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ME 109 midterm 2

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You are on page 1of 5

Cold

water enters the tube at a uniform temperature of 20C and experiences uniform heat flux

at the

wall along the length of the pipe. The diameter of the pipe D is 5cm.

1a) If the mass flow rate of the fluid is 0.05 kg/s, how long does L need to be for the flow to be thermally

fully developed by the end of the pipe?

Since the development length is dictated by the flow regime (laminar or turbulent), we need to check if

the Reynolds number is larger than the critical Reynolds number for internal pipe flow, which is roughly

2300.

=

(

(

2

)

2

= 1592

Since this is well below the critical value, the flow is laminar.

The equation governing entry length for laminar flow is:

(

= 0.05

where

=

= 2.67

Solving for

,

produces

,

= 10.6m

therefore the flow will be thermally fully developed at the end of the pipe if L=10.6m.

Fluid Properties

= 0.6 W/m-K

= 1000 kg/m^3

= 2000 J/kg-K

= 810

4

Pa -s

x-dir

r- dir

1b) Assume a new length L that is ten times longer than your answer from part (a) with the same mass

flow rate as part (a). What is the average heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and the interior

walls of the pipe?

Since we found the length to become fully developed in part (a), a pipe that is 10 times longer than that

can be assumed thermally fully developed for the entire length of pipe. We can also show that we are

hydrodynamically fully developed by calculating

,,

= 0.05

.

To find the average heat transfer coefficient we need the correlation for laminar, fully developed flow in

a circular pipe with constant wall flux. This correlation is provided in the exam handouts and is:

= 4.36

Since the flow is fully developed, the Nusselt number doesnt change with position. The average heat

transfer coefficient is also the local heat transfer coefficient. Solving for the heat transfer coefficient:

=

results in

= 52.3

FOR ALL REMAINING QUESTIONS IN PART 1, ASSUME THE LENGTH OF THE PIPE IS 100m LONG

1c) If 80 percent of the electrical power is transferred to the fluid, how much electrical power is required

to achieve an average outlet temperature of 80C?

An overall energy balance on the pipe results in the equation

=

(

,

,

)

where

,

=20C,

,

= 80C.

If only 80% of the electrical power is conducted to the fluid then the electrical power must be

=

0.8

=

(

,

,

)

0.8

= 7.5

1d) What is

= 382

2

Part 2- Suppose that the same pipe as in part 1 is wrapped with a different electrical heater that causes

the heat flux to vary as a function of position according to

() = + where = 15

2

and

= 5

3

. In this configuration,

dimensions of the pipe and mass flow are still the same as part 1 (continue to use L=100m).

2a) Starting with a differential energy balance, derive a relationship for the mean temperature of the

fluid

() as a function of position.

Energy balance:

Differential form:

=

( + )

Integrate:

=

( +)

() =

+

2

2

+

)

=

pply boundary condition to get C:

( = 0) =

,

0 +0 + =

,

Final solution:

() =

+

2

2

+

,

2b) If a thermocouple on the outside of this newly wrapped pipe reads 50C at x=50m, what is the local

heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and pipe wall at this position?

The heat flux at any point along the wall obeys:

() = ()[

()

()]

() =

()

()

()

At x=50m,

(50) =

(50) +

2

(50)

2

+

,

= 31C

(50) = 50C

Therefore

() =

265

2

50C 31C

= 13.8

2c) On the plot below, sketch the profile of

(i.e.

,

and the outlet temperature as

,

. This problem

requires no numbers.

2d) Also draw on the diagram

() = ) and the

total heat added along the length of the pipe equals the total heat added from case (2c). Assume the

fluid enters at the same temperature (

,

) as case (2c).

Solution for (2c) and (2d):

Plot characteristic Im looking for:

1) Slope of case (2c) increases with x because heat flux increases linearly with x, therefore the

mean temperature will increase as a quadratic. Or equally stated: more and more heat is added

per unit length, therefore the mean temperature of the fluid increases more and more per unit

length.

2) The slope of case (2c) at x=0 is zero because heat flux is zero (REMOVED AS A REQUIREDMENT

FOR POINTS)

3) The slope of case (2d) is linear because heat flux is constant

4) The end temperature of each case is the same value

,

because

,

is the same for both and

it was stated that the same total heat is added to each flow (shown using overall energy

balance).

() =

() =

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