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Published on: 1
st
Sept 2012
DOCUMENTATION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON
FODDER USES BY THE NATIVE INHABITANTS IN BEED
DISTRICT (M.S.) INDIA
A.P. SALAVE AND P. G. REDDY*
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, SHRI DNYANESHWAR MAHAVIDYALAYA, NEWASA,
AHMEDNAGAR-414603
*RESEARCH CENTRE OF BOTANY, P.V.P. COLLEGE, PRAVARANAGAR (LONI),
AHMEDNAGAR-413713
Corresponding author: Salave A.P. : salave_ap@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
An extensive field visits and surveys were undertaken season wise in the study area to document
information regarding fodder uses of the native ethno-flora among the local inhabitants. The information is
collected from the local inhabitants, livestock grazers and the native informants through verbal
communication in an informal ways at their home town during the period from pre-monsoon of 2008 to
post-monsoon of 2010. In this paper 29 plant species belonging to 26 genera from 18 families used by the
native populace in routine life has been reported.
KEY WORD: Ethno-flora, Beed Ghat, Wild fodder.
INTRODUCTION:
Recently it has been realized that certain plants are playing a very significant role in improving the rural
as well as tribal economy through animal husbandry program. The demand for livestock products (meat,
milk, wool, manure) is increasing day by day. Therefore its our prime duty to document all these wild
and native plants scientifically and investigate their fodder importance.
It has been estimated that out of 15,000 higher plants occurring is India. 9000 are common in use, of
which 7500 used as medicine, 3900 used in cultural ritual,525 used as fibre, 400 used as fodder,300 for
pesticide and insecticide,300 used for gum and resin and 100 for incense and perfumes [1].It has reported
that most of the plants were in use in the ancient time by the ethnic societies of the world either as a food
or fodder including the herbal drugs. The rich phyto-diversity is being utilized by the inhabitants of the
study areas in various forms including medicine, food, fuel, fodder and timber, for making agricultural
implements, fiber, in religious ceremonies and for various other purposes [2-3]. Worldwide, thousands of
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higher plant species and several hundred lower plant species are in use by human beings for purposes
such as food, fuel, fibre, oil, herbs, spices, industrial crops and as forage and fodder for domesticated
animals[4].

On national as well as level state level, livestock numbers is declining day by day since last 10 to 20 years
due to reductions in forest, decrease in fodder resources and less labour availability. To solve same
problem, supply of proper and healthy fodder to livestock, particularly during the dry summer season is
necessary. Hence, present work was undertaken.
THE STUDY AREA:
The Beed district is bestowed by nature with a great ethno-floristic-diversity. It denotes that the wisdom
of the local informants in regards to traditional ethno-botanical knowledge. It represents a varied
panorama and located between 181030N-198157N latitude and 702166E-737039E longitude.
It is famous for diverse vegetation and wild ethno-flora due to varied topographical and climatic
conditions. Local habitants in these areas show a rich heritage ethnobotanical knowledge. The area under
the study is occupied by forest area of 3.16 km
2
with 47.5% mixed-deciduous forests with an average
rainfall of about 389 mm (2004) and temperature range of 28C to 44.8C [6].So far the study concerned,
area under the study is unexplored up to today.
METHODOLOGY:
Frequent field visits were arranged in the study areas season wise and region wise during the period from
pre-monsoon of 2008 to post-monsoon of 2010 to document information on fodder uses of the native wild
as well as cultivated ethno-flora among the local inhabitants. The plant specimens were collected by
knowing their local/vernacular names from the knowledgeable informants as per plan given [19-20]. The
information was collected informally via oral interviews in an informal ways. The voucher specimens
were prepared, confirmed by referring the standard floras [21-22] and preserved as per plan suggested by
[23] in the Department of Botany, P.V.P. College, Pravaranagar for future study.
Review of literature:
Recent interest in ethnobotanical explorations has increased due to the work [7-18].
RESULTS:
The taxa are enumerated in alphabetical order according to botanical name with family (in parenthesis)
followed by local name, part used, occurrence and habit.
DISCUSSION:
During the field visits (table:1) in all total 29 plant species belonging to 26 genera from 18 families
reported from the study area. These plants are used by the native populace as traditional fodders. Some of
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the plant species viz. Cordia dichotoma (Bhokar), Terminalia crenulata (Asan), Securinega leucopyros
(Pithwani), Rhus mysurensis (Aamoni), Portulaca oleracea (Ghol), Mentha spicata (Pudina), Mucuna
pruriens (Koyari vel), Convolvulus arvensis (Chandvel), Bauhinia racemosa (Dev-Aapata), Dichrostachys
cinerea (Yeltur), Pergularia daemia (Utarand), Acacia leucophloea (Hiwar),Syzygium cumini (Jambhul),
Wattakaka volubilis (Haran-dodi), Mitragyna parvifolia (Kalamb), Woodfordia fruticosa (Dhayati) and
Coccinea grandis (Tondali) possess potential of better economic exploitation. Since all the plants are in
use throughout the world in more or less proportion, they have wide scope for bio-prospecting. Therefore
it is our prime duty to protect, conserve and maintain it in a proper way for our future studies.
From above study (Table:2),it is found that leaves in eleven taxa (37.93 %), leaves and shoots in nine taxa
(31.03 %), fruits in one taxa (3.45 %), all plant parts in five taxa (10.34 %) and leaves and fruits in three
taxa (10.34 %) found to have fodder uses.
From the study (Table:3), it has found that occurrence of sixteen taxa are common (55.17%), fourteen is
rare (48.28 %) one is an exotic ornamental (3.45 %) and remaining two taxa found cultivated crop plants
(55.17 %).
From above study (Table:4), it has been found that habit of twelve taxa is herb (41.38 %), eight is shrub
(27.59 %), five is tree (17.24 %) and remaining two taxa are found to have climber habit(6.90 %).
CONCLUSION:
The study enlightens immense scope and wide potential for researches in the area. To document, conserve
and evaluate the information, collective efforts are needed from the ethno-botanists and ethno-
pharmacologists along with knowledgeable informant. As an ethno-botanist, its our duty to protect and
spread the indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge through various media before it lost. Due to biotic
interference and deforestation vast amount of wild ethno-flora is under the threat of extinction. To
conserve it, there is urgent need of collaborative work regarding urgent protection and preservation by
villagers, semi-government and Government authorities.
Rural, tribal and non-tribal populace participation can be initiated by giving incentives to local people and
creating general awareness among them about the usefulness of the wild ethno-flora. The central and the
state government authorities should encourage the field of ethnobotany by exploring the hidden green
ethnobotanical wealth which in turn will help in elevating the export of herbal medicine and growing the
trade and economy of the country by increasing herbal trade with the major countries around the world.
This will also improve the health and quality of life of entire nation.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
Authors thanks are due to the help rendered by the notified and de-notified rural, tribal and non-tribal
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groups and traditional healers from the study area due to their immense help and co-operation during the
study and field work.
Thanks are also due to the authorities of Forest division of Beed for immense cordial cooperation and
permission for collection of plant parts from plants of ethno-medicinal significance.

REFERENCES:
1. Duthie J.F.(1960).Flora of Upper Gangetic plain and of the adjacent Shivalic and sub-Himalayan
Tret,(Botanical Survey of India, calcutta), Reprinted.
2. Samant, S.S. & U. Dhar 1997. Diversity, endemism and economic potential of wild edible plants of
Indian Himalaya. Intern J. Sustainable Develop. & World Ecol.4:179-91.
3. Samant, S.S., U. Dhar & R.S. Rawal. 1998b. Biodiversity status of a protected area of West Himalaya-
1. Askot Wildlife Sanctuary. Intern.J. Sustainable Develop. & World Ecol.5:193-203.
4. Heywood, V.H., 1992. Conservation of germplasm of wild species. In Sandlund, O.T., Hindar, K. and
Brown, A.H.D. (eds.). Conservation of Biodiversity for Sustainable Development. Scandinavian
University Press, Oslo, 189-203.
5. Anonymous, (1976) Gazetteer of Maharashtra State, Beed District. Publication and Information
Division, Govt. of Maharashtra, pp 6-7.
6. Almeida, M.R. (2007)A Checklist of Plants of Beeddistrict. Enercon, Orient Press Ltd. Bombay.
7. Janaki Ammal, E.K. (1956) Introduction to the subsistence economy of India. In: Mans role in
changing face of the earth (edr. William L.T. Jr), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 324-35.
8. Jain, S.K.(1967) Ethnobotany: Its scope and study in India. J. Museum Bull.2 (I):39-43.
9. Awan A.A.,T.Akhtar and M.E.Dar(2007)Fodder plants of some selected areas of Jhelum valley district
Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir. Pak.J.Bio.Sci.19(9):1547-49.
10. Pawar S and Patil D.A.(2006) A contribution to the ethnobotany of Jalgaon district (M.S.):Fodder
resources. J.Adv.Plant Sci.5:75-78.
11. Joshi, A. R. and K. Joshi (2003) Fodder plants of hilly areas of Bagmati and Langtang watershed of
Nepal: Ethnobotany and future conservation strategy.J.Ethnobot.15 (1/2):107-14.
12. Kulkarni, D.K. and M.S.Kumbhojkar (1992) Ethnobotanical studies on Mahadeokoli tribe in Western
Maharashtra-Part II. Fodder Plants. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. (Addl Ser) 10:12328.
13. Sebastian, M.K.(1984) Plants used as veterinary medicines, galactogogue and fodder in the forest
areas of Rajasthan. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 5:785-88
14. Janardhanan K.P. (1961) Fodder grass and legumes of Khed taluka (Poona district).Proc.
Sec. Ann. Sess. Acad. Agri.Sci. Coimbatore pp.106-11.
15. Heuch, J (1986) Fodder for foresters: An introduction to tree fodder use in Nepal. LAC Technical
Paper 86\13, LAC.17pp.
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16. Panday, K K (1982) Fodder trees and tree fodder in Nepal. Swiss Development Corporation. Berne,
Switzerland,107 pp.
17. Datta, S. C. and A. K. Banerjee. 1979. Useful weeds of west Bengal rice fields. J. Econ. Bot. 32:297-
310.
18. Doebley, J. F. 1984. "Seeds" of wild grasses: a major food of southwestern Indians. J. Econ. Bot. 38
(1):52-64.
19. Schulte, R.E.(1962) The role of ethnobotanists in search for new medicinal plants. J.Lloydia.25 (4):
257-66
20. Jain, S.K. and R.R Rao (1967) A handbook of field and herbarium methods, Today and Tomorrow
Printers and Polishers, New Delhi, pp.33-58.
21. Pradhan, S.G. and N.P. Singh (1999) Flora of Beed District.(M.S.).Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh.
Dehradun
22. Singh, N.P. and S. Karthkeyan (2000) Flora of Maharashtra state (Dicots) Vol I & II BSI., Calcutta.
23. Jain, S.K.(1989) Methods and approaches in Ethnobotany, Society of Ethnobotanists, C.D.R.I.
Lucknow.





























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Table:1-Detailed analysis of the plant species used as fodder

Sr.
No
Botanical name with
family in parenthesis
Local
name
O
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e

H
a
b
i
t

P
l
a
n
t

P
a
r
t
s

u
s
e
d

Fodder usages
1. Tribulus terrestris L.
(Zygophyllaceae)
Sarata
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

E
n
t
i
r
e


a
e
r
i
a
l

p
l
a
n
t

Entire aerial parts of the plant are used
for increasing location period in cattle.
2. Vernonia cinerea
(L.)Less. (Asteraceae)
Shahadevi
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

E
n
t
i
r
e


a
e
r
i
a
l

p
l
a
n
t

Entire aerial parts of the plant are used
for increasing location quality with
period in cattle.
3. Combretum albidum
G.Don.
(Combretaceae)
Madwel
R
a
r
e

S
h
r
u
b

E
n
t
i
r
e


a
e
r
i
a
l

p
l
a
n
t
Entire aerial parts of the plant are used
to improve milk quality and duration in
sheep and goats
4. Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth.
(Convolvulaceae)
.Nili
phungali
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

E
n
t
i
r
e


a
e
r
i
a
l

p
l
a
n
t
Entire aerial parts of the plant are used
for improving sexual strength and
vitality in male sheep and goats
5. Ipomoea obscura (L.)
Ker-Gawl.
(Convolvulaceae)
Piwali
Pungli
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

E
n
t
i
r
e


a
e
r
i
a
l

p
l
a
n
t
Entire aerial parts of the plant are used
for improving muscular strength and
body weight in male sheep and goats
6. Cassia fistula L.
(Caesalpinaceae)
Bahava
C
o
m
m
o
n

T
r
e
e

F
r
u
i
t

Young fruits are fed with a pinch of
common salt to attain vigorous growth
and muscular growth in male goats.
7. Acanthospermum
hispidum (Roxb.)
Willd. (Asteraceae)
Landga
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

Green and healthy leaves are fed to
improve lactation quality and duration
in goats and sheep
8. Albizzia lebbeck (L.)
Benth.
(Mimosaceae)
Shirish
C
o
m
m
o
n

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

Fresh and healthy leaves are fed to
cattle and buffaloes to attain early
puberty..
9. Bauhinia perpurea L.
(Caesalpinaceae)
Rakta-
kanchan
A
n


e
x
o
t
i
c

o
r
n
a
m
e
n
t
a
l

S
h
r
u
b

L
e
a
f

Tender leaves are fed to the cattle,
buffaloes and horses to improve
conception power.
10. Coccinea grandis
(L.)Voight.
(Cucurbitaceae)
Tondali
C
u
l
t
i
v
a
t
e
d


c
r
o
p

p
l
a
n
t

C
l
i
m
b
e
r

L
e
a
f

Fresh and healthy leaves are fed to
goats and sheep to attain fast and sure
puberty.
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Sr.
No
Botanical name with
family in parenthesis
Local
name
O
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e

H
a
b
i
t

P
l
a
n
t

P
a
r
t
s

u
s
e
d

Fodder usages
11. Ipomoea aquatica
Forsk
(Convolvulaceae)
Nalichi
Bhaji
C
o
m
m
o
n

S
h
r
u
b

L
e
a
f

Fresh leaves are fed to oxen and male
buffaloes to improve sexual vigour.
12. Mitragyna parvifolia
(Roth.) Korth
(Rubiaceae)
Kalamb
R
a
r
e

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

Fresh and healthy leaves of the plant
are fed to calves as an effective tonic
for early puberty.
13. Pergularia daemia
(Forssk.)
Chiov.
(Asclepiadaceae)
Utarand
R
a
r
e

S
h
r
u
b

L
e
a
f

Green leaves are fed for improving
muscular strength and sexual vigour in
male goats.
14. Syzygium cumini (L.)
Skeels. (Myrtaceae)
Jambhul
C
o
m
m
o
n

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

Green leaves are used as fodder for
cattle for healthy growth
15. Wattakaka volubilis
(L.f.) Stapf.
(Asclepiadaceae)
Haran-
dodi
R
a
r
e

S
h
r
u
b

L
e
a
f

Young leaves are fed to sheep and
goats for improving lactation quality
with duration.
16. Woodfordia fruticosa
(L.) Kurz.
(Lythraceae)
Dhayati
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

Fresh leaves are fed to sheep and goats
for increasing milk quantity
17. Acacia leucophloea
(Roxb.)
Willd.(Mimosaceae)
Hiwar
C
o
m
m
o
n

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

f
r
u
i
t

Green leaves and pods are fed to goats
and sheep for increasing lactation
quality with duration.
18. Bauhinia racemosa
Lam.(Caesalpinaceae)
Dev-
Aapata
R
a
r
e

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

f
r
u
i
t

Green pods and leaves of the plant are
fed to goats and sheep. as an energetic
fodder.
19. Dichrostachys
cinerea Wt. & Arn.
(Mimosaceae)
Yeltur
C
o
m
m
o
n

S
h
r
u
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

f
r
u
i
t

Green leaves and pods are fed to
improve lactation in goats and sheep.
20. Alycicarpus
longifolius (Rottl. Ex
Spr) Wt.& Arn.
(Fabaceae)
Shevara
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Fresh and healthy leaves, tender shoots
are fed to goats and sheep as fodder for
improving disease resistance.
21. Celosia argentea L.
(Amaranthaceae)
Kombda
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Green leaves and young shoots are fed
to goats and sheep for increasing
lactation.
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Sr.
No
Botanical name with
family in parenthesis
Local
name
O
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e

H
a
b
i
t

P
l
a
n
t

P
a
r
t
s

u
s
e
d

Fodder usages
22. Convolvulus arvensis
L. (Convolvulaceae)
Chandvel
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Leaves and young shoots are fed to
goats and sheep for increasing lactation
period
23. Mentha spicata L.
(Lamiaceae)
Pudina
C
u
l
t
i
v
a
t
e
d


c
r
o
p

p
l
a
n
t

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Green leaves and tender shoots (stem)
are fed to the male horses for
increasing sexual vigour and vitality.
24. Mucuna pruriens (L.)
DC. (Fabaceae)
Koyari vel
R
a
r
e

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Green leaves and tender shoots fed to
oxen for improving muscular and
sexual vigour..
25. Portulaca oleracea L.
(Portulacaceae)
Ghol
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Young leaves and tender shoots are
used as fodder for improving sexual
strength and vigour in male sheep and
respective goats.
26. Rhus mysurensis
G.Don.
(Anacardiaceae)
Aamoni
R
a
r
e

S
h
r
u
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Green leaves and tender shoots with
certain quantity of groundnut (Arachys
hypogea) cake are fed to oxen and
horses as an energetic fodder.
27. Securinega
leucopyros
(Willd.)Muell-Arg.
(Euphorbiaceae)
Pithwani
C
o
m
m
o
n

H
e
r
b

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Green leaves and tender shoots are fed
to goats and sheep to improve lactation
duration.
28. Terminalia crenulata
Roth.
(Combretaceae)
Asan
R
a
r
e

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

Young leaves are fed to buffaloes and
cows a for increasing lactation
quantity.
29. Cordia dichotoma
Forst.f.
(Boraginaceae)
Bhokar
C
o
m
m
o
n

T
r
e
e

L
e
a
f

a
n
d

s
h
o
o
t

Green leaves and tender shoots are fed
to goats and sheep to attain early sexual
growth and puberty..













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Table: 2-Plant parts used in number of plant species studies with their percentage











Table: 3-Occurrence wise distribution of the plant species














Table: 4-Habit wise distribution of the plant species






















Plant part used Leaf Leaf and
shoot
Fruit Leaf and
fruit
Entire aerial
plant parts
No. of plant species 11 09 01 03 05
% of plant species 37.93 31.03 3.45 10.34 17.24
Occurrence of
plant species
Common Rare An exotic
ornamental
Cultivated crop
plant
No. of plant
species
16 14 01 02
% of occurrence 55.17 48.28 3.45 6.90
Habit of the plant Herb Shrub Tree Climber
No. of plant species 12 08 05 02
% of habit 41.38 27.59 17.24 6.90
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Figure 1: Study area Map-Beed District















Figure 2: Plant parts used in number of plant species studies with their percentage
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Figure 3: Occurrence wise distribution of the plant species





Figure 4: Habit wise distribution of the plant species