotary o|so:vations in Samar|ano
o Samar|ano Cosoratory vas a monu
monta |uioinq oqu.oo v.:| a uqo mor.o|an,
maoo o| masonry, v|ic oocamo t|o symoo o|
t|o o|soratory as a onq.as:inq institu:ion
tronc| aoou: z motors v.oo cc |oot) vas ouq .n
a |i|, aonq t|o ino o| t|o morioian, ano in it vas
acoo t|o soqmont o| to arc o| to ins:rumon:
UNI VE I<. S L OlS E RVAOR. I E. S 271
1|o raoius o| t|at morioian arc vas oqua. :o :|o
|o.q|t o| to oomo o| t|o Haq.a So|a osquo .n
ls:an|u., v|:c| vas aoout o motors :c |oo:)
lu.t |or soar ano .ano:ary oosorat.ons, i:
vas oquioo vit| to |nost instrumonts aai
ao.o, .nc.uoinq a Fa||r. soxtan: v.:| a raoius
o| o motors .. |oo:) T|is vas to .arqost
as:ronomica. instrumon: o| its :yo !o main
uso o| :|o sox:ant vas to oo:ormino :|o |asics o|
as:ronomy, suc| as to onq:| o| :|o troica. yoar
Ctor ins:rumon:s incuooo an arm.ary s|oro
ano an astroiaoo, v|ic| you can roao aoou:
:|.s c|a:or
U..q loqs vor| vas ory aoancoo |or |is
:imo ano surr:sinq.y accurato His cacuation
:|a: :|o sto.ar yoar vas c oays, c |ours, .o
m|nutos, ano 3 soconos .onq vas ony cz soccnos
moro tan :|o roson: ostimat.on an accuracy o|
ooooz orcont, vic| .s romar|aoo
Cosorator.os voro massio, vit| continuous
oosora:iona. roqrams, v|.c| nooooo orqaniza
t.on ano omcioncy o| aomin.s:rat|on so astrono
mors oiroctoo ano suor..soo o:|or mom|ors
o| :|o sta|| .n toir vork Lator o|sora:or.os aro
LdbLKVA1LK Lb N 1mL WLb1
Spanish King Alonso X

l fonso X, a Spani sh ki ng of the


second hal f of t he 1 3th cen
tury, tri ed to carry on the I s l ami c
tradi ti on of bui l di ng observato
ries in western Europe, but he
di dn' t succeed-maybe because
astrol ogy was frowned u pon by
the Church and the usefu l ness of
astronomy was questi oned. Four
centuri es l ater, however, the si tua
ti on gradual l y cha nged and knowl
edge of astronomy gai ned depth
and breadth, with Europe absorb-
i ng al l that h ad gone on in the I sl ami c wor l d. So much so that the i nstruments used by the fa mous
1 6th-centu ry observati onal astronomer Tycho Brahe were very s i mi l ar to those used earl i er by
Mu sl i m astronomers. Hi s fa mous mural quad rant was l i ke those devel oped i n eastern I sl am.
l OCH I NVf NTI ONS: T l l f. EN DU RI NG LLCi . \C\ Of \WS LI \\ CI \ I L I Z. \ TI O"
Astronomers study the moon and the stars in this Ottoman-style painting.
|novn to |avc |ao oircctors, trcasurcrs, ccr|s,
'iorarians, ano ot|c: aoministrativc omccrs, as
vc as t|cir sta|| o| scicntists
Lvcn t|ouq| t|c main vor| carrico out at
a mun s ooscrvatorics in S|ammasiya|
ano on ount asiyun vas t|c construction o|
astronomica taocs, ot|cr oriqina ano cjoc|
ma|inq oiscovc:.cs aso occu::co, :csutinq,
|or cxamjlc, i n t|c oiscovcry o| t|c movcmcnt
o| t|c solar ajoqcc Ct|cr rcmar|aoc oiscov
crics can oc rcao aoout i n ot|cr scctions o|
t|is c|ajtcr
maqnihccnt out s|ortivco ooscrvatory
vas ouilt in t|c .ot| ccntury |or Taqi aLin,
onc o| t|c most notaolc scicnt|sts in t|c us
im voro Hc |ao convincco t|c ncv sutan,
urao l l l, to |uno t|c ouioinq o| t|c lstanou
Coscrvatory, ano llvas comjctco in ://
`it| tvo outstanoinq ouioinqs, ouit |iq| on
a |i ovcrloo|inq t|c natoian scction o| lstan
ou, it |ao an unoostructco vicv o| t|c niq|t
s|y Li|c a moocrn ooscrvatory tooay, t|c main
ouioinq |clo t|c iorary ano |ousco t|c tcc|
nical sta||, v|ic t|c sma|cr oui|oinq containco
an imjrcssivc cocction o| .nstrumcnts ouit
oy Taqi aLin T|cy incuoco a qiant a:miary
UNI VE RSE: OBSERYt\TORJ E. S
sj|crc ano a mcc|anica cloc| |or mcasurinq
t|c josition ano movcmcnt o| t|c jlancts.
Taqi aLin vantco to ujoatc t|c o|o astro
nomica taocs ocsc:ioinq t|c motion o| t|c
jancts, sun, ano moon Hovcvcr, |is ooscrva
tory vas ocstroyco oy t|c sutan |or numcrous
sociojoitica rcasons in|co to t|c jaquc ano
intcrna jaacc :ivary Lcsjitc t|.s, Taqi aLin
c|t an cnormous cqacy o| ooo|s on astronomy,
mat|cmatics, ano cnqinccrinq
s vc as ouioinq t|c hrst ooscrvatorics,
usims |ao amonq t|cm a jionccrinq nint|
ccntury Coroooan v|o ouilt a jlanctarium.
Uni|c an ooscrvatory v|crc t|c |cavcns arc
stuoico, a janctarium is a room v|crc imaqcs
o| t|c s:ars, jancts, ano ot|cr cc|cst.a oooics
arc jro] cctco lon l.rnas, octtcr |novn |or |is
cxjcrimcnts i n |iq|t, maoc a janctarium out
o| qass i n onc room o| |is |ousc, s|ovinq t|c
niq|t s|y as it vas t|cn T|is vcry muc| rcscm
oco tooays janctariums, ano |c cvcn aooco
artihcia t|unocr noisc ano iq|tninq.
LEFT: A giant marble sextant sits inside Ulugh Beg
Observatory in Uzbekistan. RIGHT: The radius of the
meridian arc at Ulugh Beg Observatory was equal to
the height of the dome of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.
1AQ| A|- D| N' 8C08kvA1Ck
L LPNL`` LPNo
A Rich Shared Heritage ofAstronomy fom East and West
LEGACY: Awe8th o85trohomc8 d8t8, 8 5chder um, 8hd mech8hc8 cock5
LOCATI ON: 5t8hbu, urke
DATE: 1 th cehtur
KEY FI GURE: 8 8 h

he wonder and glory of the starry ski es i mpressed the schol ars of Musl i m civi l i zation-but
they also looked for order and logic in what they saw. With sophi sticated i nstruments and
new mathematical techni ques, astronomers made great l eaps forward i n understandi ng the
universe. They bui lt on ancient Greek ideas, leavi ng a joi nt astronomi cal heritage that we see
today in the Greek and Arabic names of many stars.
Cal i ph AI- Ma' mun began the Musl i m tradition of observatory bui l di ng in the ni nth century,
when he founded faci l ities i n Baghdad and on Mount Qasi yun i n Damascus. Sul tan Mal i kshah
bui lt the frst l arge-scal e observatory i n the Musl i m world i n I sfahan i n the late nth century.
The most i mportant I sl ami c observatory was bui lt by the 1 3th-century astronomer Nasi r
ai - Di n ai -Tusi i n Maragha, I ran. I t was once considered the most prestigious observatory i n the
world, and its foundati ons are sti l l visi bl e today. Chi nese records i nform us that an astronomer
cal l ed Jamal ai -Di n, who was l i nked to the 1 3th-century Maragha Observatory, visited the i mpe
ri al court in Bei j i ng in 1 267 and brought with hi m several astronomi cal i nstruments. He became
famous i n Chi na and was known as Cha-ma-l u-ting.
Key astronomical tools of Musl i m civi l ization were quadrants and sextants, which scholars
used for measuri ng the altitude of heavenly bodies. Once confrmed, detail ed stel l ar coordi nates
could be mapped on celesti al globes such as those made by AI-Battani . I n a tenth-centur work he
described an i nstrument call ed al-baydha, or "the egg." I t combined elements of a sol i d celestial
sphere with others derived from the tradition of the armi l l ary sphere, allowing hi m to plot the posi
tions of a l arge number of stars. Accuracy was essential for mai ntai ni ng an observatory's reputa
tion. Astronomers thus bui lt l arger tools to reduce the percentage of error in measurements. A
famous observatory bui lt in the 1420s by the astronomer Ul ugh Beg in Uzbekistan had a sextant
set i nto a trench more than three stories deep to protect it from earthquakes.
The 1 6th-century astronomer Taqi ai -Di n bui lt a magnifcent observatory in I stanbul . I t con
tai ned an i mpressive array of i nstruments for maki ng observati ons and updati ng astronomi cal
tabl es. Huge versi ons of some tool s, i ncl udi ng a sextant, were i nstal l ed.
The astronomers of Musl i m civilization chal lenged some of the i deas they had i nherited from
ancient Greek scholars. Their observations and mathematical research al lowed them to develop
new models to which, through transl ati on, Western astronomers gained access. Scientifc texts,
tables of data, and descriptions of i nstruments from Arabic into Latin provided the foundati ons
for Western pre-modern and earl y modern astronomy, pavi ng the way for Nicol aus Coperni cus' s
i deas of the sun-centered sol ar system publ i shed i n 1 543.
_ STPC`CV| CAl l `STPUVl!TS
W
hat Muslims really pioneered were huge observational instru
ments designed and built to study the heavens, and by using large
instruments they reduced the percentage of error in their meas
urements. The observatory at Damascus had a 6-meter (20-foot) quadrant and
a 17-meter (56-foot) sextant, which more than four average-length cars end to
end. The Maragha Observatory also had many large instruments including
quadrants, armillary spheres, and astrolabes.
Ct|or instrumonts incuooo coostia qooos, quao
rants, ano soxtants You can roao aoout astroaoos
ano armia:y sj|oros in moro ootai in sojarato
soctions .n t|is c|ajtor.) I t|oso ins:rumonts
usoo in oosoratorios |ao to oo accurato oocauso
t|o oosorvatorios rojutations oojonooo on t|o
rosults t|oy jrooucoo
Jaoir ion Ina| |rom Sjain, v|o oioo in 1145.
vas t|o nrst to oosiqn a jortaoo coostial sj|oro
to moasuro coostia cooroinatos calloo a torquo
tum), out it vas tont|contury astronomor Ilat
tan|, vor|inq in lraq, v|o vas t|o main as:ronomor
vritinq on coostia qooos Ho oio not uso |is
qooos as oosorationa instrumonts,
instoao |o vantoo to jrocisoly rocoro
colostia oata. Ho ooscriooo ono t|at
vas susjonooo |rom |o rinqs,
v|ic| |o caoo c//cycc/ or
t|o oqq, qiinq ootaioo oiroc
tions on |ov to jot t|o cooroi
natos o| oac| o| :,ozz stars His
troatiso vas ory in|uontia, as it
qao ootais o| |ov stars s|ouo
oo mar|oo onto t|o qooo T|is
moant t|at instrumont ma|ors
arouno t|at timo couo jroouco a qooo
to t|is jarticu|ar stanoaro
Ilattani's troatiso vas ory oi||or
ont |rom t|o jroltoomaic oosiqn
o| a coostia qooo, v|ic| usoo no jaraol oqua
torial rinqs ano constolation outinos lnstoao,
alattani |ao a moro jrociso mot|oo o| c|artinq
t|o stars usinq t|o ocijtic ano t|o Lquator, ano
oiioinq t|om into sma oiis.ons !|is mot|oo
alovoo t|o stars to oo qion oxact cooroinatos,
ano o| courso t|is incroasoo jrocision
!|o usims voro s|i|u too ano .nstrumont
ma|ors. In imjortant ma|or o| coostia qooos
vas Ioo ala|man aSuh, v|o vas oorn in o
Ho vroto a troatiso on t|o oosiqn o| constoa
:.on imaqos |or coostia qooo ma|ors t|at |ao
qroat in|uonco in t|o usim voro as vo as in
Lurojo His ot|or troatisos incuooo ono
on t|o astroaoo ano ono on |ov to uso
coostia qooos
any qooos voro constructoo
uj to t|o :ot| contury, ano many
sti oxist tooay, out nono jrior to
t|o ::| contu:y |as survioo
!|oro aro many sc.o:a:s v|o
vroto aoout astronomica instru
monts, ano ono o| t|oso vas Iou
la|r ion aSarra] aHamavi, v|o
o.oo in Syria in circa :z Ho vroto so
ora ooo|s on sciontinc instrumonts ano
Muhammad ibn Hilal made this
13th-century brass celestial globe
in Maragha, Iran.
qoomotrica. jroooms, v|io aso invont.nq a
quaorant caoo c|.jcc:cc: c|,.sc Ho oooi
catoo muc| t.mo to vr.tinq aoout t|o quaorant,
ano |is ooo|s .ncuoo !cc::sc oc pcc::ocs w.:/
:/c ::cccc _.cccc: ano an ojuontsounoinq
vor| caoo Rcc Pcc|s oc pcc::ocs w::/ :/c
:.|c /o !:cc:cj ':ccs Losj.to .is accomj.s|
monts, osjocia|y .n t|o noo o| scion:i|c instru
mont ma|.nq, t|oro |as ooon no s.nq|o stuoy o|
|im ano |.s vor|s
Inot|or vas I|mao aHaaoi, v|o o.oo in
:, an as:ronomo: |rom .ojjo in Syria Ho
vroto on inst:umonts in A:s o/ P.p:|s oc pcc
::ocs w::/ :/c As:o|c/c _.cccc:.
His contomjorary lzz aLin a`a|a'i vas j:i
ma:i.y a ma:|oma:ician, muozzin, ano .wcjj::,
or t.mo|oojo:, at t|o Umayyao osquo in Cairo,
ano |o vroto a staqqor.nq numoor o| o :roat.sos
on mat|omatics incuo.nq arit|motic, ojorations
vit| t|o soxaqosima. ratio, ano a .arqo numoor
o| vor|s ooainq vit .nstrumonts monq t|oso
vas :||:cc: ':cs oc pcc::ocs w: :/ :/c A|.
ccc:c _.cccc:
Sox:ants ano quaorants voro usoo to moasuro
t|o atituoo o| coostia oo]octs aoovo t|o |orizon
U N I VL RS E i\ STRONOMI Cf\L I NSTRUMF NTS Z
FROM LEFT: The reverse and obverse of a 14th-century
astrolabic quadrant were created by Ibn Ahmad al-Mizzi,
the ofcial timekeeper of the Great Umayyad Mosque in
Damascus, Syria.
T|o quaoran:, in jarticuar, vas usoo oxton
sivo.y oy lsamic astronomors, v|o |ao qroaty
imjrovoo its oosiqn
us.m astronomors invontoo quito a |ov
quao:ants T|oro vas t|o sino quaorant, usoo |or
so.v.nq :r.qonomotr.c jroo.oms ano oovo.ojoo
in nint|contury laq|oao, :|o univorsa quao:ant,
usoo |or sovinq astronomica jroooms |o: any
.atituoo ano oovoojoo in :t|contury Syr.a, t|o
|orary quaorant, usoo |or |noinq t|o timo vit|
t|o sun, ano t|o as:roaoo/amucantar quaorant,
a quaorant oovo.ojoo |rom :|o astroaoo os: o|
:|oso voro usoo in conunction vit| t|o ast:oaoo
To moasuro :|o oL..quity o| t|o ocijt.c, t|o
anq.o ootvoon t|o jano o| t|o Lart|s Lquator
ano t|o jano o| t|o sun's ocijtic, .|u]ano.
in usoo a oovico t|at |o c.aimoo vas |.s
ovn invont.on lt vas caoo t|o la||r. sox
tan: oocauso |.s jatron vas la||r a.Lava,
t|o luvay|io ruor o| ls|a|an |uanoi
ca.moo to |avo vasty imjrovoo on s.m.ar jast
1001 I NVENT I ONS: 1 | l LNDU RI N(; L ECACY OF MUS L I M CI VI LI ZI\TI ON
..st:umonts, Locauso t|oso couo ony Lo roao i.
ooq:oos a.o mi.u:os, v|i|o vit| |.s i.st:umont,
soco.os cou|o aso Lo roao
T|.s ..s:runo.: ..corjora:oo a cooq:oo arc
on a va aiqnoo ao.q a morioian, t|o .o:t|sout|
ino |ua.ois inst:umont vas |arqor :|a. jro
v.o.s suc| i.strumonts, ano |ao a :aoius o| aLout
zo mo:ors cc |oot)
1aqi aLin j:o|or:oo to .so a ||t| tyjo o| quao
ra.t ca.oo a mura. quaoran: rat|or t|a. .|u
]anois la||ri sox:ant !|is mura. quaorant |ao tvo
qraouatoo Lrass a:cs v.:| a to:a. :ao..s o| c mo:ors
:/ |oot) ony, a staqqorinq zo moto:s cc |oot)
sma|or :|an |u]a.ois T|oso a:cs vo:o j|acoo
on a va| a|onq a mo:.oian ln oroo: :o :a|o a :oao
inq, t|o astro.omo:s aiqnoo t|o :oo or co:o on t|o
q.ao:ant vit| t|o coostia Looy, a moon, o: t|o s..,
ano :oao o|| t|o a.q.o |rom t|o mura. quaora.:
Used for navigation, a sextant is an instrument primarily
used to fnd the angle between a star and the horizon.
!|oso o.ormo.s as:ro.om.ca oLsorva:io.
.nstrumon:s |avo Loon siq..! can:.y oovns.zoo
.n mooor. timos, Lut t|o.r toc|.ooqy aio :|o
|ou.oa:.o.s |o: t|o mooo:.oay soxta.:, a jor
taLo ins:rumont, ano Lo|o:o oLa osi:.o.inq
Sys:oms ox.s:oo, t|oy voro t|o ma.. naviqa
tiona i.s::.monts
NNLVA1I VL N51KUNLN15
A mural quadrant by Tycho Brahe, 1598
1
wo of the most i nfl uenti al astronomers in the
1 6th centu ry were Taq i al - Oi n from I sta nbul , and
Tycho Bra he, who bui l t an observatory under the s pon
sors hi p of Ki ng Frederi c I I of Den mark i n 1 576. Th i s
observatory was equi pped wi th t he best possi bl e and
refned i nstruments of hi s ti me, hel pi ng hi m make
accurate observati ons and ai di ng the d i scoveri es of
J ohannes Kepl er, who was Tycho B rahe' s assi stant.
Recent research has shown that there i s an exact
correl ati on between most of the i nstruments of Tycho
Brahe and Taq i al - Oi n' s observatori es (you can read
more about thi s i n the Observatori es section) , but
both men were not sati sfed with the i nstruments of
the previ ous astronomers. They had newl y di scovered
i nstru ments to use, such as the sextant, the wooden
quadrant, and the astronomi cal cl ock.
Taqi al - Oi n' s sextant was cal l ed mushabbahah
bil-manatiq or " repl i cati on by areas" and was made
from th ree rul ed scal es. Two of the scal es formed the
edges of the th ree-edged sextant. At the end was an arc, whi ch was attached to one of the rul es and
was used to determi ne the di stances between the stars. The sextants of these two men shoul d be
consi dered among the fnest achi evements of the 1 6th century.
U NI V E RS [ : 1\STRONOM! Cr\ l I NSTRUt[ NTS Z[
An illustration depicts Taqi al-Din's mushabbahah bil-manatiq, or sextant,
in his observatory in 1580 in Istanbul. The image is taken fram the manuscript Alat-i
Rasadiya l i Zij-i Shahinshahiya, which means "Astronomical Observational Instruments."
280 1001 I NV LNTI ONS: T HL LN DUKI N(; l F GiCY OF MUS LM UV I LI Z;\T I ON
. STPClAl|
S
ince Islam began, the muezzin has called the faithful to prayer fve
times a day. These prayer times are astronomically determined, chang
ing from day to day, so it is vital to know exactly when they were. Before
modern technology, Muslims developed an extraordinarily accurate device
called the astrolabe to help them do this.
!|o astroaoo is ooscriooo oy Lr Haroo `i
iams, an morican astroj|ys.c.st, as t|o most
imjortant astronom.ca cacuat.nq oovico
oo|oro t|o invont.on o| o.q.ta comjutors ano
t|o most .mjortant astronomica. oosorvationa
oovico oo|oro t|o invontion o| t|o tooscojo
!|o oariost oriq.ns o| t|o astroaoo aro
.n|novn `o |nov !|oon o| |oxanoria vroto
on t|o astroaoo in t|o |ourt| contury C.., ano
t|o oariost jrosorvoo roo| troatiso on t|o suo
oct .s |rom t|o sixt| contury !|o oriqin o| t|o
voro astroaoo' .s i n t|o raoic voro cs:.|/,
v|ic| is saio to oo a transitoration o| a roo|
voro `|atovor its oriqins, t|o instr.mont vas
uy oovoojoo, ano its usos oxjanooo, oy us
im astronomors oocauso t|oy nooooo to ootor
mino jrayor t.mos ano t|o oiroction o| occa
l n t|o lsamic voro, astroaoos romainoo joju
ar unti .3oo
Nov troatisos on t|o astroaoo voro jrooucoo,
t|o oariost oy as|a|a| i ion lsa' ano
|var.zmi in t|o oary n.nt| contury, v|io
t|o oariiost survivinq ls.amic instrumont oatos
|rom t|o mioo|o o| t|o tont| contury, ouit oy an
ajjrontico to i ion lsa in laq|oao `it| t|o
.s..m jrosonco .n Sja.n |rom t|o o.q|t| con
tury, ls.amic oarninq, incuoinq t|at on t|o astro
.aoo, soojoo |nto vostorn Lurojo, so t|at t|o
oariost survivinq C|rist.an or `ostorn instr.
monts aro |rom t|o .t| contury onvaro
uito a |ov tyjos voro maoo, ano t|o most
jojuar vas t|o j|an.sj|oric astroaoo, v|oro
t|o coostiai sj|oro vas jrooctoo onto t|o jano
o| t|o Lquator
stroiaoos voro tvoo.monsiona mooos o|
t|o |oavons, s|ov.nq |ov t|o s|y oo|oo at a
sjocinc jaco at a qivon t.mo. !|.s vas oono oy
orav.nq t|o s|y on t|o |aco o| t|o astroaoo ano
mar|inq it so :|at josit.ons in t|o s|y voro oasy
to |no Somo astroaoos voro smai, jamsizo,
ano jortao|o, ot|ors voro |uqo, vit| oiamotors
o| a |ov motors
((The astrolabe is the most
i mportant astronomical calculating
device before the invention of digi tal
computers and the most i mportant
astronomical observational
device before the invention
of the telescope. "
ASTROPHYSICIST HAROLD WI LLI AMS
!|oy voro t|o astronomica ano ana.oq com
jutors o| t|oir timo, sov.nq jroooms roatinq to
t|o jos.t.on o| co.ost.a. oooios, i|o t|o sun ano
stars, ano timo ln o|oct, t|oy voro t|o joc|ot
vatc|os o| mooiova astronomors !|oy couo
ta|o at.tuoo moasuromonts o| t|o sun, co.o
toi t|o timo ourinq t|o oay or n.q|t. or no t|o
t.mo o| a coostia ovont suc| as sunriso, sunsot,
or cumination o| a star !|is vas maoo jossioo
oy t|o uso o| inqonious taoos jrintoo on t|o
oac| o| t|o as:roaoo !|oso :ao.os couo conta.n
in|ormation aoout curvos |or t.mo convors.ons, a
ca.onoar |or convortinq :|o oay o| t|o mont| :o
t|o sun's jos.t.on on t|o ocijtic, :r.qonomotric
scaos, ano a qraoua:ion o| co ooqroos
!|oy voro oasoo on t|o mooo o| t|o Lart|
oo.nq a: t|o contor o| a sj|orica un.vorso, vit|
an imaqinary oosorvor jositionoo a: a jart.cuar
atituoo ano :imo ou:sioo t|is sj|oro ano oo|.nq
oovn ujon it Cn t|o astro.aoo :|at t|o astrono
mor vas |ooinq, t|o ma]or stars in t|o sy voro
rojrosontoo on a j.orcoo mota jato, v|ic| vas
sot .nto a .arqor nat c.rcuiar |o.oor caoo a ma:or
locauso t|o jato vit| t|o stars vas jiorcoo, t|o
astronomor couo soo :|rouq| .t on:o anot|or
j.ato oonoat|, v|ic| vouo |avo inos rojrosont
inq |is jar:icu|ar qooqraj|.ca |ocat.on Sovora.
jatos vouo oo incuooo in an astro.aoo, so t|at
U NI VERSL: t\STROL!\ IH. 281
t|o astronomor couo movo aoout |rom ono ati
tuoo to anot|or |tor us.nq t|o siq|tinq oovico
on t|o oac o| t|o jato to ootornino t|o at.tuoo
o| a s:ar or :|o sun, t|o as:ronomor vouo ro:ato
:|o jiorcoo s:ar naj ovor :|o ja:o |or |is oca
tion so as to coincioo vit| :|o s|y a: t|at :imo
!|on a. sorts o| cacuations couo oo maoo lor
:|o moro accurato cooro.na:os o| coostia. oooios
nocossary |or ootaioo as:ronomica taoos, astro
aoos |ao to oo usoo l con]unction vit| o:|or
.nstrumonts, suc| as arqo quaoran:s ano oosor
vat.ona arm.iary sj|oros
stro.aoos vor|oo v.t| |xoo ano rota:inq
jarts !|o mator vas a |oov oisc |ooinq t|o
A working astrolabe, created by Mohamed Zakariya,
requires a wealth of knowledge to build. Using ancient
techniques, such an astrolabe can take three to six months
to complete; it requires extensive geometrical calculations
and precision engraving in order to work accurately.
282 !l INVI' NTIONS: TI- I F I'.NDURI NC LECi i\CY OF ML S l l \\ CI VI l i ZATION
roto t|o jio:coo star maj) ano t|o rotat.nq
jatos vo:o jacoo on toj o| oac| ot|or Cn t|o
Lac| o| t|o mato: vo:o t|o a.ioaoo t|o siq|tinq
ooico) ano arious t:iqon.motric tao.os ln t|is
:osjoct t|o ast:o.aLo vas a qraj|.ca. comjuto:
"1KLA1| 5L LN 1mLA51KLLAdL"
L
haucer, author of the Canterbury Tales,
al so wrote a "Treati se on the Astrol abe"
for hi s ten-year- ol d son, Lewi s, i n 1 387. Here i s
what he sai d about it:
" Li ttl e Lewis my son, I have . . . consi dered
you r anxi ous and s peci al request to l earn the
Treati se of the Astrol abe . . . therefore have I
gi ven you an astrol abe for our hori zon, con
structed for the l ati tude of Oxford. And wi th
thi s l i ttl e treati se, I propose to teach you some
concl usi ons pertai ni ng to the same i nstru
ment. I say some concl usi ons, for three rea
sons. The frst is thi s: you can be sure that al l
the concl usi ons that h ave been found, or pos
si bl y mi ght be found i n so nobl e an i nstrument
as an astrol abe, are not known perfectly to any
mortal man i n thi s regi on, as I suppose. "
Geofrey Chaucer
ls.amic ma|ors attomjtoo to ooooj oi||oront
tyjos o| astroaLos, suc| as t|o sj|o:ica. astro
|aoo ano t|o ..noa: astro|aLo, noit|or o| v|.c|
vas viooy aoojtoo a:inors astroaLos voro
oooojoo in t|o ato .t| ano .ct| contu:ios Ly
t|o ortuquoso
I |iq|.y soj|isticatoo |orm o| t|o astroaoo,
t|o .nio:sa. as:roaLo, vas ooo.ojoo in To.ooo
in t|o Dt| contury, ano it roo.ut.on.zoo star maj
jinq !vo ino..ouas, I.i .Ln |aa| aS|a||az, an
ajot|oca:y o: |o:oaist, ano Iarqai, an astron
omor, voro imjortant .n t|.s nov oooojmont
!|o un.orsa astroaoo vas a maor oroa|t|:ouq|
Locauso it couo oo usoo at any .ocat.on Cro.nary
ast:o.aoos nooooo oi||oront atit.oo j.atos i| t|oy
voro mooo, oocauso t|oy vo:o oosiqnoo |o: a
co:ta.n j.aco ano vo:o |at.t.oo oojonoont
In imjo:tant asjoct o| t|o uniorsa astro
.aoo vas t|at its storooq:aj|ic j:ooct.on usoo
t|o orna or autumna. oquinox as t|o contor o|
jro]oction onto t|o jano o| t|o sostitia cou:o
Lr J.io Samso, o| la:co.ona Un.o:sity, ta|
inq vit| laqo| Cmaa: on t|o llCs An !s|c:c
H:s:c, o/ Laopc sa.o tat usims usoo nov
comjut.nq oo.cos ano t|o un.orsa. ast:o.aLo
vas oosiqnoo t|at |ao ajj.ications t|at vo:o
imjossioo vit| t|o stanoa:o astro|aoo'
Iny o.scuss.on o| ast:o.aoos vou.o oo incom
joto vit|out montion.nq a younq onq.noor
astronomo:, aryam aliya aIstruaLi lorn
in I.ojjo, Syr.a, in s|o vas raisoo .n a |am
i.y o| ast:onomors ano instrumont ma|o:s S|o
Locamo a s|ioo astro.aLo ma|or ano vo:|oo at
t|o |amous Iojjo cast.o unoor t|o ausj.cos o|
t|o ruor Sa.| aLava S|o oioo in c/
Istro|aoos, ano in ja:t.cu.ar .niorsa astro
aoos, voro t|o cuttinq ooqo o| toc|nooqy usoo
ano oooojoo jro.i|cay oy usim astrono
mors v|o voro .ntr.quoo ano |asc.natoo oy
t|o |oaons lt vas t|rouq| t|oso |arovor|inq
sc|oars t|at t|o astro.aLo maoo it into urojo,
v|oro mooorn astronomy vas oorn
Two close-ups of an astrolabe made by Mohamed Zakariya show its intricate construction.
PV| llAP Y lH|P|
n an attempt to make predictions of the movement of heavenly bod
ies easier, people from many great civilizations built different kinds of
models to represent in physical form what they saw in the sky. These
models were built based on the idea of the Earth having a sphere of
stars surrounding it. One of these models was the armillary sphere.
rmi||a:y sj|c:cs moocco :|c |cacns ano
janctary mot.ons, s|ovinq mcoica us
im as::onomc:s |ov t|c unic:sc vo:|co in
:|:cc oimcns.ons, ano :|cy camc cry cosc to
:|c mooc| vc |nov tooay 1|cy vcrc no: soio
qoocs, out vc:c maoc uj o| conccn:r.c rinqs,
v.:| :|c Eart| a: :|c ccn:cr ano ot|c: oooics
surrouno.nq it
!|c const:.c:ion ano .sc o| t|c a:mia:y
sj|c:c startco .n t|c ciq|t| ccn:.ry v|cn t|cy
vcrc |rst v:ittcn aoout in laq|oao in t|c trcat.sc
o| !/c 'ns:.cn: w: :/ :/c Rnjs oy laza:i
An armillwy sphere is depicted in an engraving from
the Jihannuma or Universal Geography, Istanbul,
1732-a reprint of the original Jihannuma written in the
17th centwy by scholar Katib Celebi (Hajji Khalifa).
lu: it vas .. t|c tcn:| ccntu:y t|a:
t|cy rcac|co an aoancco | cc o| soj|is
t.cation, ano vc:c j:ooucco in :vo main a:ictics
Lcmons::ationa a:mi||ary sj|c:cs conccn
tratco on t|c Eart|, ano a t.ny mooc o| t|c qooc
vas surro.noco oy :|c :.nqs o| cc.j:ic t|c ajjar
cn: ja:| o| t|c s.n a:ouno t|c Lar:|), t|c c.rc|c o|
t|c Lquato:, ::ojics, ano jo|ar c.rc|cs 1|csc vc:c
a |co in jacc oy a q:ao.atco mcrio.an r.nq,
ano jio:co aoou: :|c cquato:.a axis 1|c moon,
jancts, ano stars oio not ajjca: .n t|csc mooc|s,
ou: :|cy oio q.c t|c :ca:.c mot.ons o| ooo.cs
arouno t|c ar:|
!|c sccono :yjc vas t|c ooscrat.ona armi
ary sj|c:c, v|.c| vas oi||crcnt occa.sc .: oio
not |ac :|c Lart| qooc in t|c ccntc:, out |ao
mountco s.q|:inq ociccs on t|c r.nqs 1|csc
sj|crcs vcrc arqcr ano vcrc too|s usco to octcr
m.nc cooroinatcs ano o:|c: aucs
1|crc vcrc many .sim as:ronomcrs v|o
vrotc aoout ooscrat.ona a:miary sj|c:cs, i|c
Jaoir ion na| |:om Scic, novn in t|c `cst as
cocr not to oc con|usco v.t| cocr t|c c|cm
.st), |rom t|c m.o:zt| ccntury 1|cy rc|c::co to
:|c ocscr.jtic vor| o| tocmys 'yn:c.s vr.:
:cn in t|c sccono ccntu:y |novn as A|cjcs: .n
:|c ls|amic voro
rmi|a:y sj|crcs :o stuoy t|c Lar:| ano sics
vcrc |ouno .n ooscratorics suc| as t|c ::|
ccntury araq|a Coscratory, :|c .t|ccntury
Sama:|ano Coscrvato:y, ano :|c .ct|ccntu:y
oosc:atory a: stanou|
U NI V E RS E : ;\ R..\\ I U:\ R\ S I' H t. RE
A 16th-century manuscript shows astronomers lining up various parts of the armillary sphere
with specific stars to produce nat charts of the heavens, which were plotted and made into
astrolabes. These would guide people, using the stars. The central pendulum is used to trace
the trajectories of the stars and planets on the nat ground so as to create these charts.
288 1 001 I NVl. NTI ONS: 1|| f " DU RI NG LLG.ICY OF .SL I .\1 CI VI L I Z, \TI ON
O | C`S |CP | S | l|Cll|
T
he Quran often refers t o various natural phenomena in a very
inspirig manner, and challenges mankind to ponder these phenom
ena usmg reason.
lor oxamjo 2: 164: Voriy, in t|o croation o| t|o
|oavons ano o| t|o oart|, ano t|o succossion o|
niq|t ano oay. ano in t|o s|ijs t|at sjooo t|rouq|
t|o soa vit| v|at is uso|u to an ano i. t|o
vators v|ic| oo sonos oovn |rom t|o s|y, qiv
|nq i|o t|orooy to t|o oart| a|tor |t |ao ooon i|o
oss, ano causinq al mannor o| |v|nq croaturos to
mutijy t|oroon ano in t|o c|anqo o| t|o vinos,
ano t|o couos t|at run t|o|r ajjointoo coursos
ootvoon s|y ano oart| in al t||s] t|oro aro mos
saqos inoooo |or joojo v|o uso t|oir roason'
Istronomica j|onomona aro |roquonty citoo
in t|o u.an ano o|ton jut .n :|o conto.: o| :|oir
uso to man|ino as in timo|oojinq ano naviqation
T|o uran ta|s aoout jrociso oroits ano coursos,
t|us jassinq on t|o mossaqo t|at oo|ino t|oso
j|onomona ios a co|oront systom t|at joojo aro
invitoo to oxjloro. Horo aro somo oxamjos
6:97: oo] is t|o Cno `|o |as sot out |or
you t|o stars, t|at you may quioo yoursolvos oy
t|om t|rouq| t|o oar|noss o| t|o ano ano o|
t|o soa `o |avo ootaioo t|o siqns |or joojo
v|o |nov'
16: 12: lor you oo] suo] octoo t|o niq|t ano
t|o oay, t|o sun ano t|o moon, t|o stars aro in
suo]oction to His Commano Voriy in t|is aro
siqns |or joojo v|o aro viso'
21:33: oo is] t|o Cno `|o c:oatoo t|o
iq|t, t|o oay, t|c sun and t|o moon Lac| ono is
:ravoinq in an oroit vit| its ovn motion'
55: 5: T|o sun ano t|o moon |oov coursos
oxactly] comjutoo'
Vorsos ||o t|oso citoo aoovo |ormoo an into|
octua c|aonqo to joojo to ouio t|o roquiroo
|novooqo to oxjoro a univorso aounoant vit|
oos vonoors
Not ony t|at, out i. ono vorso, |umans aro
ovon oncouraqoo to ma|o t|oir vay out o| :|o
Lart| in oroor to oxjoro sjaco, out vit| a varn
inq t|at t||s s|ouo ony oo oono v|on t|oy |avo
onouq| jovor ano contro
55:33: 'you assomoy o| Jinns ano Humans '
l | it oo you can jass ooyono t|o zonos o| t|o |oav
ons ano t|o oart|, jass you not vit|out aut|ority
jovor] s|a you oo aL.o :o jass '
The coherent systems behind astronomical phenomena
are explored in verses in the Quran.
"The Coiling of Day and Night," by Dr. Ahmed Moustafa
UNI VF RS I : SI GNS F OR WI S E I' EOJ' U 289
290 1001 I NVE NTI ONS: T I-l E [ NDU R I Nll L E. GACl Of ,\WS LI .\1 CI VI L I ZI\T I ON
.7 +H| `CC`
0 n July zO, 1969, Apollo 1 1 landed on the lunar surface, and Neil
Armstrong became the fust person on the moon. However, long
before Armstrong made his frst lunar step and uttered his now
famous line, a number of great Muslims had become associated with Earth's
closest astronomical neighbor.
lor usims, t|c moon .s cxtrcmcy imjortant
occausc t|c ca|cnoar t|at is usco, :|c Hcj:c ca
cnoar, .s octcrm.nco oy t|c cycc o| :|c moon.
jroocm t|cy |acco vas t|at t|c ajjroximatcly
z. oays o| a unar mont| vcrc not in sync vit|
t|c o oays o| a so|a: yca:, :z unar mont|s aoo
.j to on|y oays
C|ristians ano Jcvs |ao con|rontco t|c
samc jroocm, ano t|cy |ao aoojtco a sc|cmc
oasco on a o.scovcry maoc in aoout o B. C. E.
oy :|cnian as:ronomc: cton Hc ocvc|ojco
t|c ctonic cycc o| : ycars !|is vas maoc
o| :z ycars o| :z unar mont|s ano 7ycars o| :
.nar mont|s lcr.oo.cay a :t| mont| vas
aooco to |ccj :|c ca|cnoar oatcs in stcj vit|
t|c scasons
usims vou|o usc :|.s cycc, ou: unsc:uj.
ous rulcrs somctimcs aooco a .t| mont| v|cn
it suitco t|cir ovn intcrcsts, so t|c sccono caij|,
Uma: .on a|r|a:tao, v|o rciqnco |or tcn yca:s
|:om o, .nt:ooucco t|c :cj: cacnoa: :|at .s
sti usco in lsam.c count:ics tooay
!|is stricty |olovs a una: cyclc !|c Hcj: c
ycar is aoout :: oays s|o:tcr t|an t|c soar ycar,
ano |o|.oays suc| as lamaoan, t|c mon:| o|
|astinq, sov|y cycc t|rouq| t|c scasons So cac|
ycar lamaoan |s aoout Il oays carlicr t|an t|c
ast, ano t|c mon:| o| |astinq |as on t|c samc
oatc on|y aoou: cvc:y soar ycars
lamaoan ano t|c ot|cr ls|amic mont|s aso
ocqin v|cn t|c crcsccnt moon .s siq|tco, so no
onc |novs cxactiy v|cn lamaoan vi start unti
t|c crcsccn: moon ajjca:s in :|c niq|t s|y
lrcoictinq ].st v|cn :|c crcsccnt moon
vouo occomc v.sioc vas a sjccia c|a|cnqc
to usim mat|cmatical astronomcrs t|ouq|
ltocmy s t|cory aoout t|c moon s movcmcnts
vas accuratc ncar :|c :imc o| t|c ncv moon,
t|c invis.oc moon, it ooco ony a: :|c unar
jat| as jart o| t|c ccijsc or t|c suns jatl on
t|c moon
usims rcaizco t|at :o jrco.ct t|c s.q|tinq
o| t|c crcsccn: moon, its movcmcn: in rc|a:ion to
t|c |orizon |ao :o oc stuo.co, ano t|is j:oo|cm
The phases of the moon are used to determine the Muslim
calendar, the Hegira calendar.
A diagram from an early 16th-century Persian transla
tion of Ajaib al Makhluqat', or Wonders of Creation,
by al-Qazwini
ocmanoco |airy soj|.st.catco sj|crica| qc.m
ctry, or qcomctry t|at ocas vit| s|ajcs on t|c
sur|acc o| t|c sj|crc : vas i.o., vo:|inq .n
laq|oao .n t|c nint| cc.tury, v|o vas t|c |rst
to ocvcoj sj|crica qcomctry, v|ic| |c usco
cxtcnsivcy in |is astro.omica vor|s
Sj|crica qcomct:y vas a|so nccoco v|cn
usims vcrc |noinq t|c _://c t|c oircction o|
ccca, v|.c| :|cy jrayco tovaro ano v|ic| t|cir
mosqucs |acco, ano it vas liruni v|o vor|co
t|is out |rom any ocation on t|c qlooc liruni
vas intcrcstco in itcray cvcryt|inq, ano somc
timcs |c is rc|crrco to as t|c Lc.naroo oa Vinci
U NI V E RS E : TI- l L \\OON
o| |is oay Conccr.inq t|c moon, |c ocscr.oco
t|c ccijsc o| ay z, 7,v|ic |c vas at at|, in
tooay's Uzoc|istan 1|is cvcnt vas aso visioc in
laq|oao, ano |c arranqco vit| ou a`a|a a
luz]ani, a |cov astronomcr, t|at t|c attcr vouo
oosc:vc it t|crc `|c. t|cy comjarco t|cir t.m
inqs, t|cy vcrc ao.c :o cacuatc t|c oi||crcncc in
|onq.tuoc octvccn t|c citics
So moon vatc|inq ano :ccoro.nq vas a scri
ous ousincss. lac| t|cn, as nov, t|c moon vas a
constant sourcc o| |ascination, sincc oqqinq t|c
orocr o| .ts movcmcnts sujj.rtco t|c ioca t|at
t|crc vas orocr in t|c |cavcns, too no t|csc
ooscrvations jrooucco t|c struc:urc |or t|c us
im cacnoar t|at |as occn usco |or morc t|an
:,oo Hcj:c ycars

Mus l i m astronomer who l i ved in Cai ro


and observed at Baghdad i n 975 di s
covered the thi rd i nequal i ty of the moon' s
moti on cal l ed the moon' s vari ati on. Ptol emy
knew about the frst and second. He bore the
formi dabl e name of Abu ai -Wafa ai - Buzj ani .
I n Europe, thi s thi rd i nequal i ty of moti on,
that the moon moves qui ckest when i t i s new
or ful l , and sl owest in the frst and thi rd quar
ters, was "redi scovered" by Tycho Brahe si x
centuri es l ater i n about 1 580.
292 l | | ^\ l ` | | C` T | | l LNDl R I N( ; L[(j \CY Of \\ LS l | \\ U\ I L I Z. \ I I ON
_

. r
^

,
-__
ML N MVm l L Jm
LNLHA `N
M O N OF C l l' Rl N C l I' E M
OVL^ V L L N N V^
P A K M l K A N C ! .E
: L`AP CPVAT| C`S
lAlCHIOUI un:11. COMITEM CAIlADtsll
JlONUI YIb1, 3 C1PEI
M1I?V &AIIJI
^L m^L b l LN
b V l > L
L m l l J J m J
W
hen viewed with the naked eye, the surface of
the moon appears unevenly bright, with dark
and light patches. These features are called
"lunar formations."
ln :c: Joannos lajtista licc.oi, a Josu.t jro|os
sor o| ast:onomy ano j|iosoj|y in looqna, ltay,
comj.oo a comj:o|onsivo vor| on astronomy,
caoo A|cjcs:. Nov., vit| a comjoto maj
o| t|o moon Ho namoo t|o unar |ormations a|tor
oistinquis|oo astronomors o| t|o |ooo qos
!on voro qivon t|o namos o| usim astronomors
ano mat|omati.ians
!|oso namos voro nnay aqrooo ujon at a con
|oronco o| t|o lntornationa stronomica Union
in : C| t|o c/z unar |o:mations, : voro q.von
t|o namos o| ma]or usim astronomors, ano
sinco t|on moro |avo ooon aoooo. !|oso namos
incuoo
Messala is a jlain in t|o :t| soction o| t|o
moon namoo a|tor as|ala|, v|o vas activo in
cO. Ho vas a Jov o| Lqyjt v|o omoracoo lsam
ourinq t|o timo o| t|o ooasio caij| ansu:
!vo o| |is ooo|s on astronomy voro t:ansatoo
into atin in t|o :c:| con:ury Dc 'c:cn::c Mo:.s

/:s ano Dc cpos:::onc c: .::|: :c:c cs:|c/::.


Almanon is a crator in t|o nint| soction
namoo a|tor Caij| lamun, t|o son o| Harun
alas|io, |amous |rom !/c !/o.scnJ cnJ nc
N:j/:s ln 3., a'm.n ouit an ooso:vatory
in laq|oao ln |.s acaoomy, lay: aHi|ma|, t|o
Ho.so o| `isoom, t|o qroatost sciontists ano j|i
osoj|ors o| |is aqo carrioo out t|oir rosoarc|
Alfraganus is a crator in t|o socono soction
namoo a|tor larq|ani, v|o oioo arouno 3c:.
Ho vas ono o| amuns toam o| rosoarc|ors in
astronomy H.s most |amous ooo| vas to oo/ o/
:/c '.c, o/ As:onoy, ano :|.s vas t|o ma.n
innuonco |or t|o ltaian joot Lanto
Albategnius is a j|ain in t|o hrst soction
namoo a|tor llattani, v|o vas oorn in 33 Ho
ootorminoo many astronomica moasuromonts
vit| qroat accuracy
Thabit is a jrom.nont circuar jain in t|o
oiq|t| soction namoo a|to: !|aoi: .on urra, v|o
oioo in laq|oao in o:. Ho transatoo into raoic
a arqo numoor o| roo| ano Syrian vor|s on sci
onco. Ho also maoo ma]or contrioutions o| |is ovn
:o juro mat|omatics
Azophi is a mountainous r.nq in t|o nin:|
soction namoo a|tor t|o :ont|contury 'oo a
la|man aSun Ho vas ono o| t|o most o.tstano
inq jrac:ica astronomors o| t|o .ooo qos .
Suns ius:ra:oo ooo| !/c oo/ o/ |:.cJ ':cs is a
mastorjioco on stoar astronomy.
Alhazen is a rinqs|ajoo jlain in t|o :.t|
soction namoo a|:or ou i aHasan ion a
Hay:|am, usua|y |novn as on aHayt|am, Ho
vas oorn in lasra arouno c ano sjont most o|
|is vor|.nq ..|o in Eqyjt, v|oro |o oioo in .o
Ho comjosoo a.mos: a |unoroo vor|s, o| v|ic|
aoout aro jrosorvoo tooay, a. concornoo vit|
mat|omatics, as:ronomy, ano ojtics Ho vas ono
o| t|o |oromost invostiqators o| ojtics in t|o
voro, ano |is oo/ o/ p::.s |ao an onormous
.n|uonco on Eurojoan sc.onco
Arzachel is a jain in t|o oiq|t| soct.on namoo
a|.or Zarqa., v|o oioo in ::oo Ho vor|oo in
us.m Sja.n in co..aooration v.:| ot|or us.m
ano Jovis| astronomors ano jrojaroo t|o |amous
Toooan !aoos His vor| may |ao |n|uoncoo
t|at o| Cojornicus
Geber is a circuar, |at jain in :|o nint| soction
namoo a|tor Jao.r ion |a|. v|o oioo in :: Ho
vas a Sjanis| rao v|o vas t|o |rst :o oos.qn a
jortaoo coostia sj|oro :o moasuro coostia coor
o.natos, tooay caoo a toruotum
Nasireddin is a crator o mios in o.amo:or
namoo a|.or Nasir aLin a.!usi, v|o vas oorn .n
..o. Ho vas a ministor to Hu.aqu |an, l||an.o
ruor o| lorsia |rom :.c :o ..c, Ho vas ju: in
c|arqo o| t|o oosoratory instaoo a: araq|a| oy
Huaqu, ano o| jrojarinq t|o l.||anio !ao.os ano
t|o ca:aoq o| hxoo stars, v|ic| romainoo .n uso
|or soora conturios t|rouq|out t|o vor|o, |rom
C|.na to vostorn lurojo
Alpetragius .s a crator in t|o o.q|t| soc:.on
namoo a|:or Nur al.n .on s|aq alitru]i, v|o
vas oorn in orocco, ioo in ls|oiia| Soi..o),
UNI VL RSL: LUNAR F OR.\1:\TI ONS
ano oioo arouno ..o. Ho vor|oo |aro, .nsuccoss
|u.y, a: moo.|yinq toomys systom o| jano:ary
mo:.ons l.tr.is ooo n As:onoy vas joj
uar in :t|cont.ry lurojo .n .ts Latin transation
Abulfeda is a circ.ar jain .n t|o nin:| soction
namoo a|tor ou aioa, v|o vas oorn in :z/ .n
Syria Ho vas t|o ast us.m qooqraj|or ano as
tronomor trainoo ano nurturoo on t|o traoitions
ostaois|oo oy Ca.j| a'mun Ho vas aso a
qroat |istor.an, :|o mos: |amous o| |is vor|s oo
inq 'ccy o/ o.n::cs
Ulugh Beigh is a jrom.nont o..ij:.ca rinq in
:|o :3:| soction namoo a|tor Uuq| loq, v|o vas
oorn in : ano |ounooo in :zo a maqn.ncon: oo
soratory in Samar|ano v|ic| vas oqu.jjoo vit|
oxcoont ano accurato astronomica. ins:rumon:s
His most commonoaoo ano ono.r|nq vor vas a
nov ca:a.oq o| s:ars
So v|on you qanco at t|o moon ton.q|:,
romomoor a|| t|oso inoi.oua.s v|o |ao ooon
.mmortaizoo in crators, ja|ns, ano o.jtica rinqs,
joojo v|o |ao orouq|t qroator unoors:anoinq
ano |novooqo into our .ios
BOTTOM: A lunar map shows the formations named
after eminent Muslim scholars. OPPOSITE TOP: The
Almagestum Novum, compiled in 1651, by Johannes
Baptista Ricioli, contained a detailed map of the moon.
'C`ST|llATl C`S
W
ith the rise of observatories and a greater interest in the night sky,
Muslim astronomers from the ninth century onward were fasci
nated by the night sky and carried out substantial work on stars
and constellations. These included 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sun, a Persian astrono
mer who lived during the tenth century; he was a real stargazer and in 964
described the Andromeda galaxy, our closest neighbor, calling it "little cloud. "
T|.s vas t|o |:st vr.t:on :oco:o o| a sta: systom
ou:sioo our ovn qa.axy Ho sot out |is :osu.ts
constoa:.on |y constoat.on, oiscuss.nq t|o
stars jositions, s.zos ano coors, ano |or oac|
consto|.a:.on |o j:ooucoo :vo oravinqs, ono
|:om :|o outsioo o| a co.ostia q.o|o ano t|o
ot|or |:om :|o .nsioo Ho a.so vroto aLout :|o
as::oa|o ano i:s t|ousano o: so usos
1|o :osut o| t|.s |a:o vor| vas :|o :ocoro
inq o| many stars ano cons:oations, v|ic| a:o
sti |novn |y t|o.r oriqina ra|ic namos ln
|act, ast:onomors qavo namos ano ass.qnoo
maqn.:uoos to 1, 022 . n a.. Tooay moro t|an .c
stars sti |avo namos :|a: ro|oc: t|o.: o:.qina
ra|ic namos, suc| as oo|aran, moan.nq
lo..ovo:' o| :|o l|oiaoos ano .:a.r, moaninq
T|o .y.nq laqo '
us.ms aso oov.soo sta: majs ano ast:o
nomica ta|os, ano |ot| o| :|oso vouo |o usoo
in Lu:ojo ano :|o lar Last |or contu:.os ajs
o| :|o |oavons aso ajjoa:oo . n ar:, suc| as on
t|o oomo o| a Lat||ouso at usay: mra, a Jo:
oanian jaaco |uit . n :|o oiq|t| cont.ry, v|.c|
|as a uniuo |omisj|orica coos:.a. aj |o
survivinq |raqmonts o| :|o |rosco s|ov jarts o|
/ constoations ano 400 s:a:s
TOP: The constellation the Dragon, or al-tinnin in
Arabic. BOTTOM LEFT: The constellation Cepheus,
or qifa'us in Arabic. BOTTOM RIGHT: The manual of
cosmography in Turkish by Mustafa ibn Abdallah.
L `l \ |. l| CC -l| |l | C^
The Pleiades star group, known in Arabic as Al-Thurayya
. l| CHT
=s , .........

'
' ''L
.............
....
.
.......... 9
\
T
he concept of fight has fascinated and challenged
.,.
humans for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians
left behind many paintings demonstrating their desire to fy. depicting
pharaohs soaring with wings. The Chinese and the Greeks had mythical sto
ries and legends about fying, as did the Sassanians.
Tho most ouar story is ono rocountoo |y I
liroavsi in his oo/ o/ K:njs, vritton arouno
:ooo lt says a cortain Kinq Kai Kavus vas or
suaooo oy oi sirits to inaoo hoaon vith
tho ho o a |yinq crat that vas a throno, ano
attachoo to its cornors voro our onq oos
ointinq uvaro liocos o moat voro |acoo at
tho to o oac oo ano raonous oaq|os voro
Al-Firdawsi's Book of Kings includes a popular story
of a proud king who tried to fly. The book's cover is
illustrated here.
chainoo to tho oot o tho throno Is tho oaqos
attomtoo to |y u to tho moat, thoy carrioo tho
throno u, |ut, inoitaoy, thoy qrov tiroo ano
tho throno camo crashinq oovn
rolsamic Ira|ic oqonos aso hao storios
aoout |yinq maqicians ano sorcorors, suornat
ura ovors, |.ros, or ]ust oathors lor us.ims,
niqht has a siritua| oimons.on Tho ious sou
roachos |or qooonoss unti| it attains a cortain
oo, t|on .t r.sos aooo.
!ho nrst lusim, ano orhas orson, to ma|o
a roa attomt to construct a |yinq machino ano
ny vas Coroooan 'I|oas .on lirnas .n tho ninth
contury Ho vas tho us.a. oymath o| tho timo,
|ocominq a ronovnoo oot astro|oqor, musi
cian astronomor, ano onq.noor lut h.s qroatost
amo vas or constr.ct.nq a |y.nq mach.no, tho
|rst o| its |ino caaoo o carry.nq a human into
tho air Ho |ov succossuy a numoor o timos
oor oosort roqions, imro.nq h.s oosiqns
|ooro attomtinq his tvo |amous |iqhts in Cor
oooa .n Sjain
1ho |rst niqht too| aco in 3., vhon ho
vraoo himso in a ooso c.oa| stionoo v.th
voooon str.ts ano ].moo rom tho m.narot o
tho roat osquo o Croooa !ho attomt vas
unsuccossu., out his |a vas sovoo onouqh
that ho qot o vith ony m.nor .n]urios, ma|inq
it at |oast ono o| tho oar.ost oxamos o a ara
chuto um `ostorn sourcos vronqy qao |. m
a atin namo cainq him Irmon l.rman, instoao
o Iooas ion .rnas
on |irnas vas ono :o .oarn rom oxjorionco,
ano |o vor|oo |aro to imjroo |.s noxt oosiqn
ccoun:s rom arious oyov.:nossos ano moo.
oa manuscrijts ooscr.ooo .t as mac|.no con
sistinq o arqo vinqs So aoout ., .oo yoars aqo,
t|o noary /oyoaro.o 'ooas .on irnas maoo a
|iq|t mac|ino rom si| ano oaq.o oat|ors
n to lusaa aroa on t|o outs|irts o Cor
oooa, lon l.rnas mountoo a |i.. ano ajjoaroo
oooro t|o crovo in |is oiro costumo, maoo |rom
si cooroo vi:| oaqo |oat|ors, v|ic| |o t.q|:
onoo v.:| ! no strijs o si.| on lirnas oxjainoo
vit| a jioco o jajor |ov |o jannoo to ny us.nq
:|o v.nqs ! ttoo on |is arms lroson:y, l sa.
:a|o oao o yo. ly q..o.nq t|oso vinqs uj ano
oovn, s|ou.o ascono .|o t|o :.ros l| a qoos
vo, a|:or soarinq or a t.mo l s|o.o oo ao|o to
roturn sao.y :o your sioo'
Ho nov :o a siqni|cant |o.q|t ano |.nq in
t|o air |or moro t|an :on minutos oooro j|.m
mo:inq to t|o qrouno, oroa|.nq t|o v.nqs ano
ono o |is ortoorao. |tor t|o oont. on |.rnas
unoorstooo t|o ro.o jayoo oy t|o ta., :o.nq |.s
coso rionos t|at von oiros ano, :|oy norma.y
A swan lands on the surface of water. After observing
how birds land, 'Abbas ibn Fimas realized that a tail
was needed to land accurately and safely. He had not
noticed this before his earlier attempt at nying, during
which he crash-landed.
ano on t|o roo: o t|o :ai, v|ic| oio not |ajjon
or |im oocauso |o oio no: |ao ono
.| mooorn a.rjanos ano on t|oir roar v|oos
!rs:, v|.c| ma|os on lirnass commont a|oao o|
its timo locoroinq t|o oon:, ono v.tnoss vro:o
Ho |ov a cons.ooraoo oistanco as i |o |ao
ooon a oiro, o.t in aiq|tinq aqain on t|o j.aco
v|oro |o startoo rom, |is oac| vas ory muc|
|.r: |or no: |novinq t|at o.ros v|on :|oy aiq|:
como oovn ujon :|oir :a.s, |o |orqot :o jro.oo
|.mso vit| ono
: vou.o oo con:urios unti. oonaroo oa V.nci's
orav.nqs o a |y.nq mac|ino ano t|o `riq|t orot|
ors |rst niq|t
Unortunatoy, t|o .n].ry o. .rnas s.stainoo
.n t|o |iq|t jroontoo |im rom carryinq ou: |.r
:|or oxjor.mon:s Hovoor, |o vas an ontorjris.nq
man, ano |o jrooaoy quiooo somooooy, jor|ajs
ono o |.s ajjronticos, :o croa:o a novor orsion
An artistic impression shows the first successful
manned flight by 'Abbas ibn Fimas.
|o oxistonco o| suc| a mac|.no vas mon
:ionoo in a manuscr.jt oy loqor lacon. v|o
oosc:iooo i: as an orni:|oj:or l n :zco, lacon
v:o:o n :/c Mcvc|os cwcs o/ -: ccJ
Nc:c, inc..o.nq tvo jossioo vays a jorson
miq|: |y. no is a rouq| ooscrijtion o| vnat vas
ator to oocomo novn as an orn.:|ojtor |o
o:|or .s a moro ootai.oo ooscr.j:.on o| a q.ooo
n|oo vit| o:|oroa. air lacon c|a.moo, !|o:o is
an instrumon: :o |y vit|. v|ic| noor sav, nor
|nov any man t|at |at| soon it, ou: l |u|| vo.
nov oy namo t|o .oarnoo man v|o inontoo
:|o samo ' .t is novn :|at lacon stuoioo .n or
oooa, :|o |omoano o| on lirnas : is .io|y :|at
t|o ooscrij:ion o| t|o orn.:|oj:or cou.o |ao
ooon taon |rom usim contomjo:ary manu
scr.jts .n Sjain :|at |ao sinco o.sajjoaroo
lon .:nas oioo in 33/. ano nono o| |is or.qi
na vor|s |as sur.oo to t|o jrosont oay His
i|o |as ooon :ocons:ructoo |rom a |ov o:sos
ano |rom t|o in|ormation qion oy t|o c|roni
c|o:s o| t|o timo
|:o: on r.:nas, usims ano nonus..ms
ju:s.oo :|o onooao: o| |.y.nq, ano many
moro |iq|t attomj:s voro maoo Ju|a:i, a
!ur|is:ani toac|or, aunc|oo |imso| |:om :|o
m.narot o| Uu osquo . n :oo. us.nq vinqs
maoo |rom vooo ano rojo Ho oioo .ns:an:.y
on .mjac: L.| mo: o| a.moso.ry vas an . .t|
con:ury lnq|is| lonoo. ct. no mon| v|o aso
|orqo: t|o uso o| a tai|, ano oroo oot| |is . oqs
as |o mjoo |rom a :ovor . n :o:o oo|oro q| io
.nq .3 moto:s coo |oo:)
|tor t|oso :vo nyinq attomjts, a.a:.on
|.story is siont un:. t|o vors o| to |amo.s
roron:.no a:tist ano scion:.st Loona:oo oa
Vinc. oonaroo roma.ns :|o .oaoinq onqinoor
({By guiding these wi ngs up and down,
I should ascend like the bi rds.
If all goes wen after soaring for a
time I should be able to return
safely to your side."
ABBAS I BN FI RNAS, PI ONEER OF FLIGHT
to ostaois| roor sc.onti! c t|in|inq on t|o
quost |or |.q|: t|ouq| |o oio not attomt
:o |y |imso|. oa V.nci oiscussoo ano orov on
aor many s|otc|os roatinq :o |iq|t ano |y
inq, inc|uoinq t|o oirovinqoo mac|ino |novn
as an ornit|oto:, v|ic| vas oosiqnoo to oo
straoo to a orsons oac|. Ct|or s|otc|os
incuooo a qioor ano, accoroinq to somo intor
rotat.ons, ovon a |olicotor
l n ic, a !ur| namoo Laqari Hasan Coooi
invontoo t|o ! rst mannoo roc|ot. v|ic| |o
|aunc|oo .sinq aoo.t oo ounos o| qunov
oor as t|o : r.nq |.o !|o ovont .s roco:ooo oy
an art.s:s s|otc| oravinq `iiam l lurrovs i n
|is ooo| !/:s Ncw cccn !/c ':o, o/ :/c |:s:
'pccc Ajc says !] |oro vas a !ur| namoo
Laqari Hasan Coooi, v|o . vas s|ot into t|o
s|y oy !|ty|our ounos o| qunovoor to co
oorato t|o oirt| o| Sutan urao lVs oauq|tor.
aya Sutan !|o :oc|ot t|on ca:r.oo Co|ooi
li ll v E RSE: F L I GHT 299
|iq| into t|o air, v|oro |o oonoo sovora
'vinqs, ano t|on q.ooo to a sa|o anoinq in |ront
o| t|o :oya. aaco Co.ooi vas rovarooo v.t| a
ouc| o| qo|o. maoo a cavary oHcor, ano .s saio
to |avo ooon |i|oo i n comoat in t|o Crimoa'
Hazar|on |moo Co|ooi, anot|or :/t|contury
!ur|, usoo oaqo |oat|ors stitc|oo to |is vinqs to
|y |tor nino oxorimonta attomts, |o nnay
oociooo on t|o s|ao o| |is vinqs His most
|amous !iq|t too| |aco i n .c3 |rom t|o aata
tovor noar t|o losorus in lstanou, ano |o suc
coss|u|y anooo on t|o ot|or s.oo o| t|o s::a.:
cco:o.nq to Tu:.s| |istor.an lv.ya Coooi.
v|o vitnossoo t|o |oat ano rocorooo .t .n |is
ooo| A oo/ o/ !:vc|, t|o |amous !ur|is| |ior
usoo Ju|aris cacuations v.t| somo corroc
tions ano oaancinq ao]ustmonts, oorivoo |rom
stuoyinq t|o oaq|o i n |iq|t Hazar|on oarnoo a
rovaro o| a t|o.sano qoo iocos |or |is ac|.ovo
mont. ano a !.r|is| os:a stam ooars tr.|.to
to |.s |.storic |.q|t
|to: t|o s.ccoss|u| n.q|t ovor t|o loso
rus, t|o ontqoor o:ot|ors voro t|o noxt to
L1! An illustration depicts the fight of Hazarfen
Ahmed Celebi in 1638 from Galata Tower near the
Bosporus in Istanbul. RIGHT: An artistic impres
sion illustrates the first manned rocket flight flown
by Lagari Hasan Celebi in 1633. Lagari Hasan was
launched into the sky by a seven-winged rocket,
which used a mixture of gunpowder paste.
101 I NVF N r J ONS: TII F I NDU R J N( , l l Ct\Cl OF ,\\ U:- 1 1 \\ CI VI l I LAJ ' I ON
uoicy air t|oir |oos |or |iq|t v.t| a mooo
|ot air oaoon v|oso assonqors voro a s|oo,
a ouc|, ano a coc|oro I |ov voos a:or, Joan
rano.s .tro oo lozior, a sc.onco toac|or,
ano t|o aru.s o'Iranoos, an .n|ant:y omcor,
oocamo :|o nrst |uman ai: travoors v|on t|oy
hov |or |.omotors c mios) ovor laris in a
|ot air oaoon
Ninotoont|contury aoronautics vas oomi
natoo oy orman tto Lil.ont|a, v|o s:uo
.oo t|o |i|tinq ovor o| s.r|acos, t|o oos: |orm
o| v.nq curvaturo, ano t|o movomont o| t|o
contor o| rossuro vit| oi||oront vinq anqos,
an imo:tant |actor in t|o staoiity o| a.rcra|t
Ho vas a qroat |anq qioor, out o.oo .n |iq|t
in t|o lorin |is in :3o v|on a qust o| vino
staoo |is mac|ino ano |o vas unaolo to
roqain contro
T|o 'riq|t orot|ors vit| t|o.: |amous |.q|t
o| locom|or :, .o, aro rooaoy :|o oost
|novn namos :ooay in av.ation |.s:ory 'i|.r
'riq|t's |oy insiq|t vas :o stuoy oi:os, a osson
lon lirnas oarnoo, too. 'iour roaizoo t|at
oiros |oo t|o.r atora. oaanco, or contro v|on
oan|inq, oy tvistinq t|.r vinqs Ho oovisoo a
|ito t|at :orooucoo :|o samo o||oct moc|an.
cay, aov.nq .t to ro ono vay or t|o ot|or
as oosiroo
lo|oro oovooinq a ovoroo a.rcra|t, t|o
'riq|t orot|ors usoo qlioors, aiminq to oscao
accioont onq onouq| to acuiro s|i sum
ciont to rovont acc.oont. !|oy also |.t on t|o
ossont.a. :.ncio o| como.ninq ruooor con:ro
ano ro |or smoot|or oaancoo turns l n :o3,
'iour 'riq|t oomonstratoo ||s a.r.ano in
lranco, ano v.t|.n t|o yoar Honri arman ano
louis loriot voro ma|inq oxtonooo n.q|ts
I t|is |istory o| aviation, ano ovon saco
travo, startoo v.t| t|o |umoo ooqinninqs o|
ono man, 'Iooas ion .rnas, v|o vas ono o| t|o
hrs: to try ou: |.s iooas v|on |o qiooo v.t| |.s
oaqo |oat|ors ano s.
A photograph depicts the first fight by the Wright
brothers in 1go_.
:XP1L CF AFIO8IAIQ 'I _ _
10a1n dunYm ou de CC11_:ed dc Dtmcuc Ic:e. Ja.:e: :,8. aJ. |.
tJ:ofuae d ,ao~1g00.Z/JDu/O' _
_ Hayr:.rec7m:/1mmo:mnadcJS c(.._,u1J!z .. -
Ae= Avwcm
-=VA`m D epae:omTM1e:: desCctw _ ~
:t gae..-u.-.:--.qemCentc _-

'

edeJnp;g:Ja :1pu< _

'' P
_
yr p-m;],
' .


An illustration shows the balloon "Le Flesselles" ascending over Lyon, France, on January 19, 1784.
It carried seven passengers, including Joseph Montgolfier and Jean-Fran9ois Pilitre de Rozier.
U NI VE RS E : F I I (; J I T 301
.
*


4 +
REFERENCE
'.tw|-|t-|o.toso.tt-.|.|-
t-ot-tj.v-:-v-,..-.v-t.,
|w/:o|,w|-t-v-otw|ot-v-t
o|,ss-sot:--os ,:w.-ott|.j "
THOMAS HUXLEY, ENGliSH BIOLOGIST

`'
l`'`.1l +l ` 1'^ + i.`J L'i` i.ll \ ^l `l`
. +'L`.`l !` '1 `'|'1.`l l .L+|'` .`l J.Jl ``
|LJ ll \ \1'``. l11L`+.Jl '` 'll J`
l `l` '`'1l\^`+`
THE FOLLOWING SECTION HAS BEEN COMPILED FOR YOUR EASE OF USE IN ACCESSING :,ccc
years of missing history and getting to know the individual scholars. Many individuals are
discussed throughout this book. We have selected ::outstanding scholars from the Muslim
world for you to get to know in greater detail; all others are presented i n the A Thousand Years
of Scholarship section. Scroll through to discover who was who, when, and where.
To discover more about the effect of the works, innovations, and inventions of Muslim scholars
on European thought and the Renaissance, see Europe's Leading Minds, where you will read how
Roger Bacon spoke Arabic and never tired of telling people that knowledge of Arabic and Arab
science was the only way to true knowledge. For those who have been inspired to fmd out more,
use Further Reading to guide you, and if you want to know more about the original manuscripts
authored by the scholars mentioned in the book, see the Authors and Treatises section.
There is also a glossary to browse through and an index for you to locate whatever subj ect
interests you.
OPPOSITE: A Persian manuscript shows Timur the Lame on his throne in the ancient cit of Balkh.
. l||O!Al| T| | l|OV Tl| lAT
T
hroughout this book, you have read how men and women from Muslim
civilization have contributed to our daily lives. Here now is a "Who's
Who" of some of the biggest names from a thousand years ago.
'Abbas ibn Firnas
FULL NAME: '||as |u a_assim i|n lirnas i|n
`iroas a!a|urini
BORN: Nin:hcontury, noausian oosconoant |rom
a lor|or |amiy rosioinq |n !a|uronna nov lonoa)
DIED: 33/
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: roouci nq a |yinq
machino, crysta, ano a janotarium
Go to: lino Lininq in Homo, ass nostry in
ar|ot, ano C|sorvatorios ano lliqht in Univorso
t is oimcult to jin ono jro|ossion on Coroo
|an '||as i|n lirnas |ocauso ho hao numor
ous taonts, incluoinq jootry, astrooqy, music,
ano astronomy Ho vas aso huont in roo|, ano
maoo translations o| jhilosojhical ano musica
manuscrijts
|tor jor|octinq tho tochniquo o| cuttinq roc|
crysta quartz) ano jrooucinq qlass, ho maoo a
|ino o| qass janotarium, comjoto vith artihcia
thunoor ano iqhtninq
His most |amous achiovomont is tho construc
tion o| a hyinq vinq, tho nrst |novn to |o caja|o
o| alovinq a human to qioo throuqh tho air
Un|ortunatoy ho o|t no traco o| his or|qina
vor|s, ano h|s |ioqrajhy vas roconstructoo ony
|rom a |ov vorsos ano in|ormation |rom oyovit
nossos o|t to us in numorous oocumonts
Al-Jazari
FuLL NAME: laoiaZaman |u al'lzz lsma' il |
alazzaz alJazari
BORN: lirth oato not |novn, ho sorvoo tho rtuq
|inqs o| liyar|a|ir nov in southoast !ur|oy)
|rom i:/. to izoo
DIED: lato not |novn
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: A|Jc: c:n c|'|
c|Ac| c|Nc/ / s:nc'c: c|H:yc|, or !/c oo/
o/ Know|cojc o/ Injcn:o.s Mcc/cn:cc| Dcv:ccs
Go TO: C oc|s ano Coaninoss in Homo, ano
`ator Sujjy in ar|ot
!ooay, vo miqht ca Jazari a mochanical
onq|noor, ano ho vas an outstanoinq ono at that.
1horo is ittlo |novn a|out his i |o, |ut vo oo
|nov that ho vas in tho sorvico o| Nasir allin,
tho rtuqio, |inq o| liyar|a|ir, vho as|oo him to
oocumont his invontions in a manua, !/c oo/
o/ Know|cojc o/ Injcn:o.s Mcc/cn:cc| Dcv:ccs,
vhich ho comjotoo in :zoo
lo|oro this, ho hao |uit many machinos,
incuoinq coc|s ano vatorraisinq machinos,
ano a arqo numoor o| moc|anica. ooicos t|at
roo|utionizoo onqinoorinq, ii|o t|o cran|s|a|t
Ho is jossioy t|o |rst to uso roootics, as many o|
|is mac|inos incorjoratoo moinq hquros
Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
FULL NAME: ou Yusu| Yaquo .on ls|aq aSaooa|
aKinoi
BORN: oout 3o. in Ku|a, lraq
DIED: 3/
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: `ro:o moro t|an c.
vor|s on a arioty o| suoocts incuoinq !/c oo/
o/ :/c /c:s:y o/ ic/.c ccc D:s::||c::ocs
Go TO: us.c, Coan..noss, V.sion ano Camoras .n
Homo, C|omistry, Commorcia C|om.stry, Houso
o| `.soom, !ransatinq Knovooqo .n Sc|oo,
|armacy .n Hosjita., lart| Scionco ano Na:ura|
|onomona in `or|o
Kinoi vas an oncycojooic man, vor|.nq as
a j|ysician, j|iosoj|or, mat|omatic.an, qoomo
:or, c|omist, oqician, musician, ano astronomor
son o| t|o qoornor o| Ku|a, |o s:uoioo t|oro ano
at laq|oaos Houso o| `isoom, v.oro |o qa.noo
a |iq| rojutation at t|o caij|s court |or transa
tion, scionco, ano j|iosoj|y Caij| autassim
aso c|oso |im as tutor to |is son |mao.
His contrioutions incuoo an introouction to
ar.t|motic, oiq|: manuscrijts on t|o t|oory o|
numoors, ano tvo on moasurinq jrojortions ano
timo Ho vas t|o |rst to ooooj sj|orica qoom
otry, ano usoo :|is in |is astronomica| vor|s Ho
vro:o on sj|orics, t|o construction o| an azimut|
on a sj|oro, ano |ov to oo. a sj|oro. s a musi
cian |o usoo musica notation ano jayoo a jart
.n :|o oooojmont o| t|o '.c, or uto
Al-Zahrawi
FULL NAME: ou asim K|aa| ion aooas
aZa|ravi, |novn .n t|o `ost as oucasis
BORN: o in ooinat aZa|ra, noar Croooa, Sja.n
DIED: :o:
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: A|!cs:/ |:cc .,:.c
cc c|!c'|:/, s|ortonoo to A|!cs:/ ano transatoo
as !/c Mc:/oc o/ Icc:c:cc, v|ic| oocamo a con
tra| jart o| :|o mooica curr.cuum . n lurojoan
countrios |or many conturios
Go TO: Coaninoss in Homo, !ransatinq Knov
ooqo .n Sc|oo, ooica| Knovooqo, lnstrumonts
o| lo:|oction, |armacy. ano S.rqory in Hosjita
I|Za|rav. vas a rovo|ut.onary j|ysician ano
surqoon o| Umayyao Sjain. His ovoumo vor|,
A|!cs: /, qavo ootaioo accounts o| oonta, j|ar
maco.tica, ano su:qica| j:act.cos, ano .: vas ono
o| t|o most in!uontia mooica oncycioooias o|
t|o timo
His surqica Lroa|t|ro.q|s .nc|uooo |.s o.s
covory o| t|o uso o| catqut |or in:orna stitc|inq,
ano aoministor.nq oruqs oy storinq t|om . n
catqut ja:cos :|at voro roaoy |o: svaovinq,
|novn :ooay as cajsuos
Ho aso oosiqnoo ano .||ust:atoo moro t|an
zoo surqica .nstrumonts suc| as syr.nqos, oroj
jo:s. scajos, ano |orcojs. ano |is oo:aioo oia
qrams o| :|oso nquroo jroinonty .n mooiova
mooica toxts ano ]ou:na|s in Lurojo ano t|o
usim vo:o |or conturios any mooo:n sur
qica inst:umonts |avo c|anqoo itto |:om |is
or.qina| oosiqns
Ibn
al-Haytham
Fatima al-Fihri
FULL NAME: at.ma ali|ri
BoRN: N.nt| contu:y
DIED: 33o
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: l..o.nq :|o co|
|oqo mosquo comj|ox o| |arav.yin in loz.
orocco, .n 3
Go TO: Univors.tios in Sc|oo
at.ma a|l.|ri vas a yo.nq, vo|oo.catoo
jio.s voman v|o :ocoivoo a arqo amount |rom
|or |at|or, a succoss|u ousinossman S|o vovoo
to sjono |or ont.ro in|o:.tanco on L.ioinq a
mosquo ano oarn.nq conto: |o: |or ai:ava
niyy.n commun.ty lt vas comjotoo in 3 ano
oovoojoo into oroccos n.moo: ono univors.ty
Stuoios .nc|uooo astronomy, t|o uran ano
:|oooqy, av, r|oto:ic, jroso ano vo:so vr.:inq.
oqic, a:it|motic, qooqraj|y, moo.c.no, qrammar,
usim |istory, ano oomonts o| c|omistry ano
mat|omat.cs T|is var.oty o| :ojics ano :|o |.q|
qua|ity o| t|o toac|inq orov sc|o|ars aro stuoonts
|rom a ovor.
a:imas sistor, aryam, |ao sim.|:anoous|y
const:uc:oo noa|.s osquo in :|o vic.n
ity o| airavaniyyin !|oso tvo noiq|oor|ooos
Locamo t|o nucoi o| t|o city o| oz
Ibn al-Haytham
FuLL NAME: ou i aasan Ln aHayt|am,
|novn .n t|o `ost as ||azon
BORN: c .r lasra, lraq
DIED: :o in Cairo, Lqyjt
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: !.:c/ c|Mcnc. , or
oo/ o/ p:.cs, v|ic| |ormoo t |o |o.noations |or
t|o sc.onco o| ojtics T|o at.n trans.ation |ao an
onormous .mjact on loqor lacon. `.too. oon
aroo oa Vinc.. Loscartos, ano Jo|annos ojor.
cont.r.os ator
Go TO: Vision ano Camoras in Homo, Transat
inq nov|ooqo in Sc|oo, Natura| l|onomona in
`oro, |o oon in 'n.vorso
on aHayt|am rovo.t.on.zoo ojtics, ta|.nq
:|o s.o]oct |rom ono oiscussoo jn.osoj|ica.y to
a sc.onco |asoo on oxjorimonts Ho ro]octoo t|o
roo| iooa t|at an |nv.sioo iq|t omittinq |rom
:|o oyo causoo s.q|:, ano .nstoao :iq|ty statoo
t|at vision vas causoo oy iq|t ro|octinq o|| an
oo]oct ano ontorinq t|o oyo
ly usinq a oar| room vit| a j.n|oo on ono
sioo ano a v|.to s|oot on t|o ot|or, |o jroviooo
t|o ovioonco |or |is t|oory .q|t camo :|ro.q|
t|o |oo ano jro]octoo an invortoo imaqo o| t|o
o|]octs outsioo t|o :oom on t|o s|oot ojjosito
Ho ca|oo :|.s t|o JnJJ, ano it vas t|o vo:os
|rst camora o|scura
Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
FULL NAME: ou |oua| u|ammao ion lat:uta
BORN: :o in !anqior, orocco
DIED: ioc or :/o
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: !|o R:/|c, or ||s travo
ooo|, narratoo oy |im ano vr.tton oy lon Juzay,,
a roya scri|o, unoor t|o jatronaqo o| |u 'lnan,
t|o suitan o| loz ano orocco
LC TO: !raoo, Jovos, ano Curroncy in ar|ot,
'uoic lat|s in !ovn, !ravoors ano Lxj|orors
.n `oro
l|n lattuta o|: |.s |omotovn o| !anqior in
orocco as a z:yoaroo, aoou: oco yoars aqo
Ho sot on as a ono ji|qrim ano oio not roturn
|or z yoars ln t|is timo, |o covoroo moro t|an
/,, ooo m|os, t|rouq| mooornoay countrios
travoinq on |orso, cart, camol, ooat, ano |oot. !|is
]o.rnoy too| |im t|rouq| Nort|, `ost, ano Last
|rica, Lqyjt, Syria, lorsia, t|o raoian u|, na
toia, t|o stojjo, !ur|.stan, |q|anistan, lnoia,
a|oivos, Coyo. S:i Lan|a), lonqa, Sumatra,
C|ina, Saro|nia, ano Sjain ly t|o ono |o |ao
visitoo occa |our timos, ano |ao mot ano couo
namo mo:o t|an :,oo oojo, incuo|nq oo |oaos
o| stato
Ho vas as|oo oy t|o sutan o| loz ano orocco
to rocoro a t|is |n |is R:/|c, a.o t|is .s o.r vin
oov into t|o :t|contury vorlo |ocauso |o
|as o|t somo o| t|o oost oyovitnoss accounts
o| cu:u:o, cus:oms, jooj|o, animas, ano jan:s
o| t|o moo.ova voro strotc|inq |rom Coroooa
to Canton.
Ijliya al-Astrulabi
FULL NAME: aryam a ] iya
ast:u.ao.
BORN: in lojjo, Syria,
in t|o ora o| Sai| aLav.a
DIED: o/
MOS T I NF LUE NTI AL
WORK: !|o oauq|:or o|
]i| ast:uaoi, s|o con
tinuoo |or |at|or's vor| o| ma||nq
astroaoos
Go TO: stroaoo in Univorso
ljliya
al-Astrulabi
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Jabir ibn Hayan
FuLL NAME: |u usa Ja|i r i|n Hayyan,
|novn in t|o `ost as o|or
BoRN: 722 in Tus, lran
DIED: 3: .n u|a, lraq
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: Loisinq ano jor
|octinq t|o jrocossos o| su|limation, iquo|ac
t.on, crystaization, o.st.|ation, jur.ncation,
amaqamation, oxioation, oajoration, ano
nltration, ano jrooucinq su|uric acio |y ois
tiinq aum
Go TO: C|omistry ano Commorcia C|om.stry
in Sc|oo|
Ja|i: i|n Hayyan is qonoray |novn as :|o
|at|or o| c|omistry T|o son o| a oruqqist ano
jor|umo ma|or, |o vor|oo unoor t|o j+tron
aqo o| t|o larma|i iz.or ourinq t|o ||asio
Caij|ato o| Harun alas|io 1|is moant t|at
|o s|aroo somo o| t|o o||octs o| t|o oovn|al
o| t|o larma|is ano vas jacoo unoor |ouso
arros: .n u|a. v|oro |o oioo
His vor| vas not a in t|o a| ano :t |ao jracti
ca ajjlications, as |o ooscri|oo jrocossos |or t|o
jrojaration o| stoo, |air oyos, mota ronnomont,
oyoinq cot| ano oat|or, ma|inq arnis|os to
vatorjroo| c|ot|, ano iluminatinq manuscrijt
in| Somo o| |is most q:ouno |roa|.nq vor| vas
in acios ano in oiscoorinq su|uric ano |yoro
c|loric acio
Sinan
FULL NAME: oca imar Sinan
BORN: :3
DIED: i33
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: losiqninq ano |uioinq
moro t|an /77|ui.oinqs, incuo.nq .|o So|.m.yo
osquo in loirno, v|ic| |as t|o ta|ost oart|
qua|ooo|yinq minarots in Tur|oy
Go TO: rc|i:octuro in Tovn
Sinan vas t|o son o| roo| Crt|ooox C|ristian
jaronts v|o om|racoo lslam H.s |at|or vas a
stonomason ano a carjontor, ano |rom an oa:|y
aqo S.nan |oovoo in |is |ootstojs, |oarninq :|o
si|s o| |is traoo : z:, |o vas :ocru.:oo .nto :|o
Janissary Corjs ano as a consc:ijt |o mont.onoo
:|at |o vantoo to oa:n ca:jon::y |.s oo to |.m
oontuay oui|oinq s|ijs, voooon or.oqos, ano
many |inos o| :omjorary voooon const:uct.ons
|:ouq| mi|i:a:y so:ico |o ja:ticijatoo in a
nunoo: o| ttoman camjaiqns ano qainoo oxjo
r.onco o..o.nq ano rojair.nq or.oqos, oo|onsos,
ano castos !ho ttoman sutans no:icoo |.s
ta|on:s ano |o |ocamo t|oir c|.o| a:c|itoc: con
struct.nq mosquos, sc|oos, ano ot|or ciic oui|o
inqs a arouno t|o usim t:onan)vor|o, |:om
!u:|oy to Lamascus occa, ano losnia
Ho is a|so |onoroo vit| a crator on orcu:y
namoo a|:o: |.m.
Zheng He
FuLL NAME: lorn as a Ho, t|on |is namo c|anqoo
to Z|onq Ho as |o vas avarooo :|o sujromo com
mano o| t|o C|inoso lmjo:ia Houso|o|o qoncy
BoRN: ./. in unminq, C|ina
IED. : in 'noia
MOST INFLUENTIAL WORK: !rans|ormoo C|ina
.nto t|o .t| con:.:y s :oqiona|, ano jor|ajs
voro, sujorjovor oy ma|inq soon mon.mon
:a| soa oyaqos
Go TO: Naa| Lxjoration in `oro
|onq Ho vas t|o aomi:a o| :|o C|inoso |oot,
ano vit|.n z3 yoa:s o| t:ao| |o |ao isi:oo /
count:ios in t|o nano o| :raoo ano oijomacy. |o
oxjooi:ions cooroo mo:o :|an ,ionotors
ano |is rs: |oot inc|uooo z/,3/o non on ./ s|ijs
!ooay, .: is no: novn |ov |.s s|.js, v|.c| voro
noro t|an oo |oo: onq, voro |ui|: vit|ou: mo:a
!|oso massio ossos voro no :.nos as oiq as
t|o ossos o| ot|o: Lurojoan oxjorors i|o Vasco
oa ama ano voro ooscriooo as sv|mm|nq oraq
ons' oocauso t|oy voro oo:too v.:| oraqon's oyos
:o |oj t|om soo
Somo o| t|o anos :|o qroa: |oot isi:oo
incuooo Jaa, Sunatra, Coyon, Siam, t|o las:
lnoios, lonqa, t|o ao.os, :|o orsian Sutanato
o| rmuz, ly.|yu ano l:unoi, lornoo, oqaoi
s|u, omoasa, ano o:|or Last |:ican jorts !|oy
oon jossioy :o.nooo :|o Cajo o| ooo Hojo
!|oso oyaqos |ostoroo sc.onti|c oiscoory
ano t|o soa:c| |or joms, minoras, j|ants, animas,
oruqs, ano mooicino T|oy aso imjrooo naiqa
t.ona ano ca:toqraj|ica novooqo o| t|o voro,
oooojoo .ntornat.ona| roat.ons, ano :raooo
|a:qo quant.:ios o| carqo, inc|.oinq si ano cot
:on qooos jorco|ain, qo|o ano si|o:va:o, cojjo:
utonsi|s, ano .ron imjomonts !|oy aso carioo
|.o animas inc|uoinq qi:a||os ano os::ic|os |ao
vato::.q|t o.|||oaos to |oo .o |s| ano aso
mao |a:||ousos, ano usoo otto:s to :ouno uj
us| into |a:qo nots
Zheng He
310 l l | ^` . ^J \``- J l L . `L| ^L l l \CY \ `1C ` L \| l Z.V 1 \`
"

"
.

.
.2 UPCl|` S |Al| `C `| `lS
T
here are numerous European scholars who had groundbreaking
achievements and are remembered for their outstanding contributions
to modern-day science and discovery. We selected the following, listed
chronologically, whose genius rose above the knowledge of their day, who had
long-lasting impact on science and technology, and who were in harmony
with or may have been infuenced by Muslims.
Roger Bacon .z.:zz)
1is x|oro scoar is |novn as to oriq.nator
o to oxorimonta motoo in vostorn luroo,
ano o rocoivoo is traininq |rom to uis o|
Sanis oors Ho so|o Iraoic ano novor tiroo
o| tolinq ooo tat |novooqo o| Iraoic ano
Irao scionco vas to ony vay to truo |novooqo
lacon quotos lon aHaytam or ro|ors to .m
at amost ovory sto in to otics soc:ion o| .s
p.s Mc.s ar: Vl o| tis vor aso rosts a.most
ontiroy on :o hnoinqs o| lon aHaytam, oso
ciay .n aroas roatinq :o to intromiss.on toory
o| vision lt vas lon aHaytam vo introoucoo
to scionti|c, oxorimonta motoo, ano it vas
tis tat lacon ic|oo u on.
IKinoi vas anotor sourco o| insiration |or
lacon, ano is tvo troatisos on qoomo:rica ano
ysiooqica ot.cs voro usoo oy to lnqisman
lon irnass |yinq macino ins.roo lacons
|yinq macino or ornito:or, vic o ooscr.ooo
in is manuscrit Dc M:u/:|: Po:cs:c:c A::s c:
Nc:.cc or n :/c Mcvc|o.s Powcs o| A: cnc
Nc:.c |rom i.co lt is |novn tat lacon stuoioo
in Croooa, to omoano o| lon lirnas
lacons vr.t.nq on qunovoor vas oasoo on
usim sourcos, ano to Latin ooo l:/c !jn:.
o/ Mc..s cc..s v.c qivos many rocios |or
mainq qunovoor, vas oriq.na.y in Iraoic ano
trans.atoo .n Sain
loqor lacon oocamo acquaintoo vit usim
comistry |rom to Lat.n transations o| Iraoic
vors, ano |o..ooo in :o qroat .mortanco o|
a|comy, ano .n transmuta:ion
His cio| quioo in mooicino vas to cnon o|
lon Sina, vic o citos as |roquonty as a toso
otor vritors comoinoo.
To ooo| tat ao to qroatost |mact uon
lacons motoo o| tin|inq, ano maoo im oi|
|oront |rom is `ostorn contomorar.os, vas !/c
oo/ o/ :/c 'ccc: o/ :/c 'ccc:s oy nintcon:ury
Za|ariya alazi, |novn in to `ost as lazos ln
Latin, tis vas 'ccc:. 'ccc:o.
Leonardo da Vinci :=z::)
loonaroo oa Vinci vas an ltaian aintor, scu
tor, arcitoct, musician, onqinoor, matomatician,
ano sciontist, ano a oy |.quro in ato lonais
sanco luroo locont rosoarc suqqostoo :a: .s
motor vas o| Nort I|rican oriqin
La Vinci orov !o V.truvian an,' a man o|
or|oct roortions in :vo suorimosoo osi
tions vit is arms aart, aoar.nq in a circo ano
squaro, vic ilustratoo to toxt o| to Rocn
cnon o/ /::.v:.s la Vincis oravinq vas soon
as innovativo oocauso o saio to mans contor,
von oravn in a squaro, vas no: is navo, as to
cnon sta:oo, |ut ovo: lut nvo conturios oarior in
:o ton:con:ury .s..m sco.ars '//wcn c|'c/c,
or to lrotors o| urity, ao como :o to samo
concusion, say.nq tat to contor o| to nquro vas
to navo on|y |or a cio unoor sovon, ano a|tor tis
to contor movoo to to qroin aroa Historians avo
l |'H'C| | LlC' |': LU\DI NC MI NDS 311
acnov|ooqoo l|n S.na's :oo/ o/ .c, Hcc|:nj o !yc|o's |amous mura| quao:an: vas |.|o :|oso
Rcnco, /on Ijnocncc as an .ns.rinq sourco o| oooooo .n oastorn :oq.ons o| :|o usim vo:|o
t|ouq|t |or :|o |ounoors o| qoomo::.ca. t|ouq|t .n osociay |y ast:onomor !aqi a|l.n
luroo .ncuoinq Loona:oo oa Vinci
l|n aHayt|am .nontoo a camo:a o|scura Johannes Kepler ./..o)
onq |o|oro oonaroo oa V.nc. rooucoo :|o |u| Jo|annos oo: is ronovnoo in t|o `ost |o: o.s
t
ano ooo.ooo camora oosiqn coor.nq t|o avs o| |ano:a:y mo:ion ano |o: |.s

la Vinci |ouno a:a|osquo oos.qns |ascinatinq vor| on otics, as :|o |ounoor o| t|o n:st corroct

ano vo:oo out |is ovn com.icatoo atto:ns ma:|omat.ca. t|oory o| t|o camora o|scura, ano
t

|o usim not .n a:t.cuar .nt:iquoo |im so |or :oio.nq t|o nrs: co::oct ox|anation o| t|o
|o rooucoo tvo a:os o| six |no:s, v|ic| voro vor|inq o| t|o |uman oyo vit| an usioooovn

ator ro:ooucoo in circu.ar coo: onqrainqs |y icturo |ormoo on t|o ro:ina


ono o |is |o.|ovors .n .an arouno ..3 ano .. |n a| Hay:|am's .n|.uonco can oas..y |o

ootoc:oo in o.o:'s vor| as t|o |ormor |ao roo


Nicolaus Copernicus ../:,) ution.zoo ot.cs o yoars oario:. H.s !:c/ c|

ois| sc.ontist N.coaus Coorn.cus is sa.o to |o Mcncz or :oo/ o/ p:cs vas ::ansa:oo into

t|o |ounoo: o| mooorn as:ronomy atin |y ora:o o| C:omona ano caoo icspcc
t
any o| |is t|oorios vo:o |asoo on t|oso o| :vc or Dc cspcc::/.s
Nasir a.in a!us. ano l|n a|S|ati: .|n aS|atir's lo:| oor ano .oscar:os roioo uon l|n a.
ano:ary t|oo:y ano mooo|s aro mat|omatica|y Hay:|am's s:uo.os on :|o :o|raction o| .iq|: ano
W
.oon:ica :o t|oso :oa:oo |y Coo:nicus moro o.o: :oo u v|oro l|n aHay:|am o|t o|
t|an a con:uz iator Coorn.cus vouo |ao como oor oooojoo t|o camora o|scura a|:or
.nto con:act vi:| t|oso in lta.y, v|oro |o s:uoioo its rs: oiscoory |y .|n aHayt|am, imroinq
J

no:|o: in|uonco on Coornicus is |o..ooo it vi:| a noqatio ons |o|ino :|o osi:.o ons
to |ao |oon t|o |amous !oooan !a|os vritton v|.c| onarqoo :|o :ooctoo imaqot|o r.n
|y Zarqai v|o vas |orn in :z3 ci|o usoo in t|o mooorn too|oto ons

lt .s |novn t|a: Coorn. cus :o. i oo |oa

i| y on :|o comro|onsio astronomica| .roa Robert Boyle .oz/.o.)

tiso o| la:tani t|at .ncuooo star ca:aoqs lo|o:t loy|o is vio.y roqarooo as ono o| t|o |ouno

ano anotary ta|os Ho :o. os oxtonsioy ors o| mooorn c|omist:y. Ho is |os: |novn |or
on Za:qa| . anc | lat:ani i n |i s |oo| loyo's qas av. v|.c| :oatos :|o rossuro ano

Dc Rcvo|.::on:/.s o.umo o| a qas in a ciosoo systom Ho stuoioo


Eastorn anquaqos i|o ra|ic ano Syriac |ocauso
Tycho Brahe :o:o:) o| t|o manusc:its o| natu:a| |ioso|y vritton in
|.s oaoinq Lan.s| lona.ssanco as:ronomor :|oso .anquaqos Ho |ao accoss :o vor|s suc| as r
r
vas croo.:oo vit| many in|uontia| vors incuo :|a: o| ..raqi, ::|contu:y usim c|omis:, ano
|nq t|o roouction o| t|o quaorant ano ono o| :|o :a|os o| .onqituoo ano atituoo comioo |y t|o
r
Luroo's .oaoinq o|sora:o:.os :t|contury Sy:.ar qooqra|o: |u|ooa Ho o|:on
Ho is :onovnoo |o: :oo.scoo.inq :|o moon's :urnoo to t|o anc.ont rac:.cos o| us.m c|omists
ariation, v|ic| vas :st oiscooroo |y a us.m i|o Ja|ir .|n Hayyan o|o:) loyo ano Co|o:
i
astronomo: o|ammoo |u a`a|a' a|luzani |ot| :|am.onoo t|o oxorimonta a:oac| to
a|out o yoars oa:|.or c|om.st.y, oosi:o t|o n.no contu:ios |otvoon t|om
312 1001 INV E. N T I ONS: THE. ENDU RINCI lL: .\L\ Of V\ USL I\1 UVI L ! Zi\TION
. ^1c-:o:|\|u.\ . |
M
any of the individuals mentioned in this book are listed below for
your reference, including their names, birth and death dates, places
of birth and work, and profession. The names in bold refer to how
these people were commonly known, as many of the scholars, coming from
distinguished families, had long names.
'Abd al-Rahman III 3:o:), :|o caij| o| Cr
oooa, Sja.n :zo:), a man o| visoom ano
jatron o| aris, |ounoor o| aoinat aa|ra a
city nov in ruins) on t|o outs|irts o| roooa
Yahya ibn Abi Mansour nint| contury), laq|
oao, lraq, astronomor at t|o cour. o| Ia'mun.
Ho comjioo t|o socaoo A|Z:, c|M.:c/cn
or /c 'c|:Jc:cJ Z:,
Abu Abdullah al-Bakri io: :o) , Huova,
Sjain, qooqraj|or ano |.storian
Abu al-Fida' :z/::), Hama, Syria, qooqraj|or
ano astronomor
Abu al-Wafa', o|ammoo alouz]ani o3),
luz]an|, laq|oao, lraq, mat|omat.cian, astron
omor, ano qoomotr.cian
Ad-Dakhwar oary ::| con:ury), Iojjo, Syria,
j|ysician at INuri Hosjita.
Adelard of Bath ca :o3oca :co), lat|, Enqano,
mat|omatician ano j|.osoj|or
Albertus Magnus, a|so |novn as Ioort t|o roat
:zoo:z3o ), lavaria, sciont.st, j|iosoj|or, ano
t|oooqian
Alfonso 2,aso |novn as I.|onso t|o `iso :zz:
:z3), Sjanis| |inq o| Cast.o ano oon :zz
:z3), son ano succossor o| oroinano l l l
Archimedes z3/z:z - ..), Syracuso, Sici.y,
astronomor
Aristotle 3 zz -.. r) Staq. rus, rooco,
j|.osoj|or
Roger Bacon :z::zz), l ! c|os:or, Fnqano,
j|ysic.st, c|om.st, ano mat|omat.cian
Al-Baghdadi, roa. namo Iou ansur Ior a
a|ir ion Ta|ir ion u|ammao ion Iooaa|
aTamini aS|am, |novn as lon Ta|ir 3o
:o/), laq|oao, lraq, mat|omatician
Banu Musa brothers nint| contury), laq|oao,
lraq, lon usa, Ja|ar u|ammao ion S|a|.r
3oo3/), qoomotry ano astronomy, lon usa,
I|moo ion S|a|ir 3o3/), moc|anics, lon
usa, IHasan .on S|a|.r 3:o3/), qoomotry
Al-Battani, Iou 'Iooa.a| u|ammao .on Jaoir,
novn as I.oatoqn.us 3_3z) , oorn i n
Harran, Tur|oy, ano vor|oo in laq|oao, lraq,
astronomor ano mat|omatician
Baybars, a.ai| aZa|ir |u|n aLin layoars a
lunouqoari :zz.z//), So|at, Tur|oy, am
u| sutan v|o roso to jovor |rom ooinq a savo,
ruoo Eqyjt ano Syr.a .zco.z//), oo|oatoo t|o
onqos at latto o| Iyn Jaut
Al-Biruni, o|ammoo ion I|moo Iou |ay|an
/.oo) oorn in r|var.zm, oioo .n azna,
mat|oma:ician, qooqraj|or j|armacy, mooi
cino, j|ys.cs, ano oart| scionco sc|o.ar
Al-Bitruji, Nur aLin ion ls|aq o :zo), aso
|novn as Ijo:raqius, orocco ano Sovi.o,
astronomor
Tycho Brahe :o :oo:), S|ano, Lonmar|,
astronomor ano onqinoor
Robert Boyle .c./.c:), Enqano, na:ura. j|i
osoj|or ano c|omist Cno o| t|o |ounoors o|
mooorn c|om.stry, ano ono o| t|o jionoors o|
t|o mooorn oxjorimonta. sciont.! c mo:|oo
Nicolaus Copernicus, ioa] ojo:n.k or Nico
aus ojjorniqk ./:.), T|orn Torn),
lo.ano, astronomor ano mat|omat.cian
Al-Dimashqi :zc.z/), lamascus, Syria, tra
o.or ano oxjoror.
Al-Dinawari, ou Han. a o 3_), noaus.a,
Sja:n, ootan.st
Edward I :z_:o/), k.nq o Lnqano :z/z:o_),
vont on Crusaoos to cros :z/::z/z), on |is
rotu:n |o ouit castos on t|o usim jan,
usinq t|o oa:oican oosiqn
Euclid zzc .C.), oxano:ia, lqyjt, roo
mat|omatician
Al-Farabi, ou Nas: 3/o_o), a.so knovn as
|j|a:aoius, noar larao, |azak|stan, out
|ou:is|oo ano vorkoo i n lraq, j|.osoj.o:
ano music t|oorist
Al-Farghani, ouaooas |mao ion at|ir
novn as raqanus o 3c:), arq|ana T:an
soxiana, astronomor ano su:qoon
Muhammad al-Fatih, knovn as o|moo ll or a
at.| .z.3.), orianojo, |:aco, Turkoy,
ttoman sutan v|o ruoo rom Constant.
nojo :::3:), conquo:o: o| Constant.nojo
Al-Fazari, ou oou.a| u|ammao ion lo:a|.m
o ca ///), unouz, |q|anistan, mat|omatic.an,
j|iosoj|o:, joot ano astronomo:. T|o |i:st
us.im astronomo: to construct ast:o.aoos
Leonardo Fibonacci ::/o: zo), . sa, l ta|y,
mat.omat.c.an
Fatima al-Fihri n. n: | contu:y) , nicknamoo
Um alan.n or t|o mot|o: o c||oron', oz,
orocco, art ano ouioinq jat:on, |ounoo: o|
arav.yin Un.orsity, loz
Al-Firdawsi, ou aasim ansur _o:ozo),
o:asan, lran, |istorian ano c|ronicor
Frederick II ::_:zo), kinq o S.ci.y ._3:zo),
|oy roman omjo:or :zzo:z)
Galen, Cauoius ca ::zoc), 'orqamum/lor
qama, uroy, j|ys.cian
Gerard of Cremona ca :.:.:.3/), omoar.y,
ita.y, transator
l| l l l l`'. | .\ 1l l .|>\ ^ | l\ l .| Cl .l\ l> | | ' l I
Al-Ghafqi, u|ammao ion assum .on sam
o ::c), j|ysician, oyo surqoon, ano |oroa..st.
Al-Ghazali, ou Hamoo, knovn in t|o `ost as
.qazo :o3iz3), |o:asan, lran, j|ioso
j|or ano t|oo.oqian
Al-Hakam I /_c3z), ru.oo Coroooa
Al-Hakam II _._/3), Co:oooa Sjain, son o
ooorra|amn ll, ruoo .noa.us rom _c.
to _/3, |amous |o: |.s io:ary
Ahmad al-Halabi o :), ojjo, Sy:.a,
astronomor
Abu Bakr ibn al-Sarraj al-Hamawi o .z3/_),
Hama, Syria, qoomotor, ast:onomor ano
onqinoor
Al-Hanbali, aq. a. lin :zc:z3) , Har:an,
Tu:oy t|oo.oqian, uran.c oxoqosis :c/s,,
|ao.t| ano ]urisjruoonco
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Harbi o z3),
laq|oao l :aq j:om. nont comjan. on ano
t|oo.oq.an o t|o Han oai Sc|oo o| T|ouq|t
Harun al-Rashid /cc3o_), t|o it| ooasio
ca.ij|, v|o ru.oo rom laq|oao /3c3o_),
amousy novn |or |is qooo roat.ons vit|
C|aromaqno, to v|om |o sont a oo.oqation
vit| qits inc.uoinq a |yo:auic o:qan
Hazarfen Ahmed Celebi :/t| contury), lstanou.,
Turkoy, j..ot |y.nq .n .c3 rom t|o aata
tovor noar t|o losjo:us in lstanou, ano.nq
on t|o ot|or sioo o t|o losjorus
Hippocrates ca .co-// . C. .), os l sano
rooco j|ysician
Hunayn ibn Ishaq, a.'loao. 3o33/), laq.oao,
l:aq, momoor o| t|o Houso o `.soom, trans|a
:o: o| :ook vo:s into :ao.c, j|ys.c.an
Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah o .z/o), lamascus, Syria
jracticoo i n Fqyjt), c|ronic.or o j|ysic.ans
ano j|a:macists, j|ys.c.an ano ocu.st
Ibn 'Aqil, ou a`aa i :o.o.. ._), laq|
oao l:aq, t|oo.oqian o t|o Hanoa. Sc|oo o
T|ouq|t ano |uman.st
Ibn al-Awwam :zt| contury), Soi|.o, Sja.n,
aq:icu.tur.st
U
314 1 001 I NVI N T I ONS: HI E E NDU RI NC; l l CACY C| \L: l| \ CI VI L I L/TI ON
ILnal-Bayar, Iouu|amnaolia alinIoou
|a| ion I|mao ::/:zc), aqa, Sja.n, j|y
s.cian, |orLais:, j|armacist, ano oo:anis:
ILn al-Faqih, a|Hamao|ani :ont| contury),
laq|oao, lraq, qooqraj|or ano travoor
ILn al-Hayiham, Iou Ii aHasan c:o),
aso |novn as Ihazon, Syria, lqyjt, j|ysicist
ano mat|omatician
ILn al-Ha]], u|ammao ion u|ammao, Iou
Ioou|a| :zc:c), loz, orocco, ooucat.on
aist ano :|oooq.an
ILn al-Jazzar, Iou Ja|ar I|mao .Ln Ioi |aio
ca c), I|aryavan, un.s.a, j|ysician
ILn al-Naoim, ILu a|lara] u|ammao ion ls|aq
ion u|ammao ion l s|aq tont| con:ury),
laq|oao, lraq, oioioqraj|or ano t|o au:|or o|
t|o !::c/ c|!:/:s: ooo|soor ano caiqraj|or
ILn al-Nahs, IouI|assan Iauoin Ii ion Ioi
Hazm auras|i iz:o:zcc), lamascus, Syria,
ano |ouris.oo ano voroo .n Cairo, lqyj:,
j|ys.c.an ano o.scovoror o| t|o c.rcu|at.on o|
t|o oooo
ILn al-Qull, Ioulara] ion Yacquo i|n ls|aq
Im.n alav|a aara|i :z:zcc), Lamas
cus, Syria, j|ysician
ILn al-Sallar, Iou aasim I|moo ion Iooa
a| ion Cmar a|a|qi, oost |novn unoor t|o
namo o| ion a.Sa||ar, moaninq son o| cojjor
smit| o .o), CrooLa, Sja.n, mat|omati
c.an ano as:ronomor.
ILn al-Shaiir al-Muwaqqii :o:/), lamas
cus, Syr.a, astronomor ano t.mo|oojor at t|o
Umayyao roat osquo o| lamascus
ILn al-ThahaLi, Iou o|ammoo Iooola| ion
o|ammoo aIzoi o :o), Su|ar, Cman,
j|ysician ano oncycojooist
ILn al-Vaho, Iou autarr.| aoo ala|man
ooc:o/), a.so novn as Ioonquo|t, Toooo,
Sja.n, j|ys.c|an ano j|armaco|oq.s:
ILn Baois, au izz :oo/:oc:), !un.sia, |. s
torian, sciontist, c|omis:, ano ruor o| Nor:|
I|r.ca :oic:ocz).
ILn Ba]]ah, Iou la|r u|ammao ion Ya|ya ion
asSayiq|, |novn as Ivomjaco in :|o `ost
o ::c), Saraqossa, Sjain, j|iosoj|or ano
j|ysician
ILn Bassal, Iou Ioo I|a| u|ammao .on lora
|im a!uaytui :oc), oooo, Sjain, Lotanist,
aqriculturist, ano qaroonor
ILn Baiiuia, Iou Iooua| u|ammao :o
:cc//o), !anqior, orocco, travoor oxjoror,
ano c|ron.cor
ILn Faolan, I|moo :on:| contury), laq|oao,
lraq, oxjoror, travo|or, ano c|ronic|or.
lLn Firnas, IoLas o cc/), ora|, !a|rna, Sjain,
|umani:arian, toc|no|oqis:, ano c|omis:
lLn Hawqal, Iou Ilasim u|ammao zo
o) , Nisioin, l raq, oxjoror, travoor, ano
c|roniclor
lLn Hazm, Iou u|amnao Ii ion I|mao ion
Sa'io :oc), Croooa, Sjain, t|oooqian
ano man o| o:tors
ILn Isa, Ii :on:| contury), a|so |novn as .osu
Hay, laq|oao, lraq, j|ysician ano ocuist
ILn JuLayr, Iou a| Husayn u|ammao ion
I|mao ion .uoayr :zt| contury), ranaoa,
Sjain, travoor, oxjoror, ano c|ronicor
ILn Jul]ul alAnoalusi ca ), Croooa, Sjain,
j|ysician, |oroaist, ano j|armacist
Ali iLn Khalal a|S|a|az :t| con:ury), !oooo,
Sjain, an ajo:|oca:y or |orLa.st, as:ronomor
ILn Khaloun, ILo ala|man ion o|ammao
:z:oc), Tun.s, !unisia, sociooq.s:, |isto
rian, j|iosoj|or, ano oconomist.
ILn KhurraoaohLih czo:z), laq|oao, l raq,
qooqraj|or ano oiroctor o| t|o qcvornmont
josta sorvico in laq|oao.
ILn Ma]io, S|i|ao alin I|moo aNa]oi :z
:oo), Na]o, Sauoi Iraoia, naviqator
ILn Muqla, IouI.. o|ammoo ccco), laq|
oao, .raq, Iooasio v.zior, ca|iqraj|or, ano ono
o| t|o invontors o| t|o Ncs//: scrijt.
ILn Rusho, ILu'. `aio u|ammao a|urtuoi,
aso |novn as Ivorroos ::zci:c) Croooa,
Sain, |i|oso|or, |ys.c.an, |umanis:, ano
uoqo
Ibn Rustah, |moo tont| contury), ls|a|an .ran,
oxoror ano qooqra|or
Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi :z.:z/), ranaoa,
Sain, |istor.an, oot, travo.or, ano qooqra|or
Ibn Samajun o .ooz), noausia, Sa.n, |or|a
ist, Lo:anist, ano |armaco.oq.st
Ibn Sarabiyun, Y.|anna, a.so novn as Sora
.on nint| contury), Syr.a, |ysician ano
|armacist
Ibn Sina, a|so novn as viconna 3o:o/),
lu||ara, Uz|o|.stan, |ys.cian, |i.oso|or,
ma:.omatic.an, ano astronomor
Ibn Toloun, |mao 333), oriq.na|y vas .n
t|o sor.co o t|o ||asio ca|i| ano movoo
to Locomo qovornor o qyt as art o| t|o
L|asio Cai|a:o Ho |.i|t t|o amous Ln
!.un osquo in Ca.ro
Ibn Tufayl, |u lar i Ln |o a a i |
. |n u|ammao i |n u|ammao . |n Tu|ay
aays., aso |novn as |uLacor o .:3),
ranaoa, Sain, |.oso|or, |ysician, ano
o.tician
Ibn Yunus, |u|Hasan i i|n |o ala|man
.Ln A|mao a.Saoan o:oo), lustat, Cairo,
Eqyt, mat|omat.cian ano astronomor v|o
com.oo t|o Haom.:o !a|os
Ibn Zuhr, Lu arvan .o:::c:), aso |novn
as vonzoar, Sovi|o, Sain, |ysician, ano
surqoon
Al-Idrisi :o::cc), Co.ta orocco) ano la
ormo, Sici|y, qooqra|or ano cartoqra|or
Ikhwan al-Safa', aso novn as lrot|ors o lur.:y
ca 3), lasra, lraq, qro. o| |i.oso|ors
' Izz al-Din al-Wafa'i o :c) Cairo, lqyt,
as:ronomor ano mat|omat.c.a.
Jabir ibn Afah ::oo..,), Sovi.o, Sa.n, ma:|
oma:.c.an ano astronomor
Jabir ibn Hayyan, Lu usa, aso novn as
o|or /zz3:), !us, lran, ano ivoo ano voroo
.n .a, lraq, c|omist, or.qqist ano |ysician
l l1l|`C :\ TI I OL: St\ ND : |\ lS Or SCI I OL,\ R.SH I P Ib
Al-Jahiz, |. Ut|man mr .Ln la|r ca //c3c3),
lasra, raq, |ioso|or ano zoooqist
Al-Jazari, laoia.aman |u azz lsma. L a
lazzaz oary :t| contury), Liyar|a|ir, Tur|oy,
onqinoor
Al-Jurjani, |u l.| u|ammao i|n ansur
.|n Lou|a| ca .o33), s tara |ao, `ran, ocuist
ano surqoon
Kamal al-Din, |.. Hasan .|ammao aaris.
ca :zco..), !a|r.z, lran, mat|omatician ano
|ysicis:
Al-Karaji , |. lor i|n u|ammao .|n a
Husayn, a.so |.ovn as |ar||i :oz),
laq|oao, raq, nat|omat.c.an ano onqinoor
Ho vroto t|o |!c//:
Al-Kashghari, a|m.o :o/), !uroy, qooqra
|or ano oxicoqra|or
Al-Kashi, |.yat aLin :3o:z), as|an, lran,
mat|oma:ician ano astronomor
Johannes Kepler ./::co), noar Stuttqart, or
many, mat|oma:ician ano as:ronomor
Al-Khujandi, |u a|muo Ham.o .|n a.|.or
o.ooo), |uoz|ano, !ai|istan, astronomor,
Lu.| : an o|sor\atory . n lay, l ran, ano con
structoo a soxtant
Al-Khwarizmi, u|ammao i|. usa /3o3o),
|var.zm, lran, mat|omatician, astronomor,
ano qooqra|or rom v|oso namo :|o voro
aqor.t|m' comos
Al-Kindi, |u Yusu Yaqu| i|n ls|aq a.Sa||a|
3o:3/), .a, !raq, crytanayst, mat|oma:i
cian, astronomor, |ysic.an, ano qooqra|or,
a|so taon:oo musician
Al-Kuhi, |u Sa| `i]an .Ln lustam tont| con
tury), |orn in u| in Ta|aristan, .n nor:| lran
|ut vor|oo ano |ouris|oo in laq|oao aro.no
33, mat|oma:ician ano as:ronomor
Leonardo da Vinci .z::) , Vonico, tay,
aintor, ora:s:an, scutor, arc|.:oc:, ano
onq.noor
Al-Majusi, i .|n a| ||as tont| contury),
|vaz, ran, qooqra|or
316 1 001 I N\' I N f ! ONS: Tl l f ; DURI NC1 | F C:\C'Y Of \\ USL I \\ C ' 1 1 1 /. \T I ON
Al-Ma'mun, ou Ja|ar aa mun i on Harun Al-Muqaddasi, uhammao ion hmao Shams
/3c3), ono o| tho most oniqhtonoo ooa aLin ca :ooo), Jorusaom historian ano
sio caihs, vho ruoo |rom 3: unt. 3, ho qooqra|o:
oxanooo :|o Ho.so o| `isoom. Al-Mutawakkil; LLasio cai| vho ruoo |rom
Al-Mansur, ou Ja|ar oouah ion uham Samarra, lraq 3./3c:), vhich vas tho s|ort
mao aansur /:z//), ooasio caih vho ivoo ooasio caita |ounooo oy his |athor,
ruoo |rom laqhoao /.-//), tho |ounoor o| u'tassim
laqhoao in /cz Muwafaq, ou aansur tonth contury) Horat,
Al-Mansur, Yaquo :ico :i), arrakoch, |qhanistan, harmacist.
orocco, mohao sutan vho ruloo |rom ar Nur al-Din ibn Zangi :::3::/.), sultan vho ruoo
rakoch ::3.::), s.ccoooinq his |a:|o:, ou oo ano Lamascus Syria ouit ono o| tho
Yaquo Yu|, vho ruoo |rom ::c unt. ..3 oariost hos.:a.s, |Nu:i Hosita|.
Al-Maqrizi, Taqi aLin hmao iLn .. .on oo Al-Nuwayri, L. aLoas hmao :z/3z),
aaoir ion uhammao :c.:..z), Ca.ro, Cairo, lqyt, |isto:ian
lqyt, historian Palladia, noroa :o:3o), laoua, ltay arch.
Yahya ibn Masawayh, ou Zakariah //c3/), toct ano aintor
laqhoao, lraq hysician, harmacooqist, Piri Reis, lon Ha]i uhammao :.ci), Cai
oarth sciont.st, ano trans|ator oi, !urkoy, soa aomira| qooqrahor, oxoror,
Masha'Allah 'Ali ibn 'Isa' o 3:), Cairo, lqyt ano cartoqrahor
astronomor ano mathoma:ician Plato .z// I.C..),t|ons, Crooco hi|osohor
Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti o .oo/) aorio, Claudius Ptolemaeus, a.so novn as Ptolemy
Sain astronomor ano mathomat.c.an 3:c )oxano:ia, lqyt, qooqraho:
Al-Masudi, ou|Hassan i ion aHussa.n 3/:- ano astronomo:
/), laqhoao, lraq oxoror, qooqrahor, ano Qalawun, Sai| aoLin a|i aansur :zzz
historian izo), amuk sutan vho ruoo lqyt :z/
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti :./ .zo ) in :z3. ho ouit tho |amous ano imortant
:c.), !uscany, ltay ltalian lona.ssan.o scu .ansuri Hosita.
tor, a.ntor, architoct, ano oot. Al-Qazwini, aka:iya' i|n uhammao :zo
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu :c3:/cz), Lon :z3), azvin, l:an, :ravo| or, oxoro:, ano
oon, lnqano rominon: momoo: o| socioty .oqo jco:
ano vi|o o| tho l:itish amoassaoor :o tho tto Baylak al-Qibjaqi c :z3z), .stanou|, !.rkoy
man lmiro orouqht smaox inocuation oxoror, soa|aror, ano qooqrahor
|rom urkoy Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi :zc:::), Shiraz, lran
Al-Mawsili, mmar ion i tonth contury) astronomor
osu, lraq oyo surqoon ano ohthamooqist Al-Rammah, a|Hassan Na m aLin ca :z3),
Al-Mu'izz, ioin |ah o/), a povor|u Syria onqinoor ano military h.storian
la:imio caih vho oxanooo tho lat.mio ruo Raphael, lahao.o :3:zo), Uroino, tay
|rom No::| |r.ca :o lqy: :|o |ounoor o| ain:o: ano a:ch.:oc:
ls|am.c Cairo, .ahirah, in /z/ ano :ho Al-Razi, ou lakr uhammao ion Zakariya 3c
l
mosquo o| zhar. z), lay, lran hysician ano chomist knovn
Al-Muktaf o o3), ooasio caih vho ruoo i n tho `ost as lhazos
|rom laqhoao ozo3) Roger II :o: :.) , laormo, Si ci |y Norman
|inq v|o ruoo Siciy ::o::), son ano su:
cossor o| loqor l, |amous |o: ||s intorost in
qooqraj|y ano sujjort o| t|o usim qooq
:aj|or ..o:isi
Sabur ibn Sahl, aso sjo|oo S|ajur o 3c),
Junois|ajur, lran, j|ysician ano j|armacist
Saif al-Dawla, ou aHasan ion Hamoan :c
c/), ruor o| ojjo ano |ounoor ol t|o Hama
oanio oynasty o| ojjo Ho vas |amous |or |is
jatronaqo o| sc|oars
Al-Samawal, l on Ya|ia aaq|rioi o :3o),
laq|oao, lraq, ma:|omatic.an ano ast:onomor
Michael Scott ca ../-ca :zc), Scot.ano, j|ysi
c.an, astrooqor, ano transator
Sibawaih /co/), layza or layoa, lran, qram
marian, consiooroo t|o most imjortant raoic
qrammarian ujon v|oso vor| a| ot|or raoic
qrammars aro oasoo
Sinan, oca imar Sinan :3:33), lstanou
!ur|oy, arc|itoct ano oosiqno:
Ibrahim ibn Sinan ion !|aoit ion u:ra ,
c), Ha:ran, u:|oy, qoomo:o:, astronom.r,
ano mat|omatic.an
Al-Suf, 'oo ala|man o3c), ls|a|an, lran,
astronomor
Al-Suli, ou la|r u|ammao tont| contury),
qroat mastor o| c|oss
Pope Sylvester II, oroort o| uri.ac o/o
:oo) , uvorqno, lranco. jojo :oo).
j|i| osoj|or, mat|omatician, ano transator,
orouq|t rao.c numoras to Eurojo oo|oro
ooinq joisonoo
Umar ibn Farrukhan al-Tabari, aso |novn as
Cmar |raqanus nint| contury), !aoaristan,
lran, astrooqor, comjiloo t|o ':/c .n:vcs.s
Taqi al-Din al-Rasid, u|ammao ion a'rou| a
S|am. asaoi ca :zc:3), lamascus, Syria,
astronomor, onqinoor, ano moc|anic
Thabit ibn Qurra ca 3c-o:), Haran, !u:|oy,
qoomotor, mat|omatician, astronomor, ano
:ransator o| roo| vor into raoic
Al-Tusi, Nasir alin :zo::z/), araq|a Tus),
| |.l`C l .\ 1l l CLS:\ '|+ |. :\ KS Cl C|C|\ KSHl |' I7
|orasan, lran, astronomor, mat|omatician,
ano j|iosoj|or
Ulugh Beg, u|ammoo !a:aqai ::),
Samar|ano. Uzooistan, astronomo:
Umar al-Khayyam, |iyat| al. n ou'|at|
Umar ion lora|im Nisaouri :o3::zz),
Nis|ajur, lran, astronomor ano mat|omatician
Umar ibn al-Khattab, ion Nu|ayl ion 'oo a'Uzza
ion layya| ca 3:c), comjanion o| roj|ot
u|ammao ano socono caij|, ruinq |rom
ooina, Sauoi raoia cc)
Uthman ibn Affan, ion oi .'s ion Umayya|
//cc), comjan.on o| roj|ot u|ammao
ano t|iro caij| cc_c)
Vitruvius, arcus oio ca /oca z B. C.E.); lomo,
ltay, arc|itoct ano onqinoor
Al-Walid ion 'ooumai| ion arvan cc3/:),
Umayyao caij| v|o ruoo |rom lamascus,
Syr.a /o/:), |o ouit :|o Umayyao osquo
.n lamascus
Sir Christopher Wren .cz:/z), Lonoon,
Unitoo inqoom, arc|itoct, astronomor, ano
mat|omatician
Sanad ibn Ali al-Yahoudi nint| contury), laq|
oao, l raq, Jov convortoo into l sam, c|. o|
astronomor o| a'mun, oistinquis|oo mom
oo: o| t|o Houso o| `isoom
Yaqut, lonooua| lum. aHamavi ::/:zz),
:ao oioqraj|or, |istor.an, ano qooqraj|or
Al-Zahrawi, ou as. m |aa| ion aooas,
|novn in t|o `ost as oucasis c:o:),
Croooa, Sjain, j|ysician ano surqoon
Al-Zarqali, ou ls|aq lora|im ion Ya|ya, aso
|novn as rzac|o :oz:o3/), !oooo, Sjain,

ast:onomor v|o comjioo t|o Toooan !aoos


Zheng He :/::), unm.nq, C|ina, naviqator
ano aomira
Ziryab, ouHasan . ion Na|i' /33/) ,
laq|oao, lraq, musician, astronomor, |as|ion
oosiqnor, ano qastronomo

318 1 001 I NVENTI ONS T HL F NDU R I NG |lC.\C. OF MUSL\\ Ci v i L I ZATI ON


W

. UTHCPS A`l +P|AT| S |S


B
elow are the titles of manuscripts, treatises, and books by and about
some of the Muslim scholars mentioned in this book, and details of
where the material can be found.
Locatinq oriqina manuscrits is oimcu: Sinco
a t|ousano yoars |avo assoo, t|oy o|ton oo not
ox|st anymo:o loasons |or t|is vary, |:om |iorarios
Loinq ournoo in t|o ioo.o qos, vars, ano natu
ra oisastors to mooiova sc|oary riva:y :|at oo
to manuscrits ooinq oostroyoo ano a ack o| :os
orvation ovor t|o conturios !|ousanos o| oriqina
manuscrits aso romain to oo cataloquoo in many
liorarios, ano somo |avo yot to oo ocatoo lxorts
say as many as hvo miion manuscrits oxist ano
ony aoo.t co,ooo o| t|om |avo ooon ooitoo.
lortunatoy coios ano transat.ons o| many
manuscr.ts |avo ooon rosorvoo oor t|o con
tu:|os in iLrarios suc| as t|o lritis| Lio:ary on
oon), Tokai aaco usoum Liorary !ur|oy),
Suoymaniyo Liorary !ur|oy), Nationa| Liorary o|
ooicino US), rincoton Univorsity Liorary US),
Vatican Liorary, Loioon Liorary Ho|ano), ano
Camorioqo ano Cx|oro univorsity io:a::os UK)
M`L
On the Cofee Trail
'Abd al-Kadir ibn Muhammad al-Ansari al-Djaziri.
Umdat al-Safwa f hill al-qahwa. Partly edited in De Sacy,
Chrestomathie Arabe, 2nd edition. Imprimerie royale,
Paris, 1826.
'Abd al-Kadir ibn Shaykh ibn al-'Aydarus. Safat al
Safa f bayan hukm a/-qahwa. Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis,
Bibliothek Berlin, MS 5479. 23 volumes, Berlin, Germany,
1853-1914.
Hattox, R. S. Cofee and Cofeehouses: The Origins of a
Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. University of
Washington Press, Seattle and London, 1988.
Clocks
Al-Jazari. Al-Jami' Bayn al-'Ilm al-Naf'wa Sina'at al-Hiyal,
or The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical
Devices. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya Collection, MS
3606, Istanbul.
Al-Jazari. Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted by
Fuat Sezgin in collaboration with Farid Benfeghoul, Carl
Ehrig-Eggert, and Eckhard Neubauer. Institute for the
History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolf
gang Goethe University, Frankfurt, 2001.
Hill, Donald R. On the Construction of Water Clocks, or
Kitab Arshimidas h 'amal a/-binkamat. Turner and
Devereaux, London, 1976.
Hill, Donald R. Arabic Water-Clocks. Institute for the His
tor of Arabic Science, Aleppo, Syria, 1981.
Hill, Donald R. "Islamic Fine Technology and Its Infu
ence on the Development of European Horology," in
Al-Abhath, Vol. 35, pp. 8-28. American University of
Beirut, Beirut, 1987.
Taqi al-Din. Al-Kawakib al-durriyya h al-binqamat al
dawriyya, or Pearl Stars on Cyclic Water Clocks. Dar
al-Kutub, MS Miqat 557/1, Cairo.
Taqi al-Din. A/at al-rasadiya li-Zij al-shahinshahiyya.
Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, MS Hazine 452.
Istanbul.
Taqi al-Din. Rayhanat al-ruh f rasm al-sa'at 'ala mustawi'/
sutuh. Vatican Library, MS 1424, Vatican City.
Tekeli, Sevim. The Clocks in the Ottoman Empire in the
16th Century and Taqi a/-Din's The Brightest Stars for
the Construction of the Mechanical Clocks. Ankara Uni
versity Basimevi, Ankara, TJrkey, 1966.
Chess
Al-Hanbali. Kitab namudhaj al-qital f naql al-'awal, or
The Book of the Examples of Warfare in the Game of
Chess. Zuhayr Ahmad al-Qisi (editor). Dar-al-rashid,
Baghdad, 1980.
Al-Suli. Kitab al-shatranj, or Muntahab Kitab a/-shatranj.
Suleymaniye Library, Lala Ismail Collection, MS OJ,
Istanbul.
Al-Suli. Kitab al-shatranj. Fuat Sezgin (publisher). Insti
tut !u: Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissen
schaften, Frankfurt, 1986.
Murray, H. J. R. A History of Chess. Oxford University Press,
London, 1913; reprinted Benjamin Press, Northampton,
Mass., 1985.
Music
Al-Farabi. Kitab ai-Musiqi ai-Kabil; or The Great Book of
Music. Koprulu Library, MS 953, IstanbuL
Al-Farabi. Kitab ai-Musiqi ai-Kabil; or The Great Book
of Music. Eckhard Neubauer (editor). I nstitut fur
Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften,
Frankfurt, 1998.
Sanal-Dinal-Baghdadi al-Urmuwi. Kitabai-Adwai: Vatican
Library, MS 319/3, Vatican City.
Chabrier, J. C. "Musical Science," in Encyclopedia of the
History of Arabic Science. Roshdi Rashed (editor) with
the collaboration of Regis MoreJon. 3 volumes. Rout
ledge, London/New York, 1996.
Farmer, Henry George. Studies in Oriental Music. Eckhard
Neubauer (editor). 2 volumes. IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1997-
Maaouf, Shireen. History of Arabic Music Theo1y: Change
and Continuit in the Tone Systems, Genres, and Scales.
Universite Saint-Esprit, Kaslik, Lebanon, 2002.
Neubauer, Eckhard. Arabische Musiktheorie von den
Anfangen bis zum 6./12. Jahrhundert. The Science of
Music in Islam, VoL 3- IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1998.
Shiloah, Amnon. The Theory of Music in Arabic Writings
(ca 900-1900). Henle, Munchen, 1979-
Shiloah, Amnon. Music in the World of! slam: A Socio-Cul
tural Study. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1995-
Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Laurie
Schwartz (translator). Amadeus Press, Portland, Ore , 1996.
Cleanliness
Al-Kindi. Kitab Kimiya' al-'itr wa't-tas'idat, or Book of the
Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations. lGarbers (Ger
man translation), Buch uber die Chemie des Parfums und
die Distillationen, Leipzig, Germany, 1948.
Al-Zahrawi. Kitab ai-Tasrif Liman 'Ajaz An ai-Ta'lif or AI
TasriF or The Method of Medicine. Suleymaniye Library,
Bashir Agha Collection, MS 502, Istanbul, Turkey; and
AI-Khizana al-Hasaniyya, MS 134, Rabat, Morocco.
Al-Zahrawi. Texts and Studies I Fuat Sezgin (editor);
Mazen Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, and Eckhard Neu
bauer (publishers). IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1996.
Trick Devices
Banu Mus a Brothers. Kitab al-hiyal ai-Handasiyah, or The
Book of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. Vatican Library,
MS 3l7/1,Vatican City; and Dar al-Kutub, MS Taymur
Sina'a 69, Cairo.
Bir, Atilla. Kitab al-hiyal of Banu Musa bin Shakir Inter
preted in the Sense of Modern System and Control Engi
neering. Preface and edition by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu
Hl| H l`C| "L1| | CHS .\ ` l I Hl^1| b l 319
(Studies and Sources on the H:story of Science, 4).
Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture
IRCICA, Istanbul, 1990.
Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y., and Hill, Donad R. Islamic Tech
nology. An Illustrated History. UNESCO/Cambridge
University Press, Paris/Cambridge, 1986.
Hill, Donald R. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious
Mechanical Devices. Reidel, Dordrecht, Netherlands,
1974-
Hill, Donald R. Islamic Science and Engineering. Edin
burgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1993-
Al-Jazari. Al-Jami' bayna al-ilm wa-al-amal al-naf f sinaat
al-hiyal, or The Book of Ingenious Devices. Institute for
the History of Arabic Science, Aleppo, Syria, 1979-
Taqi Al-Din. Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines, in
A. AI-Hasan, Taqi al-Din wa- '1-handasa al-mikanikiya
al-'arabiya. Ma'a Kitab al-Turuq al-saniya f-'1-alat al
ruhaniya min al-qarn al-sadis 'ashar Institute for the
History of Arabic Science, Aleppo, Syria, 1976.
Vision and Cameras
Ibn al-Hayham. Kitab al-Manazir, or Book of Optics, known
in Latin as De aspectibus, or Perspective. Suleymaniye
Librar, MS Ayasofa Collection, 2448, IstanbuL
Ibn al-Hayham. Opticae Thesaurus Alhazeni Arab is libri
septem, nunc primum editi. Eiusdem liber de crepusculis
et nubium ascensionibus. David C. Lindberg (editor).
Johnson Reprint, New York/London, 1972
Ibn al-Hayham. Kitab AI Manazir, A. I. Sabra (editor),
Books I-III. The Cultural Council, Kuwait, 1983.
Sabra, A. I. The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham. Books I - III,
On Direct Vision. The Warburg Institute/University of
London, London, 1989.
Ibn al-Haytham. Kitab AI Manazir. A. I Sabra (editor),
Books IV-V. The Cultural Council, Kuwait, 2002.
Kamal al-Oin al-Farisi. Tanqih al-Manazir li.Zawi'l-absar
wa'l-Basail: Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya Collection,
MS 2598, IstanbuL
Kheirandish, Elaheh. The Arabic Version of Euclid's
Optics: Kitab Uqlidis fi ikhtilaf al-manazir. Springer
Verlag, Berlin, 1999
Kheirandish, Elaheh. "Optics: Highlights from Islamic
Lands," in The Diferent Aspects of Islamic Culture. VoL
IV: Science and Technology in Islam, Part 1, pp. 337-357.
UNESCO, Paris, 2001.
Lindberg, David C. Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi to
Kepler University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London,
1976. Reprinted 1996.
Megri, Kheira. L'ptique de Kamal a/Din al-Farisi. Presses
Universitaires du Septentrion, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France,
1999-
aM
W 3

W 3

a
W 3

aM
3
3C 1 001 | ` \|`1' . Ti l L | ` ' ' |' ' `' |lC.\!: OJ V': | ' V Cl v | ' ' Z.\1 ' `
Rashed, Roshdi. Geometrie et dioptrique au .' siecle:
Ibn Sahl, alQuhi et Ibn al-Haytham. Les Belles Lettres,
Paris, 1993-
Schramm, Matthias. "Zur Entwicklung der physiolo
gischen Optik in der arabischen Literatur," in Sudhofs
Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwis
senschaften, VoL 43. pp. 289-316. 1959
Sezgin, Fuat, et al. (editors). Optics: Texts and Studies. Natu
ral Sciences in Islam, Vols. 32-34. IGAIW, Frankfurt, 2001.
Smith, A. M. Alhacen's Theo1y of Visual Perception: A Criti
cal Edition, with English Translation and Commentary
of the First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus,
the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab
al-Manazir. 2 volumes. American Philosophical Society,
Philadelphia, 2001.
Carpets
Asianapa, Oktay (editor). One Thousand Years of Turkish
Carpets. Eren, Istanbul, 1988.
Blair, S., and Bloom J. "Islamic Carpets," i n Islam: Art
and Architecture, M. Hattstein and l el.us (editors),
pp. 530-533, Konemann, Koln, Germany, 2000.
Rabah Saoud. "The Muslim Carpet and the Origin of Car
peting. " V .MuslimHeritage.com.
Sardar, Marika. "Carpets from the Islamic World, 1600-
1800," i n Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metro
politan Museum of Art, New York, 2000.
'ML
Schools
AI-Ghazzali. Ihya Ulum al-Din, or The Revival of Religious
Sciences. Badwi Tabana (editor). Nusrat Ali Nasri for
Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, 1982.
Gibb, H. A. R. "The University in the Arab-Moslem World," in
The University Outside Eurpe: Essays on the Development
of Universit Institutions in Fourteen Countries, pp. 281-298.
Edward Bradby (editor). Ayer Publishing, New Hampshire,
1970.
"Al-Madrasa al-Nizimiyya," in Encyclopaedia of Islam,
2nd ed.:cn. l Bearman, Th. Bianquis , C. E. Bosworth,
E. van Donze!, and V P. Heinrichs (editors). E. J. Brill,
Leiden, 2010.
Makdisi, George. "Madrasa and University in the Middle
Ages," in Studia Islamica, No. 32, pp. 255-264. 1970.
Makdisi, George. "Muslim Institutions of Learning in Elev
enth-Centwy Baghdad," in Bulletin of the School of Ori
ental and African Studies. Vol. 24, pp. 1-56. London, 1961.
Makdisi, George. The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learn
ing in Islam and the West. Edinburgh University Press,
Edinburgh, 1981.
Pedersen, J., Rahman, Munibur, and Hillenbrand, R.
"Madrasa, " in Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition.
P. Bearman, Th. Bi anqui s , C. E. Bosworth, E. van
Donze! , and W. P. Hei nr ichs (edi tors). E. J. Bri l l ,
Lei den, 2010.
Libraries and Bookshops
Atiyeh, George N. (editor). The Book in the Islamic World:
The Written Word and Communication in the Middle
East. State University of New York Press, Albany, 1995
AI-Jahiz. Al-Bayan wa'l-tabyin, or Eloquence and Elucida
tion. Hasan Sandubi and Adab al-Jahiz (editors). Yale
University Library, New Haven, Conn.
AI-Jahiz. Al-Bayan wa'l-tabyin, or Eloquence and Elucida
tion, Hasan ai-Sandubi (editor). Ma tba'at al-istiqama,
Cairo, 1947; 2nd edition, 1956.
Kohleberg, Etan. A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work.
Ibn Tawus and His Library. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1992.
AI-Muqaddasi. Ahsan al-Taqasim f Ma'rifat alAqalim, or
The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions. G. S.
Ranking and Rizkallah F. Azoo (translators to English).
Bombay, 1897-1910. Reprinted by Fuat Sezgin, Frankfurt,
1989.
Ibn al-Nadim. Fihrist'al-Ulum, or The Catalogue or Index
of the Sciences. Suleymaniye Library, Sehid Ali Pasa
1934, Istanbul.
Ibn al-Nadim. Kitab al-Fihrist, mit Anmerkungen hrsg.
von Gustav Flugel. 2 volumes. C. W. Vogel, Leipzig,
Germany, 1871-72
Mathematics, Trigonometry, and Geometry
Abgrall, Philippe. Le developpement de Ia geometrie aux
IX'XI siecles: Abu Sahl alQuhi. Blanchard, Paris, 2004.
Ab' Karil, Shuja Ibn Aslam. The Algebra of Ab' Kamil:
Kitab f al-jabrwa '1-muqabala. Martin Levey (translator);
foreword by Marshall Clagett; commentaries by Morde
cai Finzi. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
Wisconsin, 1966.
Abu al-Wafa'. Kitab al-Handasa, or Book of Geometry.
Cambridge University Library, MS Persian 169, Cam
bridge, Ul
Abu al-Wafa'. Kitab fma yahtaju ilayhi al-sani najara f
amal al-handasiyya, or On Those Parts of Geometry
Needed by Craftsmen. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya
Collection, MS 2753, Istanbul.
Abu Bakr Muhamad ben al-Hasan al-Karaji Al-Kafi fi
'l-hisab (Geniigendes iiber Arithmetik) von (4.-5- Jhd/10-
ll.Jhd.u.). Ediert unc kommentiert von Sami Chalhoub.
!HAS, Aleppo, Syria, 1986
Abu al-Hasan Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Uqlidisi. The Arithme
tic ofal-Uqlidisi. The Story of Hindu-Arabic Arithmetic as
Told in 'Kitab al-fusul f al-hisab alhindi. Translated and
annotated by Ahmad Salim Saidan. Reidel, Dordrecht,
Netherlands, 1978.
P-Baghdadi. Kitab al-takmila f 'ilm al-Hisab, or Book of
Completion on the Science of Arithmetic Suleymaniye
Library, Laleli MS 2708/1, IstanbuL
Al-Khwarizmi. Kitab al Mukhtasar f'l Hisab al-Jabr wal
Muqabala, or Compendious Book of Calculation by
Completion and Balancing. Medina, MS Hikmat jabr
4. 6, Medina, Saudi Arabia.
Banu Mus a Brothers. Tahriru Kitabi Ma 'rifat Misahat al
ashkal al-Basitat al-Kuriyya. Koprulu Library, ! Kisim
MS 930/14, IstanbuL
Berggren, Lennart J. "History of Mathematics in the Islamic
World: The Present State of the Art," in Bulletin of the
Middle East Studies Association, VoL 19. pp. 9-33- 1985
Berggren, Lennar. Episodes in the Mathematics of Medi
eval Islam. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1986.
Al-Biruni. Kitab al-Athar al-Baqiyya 'an al-Qurun al-Khali
yya, or Chronology of Ancient Nations, or Vestiges of
the Past. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya Collection,
MS 2947. IstanbuL
PBiruni. Kitab al-Athar al-Baqiyya 'an al-Qurun al-Khali
yya, or Chronologie orientalischer volker. Fuat Sezgin
(editor); C. Eduard Sachau (publisher). IGAIW. Frankfurt,
1998.
Al-Biruni. Kitab Maqalid ilm al-hay'a Ia triqonometrie
spherique chez les arabes de /'est a Ia fn du X siecle, or
Kitab maqalid ilm al-hay'a. Marie Therese Debarnot
(editor). lnstitut Fran<ais de Damas, Paris, 1985.
Djebbar, Ahmed. L'algebre arabe: Genese d'un art. Adapt
Vuibert, Paris, France, 2005.
Al-Farabi. Maqala f Ihsa al-Ulur, or The Book of the Enu
meration of the Sciences. Koprulu Library, MS 1604/1,
IstanbuL
Al-Farabi. Maqala f Ihsa al- Ulum, or Catalogo de las cien
cias. Imp. de Estanislao Maestre, Madrid, 1932.
Folkerts, M., and Kunitsch, Paul. Die a/teste lateinische
Schrift uber das indische Rechnen nach al-Hwarizmi.
Edition, Ubersetzung und Kommentar. Bayerische Akad
emie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische
Klasse, Abhandlungen, Neue Folge, Heft 113, Munchen,
1997-
Jaouiche, Khail. La theorie des paralleles en pays d'Islam.
Contribution Ia prehistoire des geometries non-euclidi
ennes. Vrin, Paris, 1986
Al-Karaji. Al-Fahri f'l-Jabr wa'l-Muqabala. Suleymaniye
Library, Husrev Pasa, MS 257/7. IstanbuL
Al-Khayam, Umar. Risala f'l-barahin 'ala masa'il al-jabr
wa'l-muqabala, or Treatise on Proofs of Problems of Alge
br and Balancing. Riyada, MS 898/3. Cairo.
RHf RLNCE: \UTI I ORS 1\ ND TREAT I SES 3I
Ben Miled, Marouane. Operer sur le Continu. Traditions
arabes du Livre X des Elements d'Euclide, avec /edition
et Ia traduction du commentaire d'al-Mahani. Beit
al-Hikma, Carthage, Tunisia, 2005.
"Mathematics and Her Sisters in Medieval Islam: A Selective
Review of Work Done from 1985 to 1995," in HM, VoL 24,
II
407-440. 1997-
Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. Le Calcul Indien
"Algorismus." Histoire des textes, edition critique, tra
duction et commentaire des plus anciennes versions
latines remaniees du XII" siecle. Andre Allard (editor).
Blanchard/Peeters, Paris/Namur, 1992.
Al-Khawarizmi. Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
(He 200-815). Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted
by I Sezgin et al. 4 volumes. Islamic Mathematics and
Astronomy, Vols. 3-6. IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1997-
Lorch, Richard. Thabit Ibn Qurra: On the Sector-Figure and
Related Texts. Edited with translation and commentary.
IGAIW, Frankfurt, 2001.
Rashed, Roshdi. Entre arithmetique et algebre. Recherches
sur lhistoire des mathematiques arabes. Les Belles Let
tres, Paris, 1984. Traduction anglaise: The Development of
Arabic Mathematics. Between Arithmetic and Algebra.
Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1994-
Rashed, Roshdi, and Vahabzadeh, Bijan. Al-Khayyam
mathematicien. Blanchard, Paris, 1999-
Rosen, Frederick. The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa.
Frederick Rosen (editor and t ranslator). Olms Verlag,
Hildesheim, Germany, 1986. Reprint of the frst edition,
Oriental Translation Fund, London, 1831
Al-Siddiqi. Risala f'l-handasa, or Treatise of Geometry.
Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya Collection, MS 2736,
IstanbuL
Al-Tusi. Al-Jabr wa'l-Muqabala. Vatican Library MS 317/2,
Vatican City.
Les Mathematiques Infnitesimales du IX' au XI siecles.
VoL I I: Ibn al-Haytham. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage
Foundation, London, 1993-
Les Mathematiques infnitesimales du IX au XI" siecles.
VoL I.Fondateurs et commentateurs. Al-Furqan Islamic
Heritage Foundation, London, 1996.
Les Mathematiques infnitesimales du IX' au XI' siecles.
Vol. III: Ibn al-Haytham. Theorie des coniques, construc
tions geometriques et geometrie pratique. Al-Furqan
Islamic Heritage Foundation, London, 2000.
Les Mathematiques infnitesimales du IX' au XI' siecles.
Vol. IV: Methodes geometriques, transformations ponc
tuelles et philosophie des mathematiques. Al-Furqan
Islamic Heritage Foundation, London, 2002.
Oeuvre Mathematique d'al-Sijzi: Geometrie des coniques et
33 1 001 I N V E NTI ONS: T i l E E NDUl" I NC L f. Gr\C\ or MUS L L v\ CI VI L I ZiTI ON
theorie des nombres au X' siecle. Les Cahiers du Mideo,
3. Peeters, Lou vain/Paris, 2004.
Chemistry
Jabir ibn Hayyan. Kitab al-Sab'in, or Book of Seventy
Treatises on Alchemy. Istanbul University Library,
MS AY 6314, Istanbul.
Jabir ibn Hayyan. Kitab f al- Kimiya'. Vatican Library
MS 1485/1, Vatican City.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan. The Arabic Works of Jabir Ibn Hayyan.
Arabic texts edited by Eric John Holmyard. Paul
Geuthner, Paris, 1928.
Jabir ibn Hayyan. Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Texts and Studies.
Collected and reprinted by Fuat Sezgin et al. _volumes.
IGAIW, Frankfurt, 2002.
Jabir ibn Hayyan. Dix traites d'alchimie: les dix premiers
traites du livre des soixante-dix. Sind bad, Paris, 1983.
Jabir ibn Hayyan. Kitab al-Sab 'in, or The Book of Seventy.
l Sezgin (editor). IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1986.
Al-Kindi. Kitab Kimiya' al-'itr wa't-tas'idat. See Cleanliness
section.
Nomanul Haq, Syed. Names, Natures and Things: The
Alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan and His Kitab-al-Ahjar, or
Book of Stones. Foreword by David E. Pingree. Kluwer,
Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1994.
Al-Razi. Kitab al Asrm; or The Book of the Secret of the
Secrets. Istanbul University Library, Sarkiyat E., MS 77,
Istanbul; and the National Library of Medicine, MS A 33
item 9, Bethesda, Md.
Al-Samawi, al-'Iraqi, Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad b.
Ahmad. Kitab Nihayat al-talab f sharh kitab [al-'ilm]
al-muktasab hzira'at-i al-dhahab. Paul Geuthner, Paris,
France, 1923. Collected and reprinted by l Sezgin et al.
Natural Sciences i n Islam, Vol. 61. IGAIW, Frankfurt,
2001.
Commercial Chemistry
Al-Kindi. Kitab Kimiya' al-'itr wa't-tas'idat. See Cleanliness
section.
The Scribe
Abu Jaafar ibn Tophail. The Improvement of Human Rea
son, Exhibited in the Life of Hai ebn Yokdhan, written in
Arabic about 500 years ago. Translated from the original
Arabic by Simon Ockley. E. Powell, London, 1708.
Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail. The Hist01y of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan,
translated from the Arabic by Simon Ockley, revised,
with an introduction by .S. Fulton. Chapman and Hall,
London, 1929.
Conradi, L. I. (editor). The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdis
ciplinmy Perspectives on Hayy Ibn Yaczan. Islamic
Philosophy, Theology and Sciences Series, Vol. 24. E. J.
Brill. Leiden, 1996
Goodman, L. "Ibn Tufayl," i n Histo1y of Islamic Philosophy.
Chapter 22, pp. 313-29. S. INasr and .Leaman (editors).
Routledge, London, 1996.
Hawi, S. "Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Ibn Yaqzan, Its Structure, Liter
ary Aspects and Methods," Islamic Culture, Hyderabad
Quarterly Review, Vol. 47: 191-211. 1973.
Hawi, S. Islamic Naturalism and Mysticism: A Philosophi
cal Study of Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Yaqzan. E. J. Brill, Leiden,
1974-
Hawi, S. "Beyond Naturalism: A Brief Study of Ibn Tufayl's
Hayy Ibn Yaqzan," in Joural of the Pakistan Historical
Society, Vol. 22, pp. 249-67. 1974.
Hawi, S. "Ibn Tufayl's Appraisal of His Predecessors and
Their Infuence on His Thought," in International Jour
nal of Middle East Swdies, Vol. 7, pp. 89-121. 1976.
Hourani, G. "The Principal Subject of Ibn Tufayl's Hayy
Ibn Yaqzan," in Journal of Near Easter Studies 15 1),
pp. 4046. 1956.
Ibn Tufayl. Ibn Tufayl's Hayy ibn Yaqzan: A Philosophical
Tale, translated with introduction and notes by Lenn
Evan Goodman. Twayne, New York, 1972.
Ibn Yaqzan. The Journey of the Soul: The Story of Hai bin
Yaqzan, as told by Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Tufail,
a translation by Riad Kocache. Octagon, London, 1982.
NllL'
Agricultural Revolution
Ibn al-Awwam. Kitab al-Filaha, or Book of Agriculture.
Istanbul University Library, MS 5823, Istanbul, Turkey;
and Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Hazine
MS 429, Istanbul.
Ibn al-Awwam. Kitab al-Filaha or Le livre de /'agriculture.
Fuat Sezgin (editor); J. J. Clement-Mullet (translator
from Arabic). Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic
Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University,
Frankfurt, 2001.
Ibn Vahshiyya. El-Filahatu'n-nebatiyye, or L'agriculture
nabateenne. Tavfk Fahd (editor). Institut Francais de
Damas, Damascus, Syria, 1995.
Kusami. Filahat!i'n-Nabatiyye, or The Book of Nabatean
Agriculture, Vols. I-VII. Fuat Sezgin (editor). IGAIW,
Frankfurt, 1984.
Abu 'l-Jayr al-Ishbili. Kitab al-flaha, tratado de agricul
tura. Instituto de Cooperaci6n con el Mundo Arabe,
Madrid, 1991.
Eguaras Ibanez, Joaquina. Ibn Luyun: tratado de agricul
tura. Patronato de Ia Alhambra y Generalife, Granada,
Spain, 1988.
Garda Sanchez, Expiraci6n. "El Tratado agricola del
RUE Rf NCF i\U THORS i\ N D T RL\T I S I . S 323

&
granadino Al-Tignari," in Quaderni di studi arabi, the Kings. Said A. Ashour (publisher). Matba'at Dar
pp. 279-291. Casa editrice Armena, Venezia, Italy, 1988. al-Kutub, Cairo, 1970.
Garcia Sanchez, Expiraci6n. "Agriculture in Muslim Al-Nuwayri. Nihayatal-Arabf Fununal-Adab, or TheArab
Spain, " in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, pp. 987-999- Art of Manners. Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyah, Cairo, 1923.
E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1992.
Water Supply
Garcia Sanchez, Expiraci6n, and Alvarez de Morales,
Al-Jazari. Al-Jami' bayn al-'Ilm al-Naf'wa sina'at al-Hiyal.
Camilo, et aL (editors) Ciencias de Ia natwnleza en al-
See Clocks section.
Andalus: textos y estudios. 7volumes. C.S.LC/Escuela de
Taqi al-Din. Turuq al-Saniyya h al-Alat al-Ruhaniyya,
studios Arabes, Madrid/Granada, 1990-2004.
or The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines. Dar
Guzman Alvarez, Jose Ramon. "El compendia de agricul-
al-Kutub, Miqat MS 4. Cairo.
tura atribuido a Ibn Wafd al-Nahrawi: nuevas perspecti-
Water-Lifting Devices in the Islamic World Texts and Stud-
vas sabre su auto ria," in Anaquel de estudios arabes, No.
16, pp. 83-124, Madrid, 2005.
ies. Natural Sciences in Islam, VoL 43- Collected and
Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. Ibrahim Ibn Bassal. Libra
reprinted by lSezgin et aL IGAIW, Frankfurt, 2001.
de agricultura. Estudio preliminar par Expiracicn Garcia
Krenkow, F. "The Construction of Subterranean Water
Sanchez y J. Esteban Hernandez Bermejo. Sierra Nevada,
Supplies During the Abbas ide [sic] Caliphate," in Trans-
Granada, Spain, 1995-
actions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society,
Al-Masudi. Muruj al-dhahab wa Ma'adin al-Jawhar, or
VoL 13, pp. 23-32. 1947-49-
The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels. Sakarya
Wiedemann, Eilhard, and Hauser, Franz. "
O
ber Vorrich-
University, Ilahiyat Faculty Library, MS 193, Sakarya,
tungen zum He ben von Wasser in der Islamischen Welt,"
Turkey
in Beitrage ziir Geschichte der Tecknik undindustrie, VoL
Al-Masudi. Muruj al-dhahab wa Ma'adin al-Jawhar,
8, pp. 121-154- 1921.
4 volumes. Muhammad Muhyiddin Abdulhamid (edi-
Dams
tor). Al-Maktaba al-Tijariya al-Kubra, Cairo, 1964.
Al-Idrisi. Nuzhat al-Mushtaq f 'khtirak al- Afaq or Al-Kitab
Ibn Wahshiya, al-Filahah an-Nabatiyyah, or The Book of
al-Rujari, or A Recreation for the Person Who Longs to
NabateanAgriculture. 7volumes. Introduction in Arabic
Traverse the Horizons or Book of Roger. Suleymaniye
and English by Fuat Sezgin. IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1993-98.
Library, Husrev Pasa MS 318, IstanbuL
Varisco, Daniel Martin. Medieval Agriculture and Islamic
Smith, N. A. F. A History of Dams. London, 1971.
Science: The Almanac of a Yemeni Sultan The University Windmills
of Washington Press, Seattle, 1994- Al-Masudi. Muruj al-dhahab wa Ma'adin al-Jawhar. See
Farming Manuals
Agricultural Revolution section.
Ibn al-Awam. Kitab al-Filaha. See Agricultural Revolu-
Hassan, Ahmad Y., and Hill, Donald Routledge. Islamic
tion section.
Technology: An Illustrated History, p. 54- Cambridge

Water Management
University Press, Cambridge, LJ.1986.
Al-Karaji. Kitab Intibat al-miyah al-khafyyat, or Extrac-
Lohrmann, Dietrich. "Von der istlichen zur westlichen
Windmuhle," in Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte, VoL 77. No.
lion of Underground Waters. Oriental Public Library at
Bankipore, MS 2468/32, Patna, India.
1, pp. 1-30 (8). 1995-
Al-Karaji. Kitab in bat al-miyah al-khafya. Baghdad Abdul-
Hill, Donald Routledge. "Mechanical Engineering in the
Medieval Near East," in Scientifc American, pp. 64-69.
Mun'im (editor and analysis). Institute of Arabic Manu-
scripts, Cairo, 1997.
May 1991.
Al-Karaji. L'Estrazione delle acque nascoste: Trattato
Lucas, Adam. Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval
tecnico-scientifco di Karaji Matematico-ingegnere per-
Milling Technology, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 2006.
siano vissuto nel Mille by Giuseppina Ferriello. Kim
Trade
Williams Books, Turin, Italy, 2007.
Abulana, David. "The Role of Trade in Muslim-Christian
Lightfoot, Dale R. "The Origin and Diffusion of Qanats
Contacts During the Middle Ages," in The Arab InRu-
in Arabia: New Evidence from the Northern and South-
ence in Medieval Europe, Dionisius A. Agius and Richard
ern Peninsula," in Geogrphical Joural, VoL 166, No. 3,
Hitchcock (editors). Ithaca Press, Berkshire, U.K., 1994-
pp. 215-226, Royal Geographical Society, London, July 2005.
Chaudhuri, K. N. Trade and Civilisation in the Indian

Al-Maqrizi. Kitab al-Suluk li Ma'rifat Duwal al-Muluk, or


Ocean: An Economic Histo1y from the Rise of Islam to
Book of Entrance to the Knowledge of the Dynasties of 17_C.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1985.
34 1 001 I NVF NT I ONS: T i F L'I DUR I N( LECt\U C| \ c l |\ | \ I Lf Z l\T f ON
Fischel, Walter. "The Origins of Banking i n Medieval Paper
Islam: A Contribution to the Economic History of Jews Bloom, Jonathan M. Paper Before Print: The Histmy and
in Baghdad in the Tenth Century," in Journal of Royal Impact of Paper in the Islamic World, pp. 203-213. Yale
Asiatic Society, pp. 339-352. 1933.
University Press, New Haven, Conn., 2001.
Fleet, Kate. European and Islamic Trade in the Early Otto- Burns, Robert I. "Paper Comes to the West, 800-1400,"

man State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cam- in Lindgren, Uta, Europdische Technik im Mittelalter.

bridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1999. coo bis 1CC. Tradition und Innovation (4th edition),
Ghazanfar, S. M. "Scholastic Economics and Arab Schol-
pp. 413-42. Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin, 1996.
ars: The 'Great Gap' Thesis Reconsidered," in Diogen-
Hunter, Dard. Papermaking: The Histo1y and Technique
ese: Interational Review of Humane Sciences, No. 154, of an Ancient Craft. Courier Dover Publications, New
pp. 117-33, April-June 1991. York, 1978.
Ghazanfar, S. M. "Post-Greek/Pre-Renaissance Economic
Ibn Hawqal. Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik. See Trade
Thought: Contributions of Arab-Islamic Scholastics
section.
During the 'Great Gap' Centuries," in Research in His-
Levey, Martin. Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and Its Rela-
to1y of Economic Thought and Methodology, Vol. 16,
tion to Early Chemistly and Pharmacology. American
pp. 65-90. 1998.
Philosophical Society, Vol. 52, Part 4. Philadelphia, 1962.
Ghazanfar, S. M. "The Economic Thought of Abu Hamid
Loveday, Helen. Islamic Paper: A Study of the Ancient
Al-Ghazali and St. Thomas Aquinas: Some Comparative
Craft. Archetype Publications, Don Baker Memorial
Parallels and Links," in Histo1y of Political Economy,
Fund, London, 2001.
Vol. 32, No. 4. pp. 857-888, Fall 2ooo.
Ghazanfar, S. M., and A. Azim Islahi. "Economic Thought
Quraishi, Silim. "A Survey of the Development of Paper-
making in Islamic Countries," in Bookbinder Vol. 3.
of an Arab Scholastic: Abu Hamid AI-Ghazali (AH450-
pp. 2936. 1989.
505/ AD10S8- nn)," in Histo1y of Political Economy,
Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 381-401, Spring 1990.
Pottery
Ghazanfar, S. M. (editor). Medieval Islamic Economic
Al-Maqrizi. Kitab al-Suluk || Ma'rtfat Duwal al-Muluk.
Thought: Filling the "Great Gap"in European Economics,
See Water Management section.
RoutledgeCurzon Publishers, London, 2003.
Baramki, D. C. "The Pottery from Khirbet EI-Me5er," in The
Ibn Hawqal. Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik, or The Book
Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine
of the Routes of the Kingdoms, edited in Opus geographi-
(QDAP 1942), Vol. 10, pp. 65-103 1942
cum auctore Ibn Haukal (Surat al-md. J. H. Kramers
Bernsted, A. K. Early Islamic Potte1y: Materials and Tech-
E
(editor). E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1967.
niques, Archetype Publications Ltd., London, 2003.
Labib, Subhi. Handelsgeschichte Agyptens im Spatmit-
Caiger-Smith, Alan. Lustre Potte1y: Technique, Tradition
telalter, or History of Trade of Egypt in the Late Middle
and Innovacion in Islam and the Western World, Chap-
Ages. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1965.
ters 6 and 7 Faber and Faber, London, 1985.

Labib, Subhi. "Capitalism in Medieval Islam," in Jownal of


Cooper, Emmanuel. Ten Thousand Years of Pottery,
Economic Histo1y, Vol. 29. pp. 7996. 1969. 4th edition. University of Pennsylvania Press, Phi lade!-
Ritter, Helmut. "Ein Arabisches Handbuch der Handels-
phia, 2000.
E
wissenschaft," or "Handbook of Business Practices, Mason, Rober B. "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent
12th century ruin Der Islam, Vol. 17. pp.1-97. 1917 Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the
E Udovitch, Abraham. " Labor Partnershi ps in Early
Islamic World," in Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and

Islamic Law," in Joural of Economic and Social His-


Architecture, Vol. 12. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1995.
tory of the Orient, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 64-80, June 1967. Sauer, J. A. "Umayyad Pottery from Sites in East Jordan,"

in Jordan, Vol. 4. pp. 25-32. 1975.


Udovitch, Abraham. Partnership and Proft in Medieval

Islam, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1970.

Udovitch, Abraham. "Credit as a Means of Investment in


Mll J!L
Medieval Islam," in Journal of American Oriental Stud-

ies, Vol. 87 1967. Hospital Development

Weiss, Walter M., and Westermann, Kurt-Michael. The


Al-Khujandi. Al-Talwih li-Asrar al-Tanqih, or Tanqih
Bazaar. Markets and Merchants of the Islamic World.
al-Maknun. Vatican Library, MS 305, Vatican City.
Thames and Hudson, Londo, 1998. Ibn Abi-Usaybia. Uyunul-Anba Fi-Tabaqat Al-Atibaa, or
l|l Pl `Cl \ L1HClb :\ ` | | ll1l S l S 325
i

The Sources of the Knowledge of Classes of Docrors. Al-Razi. Ma al-fariq aw al furooq aw kalamun f al furuuq
x
N. Reda (editor). Dar Maktabat al Hayat, Beirut, 1965. bain al amradd, or What Are the Clues to Diferenti
ate Between Diseases jof Similar Symptoms}. Qattaya

Ibn Al-Nadim. AlFihrist. I. Ramadan (editor), 2nd edition.


Salman (editor). Institute for Arabic Scientifc Heritage,
Dar El-Mareefah, Beirut, 1997.
Ibn Jubayr. Rihlat Ibn Jubay1; or The Travels of Ibn Jubayr.
Aleppo, Syria, 1978.
Ibn al-Nafs. Risalat AlAadaa, or A Treatise in Physiology.
Good word Books, New Delhi. 2001.
Ziedan (editor). !Dar Al-Masreyya AI Lubnaneyyah,
Ibn Juljul. Tabaqat AlAtiba' wa-'1-Hukama Sayed Fouad,
Cairo, 1991.
(editor). French Bureau Publications, Cairo, 1955.
Ibn al-Quf. Kitab al- 'Umda h sina'at al-jiraha, or The

Ibn Sina. AlQanun f alTibb, or Canon oF Medicine. Suley
Foundation. Suleymaniye Library, Hekimoglu MS 579.
maniye Library, Hekimoglu MS 580, Istanbul.
Istanbul.
Ibn Sina. AlQanun /i al-Tibb, or Canon of Medicine.
Ibn al-Quf. Al- Umdah AlJiraha. 2 volumes. Osmania

Dar Sadir reprint of Bulaq edition. Cairo, 1877.


University, The Bureau, Osmania Oriental Publications,

Saed Ibn Saed, Al-Andalusi. "Book of the Categories of 1356 H Hyderabad, India.

O
Nations," in Science in the Medieval World. S. I. Salem
Ibn al-Quf. Al-Shaf al-Tibb. Vatican Library, Appendice
and A. and Kumar (translators and editors). History of
183. Vatican City.
Science Series No. _. University of Texas Press, Austin,
Ibn Rushd. AlKulliyyat |AlTibb, or The Basic Principles

1996.
of Medicine. M. A. Al-Jabity (editor). Arabian Philosophy

Instruments of Perfection Heritage Series-Ibn Rushd Works, No. The Institute for

Al-Baghdadi, Muhadhdhab Al-Deen. Kitab AlMukhtarat Arabic Unity Studies, Beirut, 1999.


!AI Tibb, 1st edition. Osmania University, The Bureau,
Ibn Sina. Al-Qanun f al-Tibb. See Hospital Development

Osmania Oriental Publications, Hyderabad, India, 1942.



section.
W
Al-Baladi Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya. Kitab
Ibn Zuhr. Kitab al-Taisir f alMudawat wa alTadbil; or

tadbeer al habala wa alatfal wa hifz sehhatihim wa


Book of Simplifcation Concering Therapeutics and M
mttdawat al amradd al aariddah lahum. Mahmood
Diet. M. Al-Khoori (editor). 1st edition, Vols. 12. Darul
W
AI Hajj Qasim Muhammad (editor), 2nd edition. Dar
Fikr Press for the Arab Educational Scientific and O
Al Shueoon Al-Thaqafeyyah Aaamah, Baghdad, 1987
Cultural Organization, Damascus, Syria, 1983.

AI-Razi. Kitab alHawi fttibb, or Liber continens, 1st edi- Spink M. S., and Lewis, L.(editors and translators). Albu-

tion. Osmania University, The Bureau, Osmania Oriental cassis on Surgery and Instruments. See Instruments of
M

Publications, Hyderabad, India, 1961. Perfection section.

Ibn al-Jazzar al-Qairawani. Kitab siasat alsibiaan wa

Blood Circulation
&
tadbeeruhum, or The Book for Bringing Up and Care for
Abdel-Halim, Rabie E. "Contributions of Ibn Al-Nans to

1
Children, M. A. Al-Hailah (editor). Al-Dar Al-Tunisiyyah
the Progress of Medicine and Urology: A Study and

Lil Nashr, Tunis, Tunisia, 1968.


Translations from His Medical Works," in Saudi Medical &
Journal, pp. 13-22. 2008.

Ibn al-Quf. Al-Umdah |AlJiuha. 2 volumes. Osmania

University, The Bureau, Osmania Oriental Publication,


Ibn al-Nafs. Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun, or Commentwy on

1356 H Hyderabad, India.


the Anatomy of the Canon of Avicenna. Suleymaniye
Ibn Sina. Kitab al-Qanun fttibb, or Avicenna's Canon of
Library, Fatih 3626. MS A 21 and MS A 56. Istanbul.

Medicine. Dar Sadir reprint of Bulaq edition. Cairo, 1877. Ibn al-Nafs. Kitab Sharh Tashreeh AlQanun. Qattaya

Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar). Kitab al-Taisir f alMudawat wa


S. (editor). The Egyyptian Manuscript Editing Bureau,
al-Tadbil; or Book of Simplifcation Concering Thera
Cairo, 1988.
peutics and Diet. M. Al-Khoori (editor). 1st edition. Vols. 1 Iskandar, Albert Z. "Ibn aNans," in Dictionary of Scientifc

and 2. Darul Fikr Press for the Arab Educational Scientinc Biography, Vol. 9. pp. 602-606, New York 1974.
and Cultural Organization, Damascus, Syria, 1983.
Ibn Sina's Bone Fractures
Spink, M. S., and Lewis, L. (editors and translators). Aibu
Al-Majusi. Kamil alSina'a alTibbiyya. Library of Topkapi
cassison Surge1yand Instruments. Wei !come Institute of
Palace Museum, Ahmed III nr. 2060. Vatican Library
the History of Medicine, London, 973.
MS 314. Vatican City.
Surgery Ibn Sina. Kitab alShifa: or The Book of Cure, Healing or
AI-Razi. Kitab al-Hawi, or Liber continens. See lntruments Remedy from Ignorance. Library of the Topkapi Palace
of Perfection section. Museum, Ahmed III MS 3261, Istanbul.
2_ | |t | ` | ` | \``- I H l |` L| `\+ \. Y\\ \l \\ L !| \ | l | 7.\J \`


Ibn Sina. Avicenna's De Anima: Being the Psychological Part
of Kitab al-Shda, or Kitab al-Shifa: al-fann al-sadis min
al-tabiiyyat wa huwa kitab al-nafs. Fazlurrahman (editor),
3rd edition. University of Durham, Durham, \..,1970.
Notebook of the Oculist
Abu al-Farag. The Abridged Version of The Book of Simple
Drugs of Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Ghafqi. M. Meyer
hof and G. P. Sobhy (translators and editors); Fuat Sezgin
(re-editor). IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1996.
Al-Ghanqi. Al-Murshid fl al-kuhl, or The Right Guide in
Ophthalmic Drug. Laboratoires du Nord de l'Espagne,
Barcelona, 1933.
Al-Ghanqi. Texts and Studies. Fuat Sezgin (editor); Mazen
Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, Eckhard Neubauer (publish
ers). IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1996.
Ibn al-Nans. Al-Muhadhab f tibb al-'yn. Vatican Library
MS 307, Vatican City.
Ibn al-Nans. Al-Muhadhdhab f al-Kuhl al-Mujarrab. M. Z.
Wafai andM. R. Qalaji (editors). 2nd edition. Sanr Press,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1994
Ibn Isa. Tadhkirat al-Kahhalin, or Memorandum Book for
Ophthalmologists or Notebook of the Oculist. Vatican
Library MS 313, Vatican City.
Ali ibn 'Isa. Memorandum Book of a Tenth-Centwy Oculist
for the Use of Modem Ophthalmologists. Casey A. Wood
(translator), Book I, Chapter 20. Northwestern University
Press, Chicago, 1936.
Khalifa ibn Abi Al Mahasin Al Halaby. AI Kaf Al-Kuhl,
or The Book oi Sufcient Knowledge in Ophthalmology.
Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 2000.
Herbal Medicine
Al-Dinawari. Kitab al-Nabat, or The Book of Plants. Ber
nhard Lewin (editor). A. B. Lundeguistska Bokhandeln,
Uppsala-Wiesbaden, Germany, 1953.
Al-Ghanqi. Kitab al-adwiya al-Mufrada, or The Book of
Simple Drugs. Egyptian University, Cairo, 1932-40.
Al-Ghanqi. Kitab jami' al-Mufradat, or Materia Medica.
Max Meyerhof and George G. Sobhy (editors). Cairo
Medical Facul:y, Cairo, 1937-38.
Ibn al-Baytar. Kitab-al-Jami flAdwiya alMufrada, or Diction
o,of Simples, Remedies and Food. Suleymaniye Librar
Damad ibrahim, MS 929, Istanbul.
Ibn Samajun. Jami al-adwiya al-Mufrada, or Collection of
Simples, Medicinal Plants and Resulting Medicines. Fuat
Sezgin (publisher). Institute for the History of Arabic
Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe Uni
versity, Frankfurt, 1992.
Pharmacy
Al-Biruni. Kitab al Saydana f't-tib, or Book of Medicines
or Book of Pharmacology. Hakim Mohammad Said
(publisher a:rd translator into English). Suleymaniye
Library, Izmirli I. 4175, Istanbul, 1973.
Al-Baghdadi. AI Mukhtarat !AlTibb. Vols. 1-4, 1362-1364
l. 1941-1944. Osmania University, The Bureau, Osmania
Oriental Publications, Hyderabad, India.
Al-Harawi. Kitab ai-Abniya 'an haqa'iq ai-Adwiya, or The
Foundations of the True Properties of Remedies. Fuat
Sezgin (publisher). Institute for the History of Arabic
Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe Uni
versity, Frankfurt.
Al-Kindi. Aqrabadhin, or Medical Formulwy. Suleymaniye
Library, Ayasofya Collection, Turkey.
Al-Razi. Kitab aiMansuri, or Liberalmansoris. The National
Library of Medicine, MS A 28, Bethesda, Md.
Al-Zahrawi. AI-Tasrifli-man 'ajiza 'an al-taalif See Cleanli
ness section .
Ibn Al-Baitar. AI-Jamie Limufradat Al-Adwiya Wal-Agh
diya, or Materia Medica. AlMuthana Bookshop, Bagh
dad, undated.
Ibn al-Wafid. Kitab al-Adwiya, or The Book of Simple
Drugs. Ahmad Hasan Basaj (publisher). Dar al-Kutub
al-'Ilmiyah, Beirut, 2000.
Ibn Sina. AI-Qanun f aiTibb. See Hospital Development
section.
Medical Knowledge
Al-Majusi. AIKihalah (tibb al- 'uyun) ' Kitab Kamil
alsi na'ah altibbiyah al-ma'ruf bialMalaki, or The
Royal Book, also known as the Pantegni. Muhammad
Zanr Wafa' i and Muhamrr.ad Rawwas Qal'ah'ji (pub
lishers). Wizarat al-Thaqafah, Damascus, Syria, 1997
Al-Zahrawi. AI-Tasrifli-man 'ajiza 'an al-taalif See Cleanli
ness section.
Arabic Science and Medicine: A Collection of Manuscripts
and Early Printed Books Illustrating the Spread and
Infuence of Arabic Learing in the Middle Ages and the
Renaissance. Bernard Quaritch catalogue n86. lntroduc
tion by Professor Charles Burnett. Bernacd Quaritch,
London, 1993.
Ben Miled, Ahmed. Ibn AI Jazzm: Constantin /'Africain,
Salamb6, Tunis, Tunisia, 1987.
Ben Miled, Ahmed. Histoire de Ia medecine arabe en
Tunisie. Dar al-Gharb al-Islami, Beirut, 1999.
Ben Miled, Ahmed. Ibn AI Jazzar Medecin o Kairouan.
Maktaba AI Tounisia, Tunis, Tunisia, 1936.
Ibn al-Dhahabi. Kitab ai-Ma'a, or The Book of Water.
Dr. Hadi Hamoudi (editor). Ministry of National Heritage
and Culture, Oman, 1996.
Ibn al-Jazzar. Zad aiMusafr, or The Guide for the Trav
eler Going to Distant Countries, or Traveler's Provision,
RUI- RFNCF t\U TI ORS r\ ND T RHTI S E. S 37
V
M
known in Latin as the Viaticum. Gerrit Bos (editor and 3 volumes. Osservatorio astronomico di Breva, Milan,
translator). Kegan Paul International, London and New Itaiy, 1899, 1903, 1907.
M
York, 2000.
Earth Science
Ibn al-Nans. Al-Shamil f a/-Tibb, or Comprehensive Book
Abu Ridah, M. A. H. (editor). The Letters (Rasa'i/) of a/-
on the Art of Medicine. Koprulu Library, I. kisim, nr. 987/1,
Kindi a/-falsafyya. Matbaatu Hassan, Cairo, 1978.
Istanbul; and Vatican Library MS 306, Vatican City.
Al-Biruni. Kitab Al-Jamahir f Ma'rifat al-Jawahir, or Trea-
Ibnal-Nans. Al-MujazFi A/-Tibb. Al-Ezbawy A. (editor). 4th
tises on How to Recognize Gems. Library of the Topkapi
edition. Islamic Heritage Revival Committee, Supreme
Palace Museum, Ahmed Ill 2047. Fuat Sezgin (editor).
Council for Islamic Affairs, Ministry of Endowments,
Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the
Cairo, 2004.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, 2001.
Ibn al-Nafis. Al-Shami / Fi Al-Sinaa Al- Ti bbiyyah.
Al-Biruni. Al-Qanun al-Mas'udi f'l-hay'a wa'/-nujum. See
Y. Ziedan (editor). Al-Mujammaa Al-Thaaqfi, Abu
Planet Earth section.
Dhabi, 2000.
Al-Kindi. Risala f anwa al-jawahir al-thaminah wa ghay-
riha, or Treatise on VarioLlS Types o' Precious Stones and
J`
Other Kinds of Stones.
Public Baths
IbnSina. Kitabal-Shifa See Ibn Sina's Bone Fractures section.
Dunn, Ross E. The Adventures of Ibn Battuta-A Muslim
Ikhwan al-Safa'. Rasa'il, or Epistles. Vatican Library 1608/1,
Traveler of the 14th Centwy. University of Califoria,
Vatican City, Italy; and Princeton University Library,
Berkeley, 2004. Ibn Battuta. Al-Rih/a, or The Jourey.
Library No. 1129 (Garrett Collection), Princeton, N.J.
Public Library of Cambridge, Library No. 890.8 07p no., Masawayh. Kitab a/-Jawahirwa-Sifatiha wa-f ayyi Baladin
Cambridge, Mass. Hiya, wa-Sifat al-Ghawwasin wa-al-Tujjm; or Gems and
Fountains
Their Properties. The Wellcome Trust Library, Library
Banu Musa Brothers. Kitab al-hiyal a/-Handasiyah. See
Number Wellcome MS Arabic 468 (Haddad Collection),
Trick Devices section.
London.
Natural Phenomena
lLl
Al-Biruni. Al-Qanun al-Mas'udi f'/-hay'a wa'l-nujum. See
Planet Earth section.
Planet Earth
Al-Kindi. Risala f'/-i/la a/-fa'ila li'l-madd wa'/-jazr, or Trea-
Al-Battani. Kitab alZij a/-Sabi; or De scientia stellarum
tise on the Eficient Cause of the Tidal Flow and Ebb.
-De numeris stellarwn et motibus, or The Sabian Tables .
Bodleian Library, I 877/12, Oxford, U.K.
s

Zaytuna, MS 2843, Tunis, Tunisia. Al-Kindi. Risala f 'illat al-/awn al-azraq alladhhi yura f'l-
Al-Biruni. Kitab f ifrad al-Maqa/ f amral-azlal, or Shadows
jaww f jihat al-sama, or Treatise on the Azure Colour
or Gnomonics. Oriental Public Library at Bankipore,
Which Is Seen in the Air in the Direction of the Heavens
2468/36, Patna, India.
and Is Thought to Be the Colour of the Heavens. Suley-
Al-Biruni. Al-Qanun al-Mas'udi f'/-hay'a wa'l-nujum, or
maniye Library, Ayasofya 4832/2, Istanbul.
Mas'udic Canon on Astronomy and Astrology. Suley-
Ibn al-Haytham. Kitab al-Manazir, or Book of Optics. See
maniye Library, Carullah, MS 1498, Istanbul.
Vision and Cameras section.
Al-Khujandi. Risala f tashih al-mayl wa 'ard al-balad, or
Ibn Hazm. Al-Fas/ fl-Millal. See Planet Earth section.
Treatise on Determining the Declinction and Latitude
Geography
of Cities with More Accuracy. Greek Orthodox School
Al-Bakri. Kitab al-Masalik wa'l-Mama/ik, or Book of High-
Library, 364/1, Beirut.
ways and of Kingdoms. Cambridge University Library,
Ibn Hazm. Al-Fasl fl-Milla/ wa al-ahwa wa'n-nihaL or Con- Library/Call No. 590:01.b.17.1, Cambridge, U.K.
chrsion on the Nations. Cambridge University Library,
Al-Biruni. Alberuni's India: An Account of the Religion, Phi-
Library/Call No. Moh.121.b.so, Cambridge, U.K.
losophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy,
Ibn Yunus. AIZij al-Hakimi, or The Hakemite Tables. In
Customs, Laws, and Astrology of India About AD 1030,
C. Caussin. "Le livre de Ia grande table hakemite," in
Vols. .IEdward C. Sachau (translator), Fuat Sezgin (edi-
Notices et extraits des manuscrits de Ia Bibliotheque tor). IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1993.
Nationale Vol. 7, 1804, pp. 16-240.
Al-Biruni. The Determination of the Coordinates of Posi-
N alii no, C. A. Al-Battanisive Albatenii, OpusAstronomicum.
tions for the Correction of Distances Between Cities,
U


3 1001 I NVFNTI ONS: T HL LNDURJ NCI l LGACY Or \'\ US L I !l CJ V J LI ZI\TI ON
or Kitab Tahdid nihayat al-amakin li-tashih masafat and South Asian Societies, pp. 189-205. J. B. Harley and
al-masakin. Fuat Sezgin (editor); in collaboration with D. Woodward (editors). University of Chicago Press,
Mazen Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, and Eckhard Neu- Chicago, 1992.
bauer. IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1992.
Piri Reis. Kitab i-Bahriye, or The Book of Sea Lore, or The
Al-Idrisi. Nuzhat al-Mushtaq f 'khtirak al-Afaq. See Dams Book of the Marine1; or The Naval Handbook. Ertugrul
section. Zekai Okte (editor); Vahit Cabuk (transcription); Vahit
Al-Jahz. Kitab al-Buldan. Matbaat al-Hukumah, Baghdad,
Cabuk and Tulay Duran (Turkish text); Robert Bragner
1970.
(English text). Culture and Tourism Ministry, Ankara,
Al-Kwarzmi. Kitab Suratal-Ardh min al-mudun wa'l-jibal
Turkey, 1988
wa'l-bihar wa'l-jaza'ir wa'l-anha, or Book of Geography: Travelers and Explorers
A Picture Book of the Earth, Cities, Mountains, Seas, Abu al-Fida'. Taqwim al-Buldan, or Survey of Countries.
Islands, and Rivers, or The Form of the Earth. German Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, Ahmed III 2855,
translation titled Das Kitab Surat al-ard, des Abu Ga'far Istanbul.
Muhammad ibn Musa a/-Khuwarizmi, herausg. Unikum
Al-Biruni. Tahdidu nihayat al-amakin li't-tashihi masafat
des Bibliotheque de l'Universite et Regionale i n Stras-
a/-masakin. Fuat Sezgin (editor); Mazen Amawi, Carl

bourg, Austria, 1926.
Ehrig-Eggert, Eckhard Neubauer (publishers). IGAIW,
Hill, Donald R. Islamic Science and Engineering. Edin- Frankfurt, 1992.
burgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1993.
Flowers, Stephen E. Ibn Fad/an's Travel-Report: As It
Ibn al-Nadim. Fihrist'al-Ulum. See Libraries and Book- Concerns the ScandinavianRus. Runa-Raven, Smithville,
shops section. Texas, 1998.
Ibn Jubayr. Rihlat Ibn Jubay1: See Hospital Development Frahn, Christian Martin, Die altesten arabischen Nach-
section.
richten uber die Wolga-Bu/garen ar1s Ibn-Foszlan's
Mahmud Kashghari. Divanu Lugat-it-Turk, or Campen-
Reiseberichte. Memoires de L'Academie Imperiale des
dium of Turkish Dialects. Istanbul, 1915-17.
Sciences de St. Peters bourg. Vl''"e serie, 1823.
Maslama al-Majriti. Rutbat AI -Hakim, or The Rank of the
Frye, Richard N. (editor). Ibn Fad/an's Jourey to Russia:
Wise. Ali Emiri-Arabi, 2836/2, Istanbul.
A Tenth Centwy Traveler from Baghdad to the Volga
Al-Muqaddasi. Ahsan al-Taqasim f Ma'rifat al-Aqalim.
River. Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, N.J., 2005.
See Libraries and Bookshops section.
Ibn Battuta. Al-Rihla. See Public Baths section.
Al-Ya'qubi. Kitab al-Buldan, or Book of Countries. Istanbul
Ibn Fadlan. Voyage chez les Bulgares de Ia Volga. Marius
University, Islam Arastirmalari Library, 1262, Istanbul, Canard (French translation), Sinbad, Paris, 1988

Turkey; and Yale University Library, Library/Call No.


Ibn Fadlan. Collection of Geographical Works by Ibn
Geography. Folio B4737, New Haven, Conn.
al-Faqih, Ibn Fad/an, Abu Dulaf Al-Khazraji. Fuat Sezgin
Yaqut. Mu}am al-Buldan, or Dictionwy of Countries. Cam- (editor), IGAIW, Frankfurt, Germany, 1987.
bridge University Library, Library/Class No. Moh. 280.b.1,
Ibn Fadhlan, Ahmad b. al-'Abbas b. Rashid b. Ham-

Cambridge, U.K.

mad. Reisebericht. Rihlat Ibn Fad/an. Ahmed Zeki Validi

Maps
Togan (editor and translator into German). Deutsche

Al-Idrisi. Nuzhat al-Mushtaq f 'khtirak a/- Afaq. See Dams


Morgenlindische Gesellschaft, Abhandlungen fur die
section.
Kunde des Morgendlandes. XXIV, 3. l A. Brockhaus,

King, David A. World-Maps for Finding the Direction and


Leipzig, Germany, 1939. Reprinted Insti tute for the His-

Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic


tory of Arabic- Islamic Science, Frankfurt. 1994.

Science. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, E. J.


Ibn Jubayr. Rihlat Ibn Jubayr. See Hospital Development

Brill, Leiden, 1999.


section.
King, D. A. "Two Iranian World Maps for Finding the Ibn Khurradadhbih. Al-Masalik wal Mamalik, or Book of
Direction and Distance to Mecca," in Imago Mundi. The Roads and Provinces, or Le livre des routes et des prov-
|
International Journal for the Hist01y of Cartography, inces. Casimir Barbier de Meynard (editor). Cambridge
Vol. 49. pp. 62-82. 1997 University Library, Library/Class No. Moh. 280. c. 28,
|
Cambridge, U.K.
King, D. A., and Lorch, R. "Qibla Charts, Qibla Maps, and
k
Related Instruments," in The Hist01y of Cartography, Magmu' f '1-gughrafya: tubi'a bi-'t-taswir 'an makhtut a!-
Vol. 2, Book 1: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic Maktaba ar-Radawiya f Mahhad5229. Mimma allafahu

Ibnal-Faqih waIbnFadhlan wa Abu Dulaf ai-KhazrajL


F. Sezgin et aL (editors). Institute for the History of
Arabic-Islamic Science, Frankfurt, 1987.
Al-Muqaddasi. Ahsan aiTaqasim f Ma'rifat ai-Aqalim See
Libraries and Bookshops section.
Al-Ya'qubi. Kitab aiBuldan. See Geography section.
Yaqut. Mu'am aiBuldan. See Geography section.
Navigation
Al-Masudi. Muruj al dhahab wa Ma'adin al-Jawhar See
Agricultural Revolution section.
Al-Qibjaqi. Kitab Kanz aiTujjar f ma'rifat ai-Ahjar; or The
Book of Treasure for Merchants Who Seek Knowledge
of Stones. B. Rosenfeld and E. Ihsanoglu, No. 649,
IRCICA, Istanbul, 2003.
Homsi, H. "Navigation and Ship-building," in The Diferent
Aspects of Islamic Culture, VoL IV Science and Tech
nology in Islam, Parts HI. Ahmad AlHassan, Yusuf
Iskandar, Albert Zaki, and Ahmad Maqbul (editors).
UNESCO, Paris, 2001.
Ibn Majid, Shihab al-Dein. Arab Navigation in the Indian
Ocean Before the Coming of the Portuguese, or Kitab
aiFawa'id / usul albahr wa'l-qawa'id. G. l Tibbets
(translator). The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain
and Ireland, London, 1981.
Nadwi, Allama Syed Sulaiman. The Arab Navigation.
Syed SabahuddinAbdurahman (translator). Sh. Muham
mad Ashraf. Laore, Pakistan, 1966.
Piri Reis. Kitabibahriyye. See Maps section.
Global Comunication
Al-Nuwayri. Nihayat a/Arab f Funun al-Adab. See Water
Management section.
War and Weaponry
Ibn Aranbugha al-Zardkash. Armoury Manual. Fuat
Sezgin (editor). Institute for History of Arabic-Islamic
Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University,
Frankfurt, 2004.
Al-Rammah. Kitab AlFrr rusiyya wa AIManasib AI
Harbiyya, or The Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious
War Devices. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya 3799. and
Nurosmaniye Library 2294, IstanbuL
Omeri. A Muslim Manual of Wm; or Tafri al-kurub /tadbir
alhurub. George Scanlon (editor and translator). The
American University at Cairo, Cairo, 1961.
Social Science and Economics
Ibn Khaldun. M uqaddimah, or The Introduction to His tory
Istanbul University Library, Arabic, 2743, 835, Istanbul,
Turkey; and The Library of Congress, Library/Call No.
D.16.7.123.1879, Washington, D.C.
l I LRENU. ,\ UTHORS A ND T R F Xf i S ES 3
Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to His
tory N. J. Dawood (editor); Franz Rosenthal (translator).
Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1978
L`l \LlL
Astronomy
Al-Battani. AIZi aiSabi. See Planet Earth section.
Al-Biruni. Kitab alTaRim liawa'i/ sina'at altanjim, or The
Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology
lRamsay Wright (translator); reprinted by Fuat Sezgin.
IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1998.
Carmody, Francis J. Alfragani diferentie in quibusdam
collectis scientie astrorum. Berkeley, Cal i fornia, 1943.
Al-Farghani. Kitab f Harakat alSamawiyah wa Jawami
Jim a/ Nujum, or Compendium of Astronomy Suley
maniye Library, Ayasofya 2843/2, IstanbuL
Al-Farghani and Al-Battani. Texts and Studies. Collected
and reprinted by Fuat Sezgin in collaboration with Mazen
Amawi, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, and Eckhard Neubauer.
!GAIW, Frankfurt, 1998.
Goldstein, Bernard R. AlBitrul. On the Principles of
Ascronomy. 2 volumes. Yale University Press, New Haven,
Conn., 197L
Ibn al-Shatir al-Muwaqqit. Kitab Nihayat al-su/ f Tashih
aiUsul, or Limit of Desire in Correcting Principles. Tey
mur riyada 154, Cairo.
Ibn Rushd. Tahafut al-Tahafut, or The Incoherence of the
Incoherence. Translated from the Arabic with introduc
tion and notes by Simon van den Bergh, 2 volumes,
pp. 311-316. Luzac SCo., London, 1954.
Ibn Yunus. AlZij alKabir aiHakimi, or the Hakemite
Tables. See Planet Earth section.
King, David A. "The Astronomical Works of Ibn Yunus."
Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.,
1972
King, David A. "Ibn Yinus' Very Useful Tables for Reck
oning Time by the Sun," in Archive for Hist01y of Exact
Sciences 10, pp. 342-394. 1973.
Puig, Roser. Al
S
akkaziyya: Ibn alNaqqas a/Zarqalluh.
Edici6n, traducci6ny estudio. Instituto Millas Vallicrosa
de Historia de la Ciencia Araba, Barcelona, 1986.
Al-Zarqali. Kitab ala'mal bi 'l-safha alZijiyya, or Book
of Operations by Means of Tympanum of Zijes. Suley
maniye Library, Esad Efendi 2671/1, IstanbuL
Observatories
Abu Mansur. AIZij a/ Mumtahan, or The Verifed Tables.
Library of the St. Laurentius Monastery, II, 927. Escorial,
Spain.
330 1 001 I N\' l. N f i ONS Til t. f N DU RJ N(; LEG:\C1 Of \\ U:, L I .I\ UVI J J /,\TI ON
Dizer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the International Sym
posium on the Obse1vatories in Islam (Septem"er 19-23,
1977). Milli Egitim Basrmevi, Istanbul, 1980.
Sayili, Aydin. The Obse1vato1y in Islam. TurkTarih Kurumu
Basimevi, Publications of the Turkish Historical Society,
Ankara. Reimpression Aro Press, New York, 981.
Astronomical Instruments
Al-Battani. AI.Zij ai-Sabi. See Planet Earth section.
AI-Haiabi. Bughyat ai-Tulab fl'amal bil rub al-astrulab,
or Aims of Pupils on Operations with the Quadrant of
Astrolabe. University Library 1001/8, Leiden.
Al-Hamawi. Ad Durr ai-Gharib fl a mal bi dairat al-tayyib,
or Rare Pearls on Operations with the Circle for Finding
Sines. University Library 187b/4, Leiden.
'Izz al-Din al-Wafa'i. AI-Nujum ai.Zahirat | amal bi'l rub
ai-Muqantarat, or Brilliant Stars on Operations with
the Almucantar Quadrant. Suleymaniye Library, Fatih
3448, Istanbul.
Jabir ibn Aflah. Kitab ai-Hai 'a, or Book of Cosmology.
Berlin MS 5653, No. 5'79, catalogue Die Handschriften
Verzeichnisse der Koniglichen Bibliothek zu Berlin,
23 volumes, 1853-1914.
Jabir ibn Aflah. Islah al Majisti, or Correction of the
Almagest of Ptolemy. Berlin, Staatsbibliothek-State
Library, 5653, Berlin.
Al-Khujandi. AI-Talwih li-Asrar ai-Tanqih. See Hospital
Development section.
Shihab al-Din al-Hamawi. Masail Handasya, or Geometri
cal Problems. Riyada 694, Cairo.
Al-Sun. Suwar ai-Kawakib ai-Thabit, or Book of Fixed Stars.
Suleymaniye Library, Fatih 3422, Istanbul.
Taqi ai-Din. Turuq ai-Saniyya f ai-Aiat ai-Ruhaniyya. See
Water Supply section.
Ragep, F. J. (editor and translator). Nasir ai-Din ai-Tusi's
Memoir on Astronomy 'ai-Tadhkira / 'ilm al-hay'a'.
2 volumes. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1993.
Astrolabe
Al-Biruni. AI-Isti'ab f San'at ai-Usturlabe. Diyarbakir Pub
lic Library, 403/3, Diyarbakir, Turkey.
Al-Bitruji. Kitab-ai-Hay'ah, or Kitab al-murta'ish f'l-hay'a,
or Book of Cosmology. Library of the Topkapi Palace
Museum, 3302/1, Istanbul.
Al-Farghani. Kitab f san'at al-astrolabe. Kastamonu Public
Library, 794-5, Kastamonu, Turkey.
Al-Farghani. Kitab | Harakat ai-Samawiyah wa Jawami
Jim al Nujum. See Astronomy section.
Ibn Isa. Risala f ai- Usturlab. Vatican Library, Codici Bor
giani Arabi 217/3. Vatican City.
Jamal al-Din al-Tariqi. Risala f ma'rifat ai-Taqwim wa
ma'rifat al-usturlab wa mawaqit wa 'ilm ahkam ai
Nujum. Vatican Library 1398/3, Vatican City.
Masha'Allah. AI-Kitab al-ma'rufbi'l-sabi' wa-'1 ishrin, or The
Book Known as Twenty-seventh, or De scientia motus
orbis, Massahalae de scientia motus orbis. Nuremberg,
1504.
Masha'Allah. Kitab san'at al-asturlabat wa'l-'amal biha, or
Book on the Construction of Astrolabes and Their Opera
tions, or De compositione et utilitate astrolabii.
Al-Zarqali. Kitab al-a'mal bi'l-safha ai-Zijiyya. See Astron
omy section.
Armillary Sphere
Dawud ibn Sulayman. Kitab dhat al-halaq, or Book on the
Armillmy Sphere. Miqat 969/1a, Cairo.
Jabir ibn Afah. Islah ai-Majisti. See Astronomical I nstru
ments section.
Lunar Formations
Abu al-Fida'. Mukhtasar Tarikh AI-Bashm; or Concise His
toly of Humans. Corum Hasan Pasa Public Library, 1178,
Corum, Turkey.
Abu al-Fida'. Taqwim ai-Buldan. See Travelers and Explor
ers section.
Masha'Allah. AI-Kitab al-ma'ruf bi'l-sabi ' wa-'1 ishrin. See
Astrolabe section.
Masha'Allah. Kitab san'at al-asturlabat wa '1- 'amal biha. See
Astrolabe section.
Al-Sun. Suwar ai-Kawakib ai-Thabit. See Astronomical
Instruments section.
Al-Tusi. Tarcama-i Kitab-i Suwar al-kawakib. Suleymaniye
Library, Ayasofya Collection, 2595. Istanbul.
Al-Tusi. AI-Tadhkira fi ai-Hay'a. Vatican Library 319/1,
Vatican City.
Ulugh Beg. AI.Zij, or Astronomical Tables. Suleymaniye
Library, Ayasofya Collection, MS 2692, Istanbul.
Constellations
Al-Sun. Suwar ai-Kawakib ai-Thabit. See Astronomical
Instruments section.
Flight
Al-Firdawsi. Shahnameh, or Book of Kings. Ankara National
Library, B 530, Ankara, Turkey.
Ibn Jubayr. Rihlat Ibn Jubay1: See Hospital Development
section.
Hl | | H| 'Cl | L| 1 || H H l^ || 'C I
LPTH|P |Al| `C
'L`LL
Abattouy, Mohammed. L'Histoire des sciences arabes clas
siques: une bibliographie selective commentee. Founda
tion of King Abdulaziz, Casablanca, 2007-
Abattouy, Mohammed (editor). La science dans les societes
islamiques: approches historiques et perspectives d'ave
nir. Foundation of King Abdulaziz, Casablanca, 2007.
Abattouy, Mohammed, Renn, Jurgen, and Weinig, Paul
(editors). Science in Context, Vol. 14. Special double
issue: Intercultural Trnsmission of Scientifc Knowledge
in the Middle Ages: Graeco-Arabic-Latin. Cambridge
University Press, Car.1bridge, U.K., 2001.
Al-Khalili, Jim. Pathfnders: The Golden Age of Arabic Sci
ence. Allen Lane, London, 2010.
Al-Qurashi, Diya Al-Din Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al
Shafu, known as Ibn Al-Ukhuwwa. The Ma'alimAI-Qurba
Fi Ahkam AI-Hisba. Reuben Levy (editor). Abstract of
contents, glossary, and indices. Cambridge University
Press/Luzac and Co., Cambridge/London, 1938.
Arabick Roots. A catalogue of exhibition manuscripts and
letters of early founders of the Royal Society reveal
ing their connections with Arabic. The Royal Society,
London, August-November 2011. The Royal Society,
London, 2011.
Avicenne, Al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina. Poeme de Ia
medicine, Urguza f al-tibb (Cantica Avicennae), Texte
Arabe, Traduction Francaise, Traduction Latine du
XIII siecle, avec Introduction, notes, et index, etabli et
presente par Henri Jahier et Abdul-Kader Noureddine,
Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 1956.
Berggren J. Lennart. "Historical Refections on Scientifc
Knowledge: The Case of Medieval Islam," in Knowledge
Across Cultures. Universities East and West, pp. 137-
153. Ruth Hayhoe (editor). Hubei Educational Press/
OISE Press, Toronto, 1993-
Brockelman, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen Li tteratur.
3 volumes plus 2 supplements. 3rd edition, E. J. Brill,
Leiden, 1943-49-
Carra de Vaux, Bernard. Les penseurs de /'Islam. 5 volumes.
Geunther, Paris, 1921-26.
Casulleras, Josep, and Sams6, Julio (editors). From Baghdad
to Barcelona. Studies :n the Islamic Exact Sciences in
Honour of Professor Juan Vemet. 2 volumes. Institute
Millas Vallicrosa de Historia de !a Ciencia Arabe-Anuari
de Filologfa, Universitat de Barcelona, XIX b-2, 1996.
Catalogue of Arabic Science and Medicine: A Collection
of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Illustrating the
Spread and Infuence of Arabic Learning in the Middle
Ages and the Renaissance. Vol. 1186 de Bernard Quaritch
catalogue. Introduction by Professor Charles Burnett.
Bernard Quaritch Ltd., London, 1993-
Dallal, Ahmad. "Science, Medicine, and Technology: The
Making of a Scientifc Culture," in The Oxford History
of Islam, pp. 155-213. Edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford
Un:versity Press, Oxford, U.K., 1999.
Djebbar, Ahmed. L'6ge d'or des sciences arabes. Editions
Le Pommier/La Cite des sciences et de l'industrie, Paris,
2005.
-. Une histoire de Ia science arabe. Entretiens avec Jean
Rosmorduc. Editio:-ts du Seuil, Paris, 2001.
Endress, Gerhard. "Die wissenschaftliche Literatur," in Grun
drds der Arabischen Philologie, pp. 399-506. Edite par
Helmut Gitje. Band II: Literaturwissenschaft. Dr. Ludwig
Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1987.
Gillispie, Charles (editor). Dictionmy of Scientifc Biogra
phy. 18 volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York,
1970-90.
Hamilton, Michael M. "Lost Histmy: The Enduring Legacy
of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists," in National
Geographic, June 19, 2007-
Hartner, Willy. "La science dans le monde de !'islam apres
la chute du Califat." Studia Islamica, Vol. 31. pp. 135-151.
1970.
Hassan, a!-, Ahmad , Iskandar, Yusuf, Zaki, Albert, and
Maqbul, Ahmad (editors). The Different Aspects of
Islamic Culture. Vol. IV: Science and Technology in
Islam, Parts I-ll. UNESCO, Paris, 2001.
Hayes John (editor). The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source
of Renaissance. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1983.
Hogendijk, J. P., and Sabra, [Abdelhamid Ibrahim] (edi
tors). The Enterprise of Science in Islam. New Perspec
tives. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2003.
[Ibn al-Haytham]. AI-Hasan ibn ai-Hasan ibn ai-Haytham
(d. 430-1039). Texts and Studies. Collected and reprinted
by Sezgin et a!. 2 volumes. Institut fur Geschicte der
Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenscha:ten, Frankfurt, 1998.
Ibn al-Nadim. The Fihrist of ai-Nadim. A Tenth-Century
Survey of Muslim Culture. English translation by Bayard
Dodge. 2 volumes. Columbia University Press, London/
New York, 1970.
-. Kitab ai-Fihrist. Mit Anmerkungen hrsg. von Gustav
Flugel. 2 volumes. lC. VVogel, Leipzig, 1871-72.
Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah. An Jnu
-
oduction to ::!oj
English translation by lRosenthal. 3 volumes. Princeton
University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1967.

M
l
&
e
3 II I N F. NTI ONS: f H E E. NDUI<.. J NC3 l. LC1\CY Of MUS L I M CJ V / L I /i\TI ON

Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin (editor). Catalogue of Islamic Med- Rosenfeld, Boris /,and Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin. Mathemati
ica/ Manuscripts (in Arabic, Turkish, Persian) in the cians, Astronomers, and Other Scholars of Islamic Civi
Libraries of Turkey. Prepared by Ramazan Sesen, Cemil lization and Their Works (7rh-19th Centuries). IRCICA,
Akpinar, and Cevat lzgi. IRCICA, Istanbul, 1984. Istanbul, 2003.
--. Osman/i Astronomi Li teratiiru Tarihi. Histo1y of Sabra, A. I. "Situating Arabic Science: Locality Versus
'
Astronomy Literature During the Ottoman Period. Pre Essence," in Isis, Vol. 87, pp. 654-670. Chicago University
pared by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Ramazan Sesen, Cevat Press, Chicago, 1996.
lzgi, Cemil Akpinar, and Ihsan Fazlioglu. 2 volumes. Said, Haki m Mohammed. AlBiruni: Commemorative

IRCICA, Istanbul, 1997. Volume. Proceedings of the international congress


--. Osman/i Matematik Li teraturu Tarihi. History of held i n Pakistan on the occasion of millen a of Ab
Mathematical Literature During the Ottoman Period. RaiuCn Muuamad Ibn Au mad al-Bn n (November
Prepared by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Ramaan Sesen, and 26, 1973-December 12, 1973). Times Press, Karachi, 1979.
Cevat lzgi. 2 volumes. IRCICA, Istanbul, 1999. Said, Hakim Mohammed (editor). Ibn Al-Haitham. Pro
Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin, and Gunergun, Feza (editors). Sci ceedings of the celebrations of 1,000th anniversary held
ence in Islamic Civilization. Proceedings of the Science under the auspices of Hamdard National Foundation,
Institutions in Islamic Civilization and International Pakistan. Times Press, Karachi, 1969.
Symposia Science and Technology i n the Turkish and Saliba, George. Islamic Science and the Making of the
Islamic World. IRCICA, Istanbul, 2000. European Renaissance. The MIT Press, Cambridge,
Kahn, A. S. A Bibliography of the Works of Abu 'l-Rayhan Mass., 2007.
al-Bimni. New Delhi, 1982. Saliba, George. "Arabic Planetary Theories Aher the Elev-
Kennedy, Edward Stewart. "The Arabic Heritage in the enth Century A.D.," in Encyclopedia of the History of
Exact Sciences," in Al-Abhath, Vol. 23, pp. 327-344. The Arabic Science, pp. 58-127. Routledge, London, 1996.
American University of Beirut, Beirut, 1970. -. A Histo1y of Arabic Astronomy: P/anetmy Theories
Kennedy, E. S., Colleagues, and Former Students. Studies in During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University
the Islamic Exact Sciences. D. A. King and M. l.Kennedy Press, 1994.
(editors). The American University of Beirut, Beirut, 1983. --. Rethinking the Roots of Moder Science: Arabic Sci
Makdisi, George. "Muslim Institutions of Learning in Islam entifc Manuscripts in European Libraries, Occasional
and in the West," in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and Paper, Center for Contemporary Arabic Studies, Geor-
African Studies, Vol. 24, pp. 1-56. Travai l pionnier sur le getown University, Washington, D.C., 1999.
systeme d'education developpe dans Ia civilisation isla- --. "A Sixteeenth-Century Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic
mique. University of London, London, 1961 Astronomy: The Work of Shams al-Oin al-Khafri," in
-. The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam Joural for the Hist01y of Astronomy, Vol. 25, pp. 15-38.
and in the West. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1994.
1981. Sams6, Julio. Las Ciencias de los antiguos en Al-Anda/us.
Matvievskaia, Galina !,and Rozenfeld, Boris A. Matematiki Mapfre, Madrid, 1992
i astronomi musu/manskogo srednevekovya i ikh trudi Sarton, George. Introduction to the Histo1y of Science. 3
(VII-XVII '). 3 volumes. Nauka, Moscou, 1983. volumes: Vol. !.From Homer to Omar Khayyam; Vol.
Mieli, Aldo. La Science arabe et son role dans /evolution 2: From Rabbi Ben Ezra to Roger Bacon; Vol. 3: Science
scientifque mondiale. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1st edition, 1938; and Learing in the Fourteenth Centwy The Williams
2nd edition, 1966. and Wilkins Company for the Carnegie Institution,
Morelon, Regis, and Hasnawi, Ahmed (editors). De Zenon Baltimore, 1927-48.
d'ttee oPoincare. Recueil d'etudes en hommage oRoshdi Savage-Smith, Emilie. "Gleanings from an Arabist's Work-
Rashed. Peeters, Louvain/Paris, 2004. shop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic
Nasr, Seyyed Hose in. Science and Civilization in Islam. Har- Science and Medicine," in Isis, Vol. 79. pp. 246-72. 1988.
vard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1968. Reprints: Schacht, J., and Bosworth, C. E. The Legacy of Islam. Oxford
New American Library, New York, 1968, 1970; The Islamic University Press, 1974; 2nd edition, 1979.
Texts Society, Cambridge, U.K., 1987. Selin, Helaine (editor). Astronomy Across Cultures: The His
Rashed, Roshdi (editor). Encyclopedia of the History of t01y ofNon-WesternAstronomy. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2000.
Arabic Science. Edited with the collaboration of Regis --. Encyclopaedia of the Histo1y of Science, Technology,
Morel on. 3 volumes. Vol. 1: Astronomy-Theoretical and and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Kluwer, Dor
Applied; Vol. Z. Mathematics and the Physical Sciences; drecht, 1997
Vol. 3: Technology, Alchemy, and Life Sciences. Rout- -. Mathematics Across Cultures. The History of Non
ledge, London/New York, 1996. Wester Mathematics. Kluwer, Dordrecht, ZLLL.
Sezgin, Fuat Geschichte des Arabischen Schrdtums. 12
volumes. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1967-2000.
Spink. M. S., and Lewis, I. L.((editors and translators). Albu
cassis on Surge1 and Instruments: A Defnitive Edition
of the Arabic Text with English Translation and Com
mentar. Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine,
London, 1973.
Suter, Heinrich. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Mathematik
und Astronomie im Islam. Nachdruck seiner Schriften
aus den Jahren 1892-1922. 2 volumes. Fuat Sezgin (edi
tor). Institut fur Geschicte der Arabisch-Islamischen
Wissenschaften, Frankfurt, 1986.
[Thabit ibn Qurra]. Thabit ibn mTexts and Studies.
Collected and reprinted by F. Sezgin et al. Frankfurt:
Institut fur Geschicte der Arabisch-lslamischen Wis
senschaften, 1997.
Vernet, J.and Sams6, J., et al. El Legado cient(fco andalusi.
Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1992.
Wiedemann, Eilhard. Aufsatze zur Arabischen Wissen
schaftsgeschichte. 2 volumes. Hildesheim, New York:
G. Olms, 1970.
-. Gesammelte Schrdten zur arabisch-islamischen Wis
senschaftsgeschichte. Gesammelt und bearb. Von Doro
thea Girke. 3 volumes. IGAIW, Frankfurt, 1984.
Woepcke, Franz. Etudes sur les mathematiques arabo
islamiques. Nachdruck von Schriften aus den Jahren
1842-1874. 2 volumes. lnstitut fur Geschicte der Arabisch
Islamischen Wissenschaften, Frankfurt, 1986.
Young, M. J. L., Latham, J. D., and Serejant, R. B. Religion,
Learning and Science in the Abbasid Period. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1990.
MNL
BBC 2. What the Ancients Did for Us: The Islamic World.
February 16, 2004.
Channel 4 An Islamic Histor of Europe. August 5-19,
2005.
Ellis, John. An Historical Account of Coffee with an Engrav
ing, and Botanical Description of the Tree: To Which Are
Added Sundr Papers Relative to Its Culture and Use, as
an Article of Diet and of Commerce. Edward Dilly and
Charles Dilly, London, 1774.
Friedman, D., and Cook. E. A Miscellany. www.daviddfried
man.com/Medieval/miscellany _pdf/Miscellany.htm.
Hart-Davies, Adam. What the Past Did for Us: A Brief Histor
of Ancient Inventions. BBC Books, London, 2004.
Li ndberg, L. C. Studies in the Histor of Medieval Optics.
Varorium, London, 1983.
-. "The Western Reception of Arabic Optics," in Encyclo
paedia of History of Arabic Science. R. Rashed (editor).
Routledge, London, 1996.
|l Hl. `C l L H I | l H ll\ l' `C
Omar, S. B. Ibn al-Haytham's Optics. Bibliotheca Isla mica,
Chicago, 1977.
Ree, Hans. The Human Comedy of Chess. Russell Enter
prises, Milford, Conn., 1999-
Sopieva, Natasha. Ibn al-Haytham, the Muslim Physicist.
www. MuslimHeritage.com, 2001.
'ML
Al-Ghazali. Dear Beloved Son. Translated from Arabic by K.
El-Helbawy, Awakening UK., Swansea, 2000.
Burnett Charles. Leonard of Pisa (Fibonacci) and Arabic
Arithmetic. ww.MuslimHeritage.com, 2005.
Dodge, B. Muslim Education in Medieval Times. The Middle
East Institute, Washington, D.C., 1962.
Haskins, C. H. Studies in the Histor of Mediaeval Science.
Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York. 1967.
lhsanoglu, Ekmeleddin.PrimarSchoolsUndertheOttomans.
ww.MuslimHeritage.com, 2005.
Mackensen, R. "Moslem Libraries and Sectarian Propa
ganda," in The American Journal of Semitic Languages,
1934-35-
Makdisi, George. "On the Origin and Development of the
College in Islam and the West," in Islam and the Medi
eval West. Khalil !. Semaan (editor). State University of
New York Press, Albany, 1980.
Nakosteen, M. Histo1 of Islamic Origins of Western Educa
tion /800-1350. University of Colorado Press, Boulder,
1964.
Pedersen, J. The Arabic Book, Geofrey French (translator).
Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1984.
Pinto, L."The Libraries of the Arabs During the Time of the
Abbasids," in Islamic Culture 3. 1929.
Ribera, J.Disertaciones y Opusculos. 2 volumes. lmprenta
de Estanislao Maestre, Madrid, 1928.
Sardar, ., and Davies, M. W. Distorted Imagination. Grey
Seal Books, London, 1990.
Sarton, G. Introduction to the Histo1y of Science. 3 volumes.
The Carnegie I nstitution, Washington. D.C., 1927.
Tibawi, P Islamic Education. Luzac and Company Ltd.,
London, 1972.
Watt, W. M. The Infuence of Islam on Medieval Europe.
Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1972.
Wilds, E. H. The Foundation of Modem Education. Rinehart
and Co., New York. 1959-
Zaimeche, Salah. Education in Islam: The Role of the Mosque.
www.MuslimHeritage.com, 2002.
N!llLJ
Artz, F. B. The Mind oft he Middle Ages. Revised third edition.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.
Bolens, L. "Agriculture," in Encyclopedia of the History
of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western
334 1 001 I NVE NTI ONS T H E F 'DUR I N(j L LG:\CY OF \WSL I \1 CI VI L I L \ TI ON
Cultures. Helaine Selin (editor). Kluwer Academic Burnett, Charles. Arabic Medicine in the Mediterranean.
Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997. www.MuslimHeritage.com, 2004.
Channel 4 N An Islamic Histo1y of Europe. August 5-19, Campbell, D. Arabian Medicine, and Its Infuence on the
2005. Middle Ages. Philo Press, Amsterdam, 1974.
De Vaux, Baron Carra. Les Penseurs de l1slam. Vol. 2, Geu- Channel 4 TV. An Islamic Hist01y of Europe. August 5-19,
thner, Paris, 1921.
2005.
Hill, D. R. Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh
Cumston, C. G. "Islamic Medicine," in An Introduction to
University Press, Edinburgh, 1993.
the Histo1y of Medicine from the Time of the Pharaohs
Idrisi, Zohor. The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and Its
to the End of the XVIII Century. Keg an PauL Trench,
Infuence on Europe. www.MuslimHeritage.com, 2005.
Trubner, and Co. Ltd., London; and Alfred A. Knopf,
Le Bon, G. La Civilisation des Arabes. !MAG, Syracuse,
New York 1926.
Italy, 1884.
FSTC. Pharmacology in the Making. www.MuslimHeritage.
Scott, S. IHistory of the Moorish Empire in Europe. 3 vol-
com, 200L
umes. J. B. Lippincott Company, London. !C.
Ghalioungui, Paul. "Ibn Nafs," i n Studies in the Arabic
Watson, A. M. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic
Heritage. The Ministry of Information of Kuwait, Kuwait,
World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.,
1970.
1983.
Hirschberg, J., Lippert, J., and Mittwoch, E. Die arabischen
Zaimeche, Salah. A Review on Muslim Contribution to Agri-
Lehrbucher der Augenheilkunde, Abhdl, Der Preus-
culture. www.MuslimHeritage.com, 2002.
sischen Akademie, Berlin, 1905.
Iskandar, A. Z. A Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medi-
ll JL
cine and Science in the Wellcome Historical Medical
Library. The Wellcome Historical Medical Library, Lon-
Abdei-Halim, R. E. "Contributions of Ibn A1-Naf.s (1210-1288
don, 1967.
ru)to the Progress of Medicine and urology: A Study
Keys, T. E., and Wakim, K. G. Contributions of the Arabs to
and Translations from His Medical Works," in Saudi
Medicine, Vol. 28. Proceedings of the Staff Meeting, Mayo
Medical Joural, Vol. 29, pp. 13-22. 2008.
Clinic, Rochester, Minn. , 1953.
--. Experimental Medicine 1,LLL Years Ago. Vol. 3. pp.
Kirkup, J. R. The Histo1y and Evolution of Surgical Instru-
55-61. Urol An', Paris, 2011.
ments. I. Introduction. Annals of the Royal College of
. Lithotripsy: A Historical Review. Matouschek E. , editor. Surgeons of England, 1981.
Endo-urology-Proceedings of the Third Congress of the Leclerc, L. Histoire de Ia medecine arabe. Ernest Ledaux,
International Society of Urologic Endoscopy, Karlsruhe; Paris, 1876.
August 26-30, 1984. Bau-Verlag Werner Steinbruck Levey, M. Early Arabic Pharmacology. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1973.
Baden, Germany, 1985. (Also available at http://www. Lindberg, D. C. "The Western Reception of Arabic Optics,"
hektoeninternational.org/Lithotripsy.html.) in Encyclopedia of History of Arabic Science. R. Rashed
-. "Obesity: 1,000 Years Ago." Lancet, 366:204. 2005. (editor). Routledge, London, 1996.
(Also available at http://wvrw.rabieabdelhalim.com/ Meyerhof, M. "Ibn Nafs and His Theoty of the Lesser Cir-
ObesitylOOO YsAgo.htm.)
culation," in Isis, Vol. 23. 1935.
Abdei-Halim, R. E., Altwaijiri, A. S., Elfaqih, S. R., and Mitwalli,
Sarton, G. Introduction to the Histo1y of Science. Carn-
A. H. "Extraction of Urinary Bladder Stone as Described
egie Institution, Washington, D.C., and Williams and
by Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas," in Saudi Medical
Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1927-31. Reprinted Robert
Journal, Vol. 24, pp. 1283-91. 2003. A translation of origi-
E. Krieger Publishing Co. Inc., New York 1975.
nal text and a commentary.
Shaikh, Ibrahim. Who Discovered Pulmonary Circulation,
AI-Mazroa, A. A., and Abdel-Halim, R. E. "Anaesthesia 1,000
Ibn al-Naphis or Harvey; www.MuslimHeritage.com,
Years Ago-!," in The History of Anaesthesia, pp. 46-8.
2001.
R.S. Atkinson and B. Boulton (editors). Royal Society of
Ullmann, M. Islamic Medicine. Islamic surveys No. 1l. Edin-
Medicine Services and the Parthenon Publishing Group,
burgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1978.

London and New York 1989. (Also available at http://


J`
rabieabdelhalim.com/anesthesiaLhtml.)
--. "Anesthesia 1,000 Years Ago-II." in Middle East
Channel 4 TV. An Islamic History of Europe. August 5-19,
Journal Anesthesiology, Vol. 15, pp. 383-92. 1991, 2000. 2005.
(Also available at http://wvrw. rabieabdelhalim.com/ Forbes, R. J. Studies in Ancient Technology, Vol. 2. E. J.Brill,

anaesthesia2.html.) Leiden, 1965.


1 \UE. RF. NC F URT I I F R IUDI NC
335
Frothingham, A. W. Lustreware of Spain. The Hispanic Zaimeche, Salah. A Review of Muslim Geography. www.
Society of America, New York, 1951.
MuslimHeritage.com, 2002.
Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle
Ages. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1979.
L`l `LlL
Harvey, J. The Master Builders. Thames and Hudson, Lon-
don, 1973- Arnold, Sir Thomas, and Guillaume, Alfred. The Legacy
Haskins, C. H. Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science.
of Islam. First edition. Oxford Un:versity Press, Oxford,
Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York, 1967
U.K., 1931.
Hobson, R. L. A Guide to the Islamic Pottery of the Near East.
Artz, l B. The Mind of the Middle Ages. Third revised edi-
British Museum, London, 1932.
tion. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.
Lambert, E. Art Musulman et Art Chretien dans Ia Peninsul
Iberique. Editions Privat, Paris, 1958.
BBC . An Islamic History of Europe. August 5-19, 2005.
Lane, A. Early Islamic Pottery. Faber and Faber, London, 1947.
Bedini, Silvio A. The Pulse of Time. Leo S. Olschki, publisher
Male, E. Art et Artistes du Moyen Age. Librairie Armand (found in the Biblioteca Di Nuncius), 1991.
Colin, Paris, 1928.
Briffault, R. The Making of Humanity. George Allen, Lon-
Saoud, R. Introduction to the Islamic Cit. v .MuslimHer-
don, 1928.
itage.com, 2001.
Wren, Christopher. Parentalia, or Memoirs of the Family of
De Vaux, Baron Carra. Les Penseurs de /Islam. Vol. 2. Geu-
thner, Paris, 1921.
the Wrens. Mathew Bishop, T. Osborn, and R. Dodsley,
Glubb, John. Short History of the Arab Peoples. Hodder and
x
London, 1750.
Stoughton, London, 1969.
lLl
Hitti, l l Histo1y of the Arabs. Tenth edition, Macmillan
and St. Martin's Press, London, 1970.
Alhabshi, Syed Othman. Mapping the World. www.Muslim-
Hogendijk, Jan P., and Abdelhamid, .Sabra. The Enterprise
Heritage.com, 2001.
Briffault, R. The Making of Humanity. George Allen, Lon-
of Science in Islam: New Perspectives. The MIT Press,
don, 1928.
Cambridge, Mass., 2003.
Channel 4 An Islamic History of Eurpe. August 5-19, 2005. Ronan, C. "The Arabian Science," in The Cambridge Illus-
Feber, S. (editor). Islam and the Medieval West. A loan
trated Histo1y of the World's Science. Cambridge Univer-
exhibition at the University Art Gallery, State University
sity Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1983.
of New York (April 6-May 4), 1975.
Saliba G. Islamic Science and the Making of the European
Fuat Sezgin in Zusammenarbeit mit Eckhard NeubaJer.
Renaissance. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2007.
Wissenschaft und Technik im Islam: Einfuhrung in die
geschihcte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften.
Savage-Smith, Emilie. "Celestial Mapping," in The History of
Vols. I-V. Institut fur Geschichte der Arabisch-Isla-
Cartography g,Book !. J. B. Harvey and David Woodward

mischen Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main, 2003.


(editors). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992.
Glick, T. Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Savory, R. M. Introduction to Islamic Civilization. Cam-
Ages. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1979-
bridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1976.

Harley, J. B., and Woodward, D. (editors). The History of Car-


Sayili, Aydin. Observatories in Islam. Republished from
tography. Vol. 2, Book 1: Cartography in the Traditional
Dizer, M. (editor), International Symposium on the
Islamic and South Asian Societies. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago, 1972.
Observatories in Islam (September 19-23, 1977), Istanbul.
Holt, M., Lambton, A. K. S., and Lewis, B. (editors). The
FSTC. www.MuslimHeritage.com, 2005.
Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 2, Cambridge Univer-
Sedillot, L. A. Memoire sur les instruments astronomiques
sity Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970. des Arabes. lmprimerie royale, Par's, !84!
Kimble, G. H. T. Geography in the Middle Ages. Methuen
Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the Hist01y of Science,
and Co. Ltd., London, 1983.
Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures.
Roshdi, Rashed (editor). Encyclopaedia of the Hist01y of
Klmver Academic Publishers, London, 1997.
Arabic Science. Routledge, London, 1996.
Smith. D. E. Histo1y of Mathematics, Vol. 2. Dover Publica-
Scott, S. P. History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 val-
umes. J. B. Lippincott Company, London, 1904.
tions, New York, 1953.
Watt, M. The Infuence of Islam on Medieval Europe. Ed in-
Zaimeche, Salah. A Review on Missing Contribution to
burgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1972. Astronomy. v .MuslimHeritage.com, 2002.
b 1 001 I NVL NTI ONS Ti l L E NDURI NG U.(; i\CY OF `LS | l V\ CI VI L I /r i ON
U
O \lCSSAPY
Abbasid dynasty A dynasty that ruled the
Muslim caliphate from Iraq between 750
and 1258. The Abbasids are renowned for
fostering learning and science. Their most
distinguished caliphs are Harun al-Rashid
(ruled 786-809) and his son Al-Ma'mun
(ruled 813-833), who made Baghdad the
center of science and learning. They
founded the House of Wisdom, a famous
library and scholarship center. Harun
al-Rashid is renowned for gifting
Charlemagne a water clock and an organ
in 797.
Aghlabids Muslim dynasty that ruled from
8oo to 909, and was semi-independent
of Baghdad. The Aghlabids' capital,
Al-Qayrawan, was a vibrant city during
that time. Among their famous legacies is
the water reservoir of Al-Qayrawan. From
Al-Qayrawan, Tunisia, they ruled Sicily and
Malta.
Allah "Allah" is the Arabic word for God,
the supreme and only God, the Creator,
who according to the Quran is the same
God as of the Bible.
Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar is Arabic for
"God is the greatest." The phrase is said
during each stage of both obligatory
and voluntary prayers. The Muslim call
to prayer, or athan, or azan, and call to
commence the prayer, or iqama, also
contain the phrase. The actual title of
this phrase is takbir. In the Islamic world,
instead of applause, Muslims often shout
"takbir" and the crowd responds "Allahu
Akbar" in chorus to show agreement and
satisfaction.
Almohad One of the greatest medieval
dynasties, which ruled North Africa (and
much of Spain) from circa 1147 until the
rise to power of the Merenids around 1269.
The Almohad dynasty (from the Arabic
Al-Muwahhidun, "the monotheists" or "the
Unitarians," the name being corrupted
through Spanish), were a Berber Muslim
religious power who founded the ffth
Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, unit
ing North Africa as far as Egypt, together
with Muslim Spain.
Al-Andalus The Arabic name given to the
Iberian Peninsula when it was ruled by
Muslims from 711 to 1492. Al-Andalus once
encompassed the area extending from the
Mediterranean to northern Spain, border
ing the kingdom of Aragon in the north.
Today, Andalusia is used to denote the
southern region of Spain. Different mean
ings have been suggested for Al-Andalus,
the most famous ones being the "gardens"
(in Arabic) and the "land of the Vandals,"
rulers who inherited the Roman Empire
and ruled Spain before the Muslims.
Arab and/or Muslim The term "Arab" is
applied to those people who are of Arab
origin, regardless of whether they are/were
Muslims. "Muslim" is used to refer to the
people who adhere to the Muslim religion,
which includes Arabs and non-Arabs, such
as those from Iran, Pakistan, or Indonesia,
for example.
Asabiyah This is an Arabic word, which
can mean "solidarity" or "group conscious
ness" but is usually translated as "group
feeling." At the most basic level, asabiyah
is something that a person feels for his
family, a kind of "brotherhood." According
to Ibn Khaldun, the successful ruler is he
who manages to spread and maintain the
asabiyah to all members of the society, so
that all think of one another as they would
think of their own brothers.
Aybids A dynasty founded by the
Muslim Kurdish general Salah al-Din
al-Ayyubi (d. 1193), known to Christians in
Europe as Saladin. Salah al-Din established
the Ayyubid dynasty in 1169. The Ayyubids
united Egypt and Syria and other parts of
the Muslim East, which enabled them to
defeat the Crusaders at Hattin and recover
Jerusalem.
Al-Azhar A university connected to the
mosque in Cairo named in honor of
Fatima al-Zahraa, the daughter of Prophet
Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid
Dynasty claimed descent. The mosque was
built in two years from ,I to ,_, and the
school of theology connected with it was
founded in 988. It remains to this day. It is
one of the oldest operating universities in
the world.
Baidaq Pawn, in chess.
Al-Barrani Al-Barrani consists of a large
dome-covered hall in a bathhouse, incor
porating a drum (below the dome) with
stained glass windows. The Damascenes
spent much of their talent on lavishly stain
ing the walls of Al-Barrani with elegant tiles
of dazzling colors, refecting mirrors, and
|l | Hl^C| ClCSAHY 7
calligraphy plates welcoming clients and
citing Arabic proverbs. It is here that they
got ready to proceed to other sections of
the hammam and where they retired after
bathing.
Al-Baydah A village near Qaim in Iraq.
Caliph Literally means "one who replaces
someone who left or died." In Islamic con
text, this means a successor to the Prophet
Muhammad as a political, military, and
administrative leader of the Muslims, but
does not include a prophetic role.
Caliphate The Islamic state or government,
whose head is the caliph.
C.E. The Common Era, formerly known as
the Christian Era. It is the agreed interna
tional dating terminology.
Chatrang Chatrang is Persian for chess,
and the oldest form of the game.
Dinars Basic currency unit, consisting of
1,000 fls.
Eid A Muslim celebratory festival, of which
there are two, one after fasting in the month
of Ramadan (called Eid al-Fitr), and the
other in celebration after Hajj (called Eid
al-Adhha).
Faqih An expert in Islamic law.
Faras Arabic term for mare or horse, and
the knight in chess.
Fatimid A dynasty, named after Fatima
al-Zahraa, the daughter of Prophet
Muhammad, which rose to political

1001 I NVE NTI ONS T HE. E NDU RI NG lFCf\CY OF MUS LM CI V I Li li\ T! ON


domination in North Africa in __. The
Fatimids are the founders of Islamic Cairo,
the capital city of Egypt, in _l_.
Al-Fihrist Literally this means "a table of
contents" or "an index." Al-Fihrist is an
index of all books written in Arabic by
both Arabs and non-Arabs. It was written
by Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq
ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq, also called ibn
al-Nadim. He began to make this catalog
of authors and the names of their writings
for use in his father's bookstore. As he grew
older, he became interested in the many
subjects he read about in books, or those
he learned about from friends and chance
acquaintances. So, instead of being merely
the catalog for a bookshop, Al-Fihrist
became an encyclopedia of medieval
Islamic culture.
Fiqh Literally meaning "knowledge and
understanding," it is the understanding and
applications of Sharia (divine law) from its
sources.
Al-Fustat Al-Fustat is the frst capital of
Islamic Egypt established in l=Zby 'Amru
ibn Al- 'As, and was probably named after
the Roman military term fossatum, or
encampment.
Hadith Narrations of the sayings of the
Prophet Muhammad, which form one of
the major sources of Islamic law. Each
hadith is composed of a basic text the
authenticity of which was guaranteed by a
chain of witnesses and narrators.
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
Hammam Arabic public bath.
Haram Sacred, holy, and/or prohibited.
Ifriqiya In medieval history, Ifriqiya or
Ifriqiyah was the area comprising the
coastal regions of what are today western
Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. In mod
ern Arabic, the term means "Africa."
Imam One who leads the prayers.
Jabal al-'arus A mountain in Cordoba,
Spain.
Ka'bah Literally, "a high place of respect
and regard." It is the sacred building in the
center of the Al-Haram al-Shareef Mosque
at Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the center
toward which Muslims around the world
pray. It houses the divine black stone.
Kiswa Literally "a cover." The holy Ka'bah
is covered wth a new kiswa (textile cover)
every year on the tenth Dhul Hijjah, which
coincides with Hajj. Every year, the old
kiswa is removed, cut into small pieces, and
gifted to certain individuals, visiting foreign
Muslim dignitaries, and organizations.
Koshk Turkish for kiosk.
Kutubiyun The word kutubiyun is a
Moroccan Arabic name for bookbinders.
Madrasa The word madrasa means a
school, and evolved originally from the lec
tures organized in mosques before schools
became independent entities. These days
madrasa has a different meaning, and thou
sands of madrasas around the world are
said to be educational institutions, usually
teaching Islamic sciences or law.
Maghreb The Arabic world was tradition
ally divided into two parts, the Mashriq or
eastern part and the Maghreb or western
part (literally, "the west" or "where the sun
sets"). Geographically it is defned as the
region of the continent of Africa north of
the Sahara and west of the Nile-specif
cally; the modern countries of Morocco,
Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by
Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and to a
much lesser extent Mauritania.
Mamluk Originally Turkish slaves who
formed part of the Abbasid army. The
Mamluks were a member of the Turkish
speaking cavalry that went on to rule Egypt
and Syria under the 13th-century Mamluk
dynasty.
Manarah Arabic for minarets of the
mosque. Literally means "lighthouse."
Mihrab A niche in the wall of the mosque
that indicates the direction in which one
should pray, toward Mecca.
Minaret A tower from which the muezzin,
or crier, calls people to prayer.
Minbar A pulpit for the imam, or prayer
leader.
Miswak A cleaning stick, actually a twig
from certain trees, essentially the arak tree
botanically known as Salvadore persica,
used for cleaning the teeth. Investigations
by Swiss pharmaceutical company Pharba
Basel, Ltd. found that it contains antibacte
rial substances that destroy harmful germs
in the mouth.
Mithqals Weights.
H| l | l|^C| Cl S`HY Q
Mosque A public place for worship and
prayer for the Muslims.
Mu'allim Islamic teacher.
Muhandis Engineer or architect.
Al-Muhtasib Al-Muhtasib is literally "a
judge" (qadi) who takes decisions on the
spot, in any place and at any time, as long
as he protects the interests of the public.
His responsibilities are almost endless in
order to implement the foregoing principle:
commanding the good and forbidding the
evil of wrongdoing. Al-Muhtasib and/or his
deputies, like a full judge, must have high
qualifcations and be wise, mature, pious,
well poised, sane, free, just, empathic, and
a learned scholar, or faqih. He has the abil
ity to ascertain right from wrong, and the
capability to distinguish the permissible,
halal, from the nonpermissible, haram. So,
Al-Muhtasib is entrusted to secure the com
mon welfare and to eliminate injuries to
society as a whole, even if such honorable
tasks require him to take a stance against
the ruling governance. In short, he must be
an appointee (fully authorized), pious, and
just.
Muwaqqit Timekeeper, a wise man given
the task to observe and decide on the times
of prayers.
Pbuh Peace (and blessings of Allah) be
upon him (Prophet Muhammad); a vow of
devotion and belief that Muhammad was
the Prophet of God (Allah). This phrase
is repeated by Muslims every time they
pronounce or hear the name of Prophet
Muhammad.
4C 10 1 I NV E N l l ONS: T I I F lcN DURI N( , LfG1\U OF MLS LI :\\ CI VI I I /J\TI ON
Qadi A Muslim judge.
Al-Qahwa Arabic term for coffee.
Al-Qayrawan It is a town in northeast
Tunisia and a revered city of Islam.
Founded in 670 by Uqbah bin Naf, an Arab
leader, it was the seat of Arab governors in
North Africa until 8oo. Under the Aghlabid
dynasty (8oo-gog), it became the chief
center of commerce and learning, and
remained so during the Fatimid rule (gog-
921). The city was ruined (1057) by Bedouin
invaders, the Banu Hilal tribe, and subse
quently was supplanted by Tunis.
Al-Qali This word was derived from qalai
(to dry or roast in a pan). Al-qali is "the
substance that has been roasted" or "ashes
of the plant saltwork." In most languages
of Europe, both substances were named
natron.
Qamara A dark room, also a ship's cabin.
Qanat It is a type of underground irrigation
canal between an aquifer on a piedmont
zone to a garden on an arid plain. The word
is Arabic, but the system is best known
from ancient Iran.
Qibla An Arabic word referring to the direc
tion of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, that Muslims
should face toward when they pray.
Rajah The seventh month in the Islamic
lunar calendar.
Ramadan It is the ninth month in the
Islamic calendar, best known as the holy
month of fasting for Muslims.
Rawdiya The inhabitants of the early
Islamic world were enchanted by greenery.
This love of plants is clearly shown in a
genre of poetry, the rawdiya, or garden
poem, probably of Persian origin, which
came to be one of the main poetic forms in
the Abbasid orient from the eighth to the
tenth centuries.
Rihla Literally means "journey, travel, and
travelogue." It is a piece of writing about
travel.
Safavid dynasties The Safavids, an Iranian
dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736. They
had their origins in a long-established Suf
order, which had fourished in Azerbaijan
since the early 14th century. Its founder was
Sheikh Saf al-Din (1252-1334), after whom it
is named.
Al-Saratan Arabic term for cancer.
Seljuks A Turkish dynasty that ruled
across Persia, Anatolia, and Turkey
between 1038 and 1327. They are best
known for their great promotion of learn
ing, arts, and trade. The Seljuks gave
the madrasa (school) its fnal shape and
defnition, as it became a completely
separate building from the mosque. They
were also behind the rise of the caravan
saries, hostel complexes providing free
accommodation, food, and services for
trading caravans. In the arts, they are best
remembered for the introduction of the
iwan plan and muqarnas vaulting.
Shadoof Machine for lifting water,
consisting tyically of a long, pivoted
wooden pole acting as a lever, with a
weight at one end. The other end is
positioned over a well. The shadoof was
in use in ancient Egypt, and is still used
i n Arab countries today.
Sheikh A social title of respect given to
an elderly, wise, or a religious person in
the community.
Sharia Sharia is the law system inspired
by the Quran and the sayings of Prophet
Muhammad. Sharia is often referred to as
Islamic law.
Souk The marketplace.
Sufsm Mystical belief and practice i n
which the truth of divine love and knowl
edge of God is sought.
Al-Tasrif Literally means "conducting"
or "handling a certain issue. " Here it is
a medical encyclopedia written by Abul
Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi,
also known as Abulcasis. The complete
title is Al-Tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an al-taalif,
or The Method of Medicine, translated
as The Arrangement of Medi cine. It had
l,_pages, showing that Abulcasis was
not only a medical scholar, but also a
great practicing physician and surgeon.
It infuenced the progress of medicine
in Europe. See the section Medical
Knowledge in the Hospital chapter to
learn more about it.
Tawaf The circumambulation or walking
counterclockwise around the Ka'bah in
Mecca.
Thikr The action of remembering God
(Allah), consisting of the repetition of
words in praise of God.
H || l |. C| '+ |C'.\ '+ 4I
Al-Ud The 'ud (also spelled oud) is a
musical instrument common to the
Arab culture. It is a stringed instrument
slightly smaller than a guitar, with eleven
strings in six courses. Some 'uds may
have more or fewer strings; common are
versions with thirteen strings in seven
courses, or ten strings in nve courses.
'Ulama Scholars of the Islamic sciences.
Vizier/wazir Chief minister of the
Abbasid caliphs and also government
ofcial in Islamic states.
Waqf Religious charitable institutions
that manage various gifted and donated
nnancial assets. The waqfs nnance
mosques, madrasas, fountains, and other
public services. Their role has been
greatly undermined by modern state
intervention.
Waraq Paper.
Warraq Paper manufacturer/bookbinder/
scribe.
Wudhu Performance of the ritual of ablu
tion. Before offering the prayer, one must
be in good shape and pure condition.
It is necessary to wash the parts of the
body that are generally exposed to dirt
or dust or smog, like the hands, mouth,
nose, face, arms, hair, ears, and feet. This
is called ablution, and the person who has
performed it is ready to start his prayer.
w-
43 l |t| l `Vl`1 l C`- Jll l l` lL l `\ l l L.L: Cl `\ L lJ M L| V l l| Z`1l L`
.7 l llLSTPAT| C`S 'P|l| TS
Front Matter: 4. Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul; g, B:-idgeman Art
Lilrary (British Library, London. U.K/British Librar Board. ARights Resered_)
(0:2784 fol.g6). 13. !OO! Inventions Ltd.
Chapter 1:14-23, MuslimHeritage.com.
Chapter z, 34. The Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library. Dublin: 37- Guildhall
Library. London: 38, V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum: 39- Courtesy of
Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul: 42(br). MuslimHeritage.com (Aidan Roberts):
43(bl). MuslimHeritage.:om (Sayed AI Hashmi): 45. MuslimHeritage.com (Sayed
AI Hashmi): 46(b), Courtesy of the Royal Asiatic Society, London: 47(1). Courtesy
of Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul; 47(r). Ricky Jay: 48(t), Courtesy of Topkapi
Paiace Library, Istanbul: 48(b). Tips Images: 49(b). Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders.
Inspiral Design. London: so. MuslimHeritage.com; Sl(t). by permission of the
British Library (T.12646): 51(bl). MuslimHeritage.com: 52, MuslimHeritage.com:
53. MuslimHeritage.com; 54. University of Chicago Press; 55. History of Science
Collections, University of Oklahoma Librcuies; 57, MuslimHeri:age.com (Ali
Hasan Amra): 59. Counesy of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul.
Chapter 3: 62. Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders. lnspiral Design, London: 64.
Saudi Aramco World/PAD IA (Nik Wheeler): 65. Library of Congress, Prints
and Photographs Division: 66, Corbis (Chris Hellier): 67, Courtesy of Topkapt
Palace Library. Istanbul: 68(r) MuslimHeritage.com (Ahmed Salem): 69. Corbis
(Bettmann): 70, Bibliotheque nationale de France. Paris: 71. Bridgeman An
Library (Musee Atger. Montpellier); 72. Library of Congress. Prints and Photo
graphs Division; 74. MuslimHeritage.com: 75. MuslimHeritage.com; 76. V.
worldreligions.co.uk; 79. Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris: 80. Department
of Printing and Graphic Arts. Houghton Library. Harvard College Librar (Typ
620A7-452 F): 83, Castilla-La Mancha University (Spain): 89. M uslimHeritage.com
(Ali Hasan Amro): go, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris: 91. Mary Evans
Picture Library; 93. by permission of the British Librar (Add.25724 L36): 97.
Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders. Inspiral Design. London: 99, Library of Congress.
Prints and Photographs Division: 100. Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders. Inspiral
Design. London; 101(1). National Museums Liverpool (Liverpool Museum):
101(tr). MuslimHeritage.com (Wai Yin Chang): 102(1), Mukhtar and Soraya Sand
ers.Inspiral Design. London: 102(r). CourtesyofTopkapi Palace Library. Istanbul:
103. Den Islamske I nformasjonforeningen. Oslo. NoMay; 105. Mamure Oz of
Topkapi Palace Museum Studio (Gilding) and Huseyin Oksuz (Calligraphy):
Chapter 4: 108. Bibliothque nationale de France. Paris; 114. Edinburgh Univer
sity Library: 116, Corbis(Arthur Thevenart): 117. MuslimHeritage.com AHasan
Amro): 118. Chris Barton: 119, Corbis (Roger Wood): 120. W'.worldreligions.
co.uk: 121. Courtesy ofTopkapi Palace Library, Istanbul: 122. Corbis: n8, Muslim
Hentage.com (Sayed AI Hashmi): 119, MuslimHeritage.com (Sayed AI Hashmi):
124, Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul; 125, MuslimHeritage.com
(Sayed AI Hashmi): 126. Corbis (Paul Almasy): 127, Corbis (M. ou Me. Desjeux):
130. Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Robert Azzi): 131. Bibliotheque nationale de
France. Paris: 132. Courtesy of Walter B. Denny: 133. Saudi Aramco World/PAD IA
(Norman MacDonald): 135. by permission of the British Library (3754-05): 136.
Corbis (Kazuyoshi Nomachi): 137. Bibliotheque nationalede France. Paris: 138(t),
Science Museum/Science & Sociery Picture Library; 138(b), by permission of the
British Library (Add.Or.1699); 139. Hikmut Barutcugil of Ebristan. Istanbul. Tur
key: 140(t), Mukhtar ar.d Soraya Sanders. Insptral Design_ London: 140(b). V&A
Images/Victoria and Albert Museum: 143. V&A Images/Victoria and Albert
Museum: 144(b), V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum; t45(r). Eric Tischer;
146(t). The Trustees of The British Museum: 146(b). Hussein Gouda www.
egypthome.net; 147. Forschungsbibliothek Gotha: 148. Saudi Aramco World/
PADIA (Norman MacDonald): 149 (bl). The Trustees of The British Museum: t49.
Princess Wijdan Fawaz AI- Hashemi: 151. The Trustees of The Bntish Museum.
Chapter :152, Millet Library. Istanbul: 156, Aga Khan Visual Archive. M.I.T (Kara
HilL 1989): 157(!), Couresy of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul: 157(r). Aga Khan
Visual Archive, M.LT (Jamal Abed. 1987): t59. University of St Andrews Librar:
16o. Bildarchiv Preussischer Kuhurbesitz Ar. Resource. NY: 161, MuslimHeritage.
com (Ali Hasan Amro): 163. Millet Library. Istanbul: 166. Bridgeman Art Library
(Bibliotheque de la Faculte de Medecine. Paris): 167. MuslimHeritage.com (Sayed
AI Hashmi): 169(t), Histor of Science Collections. University of Oklahoma Librar
ies: 169(b). Bridgeman /Library (Biblioteca Universitaria_ Bologna): 171. National
Library of Medicine: 173. Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library; 174.
Jonathan C. Horton MD PhD: 176, Librar of Congress, Prints and Photographs
Division: W ,Turkish Postal Authority: 178. Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library.
Istanbul: 179(br). Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library, Istanbul: 179. Courtesy of
Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul: 180, Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library. Istanbul:
182(b). Werer Formcn Archive/Metropolitan Museum, New York: 1B2(t), Science
Museum/Science & Society Picture Librar;: 183. The Royal Library, Copenhagen;
184, Dr. James Goodrich: 185, Crown Publishers Inc., a division of Random
House Inc .. 1977.
Chapter 6, 186. Cou:tesy of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul: 188, Jose Vicente
Resina: 189, Mary Evans Picture Library; 190. Erich Lessin: 191. University
Library. Istanbul: 192, Photo Scala. Florence, 1990: 193(t). Richard Seaman: 193(b),
Renata Holed: 195(b)_ Aga Khan Visual Archive, M.LT. (M_ al-Asad. 1986): 195.
MuslimHeritage.com (Sayed AI Hashmi): 196, David Alcock www.thecraven
image.co.uk: 197(m)_ Eddie Gerald: 198, JP Lescourret: 199. Jose Entrenas,
Infocordoba.com: 201. Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders. lnspiral Design. London;
202(t). Dean & Chapter: 206. Mashreq Maghreb: 207(t), Art and Architecture:
207(b), Izzet Keribar/Images & Stories: 21l(t), Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library,
Istanbul: 212. Izzet Keribar/lmages & Stories: 214. Peter Sanders: 215. Courtesy
of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul: 216. Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library,
Istanbul: 217. Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul: 219. Courtesy of
Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul: 220. Bndgeman Art Library (Topkapi Palace
Museum. Istanbul, Turkey); 222.V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum: 225,
MuslimHeritage.com (Sayed AI Hashmi).
Chapter 7: 229. MuslimHeritage.com (Sayed AI Hashmi): 233(t). MuslimHer
itage.com (Sayed AI Hashmi): 234. Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Michael
Winn): 236. MuslimHeritage.com (Ali Hasan Amra): 239. Bod;eian Library; 241,
Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (S M Amin): 242(1). Library of Congress, Prints
and Photographs Division: 243. Courtesy of Topkapi Palace Library. Istanbul:
245, Courtesy ofTopkapi Palace Library. Istanbul: 247, Bibliotheque nationalede
France. Paris: 248, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris: 250. Saudi Aramco
World/PAD IA (Norman MacDonald): 251. Saudi Aramco World/PADIA (Nor
man MacDonald} 254- National Library Board. Singapore: 255- National Library
Board. Singapore: 256. Jan Adkins: 259(!), Enigma Museum. http://wttp.com/
enigma: 26o(l). Bibliotheque nationale de France. Paris: 260(m). CourtesyofTop
kapi Palace Library. Istanbul: 26o(r). CourtesyofTopkapi Palace Library. Istanbul:
262, Princeton University Press: 263, MuslimHeri tage.com (Ali Hasan Amra).
Chapter 8: 264. University Library. Istanbul: 268. Anna Pietrzak. Nicholaus
Copernicus Museum; 269. University Library. Istanbul: 272. University Library,
Istanbul: 273(1). Aga Khan Visual Archive. MJ.T (Hatice Yazar, 1990): 276. Erich
Lessing; 277. The Trustees of The British Museum: 279. University Library. Istan
bul: 281. Saudi Aramco World/PAD lA (Robert Azzi): 283. Saudi Aramco World/
PAD IA (Robert Azzi): 284. National Maritime Museum, London: 285. National
Maritime Museum. London: 286(b). Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library. Istanbul:
287. University Library. Istanbul; 288, Mukhtar and Soraya Sanders. lnspiral
Design, London: 289, Fe-noon Dr Ahmed Moustafa. Research Centre for Arab
Art and Design: 291(t). by permission of the British Library (16325): 292. Gothard
Astrophysical Obseratory: 293- Ralph Aeschliman: 294(br). Beinecke Rare Book
and Manuscript Lib:-ar, Yale University: 294(t). Courtesy of Suleymaniye Library,
Istanbul: 29t,(bl). Courtesy of Suleymaniye Librory. Istanbul: 298. MuslimHer
itage.com (Ali Hasan Amra): 300. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs
Division: 301. Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division.
Reference' 302. Bridgeman Art Library (British Librar. London. UKBritish
Librar Board. All Rights Resered_) (Or.2838 f.zov): 304-309, MuslimHeritage.
com (Ali Hasan Amra).
. : l `l|X
Bodtaceindicates Aghlabids 126
illustrations.
Agriculture 19
agricultural revolution
P
ll0-113, 117
Aadani, Al- 46
chicken eggs 33
Abano, Pietro d' 183
farming manuals 28,
Abawayh (potter) 140-141
ll4-ll7, ll9
Abbas I, Shah 61
fertilization 109
Abbas II, Shah 126
irrigation ll2, n8, ng, 122,
Abbas ibn Firnas see Ibn
124, 128, 130
Firnas
windmills 130
Abbasids 25, 140-141, 199
Ahmad ibn Tulun, Emir
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(Egypt) 26, 2n
(caliph) 149-150
Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital,
'Abd al-Rahman I (Umayyad
Cairo 154, 190
ruler) 49 Albategnius see Battani,
'Abd al-Rahman II (Umayad
Muhammad al-
ruler) 49, 145 Alchemy see Chemistry
'Abd al-Rahman III Alcohol 94, 95
(Umayyad ruler) 201
Alembic stills 15, 92, 94-95
Abdul Aziz, Sultan (Ottoman
Aleppo, Syria 77
Empire) 261
Alexandria, Egypt 30, 132
'Abdullah (Suf mystic) 59
Alfonso VI, King (Spain) 83
Abgali, Mohammed Ben
Alfonso VIII, Prince (Spain)
Ali 33
Ablutions 50
151
Abraham 136
Alfonso X (el Sabia). King
(Spain) 29, 46, 47, 48, 49.
Abu al-Faraj 249
271, 271
Abu al-Fida' 247. 293
Algebra 15, 75. 84-85, 85, 107
Abu al-Jud 97
Alhambra Jar 142
Abu al-Majid al-Bahili 157
Alhambra Palace, Granada,
Abu al-Wafa' al-Buzjani 86, 87,
Spain 97, 101, 187, 201,
89, 98, 291
201, 209, 221, 224
Abu 'Ali al-Kattani 70
Alhazen see Ibn ai-Haytham
Abu Bakr (nrst caliph) 24
Ali, Gelibolulu Mustafa 39
Abu '!nan, Sultan (Fez) 251
Ali ibn !sa (oculist) 174
Abu Mansur 25
Ali Macar Reis 242
Abu Nasr al-Farabi see
Aljizar see Ibn al-Jazzar al-
Farabi. Al-
Qayrawani
Abu Ruh Muhammad ibn
Almaden, Spain 146
Mansur ibn Abdullah (Al-
Jurjani) 174-175
Almagest (Ptolemy) 55, 88,
Abu Yaqub Yusef (caliph) 103
267, 286
Abu Zayd Hasan 246, 249
Almeria, Spain 134, 145
Abubacer see Ibn Tufayl
Almohad dynasty 78
Abui-Hasan 'Ali ibn Nafi' see
Alpago, Andrea 167
Ziryab Amalfitan merchants 196
Abulcasis see Zahrawi, Al- Amicable numbers 85
Acre harbor 2ll
Andalusia
Adelard of Bath 81
home 38, 40-41, 47, 49.
Aeronautics see Flight 58-59
Aga, Cassem 33, 177 hospital 162, 180
RUl RE NCL: I LLUSTR \ l i ONS CRF DI TS j i NDLX
market IO, lll, ll2, 134,
139. 140, 142, 143, 145, 150
town 188, 197
Andromeda galaxy 294
Animal husbandry ll3
Apollonios of Perga g6
Arabesque 100, 100-101
Arabic numerals 29, 86-87, 87
Arches 14, 14, 194-197, 195
Archimedes 96-97, 210
Architecture 21, 192-193
arches 14, 14, 194-197, 195
castles 14, 210-2ll
domes 193, 202-205
infuential ideas 208-209
kiosk to conservatory
218-219
public baths 212-215
spires 206-207
vaults 14, 14, 198-201
Aristotle 9, 54, 72, 73, 74, 75,
82-83
Arithmetic see Mathematics
Arlandes, Marquis d' 300
Armillary spheres 286,
286-287, 287
Arnold, Thomas 104
Art 97, g8-gg, 100-101, 140
Arzachel see Zarqali, Al-
Astrolabes 25, 269, 280,
280-285. 284, 285
Astrono:ical phenomena
288-289
Astronomy 272
and agriculture ll2
instruments 22, 266,
276-279
lunar eclipses 27, 27
measurements 26
motivation for studying
266
Qura: on 288, 288
and trigonometry 88
see aiso Astrolabes;
Observatories; Universe
Astrulabi, Maryam ai-Ijliya
al- see ljliya ai-Astrulabi.
Maryam al-
Avenzoar see Ibn Zuhr, Abu
Marwan
Averbak, Yuri 46
Averroes see Ibn Rushd
Aviation see Flight
Avicenna see Ibn Sina
Awn, Muhammad al- 252
Azarquiel see Zarqali, Al-
Azdi, AI- 185
Al-Azhar Mosque, Cairo 190
Al-Azhar University, Cairo 27,
B
27, 68, 6g, 78
Bab Mardum Mosque, Toledo
27, 27, 195, 199-200, 201
Babur, Emperor (India) 222
Bacon, Roger 29, 54, 57, 91,
298
Baghdad 72
as Abbasid capital 25
baths 214
hospitals 26, 154, 156
as intellectual city 72
libraries and bookshops
77, 79
Mongol rule 29
observatory 270, 274
paper mill 25
reconstruction of
medieval plan 234-235
schools 28, 65
textiles 136, 137, 137
see also House of Wisdom
Baghdad Koshk Topkapi
Palace, Istanbul 218
Bakri, AI- 126, 235-236
Balloon fight 299-300, 301
Bands, musical 49, 49
Banking system 150
Banu Musa brothers 15, 26,
5 52-53, 53, 73. 83, 85,
224-225, 225
Barbican 106, 210-2ll
Baths 51, 51, 212, 212-215,
214, 215, 294
Battani, Muhammad al-
astronomy 228, 266, 267,
268, 274, 276, 292
birth 26
translations 33
trigonometry 88-89
Battlements 2ll
Baylak ai-Qibjaqi 252
Beatrice. Queen (Portugal)
134
4

44 1 001 I NVLNTI ONS T i l l' E NDU R I NG l lCACY OF MUS L I M UV I L I Z!\TI ON


Bedouin 26, 60, 246 Cagaloglu Hamami, Istanbul Cleanliness 50-51 Cryptography 15, 258, 259,
Berggren, J. L. 97-98
212
Clepsydras 42, 42, 44. 118
259
Berggren, Len 229
Cairo, Egypt
Clocks and clock making 25,
Crystal 38, 38-39, 115
Biruni, A]-
Black Death 30 42, 42-43. 43, 68, 194 Currency 148-151
accomplishments 27
hospitals 26, 29, 30, 154, Elephant Clock 16, 17, 43. see also Coins
astronomy 267, 291
154-155. 156, 166 44. 44, 45
The Book of
libraries 78 water-powered 30, 30, 42,
O
d
Calendars 115, 266, 290
42, 43. 43, 68
Pharmacology 183 Da Vinci, Leonardo see
Chronicles of India 231
Calligraphy 102, 102-105,
Cloth 58-59
Leonardo da Vinci
Chronology of Ancient
105 see also Textiles
Dakhwar, AI- 157
Nations 114
Camel caravans 133, 133 Clothing 58-59, 137
Damascus, Syria
Camera obscura 14, 56, 57 Cluny, France 196
Earth science 227, 229, hospital 28, 154, 155, 156,
230, 231
Camshafts 121, 123, 123
Codes see Cryptography
157
natural phenomena
Cancer 165
Coffee 15, 33. 33, 34, 36-37,
market 138, 11,4
studies 232, 233
Cannons 261
36-37, 39
school 6s
on spread of Islam 246
Canterbury, England 143, 143 Coins 25, 25, 148, 149, 151
universe 25, 270, 274,
trigonometry 89
Canute see Knut the Great see also Currency
276
Bitruji, Nur al-Oin ibn Ishaq
Caravans 133, 133, 247 Colombo, Realdus 167
Damiani, Pier (Cardinal of
al- 293 Caravansaries 132, 132-133 Columbus, Christopher 31, Ostia) 47
Black Death 30 Carda no, Geronimo 54
241, 242, 244
Dams 126-127
"The Blackbird" see Ziryab
Cardwell, Donald 8, 10
boats 242, 256
Daniel of Morley 28, 81-82
Bleriot, Louis 300
Carnations 223
Communication, global
Daniell, Thomas 217
Blindness prevention 174
Carpets 29, 6o, 60-61, 61,
258-259
Dar ai-Islam (Muslim world)
Compasses 252, 252
Blood circulation 14, 166-167,
101, 134
map 14-15
167
Castell, Edmund 32
Conic sections 96-97
Dark Ages 8, 10
|
Blue Mosque, Istanbul 202
Castles 14, 15, 189, 210,
Conservatories 218, 218-219
De Grandville, Richard 208
Boat travel 246-247, 248
210-211, 211 Constantine the African 27,
Decimal fractions 87
Cataract treatments 172, 175
27, 71, 184, 184, 196
Bologna, Italy 30, 139
Catgut 162, 162, 182
Constellations 294, 294-295,
Defoe, Daniel 103
Bonding columns 21 1
Cauterization 158, 159
295
Dhaifa Khatoon, Queen 29
Bone fractures 168-169
Celebi, Hasan 102
Contracts 113
Dimashqi, AI- 131, 249-250
Bonoeil, John 137
Celestial globes 276, 276
Cookbooks 40-41
Dinawari, Abu Hanifa al- 180
Book of Roger 14
Ceramics see Pottery
Copernicus, Nicolaus 31, 31,
Diodes of Carystus 178
Book production 139
266, 268, 268, 274
Dioscorides (physician) 178,
Bookshops see Libraries and
Charlemagne 25
Corals and coral reefs 147
179, 181, 182
bookshops
Charles, Prince of Wales 10
Cordoba, Spain 24
Distillation 15, 25, 91, 92, 93,
Botany 29, 178, 179, 180
Charles I, King (Great Britain
home 49. 58
94. 95
and Ireland) 23, 33
Diyabakir, Turkey 191
see also Herbal medicine
Chaucer, Geoffrey 282, 282
market 115, 127, 134
Doctor's code 170-171
Bowden, Lord B. V8
Chaucer, Lewis 282
school 65, 77. 78
Dome of the Rock Mosque,
Boyle, Robert 23, 32
Checks 150
town 14, 25, 189, 189, 190,
Jerusalem 24, 24, 29, 203,
Brahe, Tycho 271, 278, 291
Chemistry 15, 90, 90-95, 180
194
205
Brighton, England 51, 51
Chess 18, 46, 46-47, 47
Corrosive sublimate 95
Domes 193, 201, 202,
Brothers of Purity see Jkhwan
China
Cosmetics _O
202-205, 203, 204, 205
al-Safa'
currency 148
Cotter, John 142, 143 "Drinking Bull" robot 52,
Bulbous dome 203, 204, 205
map 249
Cotton 110, 112, 113, 136, 137
52-53
Burnet, John 214
papermaking 138
Cotton paper 138
Drip irrigation 119
Burrows, William E. 299
trade 133, 246-247, 254-256
Counting systems 86
Durham Cathedral, England
Bursa, Turkey 137, 142
Courtyard houses 130
192, 193
weaponry 260
Dyeing 60, 135

Bursevi, Mehmed 216


Christina, Queen (Denmark)
Cowpox inoculations 33, 33,

Burton, Decimus 217 38
176, 176, 177

Busbecq, Count Ogier de 222 Church of Cristo de Ia Luz,
Cowrie shells 148 L

Buyid family 96
Toledo see Bab Mardum
Cranks 122 Earth (planet) 228, 228-229,
Byzantine coins 149-150
Mosque, Toledo Crateuas (physician) 178
236, 236-237. 237, 238
Cinnabar mines 146 Crichton, Michael 250
Earth science 230-231
L
Circulatory system see Blood Crops 110, 111-112, 112
East India Company 137
circulation
Crusades 28, 192-193, 210, 211,
Economics 8, 14, 262-263
Caetani, Francisco 222 Cities see Towns 213, 261 see also Currency; Market
R I I L RI NCf_ I N DEX 4b
Education see School Farghani, AI- 268, 292 Geography 234-237 Hakim, AI- (Fatimid caliph) 73
Edward l, King (England) 29, Farisi, Kamal al-Oin al- 54. 56, see also Mapmaking; Hakluy;, Richard 61
137. 143. 205, 208 85, 233 Maps; Travelers and
Halabi, Ahmad al- 277
Edward Lloyd's Coffee Farman, Henri 300
explorers
Halley, Edmund 23, 33
Geology see Earth science House, London 33, 36,
Farming see Agriculture
l-lama, Syria 120, 121
37. 37
Fashion 58-59, 58-59
Geometry 96-99, 97, 100,
l-amdani, AI- 231
Egypt
Fatih, Muhammad a!- 218
140, 291
Hammams see Baths
chicken eggs 33
Fatih Kulliye, lstanbul 66
George IV, King (England)
Hapgood, Charles 241
51, 217
Fatimid rule 26
Fatimids 26, 27, 73. 149, 150
Gerard of Cremona,
Harun a!-Rashid (caliph) 25,
glassmaking 144, 144, 145
Fazari, AI- 25. 286
translations by 75, 83, 91,
72, 74, 150, 199
Mamluk dynasty 29
Feldman, Anthony 8, 10 93. 159. 161, 169, 170, 185 Harvey, Sir William 166, 167
papermaking 138
Ferrand, Gabriel 249 Ghafqi, Muhammad ibn
Hasan al-Rammah 260, 261
water management 118,
Fertilization 109, 116
Qassum ibn Aslam a! - 175.
l-lazarfen Ahmed Celebi 299,
119, 120, 122
Fez, Morocco 136
181
299
Eilmer of Malmesbury 298
Fibonacci, Leonardo 29, 87
Ghazali, AI- 28
Hegira calendar 290, 291
Eleanor of Castile, Queen
Fihri, Fatima a! - 18, 26, 69
Gillray, James 33. 176
Hemp paper 138
(England) 29, 137, 143,
Fine dining 38, 38-39, 39
Giotto 30
Henna 51, 213
205, 208
Finger-reckoning 86
Glass industry 108, 144,
Henry I, King (England) 208
Elephant Clock 16, 17, 43. 44,
144-145. 145
Henry Il, King (England) 81 44, 45
Fiorina, Carly 1 1
see also Crystal
Elgood, Cyril 174
Firdawsi, AI- 296, 296
Global communication
Henry VII, King (England)
Elyot, Sir Thomas 181
Fistula treatment 158-159
258-259
208-209
Henry VIII, King (England)
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 78
"Flask with Two Spouts"
Goats 36, 36
(game) 53, 53
60, 100, 101
Emery 146 Gold jewelry 146
Heptagon 96-97
Encryption see Cryptography
Flight 296-301
Gold Mancus coin 25, 25
Herbal medicine 170, 178,
Energy 127
birds 297
Golden ratio 86, 98, 98
178-181, 179, 180
see also Windmills
human 26, 26, 296-299,
Gothic arch see Ogee arch
Herman the German 83
298, 299
Engineering see Dams;
rockets 33. 33
Gothic architecture 193, 196,
l-levelius, Johannes 23, 32,
Water management;
Flying buttresses 196
197, 199-201, 203, 205
33, 80
Water-raising machines
Gothic rib vaulting 14, 14,
Hippocrates 73. 74
Food and drink see
Engines 44, 123
Agriculture; Coffee; Fine
199-201, 200
Hi rschberg, Julius 172, 174
England
dining; Three-course
Great Mosque, Cordoba 25,
History, methodology 263
W
194, 195. 196, 197. 197,
coffee 33. 33
menu
198,