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# Two Marks - Pumps and Turbines

## What is a fuid Machine ?

A fuid machine is a device which converts the energy stored by a fuid in to
mechanical energy or work.
What are positive displacement machines ?
The machine unctioning depend essentially on the change o volume o a
certain amount o fuid within the machine. There is a physical displacement
o the boundary o certain fuid hence it is called positive displacement
machine.
!ased on the direction o fuid fow how are the fuid machines classi"ed ?
According to the fow direction o fuid# the fuid machines are classi"ed as
A\$ial fow machines - The main fow direction is parallel to the a\$is o the
machine.
%adial fow machines - The main fow direction is perpendicular to the a\$is o
the machine ie. in radial direction
Mi\$ed fow machines - The fuid enters radially and leaves a\$ially or vice-
versa.
What is a turbine ?
A turbine converts the energy o the fuid in to mechanical energy which is
then utili&ed in running a generator o a power plant.
'tate the di(erence between impulse and reaction turbines ?
At the inlet o the turbine the energy available is only kinetic energy# the
turbine is known as impulse turbine. ) the inlet o the turbine# possesses
kinetic energy and pressure energy# the turbine known as reaction turbine.
What are *omologous units ?
)n utili&ing scale models in designing turbo machines# geometric simililitude
is necessary as well as geometrically similar velocity diagrams at entrance
and e\$it rom impellers. Two geometrically similar units having similar vector
diagrams are called homologous units.
+e"ne speci"c speed based on power.
The speci"c speed ,-s . o turbine is de"ned as the speed o some unit o
series o such si&e that it produces unit power with unit head. .
+e"ne speci"c speed based on discharge.
The speci"c speed , -s . o the pump is de"ned as the speed o some unit o
the series o such si&e that it delivers unit discharge at unit speed
What is the signi"cance o speci"c speed ?
The speci"c speed inversely proportional to the head across the machine. 'o
low speci"c speed corresponds to high head across it and vice-versa.
The speci"c speed is directly proportional to the discharge through the
machine or power produced by the machine. 'o low speci"c speed thereore
reers to low discharge or low power machine and vice-versa.
-ame the main parts o a radial fow reaction turbine ?
i. /asing ii. 0uide vane iii. %unner iv. +rat tube.
What is the purpose o the guide vanes in radial fow reaction turbine ?
The purpose o the guide vane is to convert a part o pressure energy o the
fuid at its entrance to the kinetic energy and then direct the fuid on to the
What is a drat tube ? )n which turbine it is mostly used.
The drat tube is a conduit which connects the runner e\$it to the trail race#
when water is being "nally discharged rom the turbine. )n reaction turbine #
the drat tube is mostly used.
What is the primary unction o a drat tube ?
The primary unction o the drat tube is to reduce the velocity o the
discharged water to minimi&e the loss o kinetic energy at the outlet.
-ame the main parts o 1aplan turbine.
i.. 'croll casing ii.. 0uide vanes iii.. *ub with vanes iv.. drat tube
-ame the main parts o pelton wheel .
i. -o&&le ii. %unner with buckets iii. /asing.
An inward fow reaction turbine running at 234rpm has +5 6 5m# b5 6 4.2m#
+2 6 4.3m and b7 6 4.7m. ) the water enters the wheel radially at 7.3m8s
velocity# determine the discharge and velocity o the fow at the outlet.
Assume vane thickness at the e\$tremities to be negligible.
Q = p D1 b1 Uf1 = p D2 b2 Uf2 = p x 1 x 0.2 x 3.5 = 2.199 m3/s
Uf2 = 2.99/ (p x 0.5 x 0.3) = 4.666 m/s
What are the di(erent perormance characteristic curves ?
i. 9ariable speed curves ,or. main characteristics
ii. /onstant seed curves ,or. operating characteristics
iii. /onstant e:ciency curves ,or. Muschel characteristics
0ive an e\$ample or a low head turbine # a medium head turbine and a high
;ow head turbine - 1aplan turbine
Medium head turbine - <rancis turbine
*igh head turbine - Pelton wheel.
what are the purposes o casing o a centriugal pump
i. To provide water to and rom the impeller
ii. To partially convert the kinetic energy in to pressure energy
What are the di(erent types o casing in centriugal pump ?
i. 9olute casing ii. Turbine casing ,or. casing with guide blades
What is a positive displacement pump ?
)n the case o positive displacement pumps# the fuid is physically pushed
rom an enclosed space. The positive displacement pumps can be either
reciprocating type or rotary type.
Where is the reciprocating pump well suited ?=
The reciprocating pump is well suited or relatively small capacities and high
what are the main components o a reciprocating pump ?
5.cylinder 2. Piston 7. suction valve >. +elivery valve 3. 'uction pipe ?.
delivery pipe @. crank shat and connecting rod mechanism.
+e"ne coe:cient o discharge o reciprocating pump.
The ratio between the actual discharge and theoretical discharge is known as
coe:cient o discharge. /d 6 Aact 8 Athe.
+e"ne slip o the reciprocating pump. When does the negative slip occurs ?
The di(erence between theoretical discharge and actual discharge is called
the slip o the pump.
'lip 6 Athe. - Aact # B o slip 6 ,Athe. - Aact . \$ 544 8 Athe.
-egative slip occurs when delivery pipe is short suction pipe is long and
pump is running at high speed.
+i(erentiate between single acting and double acting reciprocating
reciprocating pump.
)n single acting pump# there is one suction valve and one delivery valve. Cn
the backward stroke o the piston# the suction valve opens and water enters
into the cylinder space. Cn the orward stroke# the suction valve closes and
delivery valve opens# the water is orced through the delivery pipe.
)n the double acting pump# there are two suction valves and two delivery
vales one in the ront and one in the rear. When the piston moves backward#
the suction valve in the ront opens and delivery valve in the rear opens and
water is orced through it. When the piston moves orward# the suction valve
in the rear opens and delivery valve in the ront opens and water is orced
through it.
What is an indicator diagram o a reciprocating pump ?
The indicator diagram o a reciprocating pump is the diagram which shows
the pressure head in the cylinder corresponding to any position during the
suction and delivery strokes.
A single acting single cylinder reciprocating pump has the ollowing
characteristics.
+ischarge 6 ? lps# suction head 6 >m# +elivery head 6 24m# <ind the energy
reDuired to drive the pump.
Energy reDuired 6 r g A , *s F *d . Watts 6 ,5444 \$G.H5 \$ ?\$54-7 \$ ,> F
24. 8 5444
6 5.>4G kW.
What is an air vessel and what is its purpose ?
An air vessel is a closed chamber connected on the suction or delivery or
both sides o the reciprocating pump to obtain a more uniorm fow.
-ame some rotary positive displacement pumps.
a. 0ear pumps.
b. 9ane Pumps.
c. Piston pumps.
d. 'crew pumps.