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Lesson 1

Foundations Engineering
Prof. Fernando A. M. Marinho
fmarinho@usp.br
Introduction
Lesson 1
Purpose and classification of foundations
Types of Foundation and Terminology
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
Initial Settlement
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
Load transfer mechanism
Foundation Design
Factors to consider in foundations design
Introduction
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Main References
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Santos - Brazil Ubatuba - Brazil
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Canada Nepal
Japan
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Santos - Brazil
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Purpose and Classification of Foundations
The substructure is the interface between the
junction of high stress intensities from the
superstructure and the low allowed stress
intensities on the soil mass. Bowles (1975)
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Types of Foundation and Terminology
Shallow foundation Deep Foundation
B 2 ~
B
Deep failure mechanism
Modificado de Velloso & Lopes (2011)
More than 2B and
minimum 3 m
NBR - 6122
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Types of Foundation and Terminology
Atkinson (1993)
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Velloso & Lopes (2011)
Types of Foundation and Terminology
http://theconstructor.org/geotechnical/foundations/need-functions-of-pile-foundation/1785/
http://www.strabag-offshore.com/en/activities/foundation-systems.html
Lesson 1
Purpose and Classification of Foundations
Load
Transference
Shallow foundation
Deep foundation
Isolated footing
Mat foundation
Strip footing
Block
Large Displacement
Small Displacement
No Displacement
End bearing pile
Friction piles
End bearing and friction piles
Construction Method
There are many way to do that!
Lesson 1
http://www.civilcraftstructures.com/civil-subjects/foundation-in-geotechnical-perspective/
http://www.drc-associates.com/p_new_building.htm
http://www.flickr.com/photos/backflipboy/271792306/in/photostream/
Classification of Foundations
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/project-report-six-months-summer-training-2.html
Lesson 1 http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/franki-geotechnics-b/large-diameter-bored-piles-61404-153216.html
http://www.14thstviaductreplacement.com/March2012.html
Classification of Foundations
http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/sefi-intrafor/bored-piles-59836-143090.html
http://evstudio.info/steel-screw-pile-foundation/
http://www.simplexwestpile.co.uk/techniques/driven-precast-concrete-piling/
Lesson 1
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
The distribution of pressure under a foundation depends on the
homogeneity of the soil and flexibility of the base.
Flexible Rigid
Slido elstico isotrpico, homogneo e profundo
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Flexible (Clay)
Rigid (Clay)
Flexible (Sand)
Rigid (Sand)
When a footing is rigid, the settlement is uniform. The contact pressure
distribution is minimum at the center and the maximum at the edges.
When the footing is rigid, the settlement is uniform. The contact pressure increases
from zero at the edges to a maximum at the centre. The sand is unconfined at edges
and presents a lower modulus of elasticity. The confinement increases if the footing
is embedded,
setlement
Contact pressure


When a footing is flexible, it presents the maximum deflection at the
center. The contact pressure distribution is uniform.

When the footing is flexible the footing undergo a large settlement at the edges. Due
to the confinement at the centre the soil has a high modulus of elasticity (sand) and
deflects less for the same contact pressure. The contact pressure is uniform.
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
setlement
Contact pressure
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Velloso & Lopes (2011)
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
Applied Loads
Rigidity structure/soil
Contact pressure is a very important factor when analyzing a foundation .
Factors that affect the contact pressure are: Type of load, rigidity, soil properties, level of load
Influence of applied loads and rigidity of footing on pressure distribution.
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Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
Soil Properties
Load level
Velloso & Lopes (2011)
N.C. Clays and sands O.C. Clays
Embeded foundation
Increasing load
The soil properties affects the contact pressure since the shear strength of the soil determines the
maximum pressure ate the borders.
According to the theory of elasticity the pressure at the borders of a rigid footing is infinity, which is not
real but there is plastification at the borders.
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Initial Settlement
|
|
.
|

\
|

= A
E
pB C H
d i
2
1
Winterkorn & Fang (1975)
|
|
.
|

\
|

= A
E
pB I I I H
h d s i
2
1
factor layer le compressib the of thickness -
factor depth -
position) on the depends flexible (if factor rigidity and shape -
h
d
s
I
I
I
Rigid
0.79
0.99
See Velloso and Lopes (2011)
OR
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Fadum (1948). Apud Winterkorn & Fang (1975)
Calculation of Stress Distribution
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'
log
1
o A
+
= A
c
o
C
e
H
H
Consolidation
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Pinto (2002)
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
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(r = 0)
(z = constant) r
r
r
(z = constant)
(z = constant)
(o
z
= plotted horizontally)
(o
z
= plotted vertically)
Variation of vertical stress
due to point load
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
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Craig (1997)
Iso-stresses
Strip load
Square load
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
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254 tf
Templo de Luxor, Egito
Farao: Ramses II (reigned 1304-1237 B.C.)
Altura: 27 m
Peso: 254 tf
Pressure distribution Under a Foundation
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Superstructure frame
D
1
D
2
B
1
B
2
P
1
P
2
Modified from Winterkorn and Fang (1975)
Lets accept that the settlement is given by:
s s
E
qD
AE
PL
~ ~
1. The footing 2 will settle more than footing 1.
2. The diffential movement will readjust the loads (P
1
and P
2
), since the load
depend on continuity of the frame.
3. More load will go to P
1
as footing 2 settles, this relieves the settlement of
footing 2.
4. The variability of the soil modulus create more problems for the analysis.
Load Transfer Mechanism
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Load Transfer Mechanism
P
1
P
1
Depending on the soil and pile type the load transfer mechanism is complex
P
1
P
1
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Winterkorn & Fang (1975)
Different size footing carry stresses
into soil to different depths, for equal
contact pressure.
Aproximate depth of stress influence
and stresses with depth
1tf/m
2
1tf/m
2

Lesson 1
Foundation is the element of a structure that serves to support the loads from the
structure via elements such as columns.

Foundation also has the following functions:

1. Prevent settlement (including differential settlement) of a structure
2. Prevent possible movement of structure due to periodic shrinkage and swelling of
subsoil
3. Allow building over water or water-logged ground
4. Resist uplifting or overturning forces due to wind
5. Resist lateral forces due to soil movement
6. Underpin (support) existing or unstable structures
Foundation Design
Based on Raymond Wong (http://bst1.cityu.edu.hk/e-learning/building_info_pack/contech/Foundation.r.pdf)
Lesson 1
The performance and/or choices of foundation depends on:

1. Nature of sub-soil
2. Materials used for the foundation
3. Economical consideration of using a right kind of foundation
4. Layout of the structure (building/floor plan, positioning loads etc.)
5. Conditional of the site (location and sufficient work space)
Based on Raymond Wong (http://bst1.cityu.edu.hk/e-learning/building_info_pack/contech/Foundation.r.pdf)
Foundation Design
Lesson 1
Factors to consider in foundations design
Design load.
The magnitude of the design load dictates the required size of the foundation from a structural
standpoint.

Subsurface formations.
The depth and strength of subsurface formations determine the type of foundation chosen. In general,
drilled shafts are well suited to areas with competent soil and rock. In general, use piling where softer soil
is present. Very hard material at or near the surface makes driven pile installation difficult.

Corrosive conditions.
Salts, chlorides, and sulfates are detrimental to foundations. Where these conditions exist, take
preventive measures.

Economic considerations.
Economics is considered in the final selection. Compare the foundation types. The cost of a drilled shaft
foundation, for instance, may be less than piling. It may be feasible to use fewer piles at higher design
loads, or fewer drilled shafts with larger diameters to maximize economy.

Superstructure type.
The type of superstructure chosen may dictate or eliminate certain foundation types
http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/geo/foundation_design.htm
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