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o KWOTae; Flcrrouoovvou yeVVfj8T]KE TO 1925 OTO BOAO Kal TIe9aVE aTO nap(Ol TO 1981.

An6 TO 1945 e~T]oe oTT) raMLa.



'HTOV lJell.oe; TaU EAM Kat TaU KKE Kat TO 1944ouveAr']cp8Tjan6 rnv EtOLKtl Ao<poA.Ela. To 1945 KOTocpeuYEI OTI1 rall.Aia IlS TT] (30i]8ela TOU raAi\IKou IVOTlTOUTOU.

l:nouoooe q)lll.ooo<pla OTTj l:op!36vll ( 1945-48). An6 TO 1959 ewe; TO 1963 15106- OK!':.1 OTI1LOPP'OV7). Arto TO 1962fJE:XPI TO 1968 ol5ci0Kel <p17l.00Q(p(o OTO Cencier, OTO nap(o~ KOI KOlvwvloi\oy[a OTT) LXOi\f] AvwTE:PWV ~nopLKwv ~nouowv, Arto TO 1963 QVi]KE10TO CNRS (EeVLKO KE:VTPO EmOTTjf.lOVLKWV Epeuvwv). To 1970-72oloooKel qnlI.ooo<p(o ern NantetreKOl orto TO 1971 fJe)(PI TO SOVOTO "fOU, "fa 1981, iSli5aOKel ornv Ecole Pratique de H/;Iutes Etudes.

'Eypa\IJe nll.Tlewpa epywv <p11>.ooo<plae;.

KOlvWVI07l.0yLOC; nOAITIKne; Kal oI08TjTLKtle; om ell.lI.r]vlKo KGl ora yai\?\.{KQ, €Vw tpya TOU oTlIJOOleu111Kov oe oEKooee; yi\woOEe;.

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Ana TO 1962 KQI f.ll:':l'O ypa<pEI OTI1V yaAAIKtl yAwoaa. AVOf.jEOa OTa tpya TOU:

H tJOJ..lfl TI1C; enlxMpryol')C:; ( 1962), EloaYWYr] oro epyo TOU XeYKeA ( 1962),

To 1965 KUKAO<p0pouv OIJ.1C1P~IOrtC:;KOewe; Kat rr Bui;avTwrt i;wypaqJ{Kry.

To 1967 KUKAo<popel H lfJUXPr] l&oAoy{-

a. To 1966 I-lETacppo~el TO epyo TOU XtYKCA 0 A6yo£; OTTIV iatopia elaaywyrJ 0TrJ tplAoootp[o tnc lorop(ae;KOl TO 1971 TO epyo "fOU Map~ H npWT17 KpmKr] TrJC; noAITIKr]C; OIKOV0J.1(OC;- To 1972 YPOqlel TO TtXV1] KOI nOAIT10}.16C; otnv ClPxa{a EAAdi'5a, TO ortoio IJCTacppOOTTlKe oro yeplJaVlKQ, ayy7l.IKo KQllonaVLKcl METa TO SovaTD TOU, eKO!OOVTOI, TO 1983, TO spya roo no TOV ~ XGI T0J.1~10I16KQI Harroetwoq me; urtopics; To OUVOAO TWV epywv TOU I:':KOLanal ere ell.lI.TlvlKO an6 TIe; "EVOAAOKTlKte; EKMael~>,

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Ot E1tu')'YSA.llutisC; TIle; nspuppoV1lOTJC; tOO vulgus profanum ll1toOWOUV o,l)'tiI 'tllv o,)J.6K0tTl pappupO'tt1tu a~ S~q>l)'tS~ Site€\, oTIJ ~a.~u «toonsSO)'tu(sSi 'tcu:mtSi npoc; ta KutCD». Ttn rov Gustave Le Bon, tOY Ortega y Gasset i} tOY Geiger, 1l0AU; 11 Ila~u lCtVTJtonOtTjtlei totoptKa Kat npoanutliJ(iE\ v' unoKtTJast 1l1a la"topt1CTJ Cf1}-

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ErGln£pi ta IlEaa tO'U 70'1) alwva, 11 aO""t'lKil ta~l1 GlTJV EAJ....aoa nO'AtnK01tO'i110& US yt0ll uno rov 80' atffiv(l £navuorutfJ !-levee; }.ulSec; rcov «(811tIDv», onroc; to' 1917, 11 O'PYUVID!-lEvT) !l&C; tOY MnoAO'&~lKla!-l6 epyunKfJ tU~T] nO'A1- ·tU(01tO'\1l0E ns o.1to.SJ...u.o!-ltvec; ).1U~tc; 'to)v U'YPO'tIDV Ko.\ 'troy Otpu'tlCOrIDv tou olaAu6!-levO'1) T aap1Kou }2'tpctrO'u. (0'. 171)

H «ueta-uovdpva» JlaA£KrlK~ rov Iloxauoavvo»

o cruyypacpEctC; U1tO'PaMt:l os f.LlU KctraJ...UttKtl KpltlKtl lTJv tOEU TIle; Ilpoodou Kat ns aUTUnUtES TOO ~tu<pronO'f,.lOU, un6 to <proS nov OTPUTMEOroV cruyKEvrprooT]S, ron VU~taf,.loU xm rou O'taJ...tV10')loU. AVTiO'TotX'l KPl.'ttKyt f:iXE itOlJ. olUwnroeei un6 rov XaWteYKep, it Ul :tXO'J...it UlS <DpuYKc:po6pTIlS W:PtKU xrovta svroplrspu. QaroO'O', 11 npoatyytCTTl TOO IIanu'iroawou 0&\1 €ivat rUUTOO"t1IlTJ f.LE 'ttl; UM.eC;, UKOI-!U Kat eK.siVSC; nov aKo)"0'69l]aav !JiXPl ttl;

MAZA KAI ILTOPIA

13

IlEpS~ Ila~. t\l£KOlKEi Ilia, {O'ro~, 1taYKoO'llla 1tprotQt1.)1tia. H KptnKft n:poO'eyytO'rt nou a1t01tSlpatal tO0'O 1tpOOllla Kat Ol£lO'BunKa oc auto 'to vsnvuco 'tOU sYXEiPTJIlU OSV stvci ~ua 1tpocreYrlO'T] ({crKo'taBtcr'tlK~», svo; «nvnopccrTIKOU poucvnouoo», OSV stvci xcv I.UU KptnKft «opcvxooupnnvi]». t\SV UVtt1taPUOftSl j.1OVtSPV1KOtT]tcL Kat napaooO't) J.laVlXa'lO''ttKa, onro~ SV JlEPSt eu KaVEt TJ cruyXPOVTJ KplnKft tt)~ vSrotSptKOtt)'tW; KUl Eva~ UyvroO'TIKtcnxo; JlE'tUJ.lOV't€PVtcrJ.lO~. Ttn 'tOY IIa1ta'lrouwou, ° t\tacproncrj.1o~ Kat ° Ilpooosunouo; OEV crUV1O'tOUV Kanotn UU%1tUpKtt) aA~eElU, Ka1 Tt avriA:rl'¥TJ «tt)~ ioropiU~ ocv 1tp00006UtuCJ1~ S~€A~TJ9> O'UVlO'ta J.lta U1t6 t~ «mo crq)(lAspE~» aUa 'tautoxpova U1tO ru; «1t1O a1O''1000- ~e~ Kat KUtacpanKE~» tOES~ tau 1tOAmO'JloU Jla~:

ME tOY rpoao alno, ° 1 90~ U1(OV~ uva1twss KU1 01..0- KA~proO'l, J.lIU U1tO ~ 1t1O aXrtllatlKe~ Kat aq>aAspE~ ri).)..fJ. KUt Ilta uno n~ mo Ula16ooSE~ Ka1 Ka'tuq>u'ttKE~ 1ta tOY avOpro1tO tOeE~ roo 1tOAmO'llou Ilu~: mv toea 'tt)~ Icropicc ccv 1tpOOOSUtl~~ ES&A~l1~, onv IlIU~ ~aaJ.ltaia~ 1tpuYllato1toillO'T]~ 'tt)~ UVapmmVT]~ oueovolLiaS !lsau GtTlv KOlVroVia ... :Efl~pa. sepoulLE 61'1. OAu auta ta a<peAyt axJu!utu tau Icropucuruof tOU 1900 mrove, rooo atTJ «OlaAeKnKyt» 60'0 Kat atT]v «noruco<ptAeA.eU6sPll» JlOpq>t'j tOUS, OEY EXOUV KUj.ltU aXEoll J.lE 'tT)v tatOplKyt aKpi~sta: II O'llllooiu tOU OtUA£Kt1KoU Kat ron 1tpOOOEUnKOU la'toptcrllOU eivrn Ka()apa 115eoloYlKt/. '01tro~ 0l1A. 0 t\tacpOlnO'J.lO~ E'tat KUt 0 Ilpoodeun(jJ.lo~ OEY 1tapta'tuvet 1tapa J.llct 0'1"1 't11~ 1tOAU1tAzuPTJ~ 1taAllS 'tT)S cpW:AEu6EPllS aO'n~s taSllS Kat tOU Epyan- 1(OU lClvfjJ.lat~ lemu 'tou O'UvtTJPTI'ttO'J.1oU 'tTl<; AvtwpaallS. Kcn" 'tU (i)..)..a, 'tOCiO 0 «1tpooocu'tl1':oS cSEAl1Cll.aJ.l~» 000 Kat II UVUAOYT] 6Eropiu ton «K01VrovtKO'U aUJ.l~oAUtOU», 1tap' OATJ 'tT!v u1tO'teA.eaJ.lUnKo'tT!tll tou; flEO'U cmv 1tOA1'ttKyt 1ta.A.ll ( ... ) OIN 1tSPtZXOuv KUf.1ia E-

14

EI~Arnrn

O())'tEPUCll -Bmo'trUWVUCll, cptA.oOO<pllCtl ij 1tot1J'tlKit- a~ia 1KavTJ vo ~E1tEpaOSl ~ ())cpEllIL1onKE~ avaYKe~ zou ~ tcpepav cto cp~. (00. 49-50).

Mw. 'tE'tOW. tcroppO'ltllJlkvtl 01t'tUCl\ 11 onoia KJl'W.VOEl 'tOY lOTOptKO p6AO tOO Olll<pro'tlcrf.l06 Kill tau J.lap~tcrll06 svro rautoxpova svt01ti~el, at'll Ot£Koi1Cll<J11 TTJ~ S1tlaTTJJ.1OVtK0t'llt~ zou Eysipouv, t'llv p~a t'll~ spyaAelllKij~ rou; J.tStS~EA~l1<; -Kat 6nro~ eu rovtost ce 6Ao tau 6PYO, t11<; EKtPOm1<; rot»; npoe; tOY OAOKAllprotlaJ.lO-, unO't'sAei 'tOV oumroDll1tUpijvu 1l111~ <q.ts'ta-IlOVt6pvae;» 1l1J J.laVlxuYKij<; OmAeKtlKij<;, 11 onoia 00. cruvsXU;St va ano'tsAei SvCL ~11- tODJ.lSVO aKOIlU KUt a't~ ).lZPf:~ J.la~, 1tsvT)VtU xp6vtU J.lEta.

o IIunuYrouwou BXEt cruvsi01JO"ll t'll<; avncpat1K6t11'tu<; t11e; E~Bl~1Je; 't1J.e; lcrtOpia<; KUt 'tOU noAtncrJ.l06· ot KU'tUKnlaSt<; tOU ~lu<pronoJ.l06, Kill rou Ilpoooeonouof anotBAsoav rav-roxpova Kill Ilia DmOtKUaia Paelha'tou K01- VroV1KOU OlxuaJ.l0U Kat Olucpoponoil1OTJ<; J.lS't(l~ t11<; J.la~a<; xm rorv 1CU piapxrov tU~srov. 'Evn axiatllO zou 0''t'Il crt'iYXPOVT) ~moxfl Oa sYKatVlllatet I..l£ 't'Ilv A vaYSvvll<J11 Kat ea Empepuuoesi Kat nCtAt J.lsta 'tTJ raAAtKij Kat t11 ProalKll f.mavacr'taOTJ, orcv 01 VBS<; SAh nou aVUOelxGrtKav un6 aUt6~ aa unO't'u,;ouv SK VEOU t11V EnUVUotClttKlJ J.la~u OE .. uu vea KOlVroVtKlJ wpupxia, II O1toia ElXS npoe; O'tlyJ.l~V uvu'tpansi I..l£'tCt t11v Sl(JPOA~ 't'Ile; EnaVUOtu't'llJ.lSvrI~ Ila~ue;.

Em 01K6 f.lu~ nolmO'J.lo, uno 'tOY KU1PO zou II AvuyEvVTJol1 E01tUm; rou; OEOlloUe; zcu ev<ovav 'tTl Jl~CL KUt 'tTIv elite, KUf.ltCt UM11 OUVUJlll SK'tOC; uno ~ {owe; 't1<; Jla~SC; OEV n:pOK8t'tUt v' urcolCu'tuaTIt0sl 'tTJY lC01V())Via ocv oA,On]m. Ki EJ.lSi4;, 'to uovo 1tO'O J.l1tOPoUf.l& va KavoullE sival vu SeaouJls 'to 1tpo~lllJ.l(l 'tTJC; 0XEOll<; troy Jl(l~rov

MAlA KAI II:TOPIA

15

I.U:: 'tOY nOArtlOJ.lO onv evu OtUplCroC; e1tilCcupo, 'tpUytKO npopA11J.lU'tOU nol.,mollOU J.lUS ... (0.223)

Ot nupUOOmaK€r; xowovie; EiXav tvav murro xupaKTItPU nov E'(1CAro~U;6 'to a'toJ,lo !lEO"u O"E IllU aKaJ.l1tTl1 KOtVO'tTI1;a O"E uVtieEOTl ).lE 'tOY 1l6'tuvu"(6VV11O"tuKO KOO").lO o ozoto; 6nt'tpEn6t 't11v u'toJ.ltrit Ot!l<poponoillO"ll ad perpetuum' to aTOllo ow tXEl T11 ()uvut6't11tu vn «SEXropiOEt» nupa J.lOVO (}"'tOY pueJ.lO nov CJ1)1lJ.lEpU;6't'C11 nr; a1;fur; Kat rou; eEIl€Atovr; Ilueour; Tflr; KOtvOTIJta-*+r;. AlC0J.lU Kat O"'t'I1v Ell6.Bu troy KAUO"tlCWV XPOvrov, 'to atoj.LO J.l1tOpsi vc vOl)Elsi j.LOvOV ror; nOAiTllr;

AJ.J..iJ. a.v 0 «KAeWtOS» XupuKTl1pas rcov naA_tcOv tpcvnotOVaA.tonKrov xowrovidrv 1tpOepXE'tat KUl O't11pi~E'tut navm o't11v nuviO'XUP11 U1tUP!;l1 J.lIUS 'IIu:),riJ~ KOIV6'trtt~ J.lES TIl J.l~u nov Ssv Emtpenet OtO atoJ.lo vc eK~h1Am8Ei 10tOpIKa nupa J.lOYo oro J.l£tPO nou oUIllletEXEt O"~ nptv un' amo KU'tEO"TIllleves J.lU8tKeS a1;itr; 'tllr; KOtV0t11- tUr; KUt zon KUtaOtK~et emt to principium individuationis (6nmr; EJ.lEis to tXOUJ.l€ ~t1O"et, yvmpiO&l1CUlnpayJ.lu't01tOtytO'Et Ka'tm uno 't11 J.lOP<Pit J.llUr; Ct1tOAU'tllr; 8EI.,11- OllS U1tMsustpmOTlS 'tTlS 'l)noKC\J.l£VtK~'tUS (t1tO KUes TIupaoOO"T\, uno KaeE EnEKEtva ... ) O"E Ilta IlZptriJ crpo<pia' (0'. 228) .

.oO''tooo au'tte; ot 7tapaooO"taKtr; xowrovie; s7tlhpE7taV utc CJ1.) ).lJ,t€toxft troy J.lui;;wv O"E bra KotVO 7tsnpro J,tbro, tvov xotvo «lluElO», O"€ aVtieEcrTJ ps nr; crU"(xpOVEr; xotvovier; tOU nOAtt1KOU 1'J tOU 7tOA,ltU1).l11COO OA,OKA.11proncrj.LoU zou uvncrtpa'tEUOVtal KaeE anOnElpa trov KOlVroVtroV vu CJ1.)"(KP01:11eOOV cs KOlV0r1l'Ca. H POUA,'11crTJ TIle; <lnEptOptO"'t'T\S u'to).ltdts Uvtovo).liur;, ovvuv'tOOVtUS tn uOtE~oon zou OpEJroVEt apXlKa 0 7tOAlttKor; Kat cnlJ.lEpa tvar; UKO).lU 1ttO (lota<pavitc;; tSXVOAO"flKOr; oAOKAllProncrJ.lOe;, ~'tutptnE'tat O'E <puyft O''tu 1toAvnoiKtAU vapKco'ttKa tOO crU"(xpo-

16

voo avSpron:oo Kat UTO rpO:ytKO ao1Z~OOO 6VO~ Un:OK8tIlEvon zou EX8t an:0A£081. roco TIJv KOl.VoTI]ra OUO Kat TIJV auran:6.TIJ TIJ~ arolluC11S corovoufnc:

o «KN:tcr't6~» xapaKn'tp~ 'tOW uovtepvrov «1l0VOA1(}1- Kmv» KOtVCOVlmv npOEpXEral Kat o'tllPil;Etat m'ivro oto ~1atO SEpi~roj.ta KO,BE napaOOOTJS Kat orqv n:av'toouvuj.t1a 'tll~ npon:ayuvoac;, OTJ1... !ll~ an:poaro1tTJ<;, ano tTJv iota tTJ~ tTJ «PUoTJ avftll1tOPTJS va yivEt YAmaoa £v6~ 0- 1tOlOUO~n01"€. auOEVnKov nvsvlla't~, ll11xavij; 1tOU nvi'YEI Kat otspsuat roco tTJV Kpttlrit auvEUiTJaTJ rcov oro~rov 000 Kat 'rl1 ~al;;t1dl aueop~l1<Tia Kat 1tOU, f;~OUOe.Sprovovcn; tTJV lOta tTJv '!'urn 'tTlS I!u~as, aq>a~Et cr'tTJv iOta tllS 'tTJ pU;a Ku9€ ouva't<Ytrtta 'tTlS KOlvrovia;; vn cuYKp0tllBei cr€ K01V<Ytrtm Kat v' anOxnlCJ€t j.tta au9svnrit TIapaOoaTJ· (a. 228 )

Tic tOY cruyypa<pEa, .... OVO <TTIlV apxafa EUuoa .... ta evenWYflEvTJ atOlllKOTIlra So. svraXSd opyavIKu ornv K01,vomrc, - .... E 'tpono tpaytKO aUa npaYIlUtUco- Kat TJ 8KOtnAmUTJ TIlS npocrO:l1ttKOTI]TUS Su eXEt COS n:poihtoS€Cl'TJ tTl UUIlIl€'IOX~ TI]S J.la~us· EnpOKEttO ytu J.lta tcrtOptJdt o'ttyj.til zou OSV Uv(muptcrtu TO. «WWXtcrj.tEvU natOtKU x.p6vta TTIS uvSpronotTltas», onoo<; nicrtE1)E 0 Mup~, alJ.iJ. Ilia KOPU<pOOOTJ CJtTlV svcp .... 6vtCl'TJ atOlltlCf]s Kat crulloytKils .... oip!lS t'J onoia 06V So. EnaveJ.uj>avtcrtsi notE n')..1ov CJTIl vEa.ltEPll toropio, napa 'ttS n:pucrrtES tEXVOAoytKES ovvat0tTlteS n01) Exet unoKtiluEt 0 uv9pwno.:;. Ken auto ytuti to UXiO'tj.to zon ecpepe 0 XPIOttuVtO').lOS uvripsou O'tO atOIlO Kat TIl crullOYlKil tOU uotpo ~Xt ).lOVO 06V 0.vmpe8-rtKE crov unoiEpwj.t£vo KOO').lO tllS veoirepucornTUe;; a"tJ.iL oOTJYl18TJK€ orov nupOS1)crJlO tTlS <J11JlEptvns ({01)UWX1crJ..tEvTJS O'UvI>1011OTJS» Kat 6VOS ato,uoo n01) stvm unos6VWflEv0 0Xl .... ovov anD TIJ crulloytlCf] 'lOU J.loipu uUa Kat uno tOY unepteXVOAoytKO KoollO rtou tOY opi-

MAZA KAI ILTOPIA

17

sEt. Km (l'un') etvm Tt BtaAsKttKij tOD IIanaiillawOD. ~'tTlV uJ'toptKij Ota(ipOJ.l~ (iev D1tapXEl. J.lta ypCt~J.lt1CfJ E~EA14Tt (mo to «KCttOOtEPO OtO avoo'tEpO)} OE 6, n ooope crnv evoroJ.la'twOTt atoJ.lrov Kat xowoivir«; i} rnv 'tEXVll, mIp' 01..0 non Tt J.lcyt9uvoTt ~1tOPEi. vc Ota1ttotroed OtO E- 1ti1tEOO 'tTl~ t!>XVOAOYlKij~ it TI\~ 1tUpuywYl.Kij~ 1tOAD1tAOKo'tTl'tac;, it 'tTl~ (JUooooPCUOTtC; YVOOOEWV Kat 1tATt8uoWbv. Tt' auto leat Bev J.l1tOPOUJ.lE va toXOptcrtoUJ.lE on etJ.lUOtE CUWXtOt6pot ft «ovorepoi» U1tO n~ 1tapaOOOl.aKt~ K01- vwvteS evoo taDtox.pova J.lac; stvm aouvato vo «emntpeljIODJ.lE» OE autt.;.

o nCt1ta'iro6.wou ava'lttU(mov'ta~, soro yta 'ltprotrt <popu, TIlV U;l.O<PD~ tOO ai>Url'ifTt Ssv tIlUtit;!>t 'tOV opec Aeyo J.l6 tOV op80AoytcrJ.lo TIlC; VSWtepUCOtrttas KCtl tcrroc; StVat 0 'ltpmtOC; non 'to KaVEt J.l6 'tIh01a evapyeUl. Av 0 VeW'tEPtKOC; 0pSoAoytcrJ.l0C; ea 0'tTlptxtei <JtTtv avtl1tapaS€OTt 'tTl~ «leapot.Uc;>} Kat 'tOD «J.lDIlAoU)), aKpro't1lPtat;ovmc; Et<Jt rov avSpumo roc; OA6tTI'ta (dvat V7tBpoXeS oi ava- 1tru~6l.S 'tOD cruyypa<pta 1tav(O orov <bp6uv't Kilt mv emo'tpo<Pit tTt~ Kata'ltts(JJ.lf.vTt~ av8pO)nlKotTt'ta~ orov sucooro cuovo), 0 A&y~ 'tTlS apxuia.; Ellaoas ea cruvoDaest 'tOY MuSo, 'tTlv Tpayrooia Kat 'tTl <I>v...oao<piu' os 1t'AfrjJfl avri&C'(l'fl W: rrrv mfoAOY[(l''t"udt ratio rav fl.emvaYSVVTt0tCtKOU KOaJ.lOD zou Sa vonoet to A6yo uovo (JE avrfBC:(Jl1 J.lE rnv Tpayrooia KUt 'ltP01tavtOS ue tOV Mii- 80:

KatuA.a.paivoUJ.lE nO)s, KatO) ano to CHII.I.I;:io 'tOD A&you 'ltOD J.lOvO a1JTOS J.l'ltopEi vu oUlaroCrEt rnv U'ltOKEtJ.leYtKOtTtTU, Ot ouo 1[\0 'ltept€XOV'te.S avOp(OnOt rton tpya.A£ Tt EUaou Ku'top9waav, Kpatrovf~ avotXfa navm Kt 0.ypu1tVa fa J.la.tta 'lt6.vro oro T pay tKO, vc !>VroOODV ns fPBtS uvro'tU'teS 1l0p<pts J.lEe; ns ozoie; 0 av8pronoS J.l'ltOpEi vc (Jl)Ve.tOl1f01tOltlOEt 'tOY e.UUfO 'tOU ouv zveu J.lanKO ov: rnv Ilpoontetn, rrtv T payrooia Kat tTt wu..ooO(pia ...

EI!AfOrH

Kat ~Eo"U cs tPB~ YEVEE~, rc xopuca rou LOCPOl(A~, ot }.le'tOO1tE~ 'tTl~ OA.u~~ KQ.t 0 Emta.cpto~ uzopecev va cpavepooO'oov 0'1:0 cpoo<; Kat (HOV TJA.lO 'to A6yo O'W 1rupiapzo O't~ axea~ 'tOO avf1poonou ~e 'tOY eauto 'tOO Kat ~ 'toy KOO uo (0"0". 11 0-111 ).

o A&yoe; 'tow ApXaiow Biven A.o11tOV evu~ A&yoc, npoKat. . . «~EtU»- uovrspvoc, DO"o 'Ytu tOV IIunu'(rouwau, D1tEp~uiVf:t 'tT\ veroespucornrc, «E1ttO"'tpSc:pov'tue;» O"TTJv apxaia EUaD(l, Kovj3aAaWta.:; oJ..!we; TIlv apJlU'twOla tOU :Eu~1tTJP, tau XS'YlCEA, tOD cDpODV't KUt tau Tuiozsp;' a- 1tOnEtpa'tat va ~tAijOEl roe; c:popsae; EVOC, tS'tOtOD «uercuovrspvon A {yy 01))) , ym rnv Ilpocnrstc, tOY MuSo Kat TTJ cDtA.oO"O<pla, avuYKaia 1tpouno8EOTI ym va Bvro8d Kat 1taAt to U roue !1E rnv K01voTI]ta, 11 « J.ui~a» ue ne; «EAtt», Kat va O1KOOO~l1S€i €K VE.OD Ilta «Katac:panKi} O"XSOTl IlE tOV KOO"IlO»:

MBC, rnv apxata EUlioa 0 Hegel dOE to npotuno ~Ul<; OPYUV1~<; OXEOll~ tOU avGpro1tou !-if: to Kpcro; Kat T] avayvroplO'l1 au~~ tllc, opyavlKOtTJtac, (avayvroplOll 1t01) dvat pt.StKIi mo 1tEpa uno tt<; o"Kt,¥B~ ton Herder ~ tOU Montesquieu) tOY ~oi}e"aE vc KataA.Ii~Bt rnv xotacpan~ aX€(Jll tau uPXaiou 'EMT]Va Iln€vaVtl orov K60~o tOOO at11 epT](JKWtt~ 000 Kat 0t11v llel~ 1:0U ~O)i} (a. 158).

H «Beatpoxpctia»

:Eta 1tAaiOla uutij.:; TTJc, j..lBtaVerotBptKiJC, OlUAeKnKijc" nOD B1tlXctPEl vc evroost Kat 1taAl tOY O"XtGj..lSvO KOO"IlO tOU uovrspvtouoo, to «8satpo» -11 «Bsutpoxpurln» tOU TIMTIDVU- unOKtO: !.uu KOIl~tKfJ Ollllucria 0TllV UVU1tTUSll TTJS OKE.'¥l1C, too: H 1l0PCPT) 'tOU 9SatpOD Kilt 11 0XSOll troy JlU~rov f.J£ auro -Kat ~£ TTJV eupsin SwOUl ron OPOD, Evrcccet oro @su'tpo Kat 'ttS Ka8€ sioou~ 8pllcrKSUtlKS~

MAZA KAJ I!:TOPIA

19

A£ttOl)py~- yiVE'tat 'to KptTfJptO yw. Tl1 O'X£OT) nov un~rov J.lE 'to KpU'tOC; Kilt 'tllV OPYIlVroJ,ttvrj xowrovic:

A&v EXOl) ~ napu VII napa~6.Aou ue to KOWO "COl) Racine Kat rou Comeille J.l& 'to KOWO "COl) Marlowe Kat roo Shakespeare Kat 'tOY athjva'iKo o~J.lo O'tTJv napuomoTJ trov Il. epuwv. ( ... )

To KotVO "Cow BepaaUuhv, "Co KOtvO ron Globe Theater Kat to KOlVO rou 8&u'tpou ron .A.wvUO'ou J.lU~ oiVOW rpsu; tUnOl)S KOtVOl,) rtou dVat, 'tulYto;wova, tpe\S YEVtK6'tepeS KOlVroVlOAoytKES KU'tTJYOpiES 7tOU odXVOl)v tPe~ J.lOPCPES KO\vroviuS cmv OAO'tTJtU touS.

Azo n] f.lw. ~pl(i exouf.ls EvUV KUptUPXlKO Kat unoKOJ.lJ.lEvO ano KUeE e1ttpp~ «uno ta KU'tOO», Otevo KOtveveco Omf.la'ttO')lOl1pm'iKD-tepapx;tKOU OwA.

'E Xou us uo'tEpa J.ltu ( ... ) f.lU!;u lKuvTJ vo ev9ouatUotd Kat vn e1ttKOlVCO~Oet J.le tU lHl'l1AOtepa v~J.la'ta aUa aViKaVTJ vc yiVet TJ iow.1tTJy~ VOYlIla't(oV Kat u~ui:lv, UViKaVTJ vn uvn'tu~Et J.lUl 0l1J.ltoUpyl~ ~OUATJaTJ anevavn ornv opyavcoJ.lEVTJ xoworvto, aVtKaVll va unup~et ouv ano<paOtOnKu neptooo'tepo uno Evu unw J.lEtU~anKO <patVO~o ...

Ana tTJv aMTJ J.leptci oJ.lms tXOUJ.le ornv A~vu rou Sou auhva Evu TpaytKo €lEa'tpo zou Exet evorollUtrogei J.leS 'tTJv iOUl tTJv opyavmllEVTJ KOlVroviu Kt EXe1 'talmO'tEi )ls ~ uhsc; 'tTJ~ nc; unsu9uv~c; Kpa'ttKEC; AEttoupyisC;. 'Exou~ J.lUl KUtUO'tUOTJ 1lE~ rnv oaoio TJ CtVrigeOTJ rou Kpercu; Kat 'tOU T payt1(Qu sivm OAOtSAu avUnUplCtTJ - 'to Kp1itOS y~9TJKS oev O'tScpUVCOJ.lU 'tTJS iOUlS 1taATJS ue tTJV ozotc 11 EnUVUa"Ca'tt~ Ilat;U rou 600 auhva opyaVmO'S Kat, 'to 01KO 'tTJS eEU'tpO' Kat to Kparo; auto &~a<puviO'tTJKE J.llli;;i us to 9tu'tpo: tOOO ircav KOtVES ot p~SS Kat oi 1tTJ'YES tou<; (ocr. 95-96).

Ttc 'tOY IIanllirouvvou O't~ rpeu; KOIlPudC; to'tOPl.K£C; (HtYIlES 1tOU OT)J.la'tOoOtoUv TJ KA.uO't~ EAMioa, 0 Ava-

20

EII:ArnrH

Yf:VVTjOlUKOC; KOcrJ.l.OC; Kut 0' KOOJ.l.O'C; TOU UPXOJ.UNOU dtucproTIO"J.l.oU, cv nepaO"auJ.l.C: cmo TIl XPOVOAoytlC'l) otuoaxfl oe «a~toAaytKS<; xpiosu;», 11 O"€tpa Ela npSn€l vu ovno"Tpacpc:i. 0 KA.nO"tKtO"TtKOS 6tu<proTtO"!!OS czoorepei €VTeMOS TOV opeo 'J..&yo uno K6Jl€ na9as KUl KUOc: aiO"Orten TOU TpUytKOO, a Avejsvvnounco; xoouo; yvropi~st TO' naElos o.AM 0X1 to' «!!aElas», INcO uovo 11 uPxuia EUaoa eu yvropio"f:t 'to' miOas KUt to J.l.6.0O'S to.utoxpovu, ollMoit 00. J.l.e'tUUXllJ.l.U'ttcret 'to' naOos Of: J.l.tu vso tooppozin, noAt't€tUKTJ Kut nOA1'tlOJ.ltlC'l), Of: 'tClU't1U11 oucrtw; Kat unap~eroS. Kat autit 11 dillClKU rov u~uOv Ou f:Kcppucr'tc:i J.lSou uno 'W at-UIpO KU.t TIl 0XEaTt'IOU Ill> TIl "ui~u.

Dv'troS, !!OVO !!sO"u O"Ta uPxuio ®satpa eu ~poUJ.lC:

Ina Of:O"lltKiJ KaOOAtKiJ (JUJ.lIl£'toxfl tOW J.lo.~rov roco cro KotVO 'tOD 0ea'tpou -e~ au Kat 0' n:pao'ttos Uple!!OS trov S£atrov zou nupuKoAOUSOUV to apxaio 0su'tpo- 00"0 xm J.l.sO"a O"TIl OOJ.l.it TIlS Tpayrooio.s, us TIlV nnpouoin KUt tOY unocpuO"tO"nKo POAO' rou Xopoo. 10"roS OE; KU!!la uAAll Oao.'tplKTJ lloP<Pil OIN Sa (JUvouuO"toUV, us TE'tatO (JUOTIl!!UnKO Ka11l0VtJ.l.o rpozo, ot apxov'tss KCU Ot «€Ain>, zou uno'tsA06v rou; «npco'tuycoVtO"'tsr;» trtr; 'tpuyrooiur;, !!e 't~ nAll~c:tuKsS «Ila~ss» tau xop06. Koi IN 'ttAst ot iOteS J.lU~SS eu Ilnmpuoil;ow 'flU TIl «ppnpeucrrp) it J.lll trov eSU'tptKrov (JUyypucptcov. ~'to eAtcrapsnavo 0Ea'tpa, soxatrt Kat u1tsp'tatrt avaAallnTt trtS AvuySvvrtcr11r;, 11 'tpuytKTJ uoipc tOW llProOJV Su uvann)O"crf:tat KUtro uno to ~J.£J.I.!!U nov J.lu~rov nOD Ou Ku'tudu~ODV 'to Globe Theatre, oinAa O"TOUS l3ucrtAtaOSr; Kat rot»; £UYINSl<;' 01 !!U~eS Sa (JU!!lle'tSXOUV AtyOr£pa it zsptoootepo czopcOtKa otrt opaCIT} -ano 'tOY (J>uAcr'tacp tcoe; TOUS orpuruore; TOD PU<JtAul EppiKOV rov L1 ' crtrt !laXll 'tau A~tVKOUp, it 'tOUS 1tOAltSS (HOV P'Xapbo rov F' Kat 'tOUS nA11Peiauc; crov Koptolavo-, aUa (j8(1Pl1(6, ea stvct anoucrsc;. 16 0, rt acpopa Of: orqv scrron:Pll OUlAeK'ttKTJ ron eAtcro.~s'ttu-

MAZA KAI II:TOPIA

21

vou 6e6:tpou, EV 'tMet 11 e;ouoia Sa aVCl1t't'lJOoe'tat xropic; vc apoccspei KunotO ~uSo~, KUnOtCl yea tooppoxto ron K6o~ou' crqv KaA:Un~p11. 1tt:pin'tro01} ~Ul vea (iuvaon;{a Su U1tOKa'taoriJot:t TIJV 1tP011YoU~&Vfl.

TeA.o~, 0"'[0 KAaotKtOTtK6 Saa'tpo rou Paxtvu Kat too Kopvstv 11 ~a~a Sa unouom~t:t 't600 uno 'ITt OK11vTt oco KUt an6 'to xowo. Tropu mu 'to 9aatpo Sa ElVal anoonuousvo oAod11PronKa ano Tfl ~~u, Sa &lvat eva 9aa'tpo TIJ~ sAl't ym TIJv eAi't, EVeO rc Seuj..l.a'ta 'tlJ~ ~u~a~ ea us'tacpepeouv oT1.~1tAa'teffi~ rov nokrov - rpClytKa, oruv npOKetT(ll y"a OT1~oott:~ EKn:Mo"E~ Kat p(lauvtoj..l.OU~, ~ Kro~tKa oruv etvm naVtO~t~~ Kat KoUKAE<;. ®a EXSt YEVV11Sd 11 cruyxpoVll OtxOt0J..l.llOll EA1t Kat j..l.a~eOv. 0 poJlav'tto,w£, 0 XayKEA Kat 11 faMtKi] EnavuO"tUo11 Sa E- 1tavacptpouv 't~ Jla1;E~ KUt TTJv MOta rou 'tpaytKOU orqv tcropin XropiC;; ro01'OOO vc Kutop9eOoouv vc E1tUVEVcOoonv tOY OXtO~tvo IlEtUvaYEVVl1ataKo KOOflO. [1' aut6 Kat 0 Nttcs Sa ~EivEl «KatU1tAllK't~}) 0Xl anAeOC;; un6 'toy POAO 'tlJ~ tpayrooia~ ornv upxuia EUaou -Tflv 9Earpoxpurtc- a"JJ..6. ano rqv ap~ovu('ft (1)vapSprool1 rpnyro(\iu~ xm IIoAttEiuC;;:

o Nietzsche ( ... ) KtlTCturpcWi; Ilnpor; 0T11V KEV't'pUCf! Kat unE1'l9uv11 9tO'll nou tiXE 11 tpa:yrooia uva~O'u 0''[1<; A.sltoUPYWC;; nl<; a911vai!dtc;; nDA.ttei~, cvnpornotuv (moo<; .0 Aaoc;; rov Muorqpkov KUt rov dt9l)pa).lprov KUTop9roO'E vn UPIlDV{O's\ Tl1v l'lnup~ij 'tDU us 'tllv mo uppsvroniJ xa.pa 'too a:yoova Kat TIJV n1D proj.la.Afa uv8rJO'TJ 'tOW 1tOA.tttKWV ton evotfxtrov;» H (UtOpia cm'tij yiVEtat E~TJyijO'1lll1 cv aKEql'toU~ OOt .0 Nietzsche ~Dt.l(iE Ka't(o ano TIJV nt&oTJ EVo.; nOAt'ttO'j.lol'l ym tOY onoio TJ TpojmOio. Kat to Kperoc nuplO'tUVDUV OUD Ptt;lKU con J.lpipaotE<; ovromre; Kl cv, anEvUVt1 OtOV 1tOAUOtUO'tUtO KOeuo nou nEpttX8tat ).l8<; TTJv KM:t.O'tlCll Mom TOU nDAi'tT],

22

Ell:ArnrH

ava1oytOtOOJ-lE ( ... ) to op11;ovno exUteoo ncIvro OtO 0- noio KIVeital mlf.L£Pa. eva «noAttlKO ~roO» (0. 96).

o nunu"iroawou, J.t£cm unO IltU 01£tcrOD'ttri) nupunlPllall ym 'C11V TpUYIDOiu Kut tOY POAO T11S, !lac; anOKuADntEl TIl xamo11 unOatuO"l1 nou XropiSEI 't11 crDYXPOVT\, 't11V nvnnpoaIDnEUttKll Kat oi)Oev jlUSIKT) 0l1J.10Kputiu, uno J.1tu 0l1J.10Kpuriu uu9evttri), aJ.1EO"l1 Kat O"UJ.1J.1E'tOXtKi). H upxuia 0l1J.10Kpu'tia oev uvnnupae~tEt tOY op80 A6yo crqv OAO't11ta tOO uv8p6mou, rnv nOAtttKi) crnv T~XVl1, uUu !lETUpullit to. 8eatptKU OpWJ.levu O"E crtotXeio tl1C; nOAm!dJ~ 8l1J10Kput{a~ Kat tl1~ O"UJ.1I..lEtOxil~ tIDV J.1uCWV crtl1v Ilosrrsto. Kat aUto ce uVti8EO"ll J.1C: 'tOY crxtcrJ.l~VO KoaJ.lo J.1uS onou 11 TSXVl1npocrnu8si va KUADo/El Tllv anOatucrll UVUjlecru orqv «nEsi)>> Kat tE'tpIJ.lJ.1~llnparJ.1UtlKoLlJTa Kat 'to lOEaTO.

:ETytV T~xvll. J.1ac;, to tpaYIKo rewli:tat uno 'tl"J. cruYKpovcr11 uvdusou ornv «apX11 'tT]S npaYJ.1anKotrJtas», rnv uOta<pUVBHl TOO xoouou, Kat rnv ao"OVaJlia p,as va tOY aMusou~, oE8oll~OU on 11 xotvorqr« Kat TO UtOJlO ~XOVV Olaxropt<J'tEi aJ.1StUKA11TU. 'Erot, J.1scra anO mv T~XVl1 npoa:n:a80DW: va a:n:OKUtacrnlcrooJlS aUnlv rnv xaJl~11. svorqtu nov 11 nOAltlKi) lCat KOtVIDVtKT) :n:puYJluUKOTTtta ~xouv avs:n:avopOcoTU olappi)SEl. Min anOKUTucrtaa11 :n:ou Jls TT} crStpU 1:11S KIVEhat as Eva BtaXroptousvo s:n:im:oo, «tEXVll Kat 0XI Sroi)>>.

ea sivct yta J.lar; SVtSMOS aMvato va Katavoi)crouJ.lS "to iJ8~ TOcrO TOU K01VOU tou 8satpou TOU L1tovUO'Ou 00'0 Kat 'tOU KOlVOU 'tt\S ElC1CA.llcriru; 'tOO MUlOU av oev 1t(1- l.jfoujls vu :n:c:plOpi1;oof.l.Io rqv tOEa Tl"JS 1tOArtUcTIS ~IDiJS Kat 'tllS 1tOA,1.TlX11s roP1Jl0'tll'tCl.S evo; ACl.oU 0TItv a<PllPl"JJlEvll MOta TllS ~(aaKTJa11S trov auvraYllaTIKa it snnvuctunKa KaElopIO'llivrov 1tOAt'tlKIDV OtKaMlluTIDv Kat unoxpeIDaeroV}), uv O£V cvnxpicouus KaTro uno tva cruV01tTIKO

MAZA KAI Il:TOPIA

23

npiol-Ul oA£S ~ 'l1UXlKES M:ttOupyieS !!E ns onOtES !!tU p-a~u uvapronrov OUP-!!€tEXf:t Kat Of:V usvst unA.Os geo:tits ~ nalhtnKo opyavo crtll; a~i£s Kat <YtTJv lcrtOptIdJ I;roiI 'tTJe; xotvorvlc; !!€S 'tTjv O1toia EV'taooetat. ( ... )

Turri to !!er10tO !!a9Tl!-lu nou !-luS OtvEt l1 KAu(nKit EUaoa ( ... ) elvat rouro: 11 !!Ill;a roco 1tEptcrcran::po u\jIroVEtat ow EnUtEOo IltaS noA.lttKfts it Ilta.; O1tOtaooitnCYtE aMl1S toropucc 0l1!-ltoupytK1lS opyavrocrl1S, 600 1tEptcrcrOtEPO avttlffitro1tll;Et ocv apa!!uttKa 1tPOPAl1!!U 'tT)v Ioropfn zoo ~El Kat 'tT}V E~oocria. rtou 11 opyavro!!Svrt K01VroVia. acrKd E1tIlvro tT}S. ( ... )

Otav (oo.) 9U!!119oU!!E Ott XPEtacrttlK£ vc yiVEt Jlta E- 1tavamaol1 y1<1 va. VO!!l!!01tOIl1eei 0 dt9upa!!~os Kat vc 'Yf:VVT}9Ei l1 T paymoiu, tots ea Ka'taA.ti~Ou!!e to 1tSP18- X0!lEVO aunts rIlS «9EarpoKpariuS». Kat rore 9a KuraAIl~OU!!E E1tiol1S on l1 Sudl !!as MotU tTI~ nOAt'tlKits oiPtl.uYnlTas Kat TOO «U1tOKEtJ.lZV1KoU nupoyovra crnv 1- croptc» EiVat aKOJla ( ... ) nOAu crrevfJ Kat cruyKeXU Jltvr].

I'urd, UKPt~roS, 0tTIV nprotTI <puol1 tllS dl1ll0KpanKits Enavliomol1S 0tTIV apxa'irit ABitva, otov 0 Tupnvvoc Kal !-leta 0 Apsto; ITayoS tJta~e ro POAO evas «JlnOA.O£~tKtKOU KO'.lI.tmoS o'tTjV 1tEptooO 'tTjS dlKtUtOpiae; tau TIpoA£tapuitou», evoe; eiOoue; ool1You Kat KT}- 5e!l6va TaU O~!-lOU, n ~tav curo noo q.moStoe to o~f.w vn ~avanEoel ornv np&tspit 'tOU na9Tltuc&t"!lta Kat vc a<pe9Ei ol'T}V KUpiapm ~oUA.l1OT} rorv «KT}08!!OvroV» rou; H 1teipu rIlS faAAttalS Kat t8tafrepCl rIlS PO)O'ttalS E1taVUOtaOllS DEY apKel ym vo !las ost;el 'tllv KUpta cnuoow l'T}S nU9l1'tlKO'tTjtUS it tTIS tOtOP1KitS evSPYl1'tlKO'TI}TaS TItS Jl~US crnv OtKoc36JlrtO'l1 TOW eWJlrov Kat Tl1 Ota!!OP<Prool1 rrov ~tIDV tT}S IlETEnavao'tanKits KOlV(Ovia.;; 0 l\pElO<; ITayos napaSivet TIS ES01}OieC; tOU orn BOUA~ Kal O'tO fUlllO JlOAtc; to 462/1, Bl1!..aoit hiya XfJ6- vtn npw ano tOV IIeptKAit: roc; 'tOTE, 1:0 KUplO !!&OO !!E 'to onoio O"U!!!!stelXe 0 dit!!OS O'tllV 10l'OPtKll ~roit tT}C; op-

24

EU:AfI2fH

yuvrofltvr,~ K01VroviuS oev tl'taY rooo 11 UO'KT)O'11 rorv <JT)IlUV'ttKU nEptoptO'lltvrov nOAt'ttKwv ton olKmrollu'trov 0- 0'0 Tt'trJV 11 JlE(Ja 0''t0 ElEa'tpo 'tOU LltovUaou ElP11(rKEU'ttrij rou Ka.'tuvuS11, 11 LltoVUcnarij EKO''taO'l11tOU 'tOY xopieuc JlE taus MliElouS nou au'tos 0 iOtoS EiXE ~yilil 0''t0 <pros xrn 11 evElOl)(JtU(J'ttrij rou smxowcoviu ue TIS asi£s nou ESE<ppCt~E 11 'tpayrooia - autES TIS ~i£S nou 11 iota tOU 11 mavaO''tanKi] OpUOl1 &iXE E1tt~UA£t ornv xotvcovic «JO'. 98-99).

Mundus senescit

Movov ° 200S at.6>vac; -'tooAUX1(J'tOV eroc; TIl o'tt'YJ.ltl zou ypucpSt ° IIanulrouwou- 8' uPXt(JSt vc ~uVuppiO'Kel 'to 'tpuYU(O lC.Ut'tT\v €Vouytu 'tOO VOU Kat'tT\r; KUpOw'r;' l1ecro. ano 'tOY a>p6uv't, 'tOY OooPWAtO'J.lO, 'ttc; nOAt'tlKSS zsptnE'tsl£C; 'tOO KO!lJ.l0UVtaJ.l0U Kat TIlV S!l1tEtpia 'tOO «uuovu rov (J'tpCt'tOnEOffiV», TO nuBos Bu EnaVE!lcpuVl<Hei oro npOcnct1VlO TIle; tctopfuc, 0 !luBoC; 'tTIS xffipic; optu «zpo- 0000» eu (Jl)VtptPei ano ne; 1tEPt1tEtEl£C; svo; uuovu 1t00 Bu avo~6t J.lBOU uno ro xupaKWj..lu'ta rou A' IIaYKo0J.liou IIoAeIlOO Kat eO. KAslaEt J..LS tOY sqnUATTJ rou Tospvo!l1tiA.

[uHf 0 uvepronos rou 2000 ulCOva, EXovtUC; n:a'VE1 vn nUHEuEt OTT)V Ilpoooo, 0l1Aa0Tt ExovraS 1tU'V6t vc mO't&UEt orov saUtO TOU, Kat unOXPEffifltvos vc cvnus'tro1t1cr6t au'tiJ 'tT]v KU'tUO''tP0<plrij Efl1tEtpia 1tOU 'tOY KUK.M:OVEl, aVUYKU(J'tllKE Etat vo ~aA£t, YU1 npoytl1 <popu flEtU Tllv AvuytvYrja11, to O''totxsio 'tau TpUY1KOli !lE(J(l (J'tl\V l(l"tOpua'\ 1:00 tJUVEtol'\<!n, lCt 81:tJt CUtO\«(J..1:a.tJ'tl\(Je tOY Ojl<pUAtO Affipo JlE OAou;; rour; 1tOAmO'JlOU;; tOU CPO~OU 1tOD rou; dXE ros 'til at) uspc Ec;acp!lVlaEl 'to EK'tUcpA.ro'tU(O <proe; 'tT)S Klamrijs OJlopcptUc; Kat 'tTIS «OU!!UVtcrnKits~~ au't07tEnoi8l1arts· ( ... )

MAZA KAI n:TOPIA

25

«H Ioropic sivm Evet<; B<PUU.:trIS ano tOV 01t01.0 zpoanaSw vc ~u1tYtlaO))>, AtBl 0 Dedalus tOU Joyce: a' aut6 to oveipo-npmplc ~as SP~B 11 lOW n tcropucn ~as potpn, au'tft 11 alJ.oKO't11 tpo.Ylldt avo.tpoml 1T)S mms nou Ilet<; JlBto.~op<proaE os 1tafh1ttKIl 8u~ato. TTlS Icropic; Even ztptv Ei~aatB 11 U1tBUaUVl') 't11S PoUA11a11. Kt uv 0 <po~oS 1tapouaul,sEtctt ccv ~w €axa'tll OWllt0'tlltU Oto.'tftP11aT)S 'tllS av8pW1ttVllS ~op<pfjs tOU, 0 outtKOS eivElpro- 1tOS, 1tOU mri nMB UtffivBS €~T)aE €~ro uno tOV <poPo Kat cpvonuevo; tOV <po~O, aviKo.VOe; va u'!'road a' auto to neiEloC;-Ila.SOS, crov Aoro ol1Aaofj zou ~OVOC; J,l1topBi va <rU1l<PlAuOO"El 'tOY Ci.vepro1tO IlE TIS BIl1tElpieC; tOO, npoa<pBuYBl ytll vc aUVBtoTlt01tOt~aBt tOY EIlUtO tau aE lloP<pss, aUllPoAa Kat ~uElous ~B taus oxotou; 6.M£S €- 1tOX,ts nou yvmptao.v KI1\ KallttPYllGIlV ll'UtOv 'tOV q>6~0 Kat auto to 1teiSoS-I.lIlaOS «anaVtEOpo.aav» ore oml tOUS tpaYl.KU npOpA~~llta Kat f.l1tOpEaaV «vn KUVOUV 'tll ~rofj uno<pBpnl». 'Eroi pps811KB oro KEvtpO evor; svtrmKOU Kat anOKpu<poU Ota.Aoyou aVU~Eaa a"ta KUKAaO\.1(U ~6ava Kat rc w:yu)..a <pE'tix, ctVei~Baa oro Knpvcx Kat 'tl1 Chartres, oru tU~nava rorv pCO).lUVIKWV vawv Kut ttS npoKoAo~~lavss ~claKES, tu Xopucc tOU AtaxOAOu Kat n..; npo<P11'ttK€S El;,o.YYEAiES, 'tll Guernica Kat to. a1tOKaAun'ttKu ovsipu ... (aa.80-81)

o KUKAOS OAOKA11ProvEtat; 'Icox KataGtBl ouvato yta tOV cn'Iyxpovo avElpro1to vo €VwaEt Kat naA.t rc ouo 6xpa t11S crnau~€vrjs uAucrioas Kat vn ~uS 1l6'tU~aABt Kat naA.1- uno ta «tpaytKa 8Ullatu» crqv «u1t6u8UV11 ~OUA.T)OlP> t11e; urropinc; 0 IIu1tutroawoD EA.ni~st ncoe; dvat ouvato -1lB VEOUC; opoue; - va 61tavaAl\<p9gl. to apxmOg/J.;l1VU(O Elaulla Kat 11 «ElEo.tpOKpaTlm) vc E1tt(Jtps,!,m crov KOO'Il0 zou spyatVE ano tu xpsuctopto Kat ta crtpat61tEOa ouYKf:vtproOl1S·

26

EII:AHlrH

'Ioo»; J...oUt6v eo. S'ltpe'ltS vu &o'6~ ].I.e'ltSpl000'tZPll SnwiK£lU 't11 SS<Jll 1'OD Map~ "fla 1'OD~ 'EUllVe~ (!)~ rc «(PVOlOAoytKa natota» O"TIlV to"!opia !TJ~ (lv6pa>noTI]!a.:;;. L't11 O"netpOSt01), ytU tOV Mup~ -KUt 0Xl SDSUYPClJ.lj.tTlKiv11O"ll t1l~ to"topiu~, tU S1ttteUYJ.lClta tTl~ «nut8ucft~ 11AtK1a9} Su J.lnopouO"uv vc snuVSj.t<puV10tOVV O'tTlV {{roptJ.lOrnro» tOU K0l-tJ.l0DVtO'j.toU. H 6.j.t60"ll 811J.l0Kputiu 'tT\<; A- 81)va~ 1) tOD npon6YOVOD K0)1).lOUVtO")10U vc ~avav8icouv ornv KOI!,uOUVtcrttKl) Ixnpin, anaAAa.y,uSvs~ ano to ~upo~ tTl~ OODAOK'tT\O'ia~ ~ t11~ «XUj.l11A~~ avunruS11~ nov nupuyw"flKillV 8UVUj.l6WV», KCU 11 OUO'tVXLO'J.lSvl1 O'Wsili11- 0'11 TItS VZID"[SP1K0tTl'tUS vu 6naVf;VcoSZl J.lE 'tT\V KOWOTIlto; otO'tPllAU'tT\j.l6vrt uno fNav vso <{j.lU8o», sxefvcv tOD KO!!J.l0VVtO'j.tOU. Mzopet AOt1t6v 11 9t.0'T\ tOD Mup~ vc O't1YJ.lurl~s1'Ut un6 {:;vuv uvElpIDn0)10p<ptcr!!O -natOt~ xut illpt).lTJ TJA1K1a 'tT\<; uvElpconOTTjta<;- KUt SSSA1KtlO"!!6 --{Ino to KatilltepO oro ovorspo CJtUOto--, oev 1taust IDO'tOO'O vc UVU~11tU !!ta unt.p~UO'T\ ron zupovro; npo~ to leO!!).lOUV10'tlKO «:mt.KStvu», aVtA.illvtu~ axt uovov an6 'tT) ).loumKl) ton ~UOVtO~, aAAU KUt un6 6K6iVT\ tau znpSA80VtO<; - uno rn «(PUO'toAoytKa nutOtU» tTJS to'tOpiaC;.

Kat o» 0 ITuna'iroawou unoppintSl 'tT] AoytKl) tOD «KO).l!!OUV10"ttKoU napaO£tO'ou», Kat npo~allit svu 0- pU).la 1tOAU 1t1O ~uO'avtO"JlEvo Kat <poptW).lEvo ).lS TT\V 'CpuYtKO'tT]tU TIl~ sl!netpia<; rrov O'omaAtO'nKffiv £1tavaO"tacemv, Eva opuJ.la I!TJ ).lUVlxalO"nKo, oev navet WO'tOO'O - E).ll!eO'u- vc sA,1ti~stnw~ to 1ta8o~ Kat to ).laSo<; Sa )11t0- pouocv Kat nUAt vn evroSoUv, KUt iO'ro~ ).le auro to vscV1KO Ksi).lSVo ton vo e1t18ul!oUO's vc 1tpay!!at01tot~O'st nKPt~ro~ Eva ~~JlU npoe; au~ 'tT\ j.lSy6.ATJ svomro zoo )1t.cc tOD ctVct~llt060's. Ti' aut6 1t16avroc; to EPYO tOD auto -to nlO ).l£YUA£m1~OAO ano ceo KU't(l1ttaO'tTlKS- va t.j.letvs ll).lttSA£e;. Ttnri 0 ounKos 1tOAtnO').l~, IlEO'a orov 0- 1(010 ~oU).lS ctKOj.lU, n~vt(l xrOVtu j.lsta TIl O'Uyypu<pl)

MAZA KAI IETOPIA

27

tau, OIN OdXVEt VU tXBt UKOJ.lU ~ 1tpoij1l:08€ast~ ytU evav tBtOto Ilstua;Oll.tUtt0J.l0. txst yiVEt lC\)VtKO~, UAAii Uvfxnvo; yta eva V60 f.!syaA,o «f.!aeO~}). To :7t'(ieo~; J.!a~i f.!€ 'tOY <popo 1I:0U uzopst vc to 11€'w.J3UM:t os «".u:iElo~», Su !J.1I:OpovO"s VU O"UyKPOritO"Et, 1I:icr't€UE 0 IIu1tutrouwou, J..l.t.o. VEU KOtVroVtKft, nOA,t'ttKft Kat 1I:oA.tTIaJ..l.tldJ npo'taO'11. QO"TOOO OIN uzopoooe VU <pUVTuotsi to 1950 nro~ 'to 1[(iSo~ tl'tav ouvatov vu J.lstUPA,1l8ei o"s KUVtcrJ.lO oro tSM:Uraio tsrapro 'tOU 20ot'> Ilubvu. TIro;, fL€tU !l]V 80-X!l!TI KU1 np0<pllttKft avaA,uJ.lnt1 tOU 1968, 0 ounKo~ KOOJ.lO~ Su puS~oTav os ,uu noA.lttOJ.ltldt Kat nOAmlCft napaKJ.ltl xrop~ to"TOpUCO npollyoUJ.lINO Kat to naElo£ Sa e~o.TJ.lU;6- rev O'€ J.lta KUVtKft o.rroooxfl TOU unapKTou KOaJ.lOU KUt 0 uovo; veo~ J..l.vSO~ nou J.lnopouO"€ va OTUltOUpyiJO"St II ,luO'11 stvm 0 J.luOo; Tau t€xvoAOYl.KU xm Y€V€'ttKa usTaUayJ.l€vau aVSpronou, 0 J..l.u80; rou J.l€TavEipcOnou. Ilox 0 OU'tlKO; KOcrJ.lO; Sa zspvouoe uno 'tOY XUl.V'tCYKEP Ka1 TOV KuJ.lu OE £Yav KUVtKO J.lE"tUIlOV'tepV10IlO, ano 'tOY II lKaoo Kat. "tT) rKEpviKa 8u e<ptuvE o-rrrv «'tEXVll» rrov napOUO'taCHcOV J.looa; Kat nro~ ano rov Asvw, tOV A6uo T~ropt~, TOV XiTM:P Kat TOV BEV1~6A.O 0 atrova~ Sa TEA.EiroVE IlE 'tOY MnAep, TOV Mzouc, TOV L1P(ilc. .. 0 IIo.natffiawou ioro~ OEV ,.J.1t0POUOE va ocvroorst cs nota eKtaOll 8u EntJ3EJ3o.troVOV"tctV 'to. A,Oyta ron an; crUYXPOVE~ OUttK€<; xowrovie;: «KaOE xoworvtc IlE<; rnv ozotc U'tQvet 0 s'AzYXoc, ano to. Karw Kat 11 Jla~a nllpovcrta~€rat ouv €va nu811'ttKO atcrtOptKO UAtKO,... stvm ,uo. xowoviu J.lE oTep11IlEvs<; n; 1tl1ye; tl1~ 'l'UXtKt1<; tll;; t;roi}<; Kat avitJ.lnoPll vc orocret crtll 1l0p<pi} ron aVSpronou rqv nA11- potllta uuril zou 1l0VT\ uzops] va tKavonOltl0et tllv sm'taKttlCft avaYKll tau avOpronou va Oet tOY sooro tau cov !-ua OA.Otll'tU}} (creA. 204). Krn 1l0VO 11 TeXVll tOU Ktv€t;txon t1 tOU IpavtKOU KtVT\J.!lltoyp6:q>OU, tau AcnvocueptKUVtKOU Kat tOU IV()tKOU IlUSIOtOpi}llatO~, uzopouv i(J(:O~

28

EILAnlrH

vc fla~ npo\osuO'ouv yUl 't~ V€S~ ouva't6TIJ'ts~ 1tOU ~nopouv vc avuo€tx8oUv ~E'tU 'to 'tUO~ TIl~ ounrit~ llYE~ovia~, xct TIl~ EnavS~Q>uvtcrJ1~ TIl~ EnavaO''tanK''~ flu1;;a~ O'TIlV tcropic,

***

KA£ivov't(l~ au-t1l TIlv StO'UYOOY", n10''tEuoo noo~ 'to PtPAio

ron ITanu'iroawou stvrn evu un6 tn 1tAouO'tO'tEpa O'S to£E~ Kat 1tPOpAT]fl!lnO'flou~ epyu ev6~ J.lZYUAOU q)\Ao0'6cp01) Kill O''toXUO'nl, 1tOU !ln01tstp6:tat sow -Olh€ Aiyo ours 1tOAU- vn «MO'Et 'to flUO'-t1lPIO» rou crDyxpOVOU K60flOU Kat vn 81£peuvtl<J£1 TOl)~ 8p6flOl)~ fllUt; VEat; fl£yaAT]t; «sv6TItTa~)}, evo; vsou flu800 nOD ea uV'ttKu9tO''tOuo€ 'tOY KOflflOUV10''ttK6 flUeO zou eiXE pooAtOSel om ~aA'tovEpa roo O''taALVlolloU. 0 ITunuiro6.wou 8ev flnoPEO'E ~E~uUl va OmO'S1 ~uu TSAtKi} unuvnl0T), oxrroco cpmttO's nOAD Ku8ap6. 't~ 1fP0 fnw()SfJ£lr; zou UnUtToUv'tUt ytU TIl otU- 1l6pcpOO<Jf] €vo~ <J'6yxpovou llu8ou, €VoC; llu90u zoo oreKS'tUl flE'tu rnv Enoxil ron usoourvtouou K(ll yt' mrro OEY uzopsf 1tapa vc uv'tAEl Ka't' ESoxilv uno evuv flT)flEO'O'UlVtK6 K60'1l0, 'tOY uPXaWSMT)V1KO, svnv K60j..l0 zou flnopouO's va UVttflE'too1t~€l K(UCtllu'ta 'tou~ e€Ou~ ron Ka1 va <po~u'tal flOYO mv KOO'fl1Ki} 'tUST) Kat 'tOY tOto 'tOY 6.v9pOO1t0 (rov «OSWO'tSPO» 6AroV). ea stvct 0 ~u90C; rou «flS'tavepdmo1») 'tT]<; uO''tsPT)t; 'tEXVOAOYIKll<; dUOT)<; 1l 'tOO Ka90A1K06 av9pomou nOD ea OT)j..ltOUpyr]eei WO'u a- 1t6 evov nAa"l1ttKO nOA1'ttofl1K6 O'UYKPT)'tt0'1l0 nOD ea u- 1tspPd 't11 8u'ttKllllYSflovia;

TI6.v'tooc; au'tOc; 0 K60'1l0C; TIle; «llsy6.Alle; O'UflcptllrocrJ1C;» sSaKoAoo9d vc nupaflBvs1 'to IlEYUAO 6pUllU 'tOU Ilu- 1ta'Crouwou, tOTO) K(1t £UV Ctutf} ea iliiv£'tal aKOfl(1 0'£ €va yeAto. 0 OK't6.~lO ITa~, 0'tO noillfla nOD typa\fE 'to 1982, ~E'tU TOV 96.va'tO 'tot) cruY'YP(l(peu, e~ cvcuvnow

MAZA KAI I~TOPIA

TIl~ (}l)VtlVTIlmlS 10V us tOY IIa:n:a'iroavvov 0"1"0 Ilupiot <J'tll OSlCUS'tta'tou 1940, au ypu'I'St:

Krootn, ow; 1tuycoflEvES O'tUX'tES 't11S Eupro1t11S OEV OUVW't11o(J. 'to uuy6 't11S uvuo'tUOT)S,

(J1)vav't11ofl, O't(l 1tOOUl T11S U01tAaXVTIS Xillatpas ~OU'tTJYflEvT)S cto aiflu, 'to yfJ...lO 000 T11S

ou 1l<Pv..icooT)S.

Icvoucpio; rou 2003

Tubpyoc; Kapa/17reAl6.c;

M E POL A' Ma~a Kat ilOAtTtO"Il6C;

Balpu

« ... 'Erct 1tSpct0'6 11 ).lEpC{ Ot r iliOl ).lE:vUV 0't11 8£()1") rou; ... 01 OtKOl J.-la£ anorpa~iJXTl)1(av ano TIl c:pron6, TIl; Illim~ Kal 0'/...0. iJrav O'all1tro~ rl1WtE va J.l11v elXe croJ.l~EL DAOl Ilu<; Bi)laO''tE Kata1tA;rIK'tol. To nproi aK61la aUll O'K£'I'11 OEY dXaJ.-lE a1t6 'to mD<; vo olaMO'oullE o'/...o TO raUlKO I,tparo' Bym 0 ilito<; stXU rnv mo a1tEploptO''t'Il sllmO'to(r6v11 oto I,tparo ).la<;, O'W ~OUKct ron Braunschweig., Tope usvcus OAol J.-lU~ O'tro1t1]AOi, 0 KaSEvU<; J.lOVO~ tOD, xropi<; va ~EpOUJ.lE cv S1tPErtS vc O''tEvaxrop1100UJ.l€ yUl rnv KUKOTt>Xia. J.lac; il vo EuXapta't'fl- 80VJiE ym o.n SYlVE aurit TTl JiEpa. H VUXta 61tsO's Kat Ka9iO'(lJ.lE OAOt rUpro yupm aUa, aV'tteE'w. us TIt ouvnSeta flaS, oev aVa'l'allE q>ffi'ttEC;. 01 xsptcoorepo; ouonovaav, uspucoi 't'Auapoucrav aUIi Kavsis OIN J.l1t:OpOUO'S va OUYKEVtproSsi Kat vu 0'0~a.p6DrEi. Kat Ko.9mc; itIlOUV au'toc; nou auvll8roC; OtaaKeoa~c TIt O'Uv'tpOcptU, Ka- 1tOlO<; JiB po:rrl1O'E n O'KsqJrollat. Kat ron: Eino.: «AnD sow Kill Ct1tO a~J1f:pa apxi~st l.ua vso E1toxil TItS IIayKoO'Jito.e; Ioroptcc, Kat cau; So. J.l1tOpEite vc Ute Ott eiccore na-

, 2

povrsoi...

AutO. eypac:ps 0 Goethe yto. TIl flam 'tOD Valmy. Km J.lEcra crnv EKn'/...ll~l1, TIt O't.ro1ri} K(U t11v aupvwla U1toyuuvoor; UD'tWV rorv av8pw1tCOv 1tOU roi»; an~e l..lta ouvaJill nOD rou; ~snBpVOUO'e, EUKOMl, taros, IlnopOUJ..le vc

1 0 ~06Ka~ tOU M1tpUOUyollallC tlmy 0 apxTfY~ nov 1tproOllC(DV 0\)v<i~v nou rrm'!&r]fCaV (ITO Ba~l.l1J, 0'T1J; 20 l£lm:j.tl3plou "too 1792, (11t6 ~ Y!lUl1d;~ s1t!lyaOtanKt~ &uvaf.!Sl~ «(5. t.s.)

2 Goethe: Campagne in Frankreich, den 19 bis 22 September 1792.

34

MAlA KAI nOt\lTIIMOI

K(lTaAa~OVJlS t'11V nUV1lyupt1C1) O'opapOt11'tu ue t11V onoia UK01JO'TI1KS aUtO 'to Ihr konnt sagen, Ihr seyd dabei gewesen,

Fie npID't11 <popu O''t11v EDpronu'(Kit Ioropfn JlETU TTJv AvaY€WrlOll, JltU jlum ytVOTav 6Xt nta (tV(ljlEO"(l O'E 01)0 O'tpaT07tESU CtMa (lVUflf:cr(l cs Suo Ka8w'toYta. Kat 0't11 Jlam (lVnl aVUJlEO'u 0'£ OUO O'UO'nlJlat'a a,;uuv Kat O'S ouo OWA UVepW1t1V1l~ uxaP91~ 1tOU KallUi ouVaJ.lll oev J.lxopoum; va O'UJlCPUuOO'€t, Ssv Vt1CJ1cr£ 0 mo Te.XV1Ka opyUVOJJl€vo; (J1'paTO~ aAMl 1'0 Ka8sO'TW<; nov EiXE KU'tOpaWOSl va OlOXET€ucr€t npo; 1'0 J.l£TOJ1tO OAo to ovvaJltcr)16, 1:0 naao~ Kat tOY ev90D(HacrJ,t6 evo; :napayoV'tCt uyYroO'TOU ro<; ta roes - €V6e; xapayoV'ta nOD S:nPOK€t'tO va aIDO'Et V€S~ OtaO'TUO'St<; O'TllV Euprona"iKit Ioropic: T11~ eKaVatJTatl1(~~ jui(ac;.

'OAn rn Ka9sO'tw'tU zou it~sps 0 Goethe -Kat, nap' OAO to Sturm und Drang Kat tOY K60"JlO TOD folklore :nou sixs avOil;Et oro llanO. TOD 0 Herder, roco ot KOlV())vtK8<; rou sJlnstpisc; oco Kat 0 tcropuco; tOU opi~ovtac; zsptopi1;ovrav O'tO, KAstO'j.tSvO otov eouro 'tOU, autapXtKo crUOTllJ.lU'tOD KAaO'tKtallotJ- (J'tTJP{~oV'tav ornv un:oADt11 aopavs1tl lCO.t na9lyntcOtl\Tct 1\., Ilallov, O''t1\v aVl.)nap<;ia TllC; MU~(lC;.

Kat npo,yj.W.tt1Ctl, a:uttl 11 1CA&l(Tttl, tepa.P:VU.lf.vl1 0.1(0 'ta nuvm, aDO't11pU pa9JloAO'fllJ.lEV1j Kat €V01tOtTtJlZvrl anD 'tTl O'\YYKSVtpronKl1 opyavO)01l tOJV VOj.ltKc1W t~tmV, K01- V(OVtKtl n:upaJ.Lilia O£v O;<I>TtV£ crn<; j.laSe<; Kavtva nspt9ropto u:5'top\Kil~ OpaO'Tj\i. K{l~\6. Ko\VffiV\lC\) o~aoo. OEV llt<lV as ElSO'11 vo A£ttOUPY'l0"6t KO't vc O'Uj.lJlsrO;crxst O't11v to'tOP\lC\) ~(j}'l) o.V -n:p01YyOU)1SVU &sv c~UGI.?6..A.~F. 'tTJ VO)ll1dJ Tll~ avayvroptO"l] Kat t11v evraSTl Tll<; J.lEaa ornv EniO'T]J..lTt lEprrp;6a. Moon 0' (l'I)'to 'to 1.Epo.PXlKU OP'YUV(O}.lEvO 0'6- VOAO 11 flru;a Sev tUtOpooa6 va u:napxet na.pa. ccv &vU 1tEt9aPXJH1Svo :nA:f)eO~ q>OPOAOYOUp£vOOV 1) cov EvU<; a-

MAZA KAI U:TOPIA

35

vapXlK6~ 6xAO~ s;a8AtIDjlEvcoV spyatmv Kat OOUAo1t(lPOt1@V 7C0\) 11 sllcpavtaTt roue 0111v Ioropiu ittav tva J.l11- xavlKo anOtsAsot-ta Il1.W; KpicrTJ~ zou sonays zpootoptvd to <rUVteXVWKo it cpsouoapX1.K6 osert-to nOU tOU~ evorve f-ts rnv opyaVIDf.!Svr( NoJ.tlf.tOtr]-ra. H Ma~a OEV Ilnopooas vu U1t<iPSEl napa uovo cov J.11.a ltspacr't1.K1l 9Eollllvia ocv xm au-rft nOD yvooploe 11 faUia a'tTI w:yaATJ Kpi<l11 -rOD 1709.

A v Ot~ elp11Vt1(S~ n:epl00OU~ Ot IJ,.(l~E~ OSV eixav n:apa vn otaM;oDV aVUjlEoa ornv ltu811nK1l DltUKOit KUt rnv aYOV11 cvrupoin, crou; IIoMIlOD~ llnapouoia 'tOD~ ittaV SS Icon t-t110U}.l1vlt K1. acritj..luvTII. Meta rnv eSacpciv1.o11 tCOV nOAt'tOcpvAaKOOv tIDV 1.I£oa1.OOV1.KOOv xowomrov Kat l1eta 'to ~Eeu~aO"\.ta nov 9pl1oKcunKmv n:OA.6I-UDV, ot Jla~lKOi crputoi EsucpuvlO"'tTIKUV Kat 111 aSOTl tOU~ nitpav 01 uovuio; enayysAllunKo{ l:tpatoi 'tTI~ Movapxia~. Av 13- flSts ~OUW: tOV TIoA8J.W -01t01ovoitnote S9vlK6, OAOKATJpro'tlKO it enavua'tU'tlKO Tlossuo- onv Kan oAodllPIDtlKO: ocv Ilta oUvuJ.lTJ nOV KtVTJtOn01.6l o~ Jla~ t~ \jIuX\Ke~ Ch>VCltO-0FeS. onv , . .ua oplaKit el-\1t€tpia tllS toropnop;

" J1.1l~ U1tap;l1~ zou CPSPVEl as ,.UIl aJ.l.SOTl cruJl~.m'toxfl ornv Icr'topia aKOI1<1 Kat 'tt~ mo ~&vSC; npo<; K6.88 ta'toptlCl\ ~OUATJO"TJ KOlVo)VtK£<; KaTllyopiec;, J,l1t0POOI-\S v' avuJ.1s'tPitaouJlS OAO 'to xaoe; zou Jla~ xropU;;st ano tOY 180 mroVIl, ov UVIlAoyUJtOUJ..ls 'tTIv aMoKO'ta OUOStSPl1 O'taOfl 'tOD anSvavtl 0'1'0 yeyov6s tOU IIoABJ.lou xrn rou; L'tpa'tooe; zou to svaupKO)vuV. Xap11 c' aut06<; roix Ltpa'tOOS, Erpacpe 0 Voltaire tSAe1<DVOV'ta<; to Essai sur les Moeurs', «01 Auoi oev UVIlKateUOVtat KIl86Aou croix

3 To errYo rou, Essai sur les Moeurs et l' Esprit des Nations et sur les principaux faits de l' Histoire depuis Charlemagne [usque a Louis XlII, TO 1t:pooeqlEpE 0 BOA'taipo:; 'to 1756 0't11 MapKllcria rou I:ateAi: ro~ icropuco Ik»'IEhlf.lCl. H O1'JJ.lUOia tOU 8yKeltul oro Ott aWl-

36

MAlA KAI nOAITlI:MOl

noAt)l(J\)~ 1tOU KaVOUV ot 1C6ptoi roix, IIolo O"UXVa, ot 1tOAtopKTJjlevee; 1tOAe~ 1tSpVaV a1t6 tTl J.aa s~ot)O"ia O"tTJv aUTJ xropic; amo va xooriosr TIl ~O)ll OUtE svo; ano rou; xcrotxoo; roix: TIlV ssouO"ia TIlV ayopa~st a1)'t6e; zou iXEt 1"OUe; zspurcorspoi«; O'tpanonse;, to. zsptocorepu xovovio Kat ta 1tsptcm&rspa x.plljluta». Ot ~tpatoi 1..01- mv ON'tutpoO"rommav €,va avaYKu.tO KaKO 'ltOU €.1t8tpe'lte oru; )laSce;, O"tOUe; «AaoUe;», va JlevODV O'tO 1tSpt8roplO TIle; Icropinc, onv &vae; na9rJnKoe; XopOC; antvaVtt os )l1a TpayrocSia nOD tOU ll-rav aDtacpoP11.

H 81(7PO;''; TWV pa(cbv

LllJlepa, zou OATJ TJ 'lfUXllCf] Kat 11 toropucn )lac; 1;roi} stvat opyaVtKa cruvu<pacr~ ~s TIlV navtaxou napouO"ta. troy )lasrov, ~ac; stvct crxsoov aouvato va cruUa~ODJ..lS t1e; 1tpaYf.lattKE:e; olQ,crtacrEt<; UUtoD tOU KOcrJ..lOU xropL; )lat;a 1tOU YKPEllicrTIlKE orrv {;vue; xfipnvoe; n:'6pyoe;, us; tTJv eK- 1tATJ~t"J Kat tTJ crtro1tit, ~E ne; xovovte; tOU Valmy. I'tnrt 11 )laSllcfj KtV11t01toiTJO"fJ -TJ levee en niasse- 1tO'O 1tpaYjlatOnOiTtO"E 11 r UAA.tKit EnavaO"taO"t"J, DSV olH.l..aVS uovo mv avatpori} tTJC; 1taAtac; 1tOMJ..ltKite; texvllcfle;, tTJC; 8EjlEAtroJ..l£vfJC; 1tavro crtTJ pourtvc )ltUe; 1tuptiliae; jeu de paume uvaJ..lscru OE OUO avtinaAo'Oc; pUatAtaDsc;. H pa8utspTJ, )laKponp68scr)l11 O"TtJ..lacria tTIe; StcrpoJ,,;itc; tTlC; Ma~ue; ornv Ictopin TI)<; Eupro1trj<; coviotmrn 0''t0 veo opto .... 6 'too av8pu)1tou nOD s<psps oro <proe;, anc; VSEC; -xnt nuvapxatEC;- \j1DX1KeC; D'Ova~et<; 1[DU Kata~imcrE, orn vee yA.cOcrcra 1tO'O ecpepS crn<; O'Xecrstc; roo av8pro1tOD ue tOY sauto tDU. Kat Katro ano rou; VEOl)(; a'Otou<; uatf:ptcr)lOue;, 0 KAacrtICtcrtitC; Kat pacrtoVCXAtanle; Ctv8pro1toc; tOU 180'0 cuovo,

'YEt TOV (<A(yyQ}) ere Ktvrrn'tpa Kal EPI!l1VSUTIK6 KAstOl 't1l~ IDTOp~ (e.e.c.).

MAlA KAI IlTOPIA

37

napouat(laTIl1CS ccv tva aIJ.:rlYoptlco npoocono X(Qp~ aapKU Kat cord, eov Sva~ -rsXV1l'to~ Homunculus.

Orcv 0 Barere" E~asE t1<; PU(rE1<; ton «OA.01u.llpmTtKOD noMJ.lou» cvnrdooovrcc, (nov rcepi<pl')J.lo f..{yyo ron O'TIlv ErcttPoml Kown; ~rotllpia'.;, to 1to.80<; rrov uy6- uvcororv sans-culottes orou; net8ap:;ouffivou~ Kat yuJlvaO'!ltvou~ uMci 'fUXtKci ouSs'tspot>S Itpa:rouo; rou Ancien Regime", 'to na.eo~ xm 0 EVeOUO'taO'llo~ tll£ 61to.VaatClttKT)C; J,l<i~o.~ EiXav TjOl') YKpeJ,llaet to t6papxtlCO Kat pacrtoVClAla'ttKO crUO'tlllla a~tIDV zou neplEW1VE 'tOY rerpeerevo, delO'to xropo J,le~ tOY osoio Ot(l5pullunl;6tav

4 Bertrand de Barere (1755-1841). E';€xov ~~ tTl.;; sttavalJranK'f1.;; l:UVtlltm1dj.;; E9vOO'Uv8A.eu<.rtJ.;;. Xpnuance !.ltAo:; tTl~ (<E7tttpotti]C; KOlvt)<;; LrotllPi4l9) ux6 tTl crown 't'l'J<;; Ol'JI.llOOpyia<;; TIl';; f-lEXPl Tl'JV KUto.JYYTIml Tl'J<;; UXO tl'J eep~u36:Jp. TIWt6<;; OttuM; tOO Auvtoov Kat tOU PO~SO"1t1£pOU, uVtittulux; tOU Mapa, ittav unc:68uvo.;; yUJ. tu; e~rotspuffi<;; U1toetlJS1<;;, ylll 'IT! Al'JI.l6<na EK1tuioeool'J, U1t. clIuJ...aKiorrpce U1tO to tl.lSU8uvtitP10 KUt UXOOnlPt.;e to Bovuxo.P'tl'J 41tr) ouVEXSU::r.. B)£1ts Michelet, Histoire de fa Revolution Francoise, Ga1- limard, Pleiade. nupkn. 1952, to!! B' oo, 1218-1220 (e.r.s.).

5 Que voulez-vous? protum 0 Barere O'tO Rapport sur fa requisition civique de tous les Francais pour fa defence de fa Patrie. «Un contingent.i.? Le contingent de la France pour sa Iiberte comprend toute sa population, toute son industrie, tous ses travaux, tout son genie ... Publions une grande verite: la liberte est devenue creanciere de tous les citoyens; les uns lui doivent leur industrie, les autres leur fortune, ceux-ci leur conseil, ceux-la leurs bras; tous lui doivent le sang qui coule dans leurs veines» (l:uvsopio:c:>TI tTj~ 23-8-1973). [«Tt smeullSf'ts;» prot6.et 0 Moo pEp O'tl'JV EKOemr rUx. tnv 1ro1.l1:lICll c1rlmpatevrJ1f 6..l.wv tWV r tLU.wv r'a tr/v v1iepamruJ'I Vf~ 1ra.tpi&x.c;. «Evu O'tpo.nrof.UJ. KAT]prot<bv; OJ.lCi)<;; to e9eAoVtlK6 atpo.teul-lU Tl'J<;; rulliu.;; ylCt mv BAsutlsp{U t11<;; 1tepWxIl~aVS1 oA.61d.l'Jpo tOY 1tA.TJ9u41!!6 tll<;;, Ko.ee wou<;; ~lO!!l'JXuvio:, Knee opaO'Tl'Jpt6tr)tCt, Knee 1tVBUf.UlnKO KSq1IlMI.lO ... A<;; Ollltu'ltOOO'oolJS )110 1!B'Y6./"'l'J a/".ij9stu: 6Aol Ol1tOJ...ltS<;; stvat xpsOXJ'te<;; U1t8vUvtt OtT]V sJ..eueepict. Oi !-UN UJ<;; O<pSlA.ouV mv u- 1tuO"x.6A.TJml TOOC;, ot Se TllV m:ptou<JW. 1'OUC;, aUot tv; UUflj3ouAt<; tOU<;; ij ta I.l1tputoa tOUC;. 'GAol fl'J~ XP(O()"tuve to ai~ 1tOV lCUAaEt O'tt<;; <pU[3so; tou;» (Meto.<ppac:>TI rou en.)J.

38

MAlA KAl nOAITIIMOr

(O~ rn 16tE TJ Icropin, AUa roco TJ Ma~u ccv to'toptK~ (iUVUj.l11 oco Kat aU10 UlCptpro<; to 1to.flo<; Kat aUTO<; 0 !;VflOtlCHua)l6~, Ot 8~o)AoytKS~ YEVIKa 1t11YE~ 1T]~ \jIDXIK~~ ~(Of)<;, f)tav 1tpaYIlUtU 6.yvroO'tU 1l8<; 'to ~rot1KO xoouo roo KAaalKla1"1KOlJ avflpro1tou: 8ev j.lnOpODm; va ro cvnxpocet napa onv «aVYKSX:UJ..l6vS~ 1.8E6~» 01tro~ €J·.sys 0 Descartes, oov EKOr!'AmC)'8t<; uuTi)c; TI'J<;; «cpavruoia.c;» zou oro ouornun tOU Malebranche 1tapOUaui~8t(n oo» 1'\ 1tT]Y1l Kafle O'CPUAeP1l<; avriATJ'PT]~6.

«Nous avons oppose le glaive au glaive, et la liberte est fondee; elle est sortie du sein des orages: cette origine lui est commune avec le monde. sorti du chaos, et avec I' homme, qui pleure en naissa~t...»7. Movo Ilta·rf.:tom 1tp0<i>llttKtl y'Mlaoa 1tOU lltAOUae us 6lK6v~, nov a.zorstvovruv ora l.tVfllKa «upxsn:ma TT]<; IlU~u('i]~ \IIUX1l~», 1l'Cav Ouvcno v' uxouorei 1l8<; rou; op~ov'tl::<; zoo EiXE a.vo~€.t '1 E1CPl1~ll TIl<; 61tavacr'tU1:uc1\<; Mu~a.<;. M6vo 11 1tA11f1wPlKO'tT]ta. J..lWC; t6toul~ SKPT]KtlKf)C; 1tupouO'iac;. i] to 1tpoll1lvulla 'CT]C; Kat T] u1toysta zpoeroumctn 'tT]~, ll1l:opoum: vc ~'1UAS\ UTO <pm<; TtS \\fUXIK6S OW<lJ..lElS ).lE. ru; ozote; apflprovE'tct1 Kat ouvracoerct T] IlUellCl) Kat np0Cj>lltlKf) auril yArocraa. K(l1 1l0VD 11 (lKoiWJtll znpouaia aUnlC; T11C; yAffiaaac;, non «O~' U.£ov ')tUI. qJoj)mJ» ~u;rrvaEt 1:T]v \jIUxi) 1:T];; Ila~ac; ala iota TIl;; 'ta nc:i811, J..l1tOPOUOE va mv E~1t08i(j£l vc flpullllaTto'tBl 0' tva 1tA;f]8oC;

6 0 Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715), raAAoc; P{OllatOKUeoAllC~ l€PE!lI; xm lCllpn::crtUV~ cptMaO<p<X;, S1[txsipT]as JllU m>vOSClrt JlEtaQ.! Kcprsctou lCUt Auyoucrtvoo. (a. r.s.)

7 Saint-Just: Rapport sur la police generate, fa justice. Ie commerce, fa legislation et les crimes des factions. 15-4-1794 [eAvrt'USU).U3 ~iq>~ oro ~i!pCW; l(f.tt es~ll(oe111<S 11 EA.ru&pia: 11 onoin i;sm')Ol1(ie ]lOOU axo n<; Ehll':lliS· H lCCHUYwyfJ TIlS uUnl civat xotvn !1S 'Ol y~all LOU KOOIlOU, 1[OU avuSV6llKs lI1[O ,0 xa~, KilL tOO avepO)1tOU, not> YSVVIETIlL 1I1..aiyovta;;.» (Mstticpp. rou smll.)]

MAlA KAI ItTOPIA

39

ano 'l'uXtlCa acrDVOE'tIl KUt vapKro~8va ato).ta zou 0 VOuo; nJ'; UopaVEtUC; eu ra SKUVE vc ~UVU1CUA~(WVV ornv nUAt<l tODe; nuEl11ttKCm,ta.

ADt8C; 01 tOteC; ot U~S~ nOD XP11at).tonOl.c1 0 SaintJust: «8UEAAce;», «Xa09>, «apxTI tot) xoouoo», «YEvv11011 tOU av9pril1tou» -U~Etc; cratS1tT)P1KtC;, ayvmcrTs~ ornv nOAt'tt1<1l K(1\. KOlVroVl.1<1l yArocrcra 'tOO KAacrtKt<l).toi) Kat tOO Lltac:pconcrJlou- ).t1topsi vc 8sCOP118oov ccv tva npoypa~J,.lIl: el)1COAa otaKpiVEt KaVE~ to lieoe; Kat. to O'WA 'rOU Sturm und Drang, rnv «avuKaAU'IfIl» tOD Shakespeare Kat TtlC; ).tScrU1.COvt.KfJe; TtXVTI<;, to tPUytKO naSo£; OXt. JlOVO rou Faust Kat. Tll<; «ll>UtvOJ,lEVOAoyiac; 'rOD TIvEUJ,la'tOC;» aAAu, Kat to V80 KOO'Jit.KO aiO'EI'IlJ.1a 'tOU Blake, rou Goya TJ tau Holderlin. [t.ati O'Ta 1t&VTJVtU XPOvla O1tOD 11 Musa KaT6lCAD<lE oAo to 01ttt.KO nEolo Ttl.; Eupro1tT)C; anO TO Valmy Kal 'to Fleurus", Ttl Na1tOAsOVTSta K{l'taK't'IlClT), 'tOY to'naV1KO (lV'tIlpTOnOAE).tO Kal 'tOY yspJlaV1KO Befreiungs Krieg", ).ttXPl Ttc; E1tUVaOTUO'Et.c; tOD 1830 Kat tou1848, f[ Ma~a lie ).tOVO TO papoe; tf[<; 1tapoucriac; TTlC; 0&\1 Jl1tOpoUcrs 1tapa vc <pepm )lill ptl;tKll avatpom) tIDV a~trov, utn oAolCAllPronKfJ KatucpaO'1l 0- Arov rorv ouvu).tEmv }tOD ro<; tn rots U1troSooO's 'to avn).ta~tKO CJ1}anU1U TIJ<; dUC>lKtcr1'1Ki].; 1tE1SUPXia<; Kat 18- puPXiaC;. Kat OEV Ji1tOpooO's }tapo. vu q>E.PEt ornv s1t\<paVEta mv a.pV11011 tOU NO).tOD Kal tlJC; tEpapxiuc;, tf[V KUtacpU<:rlJ ron 1tapaAOYOu, tOU 1ta811ttKOU, tOO aO"UvEw11- tOU Kat. tOD rpUY1KOU: OAmv rorv D1tOymrov ouvaJ..l6COV 1tOD roc; ru rots cmro80UO'E II opyaVffiJlE.vf[ xowovic.

8 A vmpEp9flKIlIJS ~8Tl ant J.Ulm 'rou BIlAllu (pI.... crt'J1t 1) OltOU yUt n:PO)'[11 <popa 0 yWIKO; e1tIlVllcrmnK<\; crtput6; viKl'jO'E tOU~ IIproO'oo~ Sn:ayyEAJ.I1ltW; tOU noUKu tOO Mn:puOUVG!3atK. l:tO IDAEpU~ TOU BsA.yiou or £1[{lVCLcr'tUTUd.!,; ouva!1S~ £1l£KpatT]O'llv tOll npffiTOU Luvucrma).l.OU toW euPO)1[lliK<W KpIlt<W (o.r.s.) .

9 Axcl.EugepO>TtK6n:OAEItO (o.r.s.) .

40

MAZA KAI nOAITltMO!

Avri9sTU, j.l.eta to 1848, j.I.&ta to ~seuj.tucrj.ta trov uc~1KIDV s1tuvacrtacrsrov, OTUV 01 J.la~€~ opYUVW9TlKUV cs Ta~su; Kat Ilta. VEa l£pupXiu m1ps TIl 8ecr11 TI)~ na/..tli~ VOJ.ltKO..:tU~tKft~ l£p(lpxiu~, 11 E~ucpavt<rrJ t11~ MaSu~ uno tOY ioropuco op-U;ovra mlj.tUV€ Uj.l.SOTL to tEAO~ tOU Prof.luvncrf.lou Kat TItV E1t1crl"poc.pil oro Pumova/..tc!j.l.o Kat O"TItV utcrtoo<X;TJ <l>v.oO"o<pia rtlS Ioropicq tOU 180u aMva. Eire np6KEttat yta TOV aanKo (nOS1.n~lat1Ko) npooOSllttaj.l.o iJ Yla TIl llap~l(JnJdj (pScpopj.l.lcrnJdj) motooo~iu, sits rcPOKsttat ym tOV «EntcrTItf.!OvlO"j.t6», rnv «KU- 9apfJ n011101]», t11v tJ.1npEO"lOvlO"nJdj ~roypacplKij ~ to vnl"oUpaAtcrnKo opaj.ta ... nuvToU, ono1) Ilnopscrs, 1"\ opyaVWJ.lEvll acrnlCf] K01V(oVia anw9rjo"E xrn TIl J.la~a KUl ora 1:pO:YtKU !lOti.~u 1:0U \.IfUXucou TItS 1(00"1101). Tnv a~1)cr(io n01) XWpil;;El ta Olio awl.. av9pw1tlvl1~ unap~T]~ nOD au')'KpoUO"TllKav (HO Vahny ll'ltOPOOJ1S va. 'tTjv a.vu!1StpfIoonpe cv cruAAOYlcrtOUj.l.E to 01K6 JlaS o/UX1K6 KOO"Il0 nov 01. ~ho.cr't<im:ll; tou XapciXTIlKUV o.n6 'ta napciMllAu Kat tautocrT]lla cputVOJlsvu nov raUtKIDV Enuvucrca.aEOJv Kctl'too Pro)1nVTIO).loV K(11 <JKS<p'tOU).lE ).leta tlS tSees Kat tU; 1l0PCPE~ IlS ru; onote; 0 KAacrlKlcrTlKO~ av8pconos s~s~PU(js Ka\ epJll1vsu(js 'ttc;. (jXE(jS\~ 'tOU ~ TIl <DOO,", Ko.\ rnv Icropic, J.lS -ru 8uo 811Aaoij avw-ru-ra. nspttxov"ta oU)l~om amrov 'tIDY auOeVttKrov crX~(je())v too uv6prozon us tOY SUU1:0 -rOD, xapll cr'tU; onoleS TO UKuTEpyua"to UA1KO 't11S ~~S U"IjIIDVSt<ll cto cpros -rOD nvwp.u'to~.

Md,a Hal pID}lOovnapor;

<DU<rrJ Kat Ioropto sivat at Olio aVID'tUtE~ qlrrElpfu~ 1l6~ ~ ozoie; 0 <ivepro7tO~ ll7topd vc yvropicrst 'tU; 8uva,.u,:u; Kat 'tU; ouva't6rrlTE~ 7t00 KpU~Et !lsau TOU. Kat y1 nuro, (,!>U<Jl1 Kat Ioropfn stvci TU ~'tpa ant orroia , . .17WPOUIlE vc xptvouus t1}v aV6SVTIK6t1}'ta Kat TIlV nAllPOrq'ta. u-

MAZA KAI I!:TOPIA

41

nap~T]~ zoo }i7topsi vu xmpSo"Sl 'to O"WA Kat T] YAroO"O"U }itU~ snoxi1~.

Ano rnv I1no'l"1 aUTIJ, }ita a1tATJ uvnnupaSsO"T] 'tOU b1KOD }ia~ O"WA Kat 'tT]~ btKit~ }ia~ yN:OO"O"a~ ).t€ 'to O"WA Kat Tfl yMbO"O"a 'tT]~ npO-).la~lKi)~ n€plobOU Sa aivm cpxsTIl yta va Ilu~ KUVSl va avapmTflS01J}iS IlTJnID~ bev l.::iVUl }ita anAro<; tuxaia crDll1t't"(OO"'I1 cn)n1 11 napu/J.:rIAll. €).lcp6.vion, ava.nTl)~ Kat unoXroPllO"ll. TflS; snavaO"'tU'ttKfJ~ ).lU~as aVUJlsO"a oro 1789 Kat 'to 1848 Kat 'tT]S cpaOUO"tlKi}S; Kat pmllav'ttKits; 'lfUXoAoyias; - Iltas; \lfUxoAoyias; su; ~a- 90S; nou snpocerro vu bWO"st Ilta avunO\l'taO"Tfl, ym 'to 180 cuovo, KU'tu,;tmO"ll. rrov 'tpo.YU(rov Kat roiv ,.m9tKWV Ilorl~rov zon Ot SIl7tStpisS; llillS vsas;, uyvroO"Tfl~ ms; rn rots \lfUxiI~ €ixav j3yUAel (HO ((>00<;. Kat 11. avo:yvwP1aTI 'tT]C; DnupSl1S; !Has; lS'tOtaS f.1l1 'tUxalaS; O"XSO"T]S; uvallsO"a O"la ouo (lU'ta ouwouevu oev 9a J.lac; sns'tpsns vu u1t09to"ouIls on cmv tcr'topl1dl opaanlPt01toiT]O"ll. n]S; ).lu~as; cvnG'tOlXei ~ua 0PIGIlEVl1 StbtKTJ 1tVeUllanKTt 7tPOO7t'ttKTJ, Eva OP10").tEv0 O"tuA. Kat Evas; OP10"IlEvO<; \jI\)XtKOS; KOO').lOS;; MnopoD).t€ 'tuxa va U1tocr'tTtP~OUIlS O'tt 1l0VO 1tapaMllAa us n] XaAaproO'11 TflS; auvoxfts; i) n]v anoGDv9sO"ll. 'tT]S; opyavro)lEvl)c; lCO\.VroV{o.C; (nOD eiV<l.l 'tClm:OxpOVo. 1tpou1to9tcsu; Kat anon:AiO'lla'ta TflS; opuO"n]ptonoiT]CITl<; Tfls IlU~a<;) sivrn buva'to vn cpuvspm9si J.uu sl&tKf] O''ta.aTI unsvcvn O"tOV KOOJ..LO Kat vo SKOT]A0090DV evsPYl1tlKU OptO'IlEvSS; StOl1(Ss \jIUXIKSS; bUVU).t€t<; nou J.lBvOUV UnCOeT]J.l6- VeS; TJ VapKCOJ.lSvSS; 600 11 opyavIDCITl 't1"JC; xowovk«; SiVUl as 9sO'rJ vc AEl'toUpysi KaVOVlKa Kat vc ssaq)(lVi~El ru; cpUyOKSV'tpSC; ctVtlKOtVroVIKSC; i} aKOlVo)VIKec; 8uVOIlEtc;; Ki nv Ol(s<p't06W: on, IlEnl 'to ~EeuJ.lUO).la '[IDV E1tUVUO"tual.::(J)v 'too 1848, T] (l.1tOK(l.'tuo'tao11 'tllC; o"vVO;o1s xm tT]C; O"'tspeo'tT]tac; TflS; opyavO)).lWrts; KOIVroVtaC; ouvodsurrpcs it SKCPpUO"'tT]1CE IlE ).lta aua'tT]J.lanKi} a1troOTjO"1] 'tT]S; pro jlo.vnKf]s; 'lfUxoAoyi(l(; 1tOD 1tupooaiaas 'tOY uv9pro1to

42

MAlA KAI nOAITI1.M{)~

'tT\C; 5eirCePll<; nCV'tT\Kovta.€'tia.C; tau 190D UU))Va onv tvav Uj!Bcro cruvextO"ri] t1']C; tOEOAoyiac;, rov astcOv Kat t1']C; 'I'DXOAoyiar; tTJr; npo€navacrtattKi]c; KU1npopro~UVtlKf]c; zsptOOOD, bcv Sa uzopooouue vu DnoSsO"ouw: on j..lEcra crnv nOAu-uvnVo~tKf] crUvO€011 'tll<; KOtvrov{ac;, Jlu~a Kat opyavro j..lEvrt xowrovto rraptatuvouv 8'60 avtiJluxes tucrEtS crttS onoiee; av'ttO'TOlXOUV ova c'; icou aV't'tf.1(lxeC; 1tpOO1tnKEC;; 0 Nietzsche XPllcrtj..lonoiT)crE rrponoc; t1']v tvVOla 'tllS «1tpoonnKf]C;»yta vc crtwaVEt '['OuS bU'HpopouS tUnoDS atU011S arrEvaVtt O"tOV xoouo Kat t1'] ~roi] non <paVEpmVovrUt avuJ...oya IlE 'to ~aOllo tKav01toillCJT)S i] 0.nmEh10T1S 't'l'\S ((9fkI1allC; OUVa!1119>, 1[0'0 r€Asiroc; uzoxstuevucoi AOyOt (AOyOl zou uoopouv arrAme; tTJ ~lOypaq>ia tOO Nietzsche) tOY EKavav va TIl JletatpE\jI€t as Ilova~hK6 xprrqpto TIle; «uyeiuS}) Kat t1']S «vo011POt1']'t'C19> torv urouorv KU1 tOW 0lluomv. A<pijvOVtaSKata IlEPOC; tT) (JU~i]'tll<1ll ylU 'tllv usia tTJS VtTcrEtKllS 9sropiac; TIJC; «HOtKlle; rrov xupkov Kat t11r; llOlKi]S rov OOUAroV», OCV eO. j..l1tOpoucrUJlS vo D1tOOEcrooj..lS on Ileaa oTT)V 1tPOO1t'tlKi] TIJS opyaVffif.1EvT}<; Kotv(t)viac; urpooouv, u1tro90unul KUt E';OUOSTeproVOVtat OAcS aUtES ot 'I'UXtKeC; ouvcillE~ 1tOU ava1ttUO"croV'tat crnv KaOapi] TOUr; j..lOp<p~ crs snoxer; xplOTIS, otnv '1. Mci~u ql<?avi~e'tm ccv ).L\a uuG\HtOO'tU't'l_, \cropixf ovromrn;

H «8KMK'1uq» T"OV pW}laVTlu}lov

Av, j..letti to 1848, 0 Pcounvnouo; 1tapouO"uicr'tllKe ore "ulna rev 1tO~l't1~tO"troV ~ roiv Jlapstcrtrov ouv tvu nupaSEVO IVtepJ.tET~o UVUj..lscru O'tOV (mpOoOSUttKO» Kat OpOOAoytcrTLKO 190 cuovc Kat tOY «ota<prottO"IlEvO» Kat OUj.lUVtcrttKO 180 uHova, Etat Kat ornv npoontlKll tT)e; O"T)j.leptvtls €noxiJc;, 11. nepioooc; 1t00 EKAetaS us 'tOY Ilpdito DU')'KocrIlLO TIOAej..lO 1tapouaillcrTT)K€ ocv tva alloKo-

MAZA KAI I~TOPIA

43

to et:n:oAiOcoJ..la tOD O'WA 1tOU YKPEfllO'tYJKE us TIl fUMtldJ EnavuO'tuO'T) KUt 'to PCOflUVtlKO KtVYJfla. Orcv 0 Nietzsche FJV::YE ott ea tOV KatuM~ouv IlOVO ((flEta tOV EPXOIlSVO nOAE).LO», to WtO ea uxopoeocv va nODV OAOl nuroi --anD tOY Nrocroytepoxt llE.XPl to Rimbaud Kat tOV Lautreamont- zou npoq)'rltel)OUV tT)V SAsUOTJ nov dUtJ.lOVCOV tTJS 01KTJ~ flU(; Enoxfl~: TJ uvapicoO'TJ TOU (OUllUVtOllOU» tOD 180u aUDva llEs tTJ «q>tAEAEUeEPYJ» Kat atO'lOOo~YJ lOEOAoyia tTJs aO''ttKrlS KotVCOV1W; Kal tT)s LO- 0'1aA-811ll0KPUTtas OEV uzopeoe va q>pu~St to unOyEto pEufla zou flas OUV8E.Sl flE T\<; OUVallE\<; zou E~an6AuO'E TO Sturm und Orang TTJs falltKTJ<; EnavuO'TuO'TJs·

Orov ° Saint-Just f.AEYE «Tous les arts ont produit leurs merveilles; }' art de gouverner n' a produit que des monstres» 10, TJ AZSYJ monstres TI1:av zspicoorspo INa epccnxo a;Ou.tct 1tPOO"apl.lOOIlINO O"TT)V alOtK'i) eEPl.l0- xpcoin TTJs Convention napa tva O'TJflaot rou KO(JflOU. AlJ..a otnv 0 Rimbaud porrouoe, «Quand irons-nous, par dela les greves et les monts, saluer la naissance du travail nouveau, la sagesse nouvelle, la fuite des tyrans et des demons ... » 11, 01 8UtJ,lOVEs naPlataVUV flta UVeEvnri) Efl1tEtpiu flEe; mv unOKUAUnTtKf) ELK ova 'COl) KOouou zou aPXtO'E vn aXTJ).laTi~Etat u' eva nspiEPYO Kat ~aeuafJflavTo auYXPOVtO"flO 'tOOO On) rUAAiu oco Kat O"TTJ Tepucvin Kat O'tTJ Pmoin yi>pco anD 'tTJ 8EKaEtta TOV

10 Discours sur la Constitution a donner a la France, 24-4-1793 Oeuvres (1946) cr. 151.- I «'OA.s£ ot 't6XVS£ 6XOUV ST]J.lI0UP'YlJcrSl nptlJ'toupyiJ unrc, H 'ttxvrJ 't1']t; otaJCl)p8pVT]GT]s DEY napfryays napa. fLOvov 'tepa'ta.» (Mstnop. rou 61tlJl.)]

11 «Ilors 9a nspa.oouj.lS 'to. ~OUVcl Kat 't~ 1tapa;i.le<;, va XatpSTlcrOOj.lS 't1'] 'YtvYrjOT] rou vsou J.!6x90U, 't1']<; vEa<; q>p6VT]oT)<;, 't1'] q>Uyrl 'tIDV rupavvcov, .WV OUl).l6VWV;)} Arthur Rimbaud, Mia f:1WXtl fnIlV ICOAu.m'/ (Une saison en erifer), ustuop. NiKOS 1:1ta.Vta£, E](oooet<; «Ivdron», CI. 93. (o.r.s.)

44,

MAlA KAI rrOAlTI!:MOl

1870. Kat roco yta toy Rimbaud, TOV Lautreamont, tOY Nietzsche it tOY Strindberg, toy NtoO'toyt£<pO'Kt Kat tOY Asovnep it tOY LOA.O~tt<p Kat tOV <DSVt6procp, ot oatJ.lOVES;, TO nuvnpxUlO crUJl~OAO KneE noA.tTIO'J.lOU J.lES; tOY 0- zoio 0 aveprono~ Kat Tl unupC;TJ tOU OSV J.lnop06v va 0'U)l<ptAtro906v, ittav to O1JJ.laOl sv6S; epx6J.lsvou xcrnKA.ua)loU ano TOV ozoio Tinote Sev enp6KettO va aroSei: «c' etait bien l' enfer; l' ancien, celui dont le fils de l' homme ouvrit les portes» 12 •

AJJ.a uovo crTtJ.lspa, Katro an6 TOUS; acrtept(JJ.l0'6~ 'tTl>; MeyaA.l]~ Kptorp; Kat rorv TIaYKoa)lirov TIOA.e).lrov, ittav ouvat6 vo svaro)lUtroeouv )lEO'a O'Tl]v 6.)lE<il] icropucn J.la>; sroTl I1lU TSXVlJ Kat ~lta 'l'UXOA.oytu apVrlO'l]~ tau TIoA.tTtO'J.lOU - autOU ron TIOA.tttcr)lOU nou Tl]V aouva).ttu tau va O'U"(KpanlO'St ttS; &alllOvtKE~ ouvallEt~ n01) SKp1)~e Ilsaa tau Tl]v eiXav KataYYE1A.et ue Ilta Elaullaanl otau"(Eta 6Aa ta npocpTlttKU auta 1tVeUJlata ava).lecra oro 1870 Kat to 1890. Kat "(t' aUnl 'tTlv Enoxr1 nOD E:n:poKetto va STJCJEl tOY «uuovc rorv cpovta8rov», zou eiXt avayyeO.£t 0 Rimbaud, Kat to «Mueo tOU Mey6.Aou IEpoe~etaCJTI!», ami) Tj apvTjCJTl roo noA.l'ttCJJloU Ssv swm mn ,.ua (lvroovvll snunpoqnl oto 7Wl/lSVlKO stOUMW rou Rousseau aMh" -a.; am.lOftOToU,:tt: m r&uraia €pya 'tOU Freud!- Ilta nprotocpavTJS; O'Tl]V Eupro1tTj, /lEta Tl]V ec;a<pavtO'Tj TTl>; upxaia~ Tpayrooia>; Kat TTl~ p(l)J.lavlKfJ~ A:n:OKUAU'¥TlS;, o.vayvcbpt(JTl TllS; napoucriw; tau Tpcyucou Kat TOD APVTjtlKoU, tTl; napoDaia; 'tOD «8o.vatOm>, xn- . 1:a 'tTl CPPOii01KTl opoA.oyia, IlE~ rnv iOta Tl] piSa tTJ~ avep6:mtVl]~ {)1tap~>;.

12 ~{H rnv K6A.aOll aA.llfhvfj" 11 1tUfJ1I:UMLtU l&tOta, Kaero~ CtVOlX111Kav 01 8upe<; TI1~ u11:6 TO ytO tOO ocv8p<im:oo». BAbre A. Rimbaud, 6.11:. 0, 91 (O.T.S.).

MAZA KAI I~TOPIA

45

H UPVTlCJ11 ron nOAt'ttO'~OU zou nept£XEtat ~8crU 0" 01.11 tTl ~OVt8pVU teXVll Sev eKcppu1;et U1tAcO~ ~tU UVUYKTJ s1ttatpo<pit~ as ~Ul mo sAeuElepll KUt 1tW MaUl (<<PUUlxornru» OUtS Kat a1t)JOc; eva uitrt)..lU XetpUCPst1lO11C;; uxo 'tOUC; UKUOTl)..lu'iKOU;; xovove; tr}e;; Ouopqnnq, H 1tUAll KUtU ron U1caOTl~a'iKoi> OU)..lUVtO'JlOU tOU Taine f] ron Burckhardt 8&\1' upxei yUl va. €91rflcret rnv uva'tpoml -row a~uDv zou s(f>epe J.lta TSXVll1tOU ~uvu~pitKe to nuvupXato P.VGTtKO Ku9£ /3ap/3ap1}<;, KUOS tpayuol~ Kat Ka8£ JlvEll"Kile;; O'wA.tO'nKf]c;: KuElE TS.XV11C;; cSllAUcSft nou cpvsttrn tTlV aV9pc01tlVTl dtJlaKa Kat e~ucpavU;Sl TIlV uv9pc01t1VT} JloPC:Pit J.lecra (lTD 8atJlovtKO xoouo rrov acpTlPTJ)..l£vrov O'XIUUJ:troV Kat rorv JlaytKcOV 1tpocrCOXElrov.

To ysyovoC;; on 0 c:ruYXPOVOC;; 6:v9pro1toc;; s1tal.j1e ~acpVtKcl va )..l1tOpei vc ucovozoisitm , .. is rnv atO"ElTlnKfJ ava- 1tapa.crtucrT) 'tTlC; teSta;; 'tOU 'tT}C;; JlOPCPiJc;; Kat 'tT}C;; i8mc;; tOU TIle;; ~roiJC;;' to ysyov6C;; Ott Tl geATlcrll au9evttKOtTJta<; Kt eva «naSo;; nov oxproV)} zou eYIVS ~acpvu({i crroA ~ltaS 0- AaKepT)e;; E1tOme;; svcO 1tp1V iJmv to )..lvO"nK6 -Kat 'to xpOvouio- uV9pcOxrov ocv tOY Rimbaud, 'tOY Nietzsche iJ tOY Ntorrroytsqicxt, <ruJ.lcptAirocrav 'to uovrspvo av8pro1to ~£ ljIUXlKSC;; 8vvallSl<; nov SKpUI3S JJicm tOO Kat Ill> tSXVSC;; K-at ep:1req){s~ a1V(ljcrre~ tf o:miJ(fqp:wE:C;; Q;1r' dk.; ~ 1tpo1ly06)..lsvec;; f;1(Oxee;; TIle;; Eupro1ta'iK'f]c;; Ioropte; JlEta rnv A vuytNvT)O'T). .. DAn auta oefxvovv on aut6 zou aUu~£ 8ev sivat U1tAcO>; 01 «ulcre"nKee;;» Jlac;; Xpott)..ltlcrE1>; aUa Kat autTJ 1] iota T) 'J'UXoAoyia Jlac;;, l} cr'tUcrT) )..la<; U1tEvaV'tl crov K60'J.l0, l} YAcOO'O'a JlS rnv ozoia E1I:1- K01V(oVOU~E, 1] 1tp6E1eO'T) 1tOU )..lae;; MVEl us 'to epyo TsXVllC;;·

DAE>; autEe; ru; Texvec; 1tOV «avuO'n)EIT)KUV» ern rsA.cVtufa n€V1)vta XPOVlU, TexvsC; nov 6K(()pu1;ouv 6V1tta JlUI cucrElT)ttKft a/J.it )..llU 'tpa.Y1KTb Jla.ytKli 11 lSpiJ crtuO'T) anEvUVtl O'tOV KOcrJlO, TeXVE<; «p6.ppuPe~» nov oeixvouv

46

MAZA KAI rrOAITIl:MOI

'tOY avSpmjto 0'1). oov K:6plO TI)~ J.10tPIl~ 'tOU, cav U1teUOuvr], mnovoun OVT6TlTta, aAM onv Acta J.lws u1tspavElpC01tT)S Kat a1t!lvElpm1t11s tpaycooia~, OSV J.l:ropscrav ot uovreovot tExvhE~ vo 't~ ({aVo.1Ca'/,;U'lfOUV)} napa ~6vo Ylatf ot {OlOt bra'lfClV vo P1.1:1tOUV tOV KOO"J.lO onv eva at- 0'8..,'t1KO OeaJ.la Kat aVtiKp1)O'av J,lecr(l tOD to 1tSPl£XOf..l£vo '(01) 01K06 rou; 1t:neO\)~, 'to. 0''\w,<i6m 'tIDV Ol1C@V tooS 1tpo~AllJ.la:rrov. Kat auro to 1tPOJ,l11E1s'iK6 «nacrXEL v t8fAo.:m 13 tTJs MOVtEpVa~ O'UvEiOllO'l1s OO~Yll(jE tOY avSprono va !3YEt e~m ano Tllv m:p1tq:JavTj a1to~6voocrT\ ~~ TI)v ozoin TOV sixs KAcicrst 0 KAaO"tK10"T1KOS «Onunvtouo;» Kat tOY EO"1tP(o~S v' aVUKaA.U'I'Et tODs n:poyOVODS ton Kat Elpull~a'ta a1to tOY Eau'to rou ~ooa. m: }lUI 'IttIpetroDll 01t1crEloop6).ll1<:r11 J.lt~ "to Xp6vo.

~€ aMe~ E1tOXES, orcv J.lla xowrovio oev J.lnopooO's v« ~pm. llEo-a Tl1<; ttc; 8uv6.~~ 1lO. vc cruw:lOlltOnOt~(Hn, 'tOY sauto tTJ~ Kat va 0''tlJP~6l nCtv(O roue J.llCl K01Vi] nfO"rrt K1 €Yav evtcio PuElllo, ctperporuv nPO<; ru E.~ro, zpo; tn 1tV&u,.w,tlm pSDllata n01) smxpntououv O'tl"\v 1tEpt<pepsul 'tTlS. 0 «xoouozoxmouo;» TllS €1tatpV€ tors Eva YOVtllo VOll1la Y1att J.leO'a 0" aut6v tOY SPllO'KeunK6 1) KaUl'tezytKO cru1KPTlTIaj.l6, avElpro1tot nOD aVl\Kav O'E oUlq>opou~, ';tvous ~ SX8ptKoVe; avaJle'ta~v tOU~ nOAlttO'J.lODe;, tpptO'Kav trt ouvatotTJta vu EmKotvrov~O'ouv as Ilta KOtVt\ yMi>O'O'a xrn va 1)'I'ro8oov 0''tTl cnJA.A.rl'l'Tt Ka90- AtKroV a';lrov.

I.trt crTJJlSptv1) snom, 0 O'UYKPllttO'j.lOC; autoe; 86\1 eytVB O"tOV xropo aAAa O"tOV wovo. Orov Ot Eupronaiot E- 1tCt\Vav va mO"'tsuouv (Jt~ a~it~ zon 0 n:OA.ttlO'JlOC; tOU~ ElXS q>epBt O'tO cproc; ano rnv AvaytvvllO'lJ Kat ucrtspa, 6- rev, 181ai1:spa, E1ta'lfUV va n:tO'teVouv oro n:A.aO'!!a trtc; «TSM:16nrrae;)} troy KAaO'tKo)v ron; (1[00 TOUe; E1tEtPS1t6

13 Av:sX. Ilpou. or. 1067.

MAZA KAI I:!TOPIA

47

vo aVftKpu!;OUV OAoo~ 'ToU~ a.Moo~ 1tOAtrtaJlOU~ ocv Kaw rt 'to U'TeA.S~ KUt to avoAoKAi)pono) Kat oro 1tAaaIlU TTJ~ «Ilpooooo» , (zoo rou; 8nErpS1t8 vc 98ropoUV 't1l; Cl~ie~ TOU~ ocv rnv T6M1.>Taia A.S~T} Kat 'to lCOPUC,proJlU 't11~ 1- croptcc), Ot u~i8<; au'tE~ siXav i)8T} lCaTaKn1<Jet Kat CVOw notfteret oAO rov 1tAavijTl1. H «uvu-rP0ml 'uov u~w)V}> OEY 8yWf: UcrtCPIl ano ol£icroutT'fJ ~Svrov: acrulnKO:>V it UW:PlKavlKrov a~tIDv JlECm aTO errolla tOO DunKoU nOAt-nallou ClMa ano 1l1a aUT} «Avayf:vvT}<JT}» astIDv 1tOU UvilKOUV as nOA1T1aJlOu<; ron nUPeA90vTO<; U1tO roi»; oaoiou; oev ~UNOUV 0llJlSPU napa ro aPXUlOAoylKa roue anoA19ro)luw tao

luroplU}loq xca KAaUlKIU}loq

o KAacrtK1crttKO<; uv9prono<; 1ttO'TSUS on 'to 01KO tOU ermA una.p~l1<; evousvo Kat 'tUU'tlOJ,tEvO Jl' auto 1tOU OVOJla~s «apxa{o amA}) (<<ApXa{Ot» i)tav rooo 0 '01lT}PO<; 000 Kill o €>eOKpl'ro<;, roco 0 Al0xUAO<; coo Kat 0 LevEKa~, tu Bpya tOO Sou atrova Kat ru proJ.l.UtKa ron; uvriypacpu: Ow As<; at EnoXE<; 'TOU EUT}vowproJlaYKoU nOAtttcrJ,toU!), llTUV to 1l0VO ouvato aWA aveprontVl1<; u1tapST}<;. K6.ee flUe aV0tTIllU astrov i) lltav «~ap~apo» i) auJ,t~OA1!;S JlUl a- 1[OTUXTJJlEvTt anonstpa npoaEYY1CIT)<; npo<; auto to «KAaouco amA» zou 0 nAa.troVt1COC; 170<; atIDvac; TO sixs evey6.YSt 0' Eva. «utdrvto tEAslO ITPOTU1tO», 0' Eva Ku90AtKO ,"uhpo Knee uvepromvou. H AvuY£vvrr<TTl KUt 0 KAaO"lKtaJ.lo<; niatEUaV on uzopoecev vu «nvacrqoouv rouq 1t8- eaJ,tEvouc;», OXo)<; BAsYE 0 Ciriaco d' Ancona", va ;uva-

14 «KUPWK6; 0 AYK(ovlTTJ9> (1391-1452), icr(O~ 0 npono<; crUyxpovo<; :ltepll1Y'1tf]~ Kat urxUlOA6yo:;. Tai;i3e'l'e omv ITa/..1a Kat TTJV EMaOa, 61t0ll npaYf![I"to7l0it')!J6 Tpell; neptoS&f.st;;. Ym'JpSe am&; zou aVSc:rupe U1[6 'tTl }..it9t') mv urxaia ovoucetc TOO PpaXotl Tt')~ AKpon6l.e(O~ (o.r.e.) .

48

MAZA KAI rrOA[TI:EMOl

~~croov aVTfJ TIJV «APXa10tTJta» zon TIJV €~A.E1[(lV JlE<; a- 1tO to opEhivOlXtO nupu9upo 'tTJ<; crtro'l1d}<; KalKucEproVtKi}~ Motae; 't1l<; humanitas, aKplpcO<; "(to:ti n:tcrn:vav on ° «Apxaio<; nOAlncrJ,l6<;» iJtUV 11 tEAEt6tep11 1tpocrs"("(to'11, 11 lCu'A.lnSp1! «WWllillllOTl)} evo; utffiVtoV Kal a;wovov cv- 6promvou «napa5si.YJluto<;» 1tOV KaSe 1tOA.tttcrJlO~ -0.1.Wt; crUVEtOllta Kat "fEXVtK6tEpa, aAAOS acruvdOll'ta, «OUK ElOm<;» Kat 'A.ty6'tEPO KaA6- npocrna6Et va to xpuYJ,lato- 1t0111crEt JlEcra cmv Ioropfn ... 'Erct TJ Icropic napovcnaOtTJKE ow Jlt.U aKa011JlaiKi] LXOA.~ KaA.cOv Texvwv ozou at nOAtttO'Jloi 1tpocr1tu80uv vn aV'tlypu'!'ovv 00'0 Jl1tOponv mm6n:pa evil uopuro alJ..ti KOtVO JlOVt€AO 1tOV yta nprotTJ <pop a S')'1Ve opuro ornv SAA.TJvo-proJla'lKil ApXU16- TIJta.

'Erot 1tl.cr'tE'I'UV on TJ oucin tou IIoAtttcrlloti dvat 0.1.1- tTJ TJ 5taotlcaoia JlE TIJv onoia to «eJl1tStptKO Eyam, to T1Jxuio, oeooJlSvo, UKUtSpyuo'tO UtOJlO yiVEtal «police»:

TJ Ota81Kucrta JlE tl]v ozoic TJ EJl1tStPlKIl K(U icropuor npoooloPlcrJ,lEvll U1tUP~TJ a1toKu8aipEtUl a1to "fa SJl1tSlpl- 1(<1 O"'totxeia 1tOU rnv aMoubvouv Kat rqv 1t(lPUJlOpq>rovovv KUt v'!'6>vStat O'TIJ o<paipa tTJS «Ka9aPTJS av8promu<;», O"tTJV «av9pmmVTJ CPUO"TJ», Onros f)...syav ow 180 UlillVC1, O"tO «Y1tSpf:mtO"-OYuco Eyffi» too lCPl.'tllCOU loeaA.lal·wu, us )..l1a AS~tj: O'TIJ aq>aipa Jlta<; YSVtKi}s Kat avaYKaiw; Ku90A1K6TIltu<; 1tOV np6rono tTJ<; eivm TJ KaSoAlK6tTJta rov Ma9tj).w:ttKO)V Kal rorv <Pv<J1KcOV e1tlatTJJlO)v.

'Erot, ce JllU ~:;xoxr1 onou TJ avepxoll€VTJ ucrnKi} 'tUSTJ elXS TIJ cnyovptti (1tOU Exaoe UKP1~ro<; cnlJ,lepa) on 11 10SOAoyia t11<; -11 O"VVEi511O'TJ zoo Bi.XI:: anOKtTJO"sl yta tOY Eauto 't1l<;- eivci 1'(1[10 'tEAEta, n mo Ku8apij 3tuw1troO'TJ troy at't1lJlUtO)v OAUKSPllS TIlS Avepro7C6't11ta~, 0 TUnos ctv8pwnou nov O"XTlJllXticrTI)Ke ano to Ku'taO''tulaYJ.l!l 'tTJ~ AvaySvvllO"TJ~ Kat ttjV exavctO"'tattKTJ KPlttKTJ ron Ata<proriouou 1tpo~Aft81'(KE ornv UlWV1U Kat alCa-rUAUtTJ 8cO'TJ E-

MAZA KAI I!.TOPIA

49

VO~ nuvuV9pO:J1tlVOU npoO'UVU'tOA10''ttKOU UO'tSptO'J,IOD KUl. IlStU).lOp<pro8rjKS (JS ~tpO o"Arov troy a~tc:Ov, 6All~ 'tT]~ t(J'toPtK11~ s~EAtSll~, O'S 9S).lSAtO 'tT)~ ev6'tT)'tu~ Kat TIle; 01)VEXSta~ TIJ~ nUYKO(J).lUI~ Ioropinq.

Apy&tapa, 0 190~ atrova~ mlPS aVnl TI)V tMU 't'l1~ sv6t11ta~ tllC; ITaYKoCJ).ltae; krtopinq Kat, ac:p06 1tpro'ta O'XETlKOltOtllO'E Kat s~a<puvlO'S U1tO rnv tOEu roo uv6pro- 1(01) Ku9s «Utc:OVlO, YSVtKO Kat avaYKllto» XllpUK'tT]pla'ttKO, 1tpo(ntuS'flO's va 'tT] 8S'_u::A.l00aSl1t<lvro as ).lta YEa cv- 8po)1t0).lopqnK11 tOEa: rnv tMa TIle; «(J'1)VSXOUC; npoobsu'ttK11e; S~E."A11;l1~)}. Eits 1tp6KSltUl Y1a TIlv syeAoj.tapSlO'rtld! 8WM:K!ud" rIa La «Tpia crraom» ron Aug. Cornte ~ yta 'tT] «~tatPEO'11 tT)S spya.aiae;» tOO Durkheim, site tifktat roe; Kptti}pW 11 aVU1tW~l1 teov 1tupayroytKOOV OUV<l).lSffiV tOU av8pro1tou, 11 <(1tp60ooe;» tTle; O'UW:WllO'11S r, 11 1tOpsia Tl1~ E~a'tO).liKSUO'11S 'tT]S O).la.ouCll<; t;ror,C;... 11 TIaYK6aJua Icropia <PUV11KS ~au an6 rnv tOEOAOYla TOU 190u atffiva onv )lUI (J'l}VSXl1e; Aa).l1ta011<Popia an6 S'ltOxTl as E1tOxfJ, 6noo 11 A.a).lnuoa nOD ).lBta!pSpsral (J' Eva onw::Xffic; avam:po a'taoto sivat 0 A&yoc; nOD ltpaY).latozotetrm cov EAeu8Epta, 0 6.vepro1tOC; O't11v npoO'1tagetU 'tOD va s~uvepronicrEl tOY suuto ron E~avepromt;ov'taC; tTl <l>UcrT}, vu asav9prontCml TIl crovsiollcr~ tOD ~ va avanr6- ~Sl mv Uto).ltK6'tT]tu rou ).lE(J(l alt6 to aU)l1tAsy)..la troy «KotVO)v1KroV KUtUvaYKaa).lroV».

Me tOY rpono aDtO, 0 190<; UlroVUC; av6.1ttD~s Kat 0- AOKA~pffiae utn un6 nc; mo oXTI)..lanKE.c; KUt O'<paAsps<; aMa Kat )..lta an6 uc; mo atcrt6oo~sc; Kat KUtaq>attKE.<; yta tOY uv8pO)1tO tOESe; tOO 1tOAltlO).lOD ).lac;: 'tT]V tOta 'tTJe; 1- atopiac; (iUV xpooosunK11S E~E"A11;l1S, onv )..ltac; pael-'taia.~ 1tpaY)..lutonoi11crTlC; tTlC; avOpromVT)S autovo).liw; !lEa a crnv xotvovto - Jua {(l{)E.a-{)Uva~rp}, 61tros f'A£:yav tore, 1tOU 3ivEl O"tOV UVOprolCO ).l1O. SVEPY11'ttKll 9sCJ1l o.vuJ1EO'a oro ITapsA96v Kat 10 MSMov 'Ytari .sa\' 'lrapWpil;Sral vn

50

MAZA KAI rrOAITIIMor

«e~rfIcr&l» TO IIap6v Jl8 to IIa.peA.B6v aUa. K'UpiO)~ geA£t vu KaVet toy 6.vBpco1to vc JletaJlopc:procret 'to I1(1POV cprorll;oV'ta.~ to cruVStOTt'trl JlS to MEAA.OV.

~lll1Epo. ~tpOUI1E Ott 01..0. (tu'ta to. aq>eA:n, crxfnlo.ta tOO Icropuctouon rou 1900 mdrvc, rooo a'tTJ «OtaAeKtl- 1dJ» 000 K(1t aTIJv «acrtllCo-c:ptAcMugeplp> JlOpC:p~ tOU~, Of:\! exouv KaJlla crXEOTJ 1.1£ tTJV tatoptKi) alCpi(3el(l: TJ 01']Jlacria ron OtaA.eKtlKoU Kat rou 1tpooBeunKou toroptap,oU ciVllt xaOapa, tOSOA.OYlril_. '01tro~ &TjA.Il&fl 0 Ata(j)mnaJl6~ 6tO't Kat 0 Ilpoodsunouo; Sev 1taptO"fIlVet 1tapa. Jlla O'¥l1 'tT\~ 1tOAU1tA.SUPTJ~ 1ta.All~ 'tT\~ qllAe/.z69sP11~ 0.Otl~~ 'to.Sl1<; lCat ron epyanKOU 1CtV~Jl(l'tO~ KaT(l tOU O"Uv'tTJPl1ttcrjloU tr)<; Avtic)po.OTJ~· Kcrd tn a.Ua, rooo 0 «1tPOOOEtJtlKO<; S~SA.tKtlO'Jl6<;» 00"0 Kat 11 aVUJ.OYl1 OeCOpia tOU «KOtVroVtKOu cruJl~oA.aiou» 1tap' OA.TJ mv a1&OtsM:O"Jlatt1Co'tTl't<l to\)~ }.u~o"(1 O"'tT\v 1tolttt1C1l1t6.111 (au'Cf\ tTtv «o.1ton:A.eO"J.,tu;ttK&rr]Ta» non ot onuspwot \jIEtlOOJlapSIO"te~ eBA.OUV vc TIJv 1tapovcnucrO'uv ocv «xpimpto tTJ~ uAf]9sw<;») 3ev 1tSPw.xouv KaJlia eO"oltsptldJ -E1[1- OTIJJlOVlrit, cptAoO'ocpt"Kij it 1tOt1']tt"Kij- asia llCaviJ vn SE- 1tSp6.crel n~ WC:PEA.lj.llcrnKE<; av6.yKE~ 1tO\) n~ Eq)l~paV oro c:proC;.

AllwcrtE, 1tOAU 'YPtlyopa, 0 Ioroptouoc tOU 190u (UIDva SEO'1C61taO'E n<; eocoTepIK6<; tOO aouvajlisc; Kat ovnc:puost<;. 'ROll a1to to 1857 tvae; W1ttKOe; ron EKnpoO'co- 1tOC;, 0 Marx, aypaq>e O''tTJv «Etoo.ycoYTl crnv Kptn~ 'tTJC; IIoAl'nKije; Oucovoutc;» 1tp0O'1taOrovtw; vc O"Vjl<ptAl<'oO'Et 1(1, aj{EltXOKpo.llKa lOU Ul'tllp,Il'tu P,E 'tOV KA.UO"lKlO"'tU(O 3OYjlanO'jl6 JlE tOY ozoio eiXE avarpa<psl: «H SUO'lCoAla Ssv ouvlorurm oro vc KataAa.~()1)j..lE ott 11 EIJ.rtvuci} TeXVTJ Kat 11 OJlTJplKft E1to1totia cruv8EoVlat o'tsva J.lE OptaJlevs~ ~!Op<p6C; tfJe; KOlVWVtKitC; ESeAt;TJ~. H OUO'KoAla O"UviO''ta'tat OtO va ESTJyTJ(iOl)).lE 1tIDS J.l1topoilv alCo).la vc j..lac; tKaVOltOl0UV ata9TJttKa. Kat 1tro~ J.l1topo6j..ls aKOj..lCl vc

MAZA KAI Il;TOPIA

51

't~ 9£ropOOJ..lE u1l6 1loW~ (ln6'1'£t~ O"(lV KUV6Ve~ Kat O"UV <iq>ea(J'ta 1tp6T1.>1ta» • To 1tp6PAll).lu aUT6 ron Marx nap' GAl) 'tlJ q>U . .t(Hu'iri) 'too Otan)1troOTJ -Kat icrro~ a1Cp1pro~ 11' aUTJl!- },la<; Dive1 'to }!t'tPO TIJ<; to"'tOP1ri)<; cruvEiOl)O"11~ 'too 190D uubva. A1t6 'tlJ ).l1a ).lEp1a, },lac; aiVE1 mv E1K6vu },l1U<; aevUl1C; ESt.A~11<; 61toD ~O"u tl1<; KUVSvU<; «nubvto;» avElpo)1to<; OS\' },l1lopsi va 'tEEld onv tva O"'tU9Ep6 <riJ0''tfJ},lo. avuq>opa<;, 6nou Ka},ltcl a~ia Ssv },l1tOpsi vu cvnorceEt O"'tOV Xpovo, onou KUVE\<; av9pro1toC;, 9s6C; ft TtProac; oev uzops! vo: ~En6paasl rnv 10"roplKij cr't111l~ Kat TOV 7toAt'tt0"'tl.K6 Op~OV'tCt ~<; 'tOY ozoio D1tUPXE1. Ta1Yt6xrova 6W.o~, 0 190;; alrova;; ~a6O's JlS JlIU ax6p'tUYl1 ava.'fKll Ioropin; Kat 01 B1PAlOElTtK£~. ru Moucsia, 'to, Mvqusin 8taDf]AroVaV 'tTl eSAfJCl'tl 'too vo KPO:t110'£1 O'E J.11U ooo yivstm 1t1O ~rov'ca.vft TW.pooO'ia rnv UlO'9fJttK:i] asia Kat, ,,!Evucorepo, 'to av8pro1t1VO 1tsp1EX6},lS\'o rorv 10"'t'0P1KWV J..lOpq>OOv an6 't~ O1toiE<; 11 «El;EA1S11)} EiXE Esaq>aVtO'£1 KaoE O"D,,!KEKP1IlEvO oPl1O'KEU't1KO, 1tOAlttK6, 'l'DXOAO"(lK6 K.'t.A.1tEP1EXOIlEVO.

To 1tp6PA'fH.tC1 zoo BE'tel 0 Marx Sev £iv(l1 },lOVO 'to 1tcOC; Ku't6p8wcrav 01 'EAAT[VE<; vc SS1tEpacrouv tc opta 't'11<; O'X£'t1K6'tfJta<; lCat tl)C; lO'tOptKOt11ta.C; KUt vc a11},llOl)P'Y~crODV ((atc!W1£9> asw;;, «Kav6vs~ lCat aq>6umu 1tp6T1.nr:a» (11 <ppo.crCOAayf.a tau Marx avftKst orov 180 UlWVU ft - 0"tT) XElp6tEPl] 1tEpi1ttcoO"l]- O'tO cr'tUA ,.ua~ 01t01aO'a~1tOte «LXOAftC; tOU MovuX01)))) allci Kal to 1[00<; qlEi<; zou EXOUflE SEnEpuO'El 'to flu90AOYIK615 Kat, yevuc6tepa, to

15 To 1[(:0.; lCCt'taMjkttV6 0 Marx au'to 'to «~mrtpa('jJ.lCt») ron )lU80AoyllWU m:pJ£;(ofiEvou tTIS; Apxaius; TtXV11~ q>aiW'tul a1to tva ~PQI; oro {(ho ~l~Aio 6nou CtVapro't1Z'tat «n C:(Vat 0 EP!lti,,; !l1tPos; UTIlV TpO:1te~a 'tllS; AyyAiaS;. n 6lvat 0 'Hcpaurro; Il7tPO<; C'it1l uovrspva rtS't1lAAoupyim> K.O.K. Atl't6 Kilt J.WVO ctplCe{ '}'Ul vu SC:~Et '[0 zooc ~tv<x; f]ruv 0 Marx 6xt uovo 1tP~ 'to vOl'j!la tTI~ Apxaius; MueoAoyiCt~ a"MiJ. lCUllCae6 9pT]U1CEl.lnlCOnrras; ...

52

MAZA KAI nOAITII:MOr

KOlVroVtKO 1tepl£x6J.lS\!o Tll~ EAATtVudl~ TEXVTt~, 9EAOU!!e Kat ~1top06)1€ vc emKotv{»v06j.1S ~e 't~ ~op(j)e~ TIj~. fw... vc s~TtYfJcret aun) rnv enlpiro!Jl1 Tll~ EllllVtKJ1~ T8XVll~ J,tscra crTl1 crovsibTJcrTt J.lUt;. 0 Marx KUVSl l-ua tnt6e€CJT] zou Ssv uzops! napa va Ilat; KatanAfJ~et J.lB TIlv a<pE.AetU TIlt; (nv 0Xl us rino't"e aUo): «0 ropt!!Ot; av'tpa~ oS\' J.lnopst va ~avay(v61 ?tawl. A:A.Au 61lmS Sev xaipetat !!f: 'tlJV a<pEN:aa tOU 1tat8tou; Kat oS\! npt1tSl (sic) vn StABl vc ~ava~itcret cr' Evu uvrorspo Enl1teoo rnv uAi}geta TIlt; nutotK6T11ta~; Mit1tro;; i5ev Savappi(JKoUJ.lS J.l6(JU ornv natotKil q:rucrt'l 'COv o.pxu(6 xapaKnlPa. Knee enoxil~ O'TI\ ouO'tKlt tOU aAitgela; Kat t6te YtaTi va J.lll rpuvmorouus on llnUl.ot'tCl111Audu Tl1; KowroVtKllt; qoTj; 'tl); AvSpro1toTtltUc; (Il) Cft11V KaAutePit TtlC; crnYJltl, e~uO'Ksi e1t(lvO) Jlw;;, onv jnn crnYJll] nOD oS\' uzopouue ~aval~;fJcroulle, utn atrovta YOflteia; Ynapxouv 1tatota KaKOava9PEllJ.ltvo Kat naloUl us nprolllTJ ava1tWSTt. Ot neplO'cr6tepol ano ron; apxaiou~ Aaouc;; uvtpccuv c' avril rnv Ku't"TJ'Yopiu (! !). O. 'EUllveC; tl't"uv 1tatota KUVOVl1CU (! !). H YOllt£ia nou a<JKei 11 Te')Yll tOUe; emlVO) J,tUi; oev epXEtU1. 0'10 ovrtq>acrll J.1s t1'JV aOUva'tll av(mWSTJ T1lt; Kotvroviac;; J.le~ tTJV <moia epNi<:S"'t'1cre. Touvcvtiov, 'to X<ipf..l(l. 'tll<; ~eo..e'tat oro on SSpOUJ,tE 6n OEY np6KEt't"at ntu notE va saval;itOODIl£ KO:too un6 nc;; KUSu(neP1l)lEvs; KO\VroV1KEC;; (J1)VSitKSC; 1tOD sn6't"pe\jlav (!;) tTJV EJ.l<PaVtCrrl T1lC; EM11Vt"KilC; T~XV1l9}·

~tlJ.u"pa, Ssv J.l1tOpOOjlE napa vo Xa)lOYSAuoOUJ.le (i1 Kat VU ayuvulCti)croulle cv O'lCsqnOUJ.l€ on to ao)'rilpw sTO~ 1948 SiDS, uvlijlEO'a crt' lilla, Kat to «jlEyaAo ucp~tO'ttl» K,B. Lefebvre vn 8SJ.leAubvst jllU OAaKEpTJ «Etcra:yOl'Yll (JUlv Ata9'r\'tudp> srcnvOl O''t~ «Po.81Jcr'tOXo.cr'tE':;» (lUTeC;; <ppaoet~) us t1l pavaucr6tf1Ta uuti]c;; tllC;; «SPJ.lTJveiw;» nOD p.E.1:up.opq>ilivE.t OA.Tj Tllv IIayK6cr~l{l Icroptn 1tPW a1t6 t1'J BtollTJxaV1Kl] EttavaO'ta(1l'l (ue rnv oaoto

MAlA KAI II:TOPIA

53

upxi~et TJ «ropuiorrrru» 'tOU uv9pronou!) a' tva rspdono V1'jnta."(coyeio j.l~ 'to ozoio ot 'EA.A.llVe~ j.l1teJ.ln60e~ (n.x. 0 Al.axUAOC;, 0 IItvoapoc;, 0 Hpailit'toc; ... ) ijruv Ot uovot 1too Kut6p9coa(lv vo (l1taUay0'6v a1t6 t~ 1tutfjtKe~ 8ta(TtP()(j)t~ Kat ra 1tCtt01KU -rpaVJ.lara rerv KaKoava9pSIlj.ltvov Aocopirov Kat trov nprot!.Ul ao~uprov Atyu1t'twv ...

Kat OJ.lIDS, OMS ames ot 'Un09sCJEtc; yta 'to XaPliu TllS «1tat01Kil<; llA.t1ci.a~ t11~ lCOtVCOvucf)<; ~roij<; TIlS AvSp(J)n6- nrcac;» Kaepsq)t~ouv apKSta 1tta'tu rnv StKOVa ue; 'tllv o1toia 0 YSJ.luroS avronmtoieTtO"TJ Kal sJ.lmcrrooUVTJ 0'1'0 Mellov a.vepOJ1tO~ tOU 1901) atchva 1tpocrnaSooO"s vu bSt 'tOY suu'to lOU oev to Kopuq>{()j.la tTlS «1tpooosu'tucil~ s~EA.t~S» TllS IIu'YK6<JJ.ltas Icropfnq,

kTOV aVTi1ro~a TIIq Aval'ivv1}G1}q

AvtiEls'ta, 0 Kaq>KtK6<; ijpcoac; 'tOU 200D utchvu, EXOVtuC; XaO"st rnv 'tUut6'tll't6. 'tOU, tvOX,OC; rooo 'Ym rnv npa.STJ rou 00"0 Kat 'Yta. rnv u1tpa~ia tou, 'tPOJ.lOKPO:tl1J.levoC; uno mv iOta tOO 'tTjV 1tpaYJ.la.t1K<Yrrlta ... otpeoerrn 1tpOC; to ilapSA90v OXt yta va 9auJ,uiO"f:t 't~ «npoOOou9} 1WV f:Kf.t 1tpaYl1atonotijcret, oUtS Kat ytu va ppet to xo.p].la j.lt(lS 0- 1tOtaO"oTJ1tOtS «nutOllcits» 'tOV npotO"topfaC; it tTl ).lu8tKit nutpi.Oa 1tOU 0\ daatKt(nE.~ KUt ot pounvnxot ~P"Ka.V O'T11v EU6.O(l. Kat orov Ka80Al.KlcrJ.l0 ron Mecckovo, aua ytari tj.la9s vo 9sropsf nS 10"TOpuceS 1l0pcpeS ouv 6tKE.~ TOU S).l1U~tP{s<;, ouv TO UA1KO ).lta~ «1tpo~).:rlt1Kf]c; tSXVl1cit~» nou, Sp).llJvsuov'tas 'to, aVaKaA.U1ttSl. tOY sewto 'tau K(U olvEt tva VOTJ)la O't11v i8ta rou 't11 Sea" ].lSC; TOV K60')lo.

H «npopA1')nKit 'tSXVtK~» ocv «otaYV(l)O'll 't11~ ouvoAtKft~ 1tpoO'(l)1ttK6Tllta.C;» 1tapoucna.~St(U a'tTJ aUYXPovTJ 'I'uxoOepu1tf.urucTt ocv , .. uc Mt't'oupyia Jfficra cr' €va cr6~ O"t11~a «6.~UVU~», A.UO'1l~ Kat K6.eapcrTJ~ rev <rUYKPOU<J8-

54

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ov, ME mv MOtU auril 9a uzopooouus va nOOll1:: on TI aU1:Q()uiyvcocri] Iltl<;, a7l:0 TIl «fewllcrll 'tll<; TpaycoDia<;» )l£.XPt 'to Waste Land" Kat Ta t'!~AEU'taia tpya 'WU Picasso, yiV6Tat us Eva crUaTll)la a1to ({npo~o).£<;» )leaa 0" OAll rnv SKtaO'l1 TIl<; ITaYK60')l\a<; Ioropicz;

H «ftvvllO'l1 1:11<; Tpaymoia<;» tlTaV )lta 1tpro'tll 1:6- rotc «1tpO~OA.tl-ayaKaA\)'Vrp> 1tOU e~a~€ us K1VDUVU 'ta ElE)ltf..Ul tOW «oup.aVtcrnK@V)) a~t@v K<1\ 't11<; (<'Ve{)'t\KI1~ uy6ia<;» tOU 190u uuovo, ITpo~UMoVta<; ornv Apxaia EMaoa npO~All!lata 1tOU <5tatcr9av6tav on I::1tPOK6ttO va )lEtaftop<pco90uv 0"6 1tpO~Af]!la.u ~(Oi)<; Kat OUWltOU yta 'tOY 1tOAmO'ft6 orov ozoio avrlKE, 0 Nietzsche wmSE TI1 ouvat6nrta ftta<; vea<;, oumaanKi)<;, U1tSUeUV11<;, «U1tOO''taO'tClKlJ<;» ea !l1tOpOl)(1aJlE vc 1tOUJ.1E, O'X6Cl"ll<; tOU avSpwnou JlE 'tl1V Icropie, nov OUtE vc 'tllv UnO\jllUO'tEl. DEY )l1tOPODO"E 0 ioropiouo; Tll<; E1tOm<; rou, AUa av 'to 1872 tn npUYIlUt(l DEY irw .. v UKOP.U roptJlU KUt 11 «I'svVllO'l1 t11<; Tpaycooiuq> tEA.EtcoVE ft' eva «apepo ntO'tEco<;» 0'1'0 paYKVEptO'J.!O -DllAaSi] cr' tva ersatz ElpllO'KEia<; yta u(rtOv~ zou 0 Nietzsche EVtENO~ aOlKuwAOyl1tU StATlcrS vu to TaUtiO'i::l JlE t11V ulcrxDAEla TpaycoOia- TO 1906, 0- ray 0 Picasso «UVUKUAU\jlE» 1:(1 VSyptKU l;oava, OEV snpoxetro 1[1a yta, um at0'811ttKfJ avuKuAu'¥11 uMa Yla ~l(l o..1tO<pocnu'tlKi! tcrtOptKi! ()'t\y~f), "fto.. Illa <lMll AV(lyewT)O'111tOU pptmC6Tav atou<; aVTlnOoE<; Tll<; AvayEvvll- 0'1l~ tOU Mrx,aftA-AyyE.AOU Kat tOU Winckelmann'", Kat auti] 11 Avn-cvojevvnon nOD ~E1tSpacr8 nOAU YPtlyopa

16 npocpuvffi~ TJ <<'EpTJ).lTJ Xropo» 1'01> 'EAtOT (c.r,s).

170 rt6xav Iiooxiu Bivxssuav (1717-1768), UrxUIOAOyo.; xat ioroPtKOs tTJ~ TEX.Vl1~, Um1p~e sxeivo; 7I:OU eq.l£A.icooe 1'TJv KlacrtKlO"nKij (llo9TJnKl'j Kat 1'TJv uovtspvc ava<popa 01'OV upxuio eMTJVOPW).lUlKO KOO).l.O . .:lev efXe emcrK&<pgei mrrt TIJY EMUOu Kat rvropIOe 1'TJV eAATJV110't YAV1tTUai Kat a.px!1'SIC1'OVUO'l ,reOCL U7l:0 1'Ct pW).lCtiKCi uvriypa<pa.. (o.r, s.)

MAZA KAI Il:TOPIA

55

rc OPIIl tTI~ «:n:pwr6yOVTJ~» TEXV11~ Kill 1l:n:Mb9'lK£ c' OAe~ n~ ~opcpt~ '}tOl) KPU~ooV, cpaveprovoov tl1tUAsDOUV vc unspvucrioouv J.llll pup ~apll, (l1tuv8pw1t11, 1(u'taarpo<puo\ axeal1 TOO uv9pro:n:oo J.lS TOV UvOPO)1tO, scrf]J.laV6 TO Y6- yOVO<; Ott OXt1tUl 11 KU'tU<puall TOl) uv9pronou J.lEau O''tllV OJ.lOPC:P1<l u').)ii 1l apVTJ(jTJ rou xpaYllaTucoD jltaa oro rpuyuc6 eytvs 11 KUpfapxrl KU't11yopict !!Scm crnv ,+,uxft t1'I~ aD'YXPOV11<; taTOptKi)~ 1teptooou.

H 1/01Ktj TlOV IropiCl)v

Oi a..;ie~ lJ.a~ orU!lOl)Pril811Kuv Kat 61(<pp6,~Ol)V I.llU -nspucrlltvTJ nta- E1toxfl onOl) 0 .sunK&; <lv8prono<; irtav <qlEO'U aTO PSUf,lu TI\<; Ioroptcc» xm abtuq>0pODO"I:; 1ta TO nro~ dvUt OUVUT6 vc uolotnvtm 'tTJV Icropic 6AOl mrroi 01 uv9pronot yla T(1)~ ozoiou; 11 o.lKij Ilu£ taTopuol ~rot) itmv 0 0.11(6<; rou; 0 9avuTO<;. H «~taAsKttK:fJ ton xupiou 1((11 ron 606Aou» a'tll «<DcuvoJ.l6VoAoyiu TOO IIVsUJlUT09> -jun uno 'tt~ 1l'VllA6tepe~ attYJl8~ 'tTJ~ ~Utt1CfJ~ <Jlu,.oCJoq>iUi;- OAOKA1\proVETUl IlS T11 O'ttYJ.lt1 01tOU 0 bOUAO~ ~uvappiCJKSt J.lsaa aTTJv EP'Yucria 'to vOrtJ.la Kat tTIv :npayurmxorrrru TT1~ uv9promVl1<; uutovouiuc; 61..1) 11 (l1<HOOO~iu TOU Marx lYruivst IXn' uutft Tl1V un6Au't1) nlaT1) ornv UKutlll .. U1VlTll A.oytKij (<<AlaAeK'nKij») UVUyKUl6tT]'to nOD KaVEt 'to 80uA.o va 1tSpua6t ano 'tOY «q>6~o KUt t1)v a:yrovia» <J'tll (1)V6t01)0"11 t1)<; EAeu96pfu<; sm t1) (1)J.l<ptAiwcrTt 'tOD us mv Dnup~ - autfl 't1) (Jl)vdollCJll T1\~ EA.6u8spiw; nou 0 Marx rnv OVOJ.luO's «ta~tK:fJ aDvEi(;11 cnp . Mson oro sysktav6 cn)aTIlJ.la, rooo 'to rpaY1KO 7tVEUl-ta rrov vscvuonv spymv !OU Hegel 60'0 Kat 01 OUO 1tprotS~ CJ'tt'YJ.le~ tll~ «~tnAsKTtK:fJ~ TOD OOOAOU xm TOU xupioo» JlBVQ1)V orrv (l1tO~OVO),u.EvE<; Kat (lVOA.OKAt1pffir~ evOd.~Et<; ).uaS 1tP((YJl(l'tl1c6TI'lta~ 1[00 1) <JllA.oacxpia T1l~ M>cr1lr:; SKUV8 6,n Il1tOpOOaS ym va TllV ayvoTtas( K(U 0 «<p6po<; Kat

56

MAZA KAI nOAITI:fMOI

11 SuyaOt~l1 UYWvl.fl) 'tTI<; rncAaPW).lSvrj<; <rOVeW11<rrJ<; OEV naptaTllvoov napa. €va Opa).lanKO npoAOYo Clt11 paS).ltaia Kat npoooc:unKiJ <mpaYJ.la't01toi11OTJ ron ITveUJ.laro; GUY EJ..zuOEpia<; I1E.Oa 0TllY Iotopin». 0,. npo1(OAOI1- ptavoi 1tOA.LttaJ.lO~ /.iEt 0 Hegel, «E1tp6KStfO vc cecviorouv J.lOAl<; rou; a.yy~s to TIVSUJ_Ul»! AacpuMD<; 011tOA1- tlOt!oi au-roi P.E ns 'tPOP.UK'tU(SS 'Cooe; avOPO)1toOuO'{ce; '1- rov x1A1£<; <pops<; mo ana.vSpron01 ano to KaOsO'tc:Oe; nov BnspuAav 01 conquistadores. AJJ.iJ. 11 Io1tavu(f] Conquista -Il"a a:xo n<; 1ttO 6:yp\£C;, t~ mo 6~OVt(i)tt1(SS 1tEtpattKS<; S1t1XE1pt)aC:l<; trt<; TIaYKoO"Il1aC; Iatopia<;- OEY £Xc:t KaJ.lta O"XBOTJ J.IS 'to «Ilvsuuc»: Kal auto apKS! yta vn ()d~et OA.ll 'tT\v i]<rux;tl <ruvd()'l)G1l nO\) aKe'Jta~e 0 Hegel KUtro ano to ai'tllJ.la. ron: «o.n efvcr npaYJ..latlKO stvm AaylKO, o.n stvnt AOYIK6 sivalnpaY).lattKo».

Aun\ 'llCUptap:x,t1Ol SScrTl roo Eupo:mcxiou ~(Ja (JUlV Ioropfn SKavc: va urpocpt)eouv p.eaa ron OAs<; 01 'JIUXIKEt; OUV<l).lst<; nov Oa TOU E1tEtpc::n:av vc 'pOEl OE ).lta uuOBVn~ Kit E1tlK01v(Ovia ).le tOY <ivflpm1Co 1C00 pplcrK6tav K(ltm (1- no 111V E';oucriu ron, H «HEltKft reov KUpirow, nOAu zpo- 1'06 rnv aVaKaA.U'l'el to V1XtALOnKO fjAt)l).la tOU Nietzsche, filUV 11 cpuO"ucq K(lr<icr'ta.01'l tOU ()UtU(oU avSpoonou Kat OAe<; TOO ot a~ie<;: 11 utm030~ia fOU, 0 «ovSpronLO).lOc;» tOU, 0 «npoo8euncr).l0<;» tOU, 11 a:n:o~c:vro~Vl1 a:n:o K6.th~ 'tpaYIKO j.laSos «A1crOllnKip} rOD, npou1ttSetav aDt'fJ rnv «H91.ri} nov xnpirov» Kat Kat0xOprovav rnv TJOUXia TT)~ cruveilhl0i]c; roo u:n:evuvn as KnOe tpuytK6 npo~A.lIllanO'!-I.o axettKa. !-I.E 'to vDll~a iI tn a:n:o"CsUaJ.tata TT)~ to''toPtKtl<; 'tOO 8paOTJ~.

Ii]).lEpa, 0 avOpro1tOC; auro; ~pEellKE ~aq>VtKa xa.llsvo; !lEO'a 0" Eva. KOOIlO ano npaYIlU'ta Kat ysyoVOtu nOD tOY ~enepvO;v Kal TOV j.l£tatpenouv O'S opyavo !liaC; AoYiKiJ; Kat evo; MTJxavlO").l06 nOll 60"0 Aly6rSpo ).l1tOpei. vc 'tOY ayvoei roco neptc1CJotepo apveital va uvayvcopicret

MAZA KAl 11:TOPIA

57

j.t£cra 'tOO 'tOY scuro tOU Kat toco m:ptcrcr6tspo tOU <paivstm a1tuv9pro1t~ Kat J.lotpato~. Ax6 tOU~ 1toMJ.lou~ Kat rn crtpa:r6m:oa cruYK6VtpcocrTl<; -tOU~ J.leyUA.ou<; 5atllOVS;; ron 200'6 cuo)Vu- ).lEXPt ru «svoructu 'tOO 9avatou» tOU Freud Kat t11V «E~o).loA6rrlcrrt>} tOO M1tOUXaplV, ot oatJlOVS~ roo Goya K(1.1 too Lta~p6yKtV -01 navupxatot ~ai~ovE<; TIJt; Y~p..,<; Kat U]<; AOtKiac; ym rou; onoiooc €iXav JllA:i)crSt YSJ.lUtOt <ppiK1l Kat Mos 6AOl 0\. 1tpo<p~tSs an6 tOV Haaia J.lSXpt tOY Atcrrf/A,O Kat 1tOU 0 190<; millvee ntcrts'l's on tOUS elXa optO'ttKa Kat tSA.elO:rttKa e~aq>UVtO'St- py~Kav ~ava uno 1:U un6ysui roi»; ~<'E1taxVvSf) yag i) xaQOLU 'tOil Aaov roorou, xu) Tot~ wa(v ain:rov ~aQ€ro; llXOUOUV xu), TOV; ocpOaA~OV; atrcoov EXa.jJ.jJ.tHJOV 1.nl:rtO't€ WroOl 'tOt~ O<peOAllot~ XUt toi~ WOlV ax.ovo<.om XOL 'tf'l xug6(Q. (JUVWOL, XUL t;rnotQ€'tjJroOL,

"... , ... K'" ~ ~ ... K' , ...

XOL LC100jJ.UL UUtOll~. en flnu· fro£" :rton: U(lLf; XCtL ei-

1ttV· EroC; elV EQTlfA.{J)SWOL 1tOAH; nC1Qa to itT] x.atotxEToSm )tUL olzo; :rtuQa to ""T] e1vm av6Qw:rtouS', x.al i) yfl XatUA€,upS.qoE'tm f'QTlfA.O; ... »18. «"'OQUOL; XU'ta Buf3.uAwVOP>, ~~pflJ.ta xa:ta .601100,",ov», ({P1JI!O ,",cn::a T1J£, Mcou!)lttbo~», «too"" 1\ooovQ xunuQtoooS' tv tQ) ALBuvqJ xo) xaAo<; Tai<; :rtUea<puaOl Xall!tf'YjAOS; leT> ,"U:y€SfL, de; t-tEOOV vE<PEAwv EYEVE'tO i) uQX.q a:ll'toii, 15600Q E~E6QEljJfV ai'l:ov, i) lij3vooo;- vtf'ooaEV avtov, to\1; :rtotaJ.tov~ avt"l1; ~yaYE XUXA.CJ) t"WV cp"UtOOV av'to'lJ... xlJnuQ~(JooL tn;;c:t<::. 'l'Ct"t oVx BYEVV1l6Yjoav BV to rraQab£wqJ 'tOV Sfoil ... rtQ.v ~AOV EV 'to JtuQabECoqJ 'tou Stoil oux Wl-t0ui>· eYj aiJTq> EV tlj) x6.AAEL ailt"ov ... xul E~(QAoSQEu(Jav aistOY aAMtQlOt A.OLt-tOL uno tOvwv xal. XU'tE!)UA.OV o:u'tov tnt trov oesrov, tv :rt(~(Jat£" Ta~ cp6.eaystV fJtWo.V ol XA.a.60L O'lhoil, xaL OUVE'tQq3rJ 't« OtEA.EXYj uU'tou tv ::rtuVT( Jt£o(qJ T~ yt)~, xa) xa'tl!)Yjoav ano Tt); (1xsnl]; uu-

13 Roamc;, ~T, 10-12.

MAlA KAI rrOAITI!:MQl

trov :rr:aVtE£, ol ActOl troV EOvwv xal ~&a<pLO'av C(1J'tOV ... »19

Tsrotn tltUV TJ yAffiO'au zon /lfATJO'av UU'tOI 01 av- 8pW1tot KUt nuroi 01 Aaol KOU f3pe81lKUV /leaa O'S UtcOVE~ ClVtlKOl}<J"t(i)V 1(l'tCl<J'tPO<proV 1((1\ Ssv nO:YO)<J(lV ano rov Tp6/l0, uU6. to cI>6f30 JlE~ rov ozoio (J1}VEtOTJT01toillO'av 'tOY Euwr6 'tou~ tOY XPllcrt/l01toir10'av 'Yta vn Kpa:t1100UV avotXnl Kt 6.ypU1tVTJ trt Mv1\/lTJ rou; Kat TOV jlETU/l6poroccv O'E opaO'n'jpta. /lep1/lVa. Kat eyvotu 'Yta. tOV avSpumo nO\) 'tOY U1tSVx{ 0 S1C)l110£V\(J).l~ Kat 01, ~a!).lOVs~ TTJC; ~{lV(lJlTJC;· Kat -rOtE, uutoi ot Yl'y6.VTlOt 6.v8p())1tot zou jl1tOP&cra.v vc KUtOlld10'OUV KNit O"t'OU~ daiIlOV&C; xrop~ ve crnucrouv, auto! 01 npo<pt1'tE~, 0 AtO'xUAO<;: «A:uooa xaL t.t6:tatOS; EX VUX'tWV <p6~o;» 0, 0 HpUKM:1tOC;: aUtO~ no\) siBs T11 Sroij onv tva. Oavutoq>6po 1:0;0, KU1:op8ro(Juv vu JllAiJoouv 'Yill evuv «K6.lltO'to xoeuo» ", Y1a roue; uv- 8pO:l'l[;ovc; nOD «aUY%O'\VDUOL 'to£, llaxaLga£, atnwv EL£, aQotQa xat 'ret; ~lpuva~ a:utrov d; 6gE:n;ava, %at OU t..1'1- '\jJEtat £Elvo£, E:n;' favor; ~,t(:ixmQav, xal.. ou Ilfr t.t6:aromv ttl :n;O)..f}1ELV)/2, 'YtU vo o(()8d rr i;roij KUt 0 K60'Jlo~ un6 Tl'}V KuruO'rpo<p1\ 11:OU <pepvouv JlEO'U 'tOUC;.

L1.,' d.io() Kat qJOPO()

To 'YE'YOVOC; Ott aUTO! nou ayyf)'AouV orov cnJ'Yxpovo KOouo TTJv KatuO'rpocpijnou TOV u1tev.zi, oev sivm 1tpo<pi]'ts~, 1tOl.ll'tsc; Kat qnAOOOq>ot aM6. 0ll)lOatcrypUq>ot 1((11 8T]J.layroyoi, upxs] rill vo BEiSEL TO 11:00'0 0 cI>of3oc; Kat 11 MVTJJlTJ -Ol JlOvee; OUVU/lEtr; nov /l1tOPOUV vo ~u1tVTJaouv TOV uv8pco1t0 Kat 't11 Ma~a un6 'tT\ v6.PK11 roix; ot !love.;

19 IS~SlQiJA, AA, 3-13. 20 AtaX. X01'ff(J. 288.

21 HpaJd. Frg. S 1.

22 HO"llia.,; B,4.

MAZA KAI I~TOPIA

59

8uvU!.u::1.I; nOD ! . .t1tOPOUV vc noAs/.111aouv rou; oatJ.lovs~ Kat vo Kpanl00UV a:ypu1tV1l 't11 ouvswrJ<1l1 roo av9pamOD nuvro ern reaeitJ.laTU TOU- :A£UtOUV ano rqv 'lfUxTt TOD cnuepwoo a.v8pal1tou. 0 L1E'6'tEP~ IIa.YK6o).tl0C; IIoA£).lOC; KOVtEUel vc ~Exa.on:t Onroc; ~EXUO't11KE Kat 0 IlpoTO~, onro<; KOVTEUOUV va. ~ExaoToUV rc aTpa'tOnEoa auYKSvtpro<1l1~, 6nroc; mrroi at i0101 nou E1tEsl1ao;y U1t' UUTU Til atpUTonsou, onou ElXIlV OPKIO'U:i. VU J.lG1VOUV 1ttO'toi. O'TOV CivSprono zon aVaKaAU\jIaV ).lsaa tOU~ KUTCO ano roy E~Sl)tuta~6 Kat L\i1tA.a oro E>uvato, ~rffKav ana ta O'tpat01tEOa yta va ~SXaaoov UO'TEpa (mo A.iyo 't11 «vso ~ta9tlK11» zou TOU~ &vCOVE us 't11 ~COtl Kat va ).lSTUJ.lOpcproflovv cs XroVul nponuyuvoaC; - ).ltac; nponuy6:v()UC; 1I:OU, avuA.oya ue 't11 crTl).tuia 't11~, SEMl va ).tll~ nEicrsl on npEnEl vc ~sXropiSOU).tE ta O"Tpat61tEOa E~OVtroOfJC; ano ro «E9vlKU» 1) TCl «O"omaA.IO"ttKU» Ava.j.lopc:pur(1)pw ...

METa TOV IIproTO IIa.YKOO").tl0 1101..£110, OTUV 01 EupCOnatol aVClKUA.u'l'ClV on 11 CllO'160o~ xm «ClVWtSpTp> SlK6vCl tOU Clv9p6:l1tOU zou elX£. crXll).laTicrel 0 190~ atmvee; llTClV 0Xl uovo ).till 'l'EUtlKTJ O"U).lPUO'11 uUa Kal ).lW E1ttKtv8uV11 aUTCl1tl1't11, 0 Freud EOEl~E OTt «TO YEyov6~ ott at0"9av6!1aCJts O'tl!1spa T60"o ~tvOl npoC; aUT6 'tOV K6- 0'110, 1tOU zpw , .. Ule; <patv&av roco ouopoo; Kat tOGO 01- Ksio~, O<pStA.cTCU Kal O"Tllv avaO"Ta'tcocrll_1tOU 0 nOM!lO~

r ,. rl r r r

UUIO~ E(pepe (Irq ITT 0"11 pa~ -xou 1tplV nmv TOO"O oryou-

PrJ Ka.1.- I6ao.. <JrCl8sPtl- unEvuvTl OTOV SaVClTO» 23. A vnA.UOVTU<; TTl crrucrt1 tOU Eupco1taiou U1tSvaVTl oro 9avaTo o Freud EOS~S OA.o TO <ruIlPUT1KO xapaKnlPCl, 't11V anCl't11A.yt <JlyOUplU yill Itc; 1191K&<; TUcrStc; TOU uvflp6mou, 'tTJv Cm6Kpu'l'rJ 't11e; npayj.tuttK6't11TUe; tCOV aPV11TlKwv (1)Vausorv !-lEe; 'tOY avSprono, 't11V npo0"1tIlSS1U vo ayvo11Ssi 0 (MVCltOc;, va 9€coPTJ9d aav Kan to OA.6t€A.a TUXaio Kat.

23 Freud, Essais de Psychanalyse, cr. 236.

,6tl

MAZA KAI nOAITILMOl

UO"TII.LUVtO ... 7tOO KpU~OVt{lV Kiltro uno rnv 'I'eUttK11 m(jtoc3o~ia Kat ~ «OUJ.laVtO"TIKS<;» a~iE~ tot> 7tOA1't't0"1l0V Ila<;. Auril '11 crtpou8oKalll1Aud\ (HaO"l1 a1t€vavtt 0"1:00 Savaro (Kat «Gavuto~» stvrn to crUJ.L~OAO nov cpvnnKWV Kat Kata(JtpocptKWV svotixnov rou uv9pro1t00) SKaVE €va otnA6 KaK6 orcv 0 Il6AEJ.lor; Sc3E\~S rnv napoucria TOU Gav6.tou J.Lecra (JTIlv KuGTlJ.lEptviJ 'roTj 6KaT0J.lJ.Lupirov o.vOpomffiv: 1l1t0 'tTl )110, ).l8pui~ 6AO 'to 1tllpaOSOO~O crUO"tTlJ.La tooppoztc; fJ «oVO"t11lla aIlUVW;» anooEiXt11lCE avicrXOpo «Kat av 1tacrxooJ.LS nopa aKo J.lta Dtatapa91 Kat Ina E~aO"e6vtO"l1 't1\C; \lfUXtKf!c; J.Lac; ~O)tlc;, aUTO OqleiA£Tat, ()'I)CnuO'tlK6., cro on OEV J.L1tOpOUJ.LB 1tta vc OtatTJpTjO"OUJ.l8 TIlV naAul )lae; O"TaOT} an-svaVTl orov Savaro Kat O'W on Ssv EXooJ.le {l1COJ.lU ~PBt !-UU KalVoUpylu»24. Kat TaUtOxpova, ano t11v 6.AATJ /lEpt6., autTj TJ O"tepTJJ.lSvTJ ano lC6.8E aojXx,PQtll'to.. (l1tO 1(0,010 rpo.YU(Q-tTl'tC1, Ilno K6.HE <D6~o (TtucrTl anevuvTl O'tOV 6UVUTO BJ.l1t6olCJS tooc Enptonntou; va ~aAoDv €vu J.lu60;; uno ta 1tu9i1/lutu roue, rou; E!.lnoc3tO'E vn tpo/lu1;ouv «EK ~a88rov»: 0);; TIl p~u ttl;; unUPSTJ<; I'ta nc; EKJ.lTJc3SVtO'ttlC8<; OUVUJ.lE1<; 1tOD SU1rVTJO'e J.L6cra 'toue; 0 ll6AeJ.l0C;, StO't xou vu J.l6.90uv vc aB~OVtat 'tTJ ~O)fJ Kat v' uvuOsO)pnO'ouv rnv KUptUPXOUJiBVTJ ano tTlv <DJ.lT) flSATJcrrt ouvcqJTJC; O'TaO'TJ tOUe; u1tBvuvti tTl;;. «Etot, 11£'t0, 'to tEAoc; 'to\) IIoA.E.110U, 0\ VUCTI1:SC;, 1.££\ 0 Freud, flu yupiO'ouv xapOUJ.lsvot O'Ta anlT1U tOUe;, cru; yuvaiKse; Kat O"tU 1tal0tU tOu<;, XQ)p~ KafloAoD va roo; tapai;Sl TJ 0'](8'1'11 6AroV avtrov zon €KUVaV orov nOA£llo, 6Ao)V aurwv nov EXElpWV 1(OD crJCOto)O'<lV O''ttc; J.lUXE<; ... » Kat U1ttvuv'tt a' u'Onl t11v ab1.ll<pOplU Ka1. TIlv EMst'VTl J.lviJJ.lll~ roo 1l0VTEPVOU avflpo:mou, 0 Freud uvntdocst TO 0'8~(le; npo; tTJ ~OJTj 1(OU 7tEpt€XEtU\ J.lEC; 'tTJv u:p~ <ppiK11 J.1£ 'tT\V O1tOta ot a.pxoXKoi A.uoi aVt{K.pu~av 'tOY 1COA.e-

24 Freud, O.Jr. (;.239.

MAZA KAI II:TOPIA

61

uo KUt 'toy Ehiva:to: 0 upxui1co~ aveprono~ «Sev aiVat KU- 90Aou ev(1~ uJlEtuvorrtO~ <povui~' OtUV "(Dpvast VtK11TIte; uno tOV nOAsJlo, Ssv SXet to ()tKuiroJlu vo KUtOtlCr,crEt oro xropto 'COU Kat VU Uyyi~Sl 'ttl YUVUiKa tOD npO'tOU eSUyvtCY'tei JlE St8tKS~ Kat O'UXVa OOUVllPS~ l€pOtEMcrm~ uno tOD<; <pOVOD~ nOD Otf.npUSE crov XOMJlO. Bt.pala aUte<; at anuyopEucrE~ 1t11.ya~ODv axo JlIa npOATl'¥l1: 0 ayPtO~ <pOPU'tU1 'ttlv EKOiKl1~ troy 1tVEUJlatrov troy uvSpo:mrov zou cxotroos. AJJ..u aU'ta ro 1tV81Jj.1U'tU bEY StVat xupu 11 eK<ppaa" t11<; evoxit~ tOU cruvsi811a,,~, rov W'I'ECOV 1tOU t.XEt ytU tU SYKAr,Jlata non SKUV£. Y 1tapXSI Aot1tOV oro paSoe; UUrtle; tTl~ OStcrt8UtJlOvia.~ Jl1a. optousvll11St'Ki] Mnt0t11tU 1tOD MinEt uno Jla<; rouq XOAlttcrJlSvouq>25 ... Kat TSAsubvovtu~, ° Freud protUE1: «Asv Sa 'npsn8 vn xuPUOSXtoujJS Ott 11 O"'taa" JlU~ axev(1V't1 0"'t0 Suvu'to onco~ op~eTat axo tllv xOAtncrJlSvrt sroft Jla~ (Kat Eom 0 Freud ea 'npExs icrro~ vn 7tpOO"escrsI: «onroc; opi1;Etat ano eva. cri>O"tTlflU Ustoov nOD crtTlPlSS'tUl Kat EK<PpUSEl OXt to O"spucrJlO tTl~ Sroft~ aAM tTJ OSAlla" ouvallllC; xnt tTlv npooxttKTJ €Voe; nOAl'ttO"llou n01) em atoovs; O"Tu811KE os fllU a1toA1)ta. KUPla.PXt'Ki] eea" lleO"a. O'TI]V Ioropin» ) sfvot, (1XO rqv 'l'UxoAoyucft uno'Vll, 7tUVCO (1XO TT) 8uvuJ.1tl J.1(1<;, Kat on eu tlTUV npOTtJ.lOTEPO ytU J.lac; vo unaUayoUJ.le ux' uutft T11 o"TUO'T) KUt VU zpocrUPflOOTOUflS O"tTJv aAftSsta; Aev ea 'rev KaAuTspo va OiVaJl8 crTOV SaVatO, tOOO J.lE<; 'tllv npaYJ.lUTIKOnp:a 00'0 KUt J.lee; n<; losee; fla<;, 'tll 9sO'1'I nOD TOD apJ.lO~Sl Kat vc XPoO'SSOUJlS Aiyo nSptO'O'oTSPO rnv a01lvei8T)Tll crtacrll Jlae; anSvaVTt TOU -(l1)rtl Tll crtaa" nOD ro<; tn Twpa auO'TllflanKu npocrxu006cruJl8 vu ancoOftcrODfls; BspUla, auto OEY Sa 'rav flUl 1tPOOOOC; aAAu. fllU omcrOoopofllla,,' alJiJ. STO"l Oa fl1tOpoucraJls vc sillacrts StAIKptVSlc; a-

25 O.«; 0". 244-5.

MAlA KAI 1I0AITn:MOl

7tSvuV'tt O''tOV snuro )la~ Ken vu ~avaKavou Ile 'tll ~roi) u- 1to<pepTfl. Kilt uAi)8eta, vc KavEl 'tll ~roi) U7tO<pePnl S{VUl 'to nproro Ka6i)Kov KUee ~rov'tavou. Kat 11 aUTanaTll XaVet Ka8e acia otnv {;PXe'tU1 os av'tWeO'Tl us auto to KU- 0..; 26

v'IKOV ... » .

AUTIJ TJ O'U)l<pv..WOTJ JlS TIl ~roi) us TIl lleaOA,aP11O'T1 'tTJ~ uvayvroptO'Tl~ TIl~ 1tapouO'ia~ 'tOU SavaTou )le~ 'tTJ pi~a 'tTJC; U1tUP91C; -eou j.tUC; eu)l~et UMmO''tS uun') 'tll O''ttY)li) Jlee; 'tll .1.taAcKTtldJ 'tOU Kupiou Kat TOU .1.0UAOU 6nou 0 <p6poC; roo E1uva.'tou, «TOU un6AuTou Kupiou», KavE1 'tTJ O'KA.Upro)lSvTJ O'uvei31l0'TJ vn ~uvuppei rqv cv- 8promu 'tTJC;- Sa stvrn )lla ((<mt0'603p6IlTJO'TJ)), Uet 0 Freud, ytatt Ssv )l7topd nupu vn O'TI)lUiVEt )lla -zpooroptVi) i) OP10''t11dJ- eyKa'tUA,El'1'TJ TTjC; npoo3Euu1dJ~ 13EOA,oyiu~ nou, nap' OA,O 'tOY ana'tTJA6 TTjC; xapaKtT)pa, Ssv nuuel va O'UIlPOAll;et ilIa u'JfI1A,i) oUYJlll av8prontVTJe; aut01tEn:oi8TJO'llC;. 0u stvm juo «01tt0'8oop6)l110'T1» Yla'ti 0 uv9pron:oe; E1a 'n:PS1tBl va ~avappe{ 'to IlUOTtK6 -to naIl1tUA,atO JlucrnK6- Kat 'tll 8Uva)lTJ 1tOU OiVEl 0 tl>6poC; an:{;vavTt crnv iota. tOU 'tll Mvu)lTJ: uU'toe; 0 tl>opoe; ano roy onoto eixs Xetpa<peTllElel anD rots zoo Ol uYYEAOt 'tTJC; Reims KUt tOU Angelico £KAsu:mv ru; noptsc; tTl K6AaO"1)S zou £Ko.Be 'tOY KOO:).10 0"Tl) .).1£cr1}, curo; 0 tl>o.B~ xou ~un:vouaav ot npo<pi)TEC; ron Iapaf)A, autoe; 0 <D6poe; nou £KUVE rou; A~t£KOUe; Kat roo; lvKue; vc n:E'tproO'OUv )leau as IlUI umlv8pro1tTj lluaKU, 0 «Dopoe; zou SKaVe tOY uv6prono va Xuael rnv 'tUU't6TTjTU 'IOU Kat 'tllV diJl0.KU roo avu)lsO'a oro 8TJpia, ru 'tepata Kat rot»; oui)lovse; nov nupa<pUAUVE n:UVO) uno ne; n:6pTSe; rcov pro)laVtKrov SKKATJatroV -ouro; 0 wtoc; <Il6poC; 1I:0U eKUVe rov AtO"rOA,O vc AsSl: 6A,{l ta <pu0'1Ka O'TOlxsia 01UAUAOUV TTjv U-

26 V.1r .. o, 249-50.

MAZA KA1 I!:TOPIA

63

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oQ6~ <PQ6vl1~a 'tt£ AEyoL ... ;27

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27 Alax_ XOT/ffJOPOl, or. 585-595. «noMa tpOPep6. TPO).l£pU/ OpS(j)€t TSpata TJ 111'/ Kat a1[6 ~roa avGpro1t6lillxa eivm 1SJlUt€q Ol aYKUm; TTJ~ flaA.ao"o"(l~,/ Kt at (j)ro~ 0\ ).I£tsroP&c;/ KPSIillO"JlSv~ avalJEO'w t' oopcvou KCll TTJ'; Y11C;, stvm 1tAJiElo.;.1 '000 tX,oov (j)TSpQ Kat 1t6toUVsl xt 00(1 1tuvro O't11 YTJ 1t€p1ta'w()v 1l7t0poiJv va TTJV now! TTJV opyJi rtov (lVEWiJV TTJV uypta.l Mn to (j)p6VTJIill ,.' avtpu! 1t00 eivet 0& tOAJ.lll a~&ntpuoto,l1toto.; 1l7t0psi vc to 7tTJ ... ;}}_ AtO"X,uMm X01{~OpOI, ,.mpp. Ep. Xat~11avtoTTJ, 1. ZaXapOn-01lAo.;, Aflijva 1957, crSA. 71-73 ( o.r .s.),

MAZA KA1 I10AITIEMOI

zou cruvSlorJL01tolSl rqv ioropuoi Tll~ U1tO'tUXia KUt KU'tuoiKTl xoop~ vo ).l1topd vc Ppet ).leOU Tll~ TIl ouvallll v' a1tOKa'taOnlOSt rnv 6V6Tll't'a ron avSpO:J1tOU 1113 'tOY sen't6 tOO, Kat6XStat u1t6 trlv avo.YKTI vn uvayvoopicrsl 't11v 1tpuYllunK0't11tu tOU SCPU!At11, vc lluS01tOtllO'et mv iOta TI]V Evoxit, va OIDO'Sl tva venue ornv iota 't11~ rnv Tuuopia: 11 «VO)..llIlO1tOl11O'l1» tOU KaKOU, 11 O'UVEt011't'01toi11011 tOO Apvn 'ttK06 , 11 yAcboaa tOO 8avatou (to KaK6, TO ApV11't'lK6, 0 0ava'tO~ j.lE ru; a1tEtpUplSj.lE~ O(llj.lOVtKe~ rou; )..lOpcp6~ etvut ta aVIDTata crU!lPOAa 'tlle; a1to.v9poo- 1t11~ u1t60ta011e; zoo aVaKaAU1ttSl 0 uvSpoo1tOC; 1l60a tOO' Kat UKpl~roe; 1'1' aUTO, stvct ta Kat' ESOXitV aU)..l~oAa 1tOU SKcppat;oov rnv sStysP011 'tlle; t;roite; Kata T11C; 1tAaa!lunKi]~ uutovouinq Kat aacpaAeID~ 'tllC; cruvsiOl1O"f1~) stvm Y1' aUTIJV j.lID ua'tU'tll BA1tWU croo'tllpia~.

3EK1VIDVtae; a1t6 toy Freud, 0 A. Maeder EoSt~S28 IlS~ to ovstpo Ilta au86p!l11't'f1 KUt crull~OA.UcfJ uva1tupaaTUo11 t11C; cruYKEKptj.lEv11C; KUTaO'[(lO'l1C; ron aouvEt8ittou ron avOpo)1tOU non OVStPEUStal. Kat aUYKEKpt!ltva tOE~E on, orcv eva Ut0l-l0 a1tO)..laKpUVEtat ax6 TO {(KaVOV1K6» Kat 11 OUVEt011nl tOU otayroytl a1toosixvstat 600 mist Kat Aty6tSpO xpooap!lOo!lEv11 xpoc; rn 1I:paYllaTtKU 1tPOPAft!lUta zou aVnj.lETroxit;;Et, 11 OVEtptKi]-cru!lPOAtKft opaatrlptorqru tOO acruvEtOfttoU, SVID cruvftOcoc; sfvct KUOUpo. «((vna'taOl-ll(J'ttKit» (6xooC; ol1Aaoit €XS1 8si~El 0 Freud, TO 6VEtpO xpaYI-lUt01t01WVtU~ u1tro811j.l€vSC; sxt8UlliE~ uvnOta8j.lit;;El. nc; 1tpuYI-lUnKSC; UXO'tUXiEC;), yiVStal OAOEVU Kat XEptoo6TSPO Jua K'6pta Katcu8uvnKij ASl.'toupyiu XOU UVtlKUtU(Jtaivel 'tTl (Juvsio11O'l1 ue; 't11 YSVtKft xpO(J1ta8Eta tOO av8pw1tou va tXEl j.ua svtaia E1I:01l:Teia 1I:avo orov scuro tOU onv oA6t11ta. 'Erm, «11 apxTt rorv

28 Sur le Mouvement Psycho-analytique: L 'Annee Psychologique, Paris 'to XVIII.

MAZA KA] I!TOPIA

65

VEupmO'Eo)V Kat 't(OV 'JIUXroO'l::.rov, &n:roe;; MEt 0 C. Jung", XUp(l1(TIlpi~stlXt 1tOA-V <1\)xYcl uno rnv sJlqlWtcr11 ovetpoiv Y6,.UitroV un6 6VbE~Et<; yID Tt<; (luiEr; KUt ym 'to V6TUU1 tOU KaKOU nou npOKEtTUt yo. ~EO'1t(iO'Et. <l>aiVEt(1t ocv vo 1rUPEVPIQ'l(0J.tU(J'tE as J.tIa vO"raTI) an6n€tpa uno J.Ltpov~ tOU o.O'DVttbtltOU vn U'I'rocrEt JlEXpt 'tTl O'uvEilillcrTl tOO uvSpronoD ta crVJlPOA.a nov 80. JlnopouO'uv, !lEt; TII O'uyXU<:rfJ tOU, vc npocruVo.tOAlcrODv tTl DtUYroyf] tOD. H EKP1")Sl') J..I.mt; VEUproO'Tlt; tl JlUl<; 'lf6XroCITl<; XapuKtTlPiSETUl naVtOTE anD fltu nepiooo avamO:'tOJCITlt; Kam TIlV oaoio UP~Et vn e~aq>avU;eta.t aut6 to al0"811J..la acrq>uAeia<; nou cuvooEuel naVtOTe tnv 10"oPP01tllJ..lEVll. 'IfllXtKiJ ~Wtl. H aUoCPPOcrVV11 Kat 11 acr"l'aElSta nov napa1'OVTUt rors S1rSV6P"(ouv pa9u'tUta nuvro cro o.cruvEilirJ1:o zoo E1tavucr"l'aTEf svuvriov TIle;; O"uYXUCITle;, TIle;; JlOVOJ.lEPEUlt; Kat TIle; unorux{a~ TIlt; O"UvetOTJO'T)t;: auti} TJ eSEYEpCJ11 npOKaA£l to 6- VE1PO, UA119LV6 J.ltlVDf.LU 't11~ auYKEKptJ..t£vllS 1tf.ptO'ta- 0"119>·· .

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29 L' Homme a la decouverte de son ame, o, 369

66

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M AZA KAI I:nOPIA

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Av 0 Jung TOVlO'S OTt «11 nproraPXU(TJ aTJllucria troy TU1ttKroV Iloti~wv rcov ovsuxov sivm Ott J,lw; S1tttp&1tooV vn tn <ruYKpivooJ,l8 J,lS 'ta. J,lu90A.oytKa 8&1la.'['a.»30, 0 J,lSyaA.o~ UjtoptKO~ 'tT]<; T&XV11~ Henri Foclllon", a.ut6<; OtOV ozoio xpwOtaJ,lE t11v «uvacruon» t11<; PO)J,la.Vt1C1)~ tE.XV11~, E.K8a.J,lpo~ J,l1tpO~ orov Da.tJ,lOVtKO K6ap.0 nou 1tATJJ,lJ,lUpll;st rc proJ,la.VtKa IlVTJJ,lEia. a.1[6 TI}V KU'ta.AIDViu I1tXPt my Prtvo, cvcpemorev, «rt ovouc Kat n vOfJl1a 1tPE1tEt VU DroaoullE 0' auta rc 1tAaoJ,lata 1tOU <paivOY'tat cov vn yswrWTJKaV ano 'to Ka1tpirmo f] to vn:AtptO svoc J.loVaXUcoD OVE1P01t6AOU Kat 1[00, 6J.lCO~ tc ~avapp(Q"1COUf.!£ a' 6Art t11 pIDJ.laVt1C1) TBXV11 onv vc ElVat ot uopq>E~ svo; an&pavtou OJ.laBtK06 ovEipOU})32 .

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300.11:. a. 230.-

31 0 Avpi $ootyt6v (1881-1943) um1PSe ~ an6 To\)~ f1£"{aA.61:epou; 'tBXVOKprtlKoUC; TO\) 2006 auilva. To evotuqlapoV't'u roo upxtt;av (11tO 't'T) Bovt5u1T1I(11 TtXVl1 (I 921) Kat eq>rovav G't'T)V Ti:XV1f T1l~ poiuaVlK1l~ ylv1ITlr07~ (1931). Tn KUplmepa apya ron sivct1 H JV!lK1l TiM (1938) Kat '1 ZW~ Troll MOfXPIDV (1934) (e.r,s .. ).

12 Art d' Occident (1938), a. 98.

33 1too 6:M<oG1:e 1tP0J111v681 axe06v 1t6:V't'ore !lUI 1tpuY!J1lnlCit, ioroptKO: eKOr!Am~, s.;Sytpa1l. '07t:roc; en OuUf.lS, 01 Ol.OVOO1.ct1<::oi, ootpmKOi, xpta'ttuVlKOi, J.UlVlxnllKoi, pm!J.llvtKoi K.6:. !IDe01 SKqlpru;ooV ).ttct ltp081tUvaumt'ttall.flUXOA.oyia: WUX0Aoyia 6:JNl1011;; ~ Icrropia;;, I«lTO:J..u011~ Tll~ s.;oua(~, Ka9u1tm~TJC; 't'T)C; oP'Yav(O~~ Kmvroviac; K.T.A.., 1t0\) auxv6. KIl'tnAfrySt os J.ltn O:J.lOO1l i) SJ.L.J.lOO1l 81tUVUmaTIKOltoillaTJ 't'T)~ ~u~ ...

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«Dans mon tableau de Cafe de Nuit, j' ai cherche», ypaq>et 0 Van Gogh", «a exprimer que Ie Cafe est un endroit au I' on peut se ruiner, devenir fou, commettre des crimes. Enfinj' ai cherche par des contrastes de rose tendre et de rouge sang et lie-de-vin, de doux vert Louis XV et Veronese, contrast ant avec les verts jaunes et les verts blancs durs, tout ceia dans une atmosphere de fournaise infernale, de soufre pale, a exprimer comme la puissance des tenebres d' un assommoir. Et toutefois sous une aPPsarence de gaite japonaise et la bonhomie du Tartarin ... » 5. Ax' uutfj TIl q>p6:O"TI pyatvel. 0/..0 to 1tVe1)J.la.

34 Lettres, 8 Septembre 1888.

35 {(~'toV J[iv(1.K(1 ).lOU Kaipsveio VI NVJCra, n:pOO"1£CiEhIO"u vu U1[O- 06:>0"0) TO yf.yOV6c, Ott TO Ka<pf.Vf.io f.ivllt tva ~E;p~ on:ou J.l1topd Ka.Vf.~ va. KatOOrpacpEi, vc lpf.Aa9f.i, va OtCt.1[p~ot E1KAT)J.lata. TEJ.o.; 1tPOO1t6.ellOo., ).If<5(l U1t6 n~ (lV'tl.mil;s\S uv6.~SGU 0"1:0 u'!tuM p~ Kat TO KOKKtVO LOU U{J.lata; Kat tOU J,loUG'tOU, to u'!taM 1tpao'lVo Aouoo~iKOU I5()\) Kat Bf.pov{:~f., os uvti9EO"l] J.lo ta KttptV07tpacnva Kat ru 1tpamVU us to O"KAllPO AEUKO, OW aUta Jlt- 0"(( O"f. J.ltCt. atJlOcupatpU l(OAuO" J.L£vrJ<; ~i;<ITTj<;' a1[o roxpo 9f.la<p1, va sK<ppaO"O) rnv f.pS~woTj tAl;l] svo; xaJ.latw1[6iou. AIJ.iJ. Kat ).lli J.l1a

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Ken (lVUf..fY'{o, as nOAu IlSyaA.UtSPll KAillUKU ytuti beY sPX6'tuv uno 'ta navro: uno 't01)~ btaVOoUIlEv01)~ (lAM ano rc Katro: uno t11V {btU t11 Mui;a, ea 'yws y'6pro axo to EtO~ 1000, orcv ot pcouuvucol Moi etATJaaV va sKq>paaouv J1S btK6~ roi»; au8EVnKe~ Ilopq>ec; KUt ~ btKa rou; crUll~OA.a. rnv tpa'Yllci} O"UVSW11crTl nOD 6iXllV U1tOKtijaSt ym tOY sooro roix: Ot copctot SAJ..llVtanKoi Xptctoi 'troy KUtaKOJlPcbv Kat ot «araeoi XOtll8vsq> 't11~ Pop6vva~ napoo(l'taaTI}KUV aTU !latta TOUe; ocv rsrOlCe; 110pq>6~ X{l)P~ 'l'UXtl Kat 0 proW.lV1KOC; av8pronoc; «eveK6.A\)\l's», 0TJAubl1npopaAs 'tOY eaueo tOO Ilec; rn ,.HlKp1- v6. tSPCttU tl]t; XaA.()aiuc;. tl] ~app(lpll OtUKoa,uTJtlKij Kat t11V TtXVTJ nov trsnIDv. 0 Xp1ana.vH1Jl0C; nou ecpsps erat O'trt L~:6crTl Ssv i)tav ours aUn111 lJllSPTJ 8pTJO'Ksia 1[00 IlS'tU1l6pq>rovs t~ Ka'taKO).lpSC; O'S nOJl1t1lUlVet; S1taUAs~ t01) 0eoo, oUrs Ka1 TJ pa8utatrt 1tVEUlllltlKD-tTltU tOU Bui;6.vnou nou elXS vtK1)aet TOUe; baillovsC; )leoa crqv sucovu EVOe; uv8poonou 1tOU sixs rivet to O'oolla 'too Bsou, UMU 0 bU1IlOVtKoc; K6aJ.l0c; troy npoxptO'navIKoov AzoKaAu'I'srov KUl. roiv J.lUVIxa1iKO:>V mpscscov.

omvouevucn 1U1OCOVlKT] rn6ullif1 Km mv f1Yf1e6tll'tf1 ev6£ T f1prf1- ptvou» (usrcep. rou snui.).

MAlA KAI IlOAITIl:MOI

Msou cr' tva rsroto KOcr~O oxou 0 av6pcono; Kat 11 to''tOP1K1l 'tOU unap91 cSsv !-lnop0'6v ma va opuovteroov, aUnl 11 avayvroplO'11 rou 'tpaYIKou O''t'OlXEioo )lsan ornv Icropio, Klll CTUIlP{COO'll Kat II crUI.l<:PU.tmcrll j.l£ 'to ApvrrnKO E~unaKOUOUv mv EYKa'tUM:1'l'11 tiJ~ avepd:l1tlVT]~ au'tovo~iCl.~ 1(0.\ 'tTl~ o.veptim:Wl)s di~Cl.Ko..e; 1tavO) (me; onoiSt; tlSllSAlrovS'tal Kat !lse; 'ttc; 01toisC; EKcppaSSTUl Ka6E atcrt00091 Ka'tacpacr11 tou nv6po)1tou )lEt; TfJV Ioropin,

H 81rlUTPOrpti TOD dviuf.IOV UTOV nMTOJva

ApKd vc 9u!ll1eoU}te 1tro~ p.e<Ja c' Eva rE1:0l0 etat erepusculaire OAIlKEPl1" TItt; KAacrudlC; xowroviac, 0 llM't'rov -11:00 iJtctV 6Xt ).lOVO evae; 't'Unl1COC; &Knpo(j{onoc; tile; KAaaucTtC; \jfVxflt; aM<:i Kat noo 01 oOOpUCE.t; TOD 1tapacSOOS1C; E1tpS1tE KaVOVlKU vc TOV KUVOUV anpOapA.11't'o a1t6 Ka8E oDaOtajl6- nspaas J.lE !lta payoaia taxUtTltU ano 'tTl 0'00- KpanKi) atO'looo~iu 't'flt; nprot11t; veavucTtC; TOD nEpt680u O'tOV «06aitfJ't'O» onou anAro~ avayvoopisel mv npaYJ.lanxornrc ron KaKoU aUU ufVeitat va rou oOlaE1 tva 0- VtOAOY1KO-I.lUEltKO 8sj.ltAto3 Kat ano tOY «8sui'rlltO)} O'roue; «Nouoix» onou e~ayyellil TfJV 61tap~1l )llU<; «1(Cl.1Cl)e; 'IIumC;» tou l(OOJ.lOu ... ytf.l vn Ka't(1M~ouJ.u:: on ot «acp11Pll)l€vSt;» aurEs MOlSt; Sev PrTtK(1V ana to {(U~ nep~anKo Eyo:»> TOU IlAarrovu aMa anD rov opalluttKO OtxaO'jlO )ltat; O'UveiollO'lls nou EytVe Asia TIlt; B1tOxi}c; Tl1C; 1«(11 avayvOlptcrs on 0 uv9pro1toc; orov ozoto anotsivovrov €na'l's va uzops! vo sivat 0 K6ptoc; 't'fle; )loipac; rou,

36 AU' out' an:o~Eo9m ra xaxa buvutov, ro 8E6bro"I' -U:TtEVaVtCOY yaQ t( r0 aya90 aEt dvat avriyxt)- OUt' BY BEO!£: aUta tbef.i09m ... BEart. 176a. [«&:\I eiVat ouvat6v vo s';a<puvur9oW ra KaKU -KaT' aVUYKTl UXUpx.Sl xuvtors Kun avri9sTO TOV ayu906- oDTS UTOU<; BsoD<; va T01t09sT1]90uv ..• ». SA. IDimov €}f;airrrror;, ,.mpp. ,1.11J.l f. KoAoKovrt<;, K6xrcx;. A9f]vu 1993. usA.. 173, (O'.r,8.)}

T\1AZA KAI I!:TOPIA

71

U1Upax0'; 9sa:ti].;-AnolJ.rovu.;, nuvOl uno 'tt.; ytyav1OJ..lUxlse;, KUt ~'ta.~Opq>cOellKe cr' tva «SEaU :n:a(yvLOv37».

To on TO 8satpo IlS~ 'to {}}tOtO DUlDpaj.w:rt~ovrat at ~(N 0~01» OS\' dvClt 1tta tva a811va'iKo ronio (l1naAuicrtpa 01tOD YD!lVUSEtat 0 XUP!ltoll';, tva E7tlVi1CtO kD!11tOO'to, 0 IAlO'(jO~ Kat rn r~l't~iKta, 'to O'mn 'rOU Ktq>aAov nOD OSV uVTlcruXTlO'S 1tOtt yta tov 8aUtO tau: OAOe; aUto<; 0 leOO'I·!O<; !lEe; tOV onoio 0 o.V9POl1t0C; 1l1t6psO'E «CtQl.lov(uv 1.6- yoov /..uj3<.6v ogS6J;: uJ.lviJom SEW\' 'tf:: xal o.vbgOJv Euom- 1t6vOJv t3(ov U/..TJ8'f]»38) a.M<i Ilta Iepu Oooe; ornv KpllTll onou OXt 1CUl 0 Lo)lePa.'tllC; aAM tvac; «A€lTJvato;: i;EVO~» llt1o.St yta to ME.MOV J.la~i 1-1£ ton; Uvn1tpocrro1tOU'; trov ouo xuptorspcov 1tOA1'tt0'!1cOV 1tOU ellq>aVtO't'llKUV crqv Apxuia EAMoa ... ap1Csi yta va ostSSt TIt ptstJdt uUarii zou tyw!> O'tTlv 'l'uxft tOU IIw:trovu a' UUto. ta teA£utaiu %povla 'tll.; ~ror,.; tOU, mav rizors OEY E.OStXVE ott tvac; «'AQll~ Maxd>wv» e1tpOKSltO va Droasl j.tta wrpooo6- K11't1l ava~oAil O''t11v cOpa tOU 8avutou 'tTlC; KAUO'lK1lC; 'l"Uxftc;·

o IIAtmov ijTIlV aKO~la nOAl) 'EU1}VIl~ y11l VIl KUru-

A.o.~Et Ott f.l£O'u cru oy06vta xp6vtU 7tOU E.~TlO's xrn ,wO'U a.1tO t~ OIDOOxtKSC; a1tapvt1O'E~ ano t~ 07toiEc; 1tspa.m:: - a1tapv1)SllKs, IlS ).lID J.lovaotKf) O''tlJV Apxaia Ioropin untOcrovEtOllO'11, npmta TO ®s.arpo Kat uorspo 'tTlv IloxmK1l: ru; Mo c3l1Actoil IlvroratEC; !lopq>tc; opUO'T]<; zou ovcyvmpt~S 0 duatleoc; uv8pO)1toe;' Kat oro ttAoe; apvi]81lKS au'to tOY iOta 'tOY KAUO'tKO Ctv8pro1to Olav ~il'tlJcrs .... ta s- 1ttO'1'po<p~ 0'8. 11tU O'raOl[ ct1tevavrt crov KOO'~O W:.; TIlV 0- noia OXt ma 0 uv8pro1t0C; uUo, 0 086C; etvm 'to ~tPO 0- )...rov rov npuy .... u'tro~9 - S.~llO'S ).lID 1O'1'OptK1l s~eA~ll T8O'-

37 N6p. 803c. «KulCij lVUXij»: 897c. 38 emir. 17 5e.

39 N6/-l. 716c.

12

'vIAZA. KAl nOA1TILMOL

O'liprov uteOvrov. lay 'EM11vu~, ij'tuv nOAl> npoa'KoUll).ls~ vo; oro Ilnpov yta va Ku'to.A<'i~El on 00. TOV KUtaA.<'ipCtl~ vav «J.lEta Tl']V EPXOj.l€Vl'] xcrcorpoqni», on aUT6~ nov eO. ~ava1CluvE TO vtl).ta HOV crKSo/€cOV TOU 9aTaV 0 ITA(J)'t\V~ nou 1tteUVE. 0'\)0 XPOV\.a 1tPW U1tO to ~apTUp\O '[(1"1) Mdvt (271 u.X), I'tc rov t010 AOyO, 0 ~BvO~ 1tpO~ TOV ).luOO Tll~ TIp0680u c'),) .. l']vtK6~ vouc TOU I1Act't"(ova O€V tOY <'i<Pl1cr£ va ).ltAf]OEl "Ita rqv «onta908p6Wlcrrp} zou af]Jl<ltve auTf] l'] €lO'POA11 10U 1tpOKAacr1KoU, nposM11v1- KO\) \a(!)~ -Kp1)TI);- KU\ 01tcocr01)1tOtE. f.lE.1:U-EMllVtKOU oua8taJ.lou ).leaa orov o/UX1K6 tOU K6crJ.l0.

Otcv 0 TIA.a-croV crov «Lopvic» Kat t8tah'8pa crnv «Ilosuslo,» t081%,,8 !lEaa cto «Aya96v» TIl. 5uvaJ.l11 zou <<crcO~w> 'tOY K60J.l0, 61tw~ "Ita tOY AtO:;d>AO Kat TOY HpaKAeltO 11 «t"ilCTp> E.J.lnoMSE.l 'tOY lCOOJ.tO vu xcrccrpa<pet 0 xoouo; "Ita toy ozoio l..llAoDr:J€, 0 K6crJ.lO~ nov 8- PAe1tS i)ro.v 0 K60")10; 111-; OA1J)1nia~ Kat tOU TIap8evcOva, o K6o!lOC; zou, SloV'rac; Kut'Op8cOO€1 va orom::t )11U crroTrl~ pta A:OOT) cro 11;10 rpcvuco, OTO mo Ctnuv9prono 7t€npw).LSvo: to 1tE.1tp(),)JlSvO tau OtSi1t08a, ).L'Jtopoucrs v' (ll(OUEt rov UJ.lVO J.l€ 'tOY onoio 't€NnroV€t 0 Otoi1tou~ 8n! KOAWvc, Onou 0 lo<poKAf]~ 81o.AaAsi tlJv T£A£lwnKf] ViKT] rou avepronou m1.vro orou; oaiJ1ov£c; 111C; 'Y ~Pll~;

f\AA' cmO:1taUfTf ~,lllb' f:1tl :n;A.rlW 8gfJvov fyrlgf'tf

r '1( , ),. , 40

1t<1 V't{!)~ YUQ tXH 1:Uuf x.'I)QO~ .••

Azo TI\V unmVll avT!). orcv 0 IIA.u't(J)v typa<p€ croix «N ouoix;»: «(El !-lEv q: ffi!-lfV. ij ;u!-lrtu(Ja oveuvov 6- o6~ alta xal q:oea xal '(WV fV ailt0 Qvt(ov amiv~

40 OlO, eJri KoJ.. (H, 1777. «l:rol.u:x$T8 rouS 9pfJvou-S. Aol1t6vl Kt liUo KAa).W vn unv (lKOl)OT8i.1 ftaTt aUTO nou OUS d:ltB ea yivem. DxpOKAfJ TpaYOJoilX;, ).mpp. I', fepaAfJ. :E. I, ZaXap61touAo.;, AefJva 1994, 081,.. 253 (0.T.8,).

MAZA KAI n::TOPIA

73

rrov ... ) j.taVL%W~ 'tE %((t chax't(O~ £QXE'W.L (~~AOV ffi~) 't~v Koxnv ('4''UXllv cpa'tEov ErtLJ!EAEto8m 'tOU x60110'U navtb~ 'Xa), a.YELV mhov ... )>> 4J, 1tpo<.p~'tsus ~uu cpo~sp~ «01ttcr903p6j.tf[OTI)} - :n:po<.pr]"csiu zou SKetvS nsv'tE O'X€o6v a\WVS~ roO'nov vo s:n:uA:ll.9sU'tst...

H UV!U(1).JWU't/ 118 TO BavaTO

D'tUV ouo»; 0 Freud OtaKTtPuO'as TIlV uvuYKl1 vc uvaEls{()P~crovW: TTl 0''ta.0'1l )lu~ unSvuvn orov Elavu'tO KUt vn uvayvO)piO'ouJls 'tf[v 1tpaYJla'tlK0'tTl'tU Kat 'tl'j OuiPlCSta uunov 'tQ)V Ka'tuO''tpOCPIKWV Suvriueorv usou (nov uv- 8pQ)no, otnv O"tU ({j.ts'tU'l'UX0A.OYIKU)} 'tOU Epyu !lWlSt yta mv aKa'tUAutTJ Ev6T11'ta Kat 'tl'jV UKarUA.Url1 uV'ti9SGf[ rov €VcniK'tOlv 'tf[<; ~O)Tt<; Kat tQ)V evcrbcrmv rou 8avurou ... i}~EPE on ouro 9u O'lt!latVE Jlla «01tta90opo)l110'11» aXcilKa Jlc TIl eplaJl~EV'l'ucil1tiO''l'l1 O'TIlV sv6TI1'l'a roo av- 8pwnou Kat crnv KUPIUPXia rorv «uvdrrspoiv. 'l18tKWV OUVUJ.1EQ)V, 'ltuvro crnv ozoin 0 190~ ulrova<; OlKOOOJlOUCJs 'tOY KOcrJ.lO 'tOU.

Av 0 Freud KUta.A.O,PUIVS on autf) 11 «JlEta\VuX0A.oytKi}» aVti9Ecrl1 'tOU «Epmrco Kat 'tOU «8uva'tou» UVOlyS 'tl'jV nop'ta as jun j.tuvlxaiKlt Otxo'tOJll1O'11 ron uv9pro'ltou, to ep'Yo 'tOU 6)lro~ TeA.eU:OVEl 11' eva. eproTTlJlUnKO it JlE ~l1n sum, xropi<; vc oiva Kallio. evOEt91 ytu 'to 1troc; 01)yKSKp\.)lSvU SBA€1te UUTT} 111 O1)Jl<Pv.iQ)CJT) us TOV 8uvatO zoo umnrouos. An6 TTl CJnYJ.lit xou 0 ilA.u'trov avayvropice mv npay)lanKOTl1'tu curdrv rorv «JlaVIKIDV S~80)v»

41 «(Av AOl11'6v l"J nopsill Kat 1] KiVllcrt] TOD onpnvou )((11 nov unoAolrro)V oupavic:ov O"O)~(rrO)v ... ) yiVSTUt IlKUVOvlO"'fU KUl uvopy6.vonu (tors eu nptm;t vn nUpOOEX,eOUIl£ on KuSOOllysit!u) uno rnv XS1POtSPl1 ('lfUxi), l] 01tOlU q>pOVt~el OAOKAllPO tOY KOO110 Kat toy 00l1'YSi.. .)». [N6,uOI 897 c, d. Mercepcon r. KoucouvsAO~, 6KO. K6.Kt~, t6~. 5. 00. 148-49 (c.r.e.).]

MAZA KAI IIOAITIEMOI

Kat TIJV tttaVUOl «a·ta~ia» nou E<pEpvav J.lE~ TIJV K01VCOVtKf] /;ro1), to' EPYO' tau npooaVUtoAtcrTIJKE npO'~ tTIv EnltEl)~'Il J.ltU~ os <<1J:DA.tttKf]» diJ.lUKU OtoX€'tEu(1)~ roue: Uno rnv unO'",11. auti} sivnt tSMiroS xapaKTllPtcrttKO to' ott, lOtaitspa OtOUS «NOJ.lO'U9>, napO'ucrtu~s'tat J.lLU ono'tllJ.lunKTJ npocrnuOsta vc cruvosOsi 11. E>epunEUttKit J.l€ tTl NO'J.lO'OScria ... 0 Freud icrros llsspe Ott YJ OtuOYJ tOO avOpwnO'u unSva.vn oro 06.va.to, 011.1..0.(1) 11. crtuOYJ tDU anEvaVtl OTIJ t;roij, OEV aMa1;El J.l€ «olataYJ.lata.)} uno tn n6.vro a./J.iJ. ano to' 1taOCS-J.luOCS O'AaKSP11.S tTlS xotvrovia.~ - OtO' J.tttpC 1tCD 11. KotVOlVia. auti} ppiaKSt l·u~aa. Tllr; tYJ ouvaJ.l11. va aVttOpaoEt. crnv iOta. TllS rqv Ka.tUO"tpO'cpt). Kat yt.' ouro, taros, nEplDpiatl]KS a1tAOOS va. Otasl UV01- Xta to' np6pA11.J.la Kat va OSi~SI rou; K1VOUVOOC; nDD Ewtve JlEaa. tOO eva. WUXtKO KUt. U~toA.OYIKO crocrtTJJ.lU nou S1tEtpSns orov avOpOlnc va. ~sxvaEt crnv Stp1)V11. to (fI6vo J.lEC; tOY ozoto 1;St crov 1t6l.eJ.lO'. Kt E1tPS1tS vapeSt Sva.S ~EUt!::PDC; IIaYKocrl-I.lDC; II6MJ.lDC; Ka.t Evae; 86UtepDC; MscrDn6MJ.lCC; Y1a. vc J.l1tDptaDUJ.l€ va crDvex(aDVJlf: tte; crKE",€tc; tOD Freud: «0' Kiv8vVO'e; Y1a. tOY UVOpro1tO' stvoi to va J.lll 8EMI va J.lUSll, va ~€XUcrSl, va J.lllV 1tlOtWSl}) 42 orov Katctcrtpo<ptK6 KOcrJ.lC J.l€e; tCV ozoto 1;et. Y 1tUpXO'UV, AtEl 0' Jaspers, uvOpronOl nou Ssv OtACDV va f.!.U- 9DUV 'tll <ppiKll. J.lSC; rnv ozoic rruroi 01 10101 tt;11.cruv· o.v- 9pro1t0l zou Sev nlcrtSUCDV c' mno. nDD yiVllKav ata crtpat01t€oa aUYKSvtpCOCiJ1C;, o.V9POlnC1 zou stxuaav Kat aOta<pcpo6v Kat 1;DVV j.ltpa J.l€ Tll IlEpa Kat Yl' aut6 eivm Et01J.lot va nscrovv crtl] OOOM:ia Kat 'tllv U1tDtarfl it tl]v 1ta911.t1K6TT1ta tl]S uouvaJ.liue;. A v oi J.lEpSr; 1tO'V t;O'UIl€ upxouv yw. va j..lU<; odl;O'UV to' nooo avro<pEA11 SY1VS 11 AOYIKt) J.lac; Kat to' nocrO' 1tAacrJ.lattKt) €iVUl 11 aDtapK€ta tYJe; cruvEiollaijc; J.laS, to J.lOVD zou Jl1tO'PO'UJ.lS va Ko.VCUJ.lE

42 Jaspers, Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (1949) 0'. 190.

MAZA KAI II:TOPIA

75

etvot va ~Etp"O'01)~E t~ a~iB~ ~a~ mxvm <r'tTJ vaPKll Kat 'tTJv arriotsu'tll anaSsta tOW ~aSrov ztou Bi~aO'tE, a1tINavn O'tO {(OKOt~ Kat t11 O'Kta Oavo:rou}) Ko:rro ano rqv 0- nOla 1;0UJlE. No. KPtVOV~E 'tt~ a~i.s~ Jla~ OXt anD t11v ano'l'11. TI1~ 8EO)P11.ttKit~ tOU~ VOJltJlOTTl'tU~ " t11~ 'tEAEI0t11- ta<; TTl<; AOYlKit~ 'tOV<; Ka'tacrKEU"~ a"JJi:J. ano njV n:pay)lanKi} rou; napo1)O'ia. JlE~ 'tTl SOl" )la~, anD to j.lEtpO oro ozoio I!a<; P011.80uv vo qJspOUW-: O'tO qJro~ 'tTJ<; ouvst- 01')<rIl~ t~ O'KOtElV6.~ EX8ptKE<; EKJ.l1')OEVtO''ttK6.<; ouvaj.lEt~ nov 0 <rIlj.lEptVO<; KOO')lO<; qJEPVEt )lEO'a 'tOV - a1to to I!Erpo 0''t0 ozoio E1t1tPS1tOUV O'tOV av8pmno v' (IVIl')'VOlpiO'Et 'roy EaUtO rou J.l6.O'a 0" uurov tOY SaVetto Kat 0" nurov tOY EK)l1')OEYtO'I!O Kat va tOY 1)1tEPVUC"O'El. I'inri 1') 0'UJ.lPimO'Tl tau av8pron:ou J.lE tOU~ oai)lOvE<; nov J.lOtpaiu 011.)ltOVpyei it O'Uvav'taEt, 61tco<; 0 01omou<;, 6.~ol a1t6 ~ mJM<; t11~ )lUS1Ki}~ I1oAttEta<;, O'tO OPOI!O 'tOU, eivm to «ev ou Eon XQtCa», to )lSytO''to 7tp6pAll)la zou avapi6j.l1')'tE~ qJope<; Ea'tTloE 0 avepmn:o~ j.l1tpOO'ta tau Kl a1t6 'tTl AU<Jll 1tOU tOU EOCOO'E Ka90pIO't11KE 1') JlOPqJ" 'tTI~ I;m,,~ tOO, to 10''tOPIKO tOU 1tEnpOlI!EvO Kl 1') iOta tOU 111tVEUI!UttK0t11- rc, rta:ti. «to 1tVEUJ..Let KettaK'ta 'tt)v aAil8Eta tOU I!OVO EqJ' ooov ~avapptO'KEl 'tOY scuro roo I!Eaa O'tOV a1tOAUto 01- XUOJlO ... Kat 'to 1rVEUJlU Elva! OuVaJl11 JlOVO orov ~epst va K01taSl Katal!aTa 'to APV1')ttK6 Kl otnv sEPEt va xeroucst 1tMt tau. Aut1l11 O'U)lpim<rll etvci 1') J..LaytK1l ouva)lll 7t01) )lEtatpS1tEt to APV1')ttKO O'E Etvut». MID E1tOxll zou 11 Kuruorpoqm sivm 0 N OJlOt; tt)t; eXEt ~m'tlKf} uvay1crJ vc oKEqJ'tEI tOV scuro 'tTl~ JlE qJ6po Kat JlE rpouo' -11 iota 11. san1 ym va omSEt, Exe! avuyKt) ano 'to 7tVsuj.la rta va <prori(l'st rov Bavaro trot> cpepvsl ~(l'a T1l<;- «Kat 11 ~roij t01) 1tVEU~a'to<; OEY stvm uun) 11 i;roit 1tOV qJEUYSl Sv'tpO~ll Jl7tpO~ O'tO 8uvutO KUt J.L€vEt KUSUP" s~ro uno mv xcro-

7'6

MAZA KAI rrOAITItM01:

O''tp0<PTJ a/J..u II ~coi) nov O'ro~etal JlBO'a 0" curov tOY iOlO 'tOY 8uva'tO}} 43.

Krin» a1to rnv s1tl'tayi) UlnTJ, c; Jls'tPitOOUJlS TIc; us,ice; !lac; anD to zooo ll1topscrav vo ell1tOoicrouv Ilta oNiJ(SPll lCOlvO)via, JlS JllU ss,mpStlKU nporm.liwrl OUJ.lUvlO'nK'ij 1tcnosw, autTJ 'TIl «xropa trov 1tOlll'tcOV Kat tov <pu.oO'o<prow, ve nBOSt, J.l.S mv iOta Tl1e; Tl1 9BAllO'1l Kat J.lS 'TIl O'UVEYOxi) 01.00 tau KOO'J.lau, J.lS<; 'to oiX'tU tTJC; lCatuO''tpo<Pit<; Kat 'tOU e1;eu'tsAtcrJ.loU - lC1 a1tO 'to 1t00'0 ~oi)911O'av it a~ VUYKuO'av 'tOUC; av9po.mou<; aDrtlC; tTJe; K01vrovwe; vo Q'UvS1011t01tOlTJO'QUV. «SK ~ageO)v»: a1to 'to ~uSo tTIe; 0'UJ.l<popue; roix; rnv iOta rou; tTIv rom. Ki ae; ).lStpTJO'OUJ.lS 1tuvro O'TIJV a1tspuv'tocrUV11 au'ti}e; Tl1e; sPll.uae;, t1.<; tS'tpa<HEYSe; aq>alpsO'SlC; JlS nc; 07toice; 0 Jaspers, 0 sOxatoc; rSpJ.lUVOe; <ptA6O'o<poe;, 1tpoO'1tuSouO's to 1946 vc ~'YaAst Eva «JlaSoc;» uno to {(nuSoe;» trte; na'tpiOac; rou: 61.11 autit 11 O)puia AoytKTJ zou O'S 106 0'I;A10S<; lCatop9rovEt us Jlta roco asto8u:6JlaO'trt 00'0 xm aUOK0tTJ Vllc.pUA.tOTIlta vn otUKpivSl Jlse; tTJv A1toKaA.U'l'l1 tau X1tAsPtO'JlOU Kat roo lloUl1ou r6GCJl::pa SWll AUeoUC;! ea flae; <pavel ccv Jlta pooa avanoooyuptcrJlEvOU mrroxrvqrou zon yupvasl aKoJla O'TO KSVO.

Autoe; OJlroc; nOD ~piO'KEl aA110tva tOY sumo tau O'TOV ~ueo tTJt; O'UJl<J'opc'ie; Kat ron ESSutEAlaJ.loU, to uovo 1tOU ~l1tOps{ va KaVEt E{VUl vn «KpaSSt EK ~aeto)V» Kat 0- X" va taS1VOJls{ rotx; oaiJlovsc; tTJC; iotac; TOU tTIe; EYOmc;· Turri to ).lOVO 1tOU Jl1tOPSl vu KaVEt 0 q>tAOO'Q(POC; Kat 0 1tOllltiJC; -01 {{Jl6V01 V6JltJlOl EK1tp6aO)1tot» tT]<; KOlV(Ovi(1(;- €fVUl vc I.HAllast aUnl TIj YArocrau 1tOU eu Jlnopsi vu 9>1tVTJO'St to. a'tOJlU Kat roue moue; YSJlc'iwue; OBOe;, cppiK11 Kat ~ouAllall U1tEvaVtl O'tO iOto roix; 'to 1tS1tPo)J1Svo. 'E-

43 Ken .a QUO a1[ocr1[6.cr~ata siVUl 1tap~tva a1t6 tOV TIp6AOYO .11<;; (/Jazvop.evo).oy[a.c; roo Ilvebuoxo; (yllA. uer.), 1. 29.-

MAZA KAI InOPIA

17

'1'0'1, 'to 1949, tpio ;WOVUl uO''1'SpU a1tO TO P1PAio ton 'YID TO, 1tOA.tttK6., 11.0tK6., S"(KA11.J.t(l'ttKci Kat J.lstaqmO'u(ci M811 TOU lSPJ.lUV1KoU Aaou, 0 WlOe; Jaspers KaraMputVs On uovo 0 <popo~: «11 J.lsr<lAll UVllauxta 11a rnv {(ita TIlV l)- 1t60't'uO'l1 ron uv8pO:)1tom> unopei vc P0118itcrSl TOV crU'YXPOVO clVOpro1tO vc vucncst 'tOY Kivouvo TTl<; «Ait9rt<; Kat TTl<; OSAllJ.lanldt<; ciyvotae;». Kat ~t'\tclal vu SavappouJ.ls 8VsPYll'tlKU KUt J.ls<; 'to Ilapov 1:0 v611J.la tOO <Dopou -a.u- 1:0U 1:0U 1tavuPXatoo q>6poo 1t01) sivrn ro E-crxa1:o xatuq>uyw 'tOO 1tVSUJ.lu'to~ orov ot uvOpo:mot, 1tOU «€Jtuxvv811 ~ xug6Ca» roue b8V J.l1tOPOUV va ppouv J.lEO'a rou; 'ttl ODVaJ.lll OUts vo vuoicoov 'tU O''t01xsiu nOD r6VVOUV 'to q>oPo ours KU1 vc KPUtclV avotxt6. 1:U J.lu'tta 1t6.vro O'TTlV zupouota '1'OU<;. A1tSvuvn crov a1t<lvepro1tO auto KOOJ.lO 1too J.lllXUV01tOt€1 'tOY 6.vOpro1tO J..lSC; 'tTlv a1tsptoptO''t11 u- 1tOtUrT) 1tOU tOO ~t]'t6.St, 1:0 Ott 0 6.v8p(01t0~ ,J.l1topei UKOJ.la vu q>O~6:tal stvm T] tcrxuTTJ EvOe~ll, Ab.n 0 Jaspers, on 0 UVepO)1[O~ OEV ,l1topei oAoteAu va SK).l1108VtO"t!;:i, on ~l1tOps{ aKOJ.lU vc avnop6. ouv eva sAei>8spo ov: «60'0 uKaPlel aKOJla q>oPDI;, unapX81 Kat 11 K19av0TItta 118 tOV q>oPo vo 1.>1tSPVtK1lO'St 0 uvOpro1tOt; tOY q>oPo ... Ilpenei va 1tOU).lS Nat orov q>opo. funt sivni J.lID O'ta8spT) P6.O'l1 'Yta rnv EA;1riOU» 44.

H Ko.Tdtpau1J roo 'Popov Ko.I TO Tpa7lKO

LUI-u:ptAiroO't'\ J.lS 'tOV Savuro ... Kato.<pUO'l1 tOU q>6pou ... 0 q>6poC; ouv J.l6V1) ouvanl av8pol1ttVt] Katcicr'tUc:rrt: zooo siJ.lacrte J.lClKpua U1to'tOV «svcotpo oupuvo Kat rov 118tKO VOJ.lO}) rou Kant, U1tO 'tTlv «ITpocrsuX'1 ornv AlCp61to-

46 K. Jaspers: Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (1949) 0, 191. - PA. Kat Die Schuldfrage (1946), - A~U;st vc CJTj fl£u:09si on orov, to 1930, typU'l'S to Pl~Aio too: H TrVelJf,JanKi{ Kar&nOdfl T17~ e7roxfl~, 0 Jaspers !l6Al~ itg:pe trtv ()1tap~TJ tOO XttAeptCJ!lou!

18

MAZA KA1 rrOAITI!:MOL

A:rp> xct to «Dejeuner sur l' herbe» 'tOU 190u (WDva! Drov 0 Jaspers t;l1tUE1 vo ~ava~pOUJ.lE 'to aV9pW1tLVO v611- J.lU 'tOO cpo~ou (Vergegenwartigen mit uns die Bedeutung der Angst) ij~sps 'taxu on atn&; 0 KOCJj..lOC; 'tOU TpaY1KOU Kat TIle; Ka'taCJ'tpocpije; J.lEe; 'tOY ozoto t;ouJ.lS -0 Rhoe; KOCJJ.lOC; 1tOU ~piCJKS'tat CJ'tT) p~a Ka9E ~a.p~apll~ 'tsXV11~ Kat Ku9E OtXOT0J.lllj..l6vou nOAlttCJJ.lOU- sCJ1tPo)~E 'tT) MOVfCPVU 'tEXVll va t; llnlO'Et vc ~PEl 'tOV sou't6 TIle; KUt va SPJ.lllVEUO"St TIl uotpc 'too O"llJ.LEPtvOU uv- 9pO:>1tOU «avaKUAU1ttoVT(l(;» OABe; au-tse; T1<; to"'tOptKS~ J.lOpcpse; 1tOU ouvspdrvouv 'tOY uv9pro1t0 KUtro U1tO 'to crijj..lU j..lta<; Oatj..lOV1Kit~ Ej..lnEtpia~ uV'tiO"totX'lS j..lS TIl 011(11 J.Ule;, KUtO) uno to crijJ.lU (l~tWv 1tOU 1tSptCm6TEpo aviJKOOV OtOV KOO'J.LO 'tOU cp6~ou Kat tOO j..lotpuiou napa orov KOOj..lO 'tllC; OJ..lOp<ptae; Kat ron «npUKtlKOl) AOyOU»!

«Un soir j' ai assis la Beaute sur mes genous, je l' ai trouvee amere, Et je l' ai injuriee ... 6 sorcieres, 6 misere, 6 haine. C' est a VOllS que mon tresor a ete confie» 45. Kat ano tOTE, J.la~i ).I.E -ru; Katupse; ron Rimbaud J.lnopsocus vc ~avaK0'60"ouJ.ls 'tte; l(utUpSe; Kat rn j.lOUYKPlltU rov Eptvixov - ctKP1PWC; 01troe; ~avu~p~Kaj.lS toue; KOAaCJJl6vOUe; tOW proj.laVtKWV rupzrivorv J.lut;i JlE rot»; cxpm't1}Ptacr.u6vOU~ oo:i.uovs~ 't1}~ rKOUSpV1KUC;, UKptJ3roC; onroc; Katro uno 'to 'tSJ.l1tAO ,.11UC; AnoKuAU\IIllC;, zou sixuv uvayysiAat OAa tu 1tPO<Pll'tl.KU 1tVSUJ.lcttu tau 1900 u.rovu Kat 1tOO J.lOA1<; tWpu UPX~ouj.ls va O"uVstOlltOnOlOUj.lE, O"nuccv 010'<ppayiose; TIle; Icropiu; Kt CVcD, zpw, 0 KAUO"tKtO'nKoe; «00 ).lUV10'j.!0C;» siXE U1tO~EVWCJEt 'to EupronuiKo IIveUJ.lU an' 6AouC; tOUe; uUouC; 1tOAt'ttO'j.lOUC;, ~u<pvt1ca, to Mooosto ron 1900 mowu, zoo sixs yivst1tspUJO"otSPO

4S (<MIU vUxTa m')Pu TIlV oJ.lOpcpui UTa y6vaT6: uou, Kat TIl ~pf]Ka 1[1- Kpij. Kat TIl ~Aaun't!lT]O'(L. n !J.6:')'t0'0'&;, M11;epta, Mio'~, &o'e~ 9a Ota<pUM~ete to 9T]O'uup6 uou», Arthur Rimbaud. a.n., 0. 3.

MAZA KAI InOPIA

79

uno JUU uvayK'I'l KU1:uypacpTJt; Kat t(1~tVOJ.L11crTJ~ n(1pa uno J.LlU I;rotUcTJ (1vaYK'l'l (JUVaV111011t; Kat otaAOyou, apXtcrE va 1;Et 'IT! OtKTJ ,.tat; 1;roTJ K(1t V(1 I.HAast tf1 OtKi} j.ta<; yAWooa. H EtOPOATJ tTJ<; «nprorOyov11S rexvrt<;» Aiya xp6vta ,-unci tOY Taine Kat toy Burckhardt cpxst, (1no t11V anO\I'11 auTIt, ytU vc oEi~Bl On OXt anMD<; at «Ulo6f1t1KE<;» (nov oS\' TJTUV aUrocrtB «atcre11't1KES», onro<; eu 'J...£YE 0 W orringer") npO'tlI-lTJcrBt<; aM6. Kilt OAaKepo to crUO'tTJl-la roiv a~U:DV, rov cruYYEVEtroV KITt rcov aXEuerov 'tOU uovrspvou uv9pro1tOU J.1E 't11V Ioropto 6.Ma~av 6.~ova Kat cpo)'t'tcrJ.LO.

AUt1l11 apVf1crTJ tTJ<; (1V9pro1tlVf1t; curovouinc KUt 't11<; uv8pW1ttVf1S KAiJ.1aKIT<; 1tOU 11 AVITYEwflO'fl n<; BiXE Oson01TJOEl I-lecra O't11 Aatpeia 111<; KAUO'1KfJ<; q>UO'lKOtTJ'tU<; Kat 'tTJ<; KAaO'1Ki}<; o)lop<pui<; ... Kat 11 Ka'tIT~iroO'fl OAmV autroy trov 'tf:XVWV 1tOU 1tapOUOtCt~OUv 'tOY 6.v6pro1t0 onv «9wu rcaCyvLOv» iJ ccv Acta. rev OatJ.1ovrov, Bcnlllavav tTJ I-lBT((1-l6p<proo11 'IOU Tpuvucou Of: j.ttU KUpiupX'l KatTJyopia ).lS0(( O'tTJ uovrepvn (JUvsi011O'fl - 01tro<; KITt, zupaM11Au, soTJJ.1uvav j.tl(( ((VUTP0ml 'IOU p6AOU 't11S ioroptKfJt; (JUvsi011011t; KUt 'tTJ J.1STU'tPOniJ 111t; OE I-ltU Ka'tEU- 9uvnKfJ, 1tPOCP11'tUCTt, vooTaA,')'tKU zpo; 'to Mt.AAOV scrtPI1j.1j.tMl '¥UX1Ki} J...£ltoupyia.

!:tOV 190 uuovo, 11 tcrtOptKfJ O'uvEi01101'J fttav Ilta KI1- 8apa retrospective 'JIUXtKfJ Acttoupyiu 1(0'0 B1tEtPE1tE OTOV, IT1tO OAc<; tt<; ano'¥su;, BuxaptO'tTJl-lEvO anD TOV E((UTO tOU av8prono va 1t1crtBUBt on nITptcrt6.vBt Evav ITvrot(1tQ otIT9j.10 crnv eu9'6ypul-ll-lll, 1tpoooeunKi} avooo

46 Bflxe),p B6pPlVYKeP (1881-1965): rgpJ.Utv~ lJTIOptK~ tTl;; 1'txvrJ;; 1tOU 9groPllO'e 6n 1'] 1'f:xvJl Ktvehcu !l8Tuq; «evOpUO"TI<;» Kat «u<pcttpeal'};;», ll£'ta1;i> ~\U~ gNmegpl'}~ Il1tOOO;01;; 'to\) 'KOO].lO\l 'K1l\ 'tl'}~ ~~~ ct1ro TIl jltct, KUtl·UU;; [31l9(m:P11;; IlVTtOUX(a~ o'1tEvaVrt 0'1:0 crUJ.l1t1lV a- 11:6 ntv 6.),).11. Atrrft tTJV IlVTieeO'1'], crUl·l(Provu J.l8 1'OV B6pptVYKSP, tTJ O1)vaV'tU~ Kilt oru; 9pl'JUi(&g;; J.lE1'Il.;tJ 1tav9&tcrf.l.OlJ (qJ.f,lEvetoo;) Kill flov0gelcrjlOlJ (U1ffip[3anKOnt1'Il;;) (O'.1'.e.).

MAZA KAI nOAITIEMOr

TIl~ KOlVroviac; «uno 1'0 ant.06mspo O'tO m>v9sttYrspo», OJtO 'to «geOl.oytKO GtO ef.'ttKUJ'ttKO O't6.0\0», <11t0 tOY «KPS't'tVtO'J..lO tOU nproTOyovOU KOJlJlO1)VtO'Il0U (to «a.OL(HPOQ03to(rp:o "Ev») O'TIlV Uta~lri} xotvorvto (tlJ «8tucpopOnOtlWINrl OJ,.,OtijTU») Kat to «TEA.OC; llJ<; 10''[0- p{(1~».

Avrtssr«, mlW:pu, 11 to'tOPtri) O'UveiOT]OT) stvct J..llU, Ku9apa npoo:; to MEllov SO'TPUJlflBvll, prospective 'lfUX1- Kit A6.t1:0upyia nou spsuvd TO MSMov Kat llJ esOT) TOO a.v9pomou ~O'U 0'tO Ma'IJ..ov JlE p,oplT'a<; 7t01) UVllKOOV O'tO IIapsJ,.,eov KUt zou ~u<pVtKa ~avu'roVtaVS'I'UV Ils<Ja oro aJ.lsO'o I1ap6v. I'tnri 0 avOpro1[oS tOO 200u auDva, e-· xovtao:; nu'l'st va 1[HJtSUEt ornv I1p60oo, OTJAaof) Exovtao:; 1[U'l'El. va mO'Tsu6t crov saut6 tOU Kat vnoxpEroJ.li;vo~ vo aVttj.lET(l)ntO'El aun) rnv KUtacrtpoqlUcf) EJlnElpia 1(01) TOV 1Cl)1CA.6)VEt, aVUYKaOllJKE srot vc paMt, ym npOOtTl <popa !lEta rnv AvayEvvTJO'TJ, to CJTOtxeio tOV TpaylKoU J.lBO'a O'TIlv to'TOptKT) tau O'UVEWl1OTJ Kt Stcn a1[OKatcl.O'tTj<JE tOV OJ.l<pUALO MOpo j.lE OAOUO:; tOUS 7tOAtttO'j.loUo:; tOU <p6pou 1(01) TOUO:; eixs roo:; m crT)j.lSpU E~a<paviO'et 'to eKtV<pArottKO <proo:; TIlS KAu<JuCllO:; O)lOp<ptas Kal TIl':; «oUj.lavlO'nldJo:;» uutOmmoi911OTJO:;. Av 11 '1IUXaVo.A;uCiTJ EOE~s Ott, j.lscra O'TIlv OVE1P1Kit opaO't11P10tTjta, 0 uv9pronos uvu1taptO'tavet 0'Uj.lPOA1Ko. KUt avayvrop~El oAa tu Opal-luttKatpa.Uj.lUtlKU ysyov6ta. zou O'Uj.lnAiKOVtal 1-l6 rnv iSta. ron tTJv u1tap~l1 Kt etotl-lul;st Ka.tU Eva rpozo )ltU J..leMOVttldJ rou; Ku9apO'TJ, stat ea. JmopoucruJ.le va. n061-l6 on J.lco:; rnv to'tOP1Kit ton O'Uvefol1O'l1 0 uv9pro:n;oS PYU~Et EJlJ!SO'a O'tO <proS Kat avayvrop{l;et -ru; OUI-lPOAtKSS avunapa<Jto.OEtS nov mo aU9SVttKoov tOU npOpATU.lO:Trov Kat trov mo ooetccnxrov TOU SI-l1tEtptooV zoo aKOj.tCt OSV SXEt rop11,,1.(1- O'El 1lE00a tOU to na90;-)la900:; zoo ea. 'IOU en1tps'I'Et vo tn EK<ppaO'El JlE rqv 01Kit TOU yAooO'O'a, J.tE ta OtKo. 'IOU O'U!lPOAa. f) j.l8 roue 01K06s tOO J.luElooo:;. 'Et<J1, Ou J.l1tO-

MAZA KAI IHOPIA

81

pouau).lE vo 1toUllB On OA1111 xaJ.Wvri J.te~ to Xpovo Ieropia 1t01) sytVE ~aq)Vt1c6. Kat ).tS uin payoaia 'taxDtTJta, crUYXPOVll ).tEaa orov QJ.lscro S<DtKO ).ta~ xoouo, Ssv eiVat 1tapa TO 1teptex6JlEVo SVO~ axspavtou Kat (lTEA£t<DtOU aK6Jla ovsipou J.te~ to ozoto 0 6.v8p<D1to~ 't11~ ).lEyaA11~ KpiO''ll~ 1tctAz6S1 v' uvanupaO'T'f)O'El1'1~ ex8pIKs~ ouvalle~ 1tOD tOY txouv 1C1.>pWO'E:t Kat va «aXClVttOpacr8t» (us t11v Mota 't01.> ab-reagieren) O'tO Opajla jle~ to ozoio ~St Kat am ozoto Dev ll1topsi ClKolla (fJ O&V 1tPOKStTClt 7W'tS, iO'<D~) vu 8rom,t utn Ku8apnlpm A:601l. «H Icropia stvoi &vae; e<ptO.A.'t11s ano tOY ozoio xpoona86J vo ,;u1tVi]a<D», ABet 0 Dedalus TOU Joyce: 0' auto to ovstpo-rquoptc ).ta~ tp~6 11 tOtO. 1110TOptKi) ).tu~ uoipc, (lun111 aUOK0t11 tpaY1Ki) avatpoml 't11~ ri>XTl~ zon ).tar; ~u::taJl6p<pro06 0'8 1ta811ttK6. 9uJ.lata 't11~ Icropfnq svro zptv eiJ.1aO't6 11 uXEu6uV11 t11~ PoUA.11O"l1. Kt nv 0 <po~o~ napooO'ui~E'tat ouv ~ua SOXat11 ouvat6tr}ta OtatfjPllO"TJ<; 11l<; av8po:mlVllS J.loP<PTtC; tou, 0 oU'ttK6C; av8pconor;, X01) ent XSv'tE cuovs; t~11cr6 E~CO uno tOY <poPO Kat apvouJ.lSVO<; tOY <po Po, evtxcvo; vc u'Vro8ei cr' au'to 'to x6.8o<;-).ta80<;" orov A&yo 011AaOTt non uovo; ).t1topd va CYUJ.l<ptA.ubm:t toy av6po)'Jt0 JlE n<; E)11tElpie<; 'tOO, 1tPOO'<pSi>yEl Yla vc cruvEt011t01tOtTtest 'tOY eau'to tOU crs JlOpq>E~, crUJlPOAa xrn J.t66ouC; us roix oxototx allir; 8noxt<; 1tOU yvroptcrav Kat K(lMt£p'Y11aav aU1:6v TOV <p6po Kat auto 'to 1ta60~-Jla6o<; «eznVtEOpaaaw orn OtKa tOU~ TpaytKU 1tpOpA'ij/lata Kat Jl1topccrav «vo Kavouv t11 ~roit u1to<pepnl». 'Erot Ppt811KE O'tO KEvtpO SVO<; EVtanKOU Kat aXOKpucp01.> OillA.DyaU avaJ.tecra IJ'tU KVKAUOIKU ~6ava Kat TU Ileyu).u cperix, (lva).tEaa oro Kupvox Kat t11 Chartres, ore tUJlnava nov proJlUVtKWV vnov Kat n<; npOKoAO).tPtaVEr; JlUCJKE<;, rc XOptKU 'tOU AtcrxlJAOU Kat r~ 1tpoqrrlnKs~ s<;aYYEA.ie.;, 'tTJ Guemica Kat to. U1toKUA.U1tttKu ovstpn ...

82

MAZA KAT nOAITU:MO!

In Tiberium defluxit Orontes

Av crK!><pTOUJ.lE tnv t(;"tOP1K1l stKOVU 'lOU 190u cuovo, cv UKEcp"WUJ.lE n f)tav omv npaYJ.letltKoTiiTU TJ IUTOpia ym TOV Marx, TOV Comte, TOV Burckhardt fJ TOV Taine, av UKE<PTOUJ.lE on Kat Y1' Ct1JtOv aKOJ.Ul tOY Hegel ot tV01KOi, K1VEi;,U(Oi, Cllytl1tt1QKOi, npoKoA.oJ.l~tavoi K.O.K. noA.tnouot OIN ltTaV 1tetpU anA.U snEtOOOm J.l.€ua UE J.lta «zcYKOUJ.lta» Ioropto zou apxil;;Et Il£ tour:; TIEpUEr:; [«npO:Y[Q sevo~(sic) aA.TJOlVU tUtoP1KO»!] ytu vn OA.OKAT}proElEi J.!E~ to WlO to E'YeM:laVO UUUTlUta ... Om ~opoUJ.!e napa va J1EivoUJ.!E KatanA.TjKtot J.lE to ptl;OUnuunKo UV01'YJ.l.U (to- 0'0 uno tIlv ano\fll1 tile; 1tOOO'tl]TCle; troy tUTOptKWV yvroosov 000 Kat ano TIlV U1t0'l'Tj TIle; «1tOt0trttU9> TOUe;) tOO 1utOPtKoU opil;ovta nou npuYJ.lett01tOUWT}KE )lEe; tu rsM:UTuiu 1tEvftVTU xrovta. Kt UUTO to UVOtyJ.lU OeY stvci tvu )ll)xavtK6 i) «01UA£K'ttK6)} (((}l£taJ1opcpmull 't1lS noa6T11tae; ce 1(016tTjta»!) Cl1tOtEMUJ.!U TIle; U't)~11U11e; T11~ 1tOUOT11tac; nov totopucov J.lae; yvrouerov aJJ.iJ, EKq>puI;Et Kat' apmv JllU uUarfl ornv 1tPOO1tttlOl, une; 1tp08SUEt<;, un.:; o/U:x;tKE<; OllA.aoft UXSUEt<; tOO J.lOVTEpVOD uvOpro1tOU J.lE tTtv toroptn - aUuytl nOD uetnuopomos au-to 1(OD 'YtU to 190 au:Ovu OEV i)TUV 1tapa tva «toropuco DAll(O» 0" {;va Eiooe; «EJ.!JlEUroW crUYXpovrov EJ.lnElptffiv.

Auttl 11 immanence, Tj EuonsplKiJ napouuia U]<; UNOpromvllC; Icropic; J.!s<; TIl O'UVSWllO'TJ 1tOU EXE1 unoKtijUSt 0 uvOpronoc; 'lOU 200u uuovu Y1a rov mUT6 rou, J.lac; 9u!lil;;st EKEivE<; ttC; UEA-lOES 'tTjC; «<l>cttvoJ.lEVOA-oyictr:; tOD TIvEU)laTO<;», Onoo 0 Hegel zpooscast vc anooE~E1 TTJV uVUYKat6tTj'T!l tTjC; tUTOp1Kit~ KaAAlspyElUr:; Kat vn BEJlEAtroUtt 'tTjV W1CI. rnv unap~TJ tTle; t(noptKilc; aDVEioTjO'TJ<;: «Eqi' ocov 6X1 JlOVO to 6:tO~0 (J.').).U Ka1 to nUYKOUJllO 1tVEUJ.!a eiXE tTtV Dn0J.lov'ft vc 1tEpUcrEt J.lEcru ano 'tt<; J.!Opq>s~ UUTS~ J.!Eua 0" OATI rnv SKtU<JTj tou Xpovou Kat va E-

MAZA KAI IHOPIA

83

1ttxstPtlO'St'tO 9a.u.uacr'to epyo 't1}~ xa.'YK6o.uta.~ 10''tOpia~Scp' ooov !lEaa orrtv XaYKOO!l1U toropin 'to 1tVsu!la eva6.pK(OaS J1Ecra os Ku9s J10pcpi} oMlxspo 'to XSP1.CXOJ1f:VO ton smrrou tOO (oco jlXOPODOE vc osXtsi 11 KUeE J10p<pi) auti}) Kat sq>' ooov 'to xaYKOO"jltO 1CVsUJ1a (5cv J1XOpoucrs vc q>t6.crst J1s A.tyo'tspoo~ KOXoo~ <JTl1v XA.i}Pl1 O"'UVEi011crrt ron suU'tOU tOU, ETO't, ano rnv iBm 'tTl q>uO"rt reov xpay!lCl1:(J)v, 'to Ct'tOJ10 oS\' ,.mopsi vu q>'tCtO"Et crtTJ aUVf:iOl1crrt 'tOO smrrou 'tOU axo Eva O"UVTOJ.lO'tSpo 0pOJlo. Ms 'tTl om<popa O!loo<; on 0 KOXOC; 'lOU urouou ea 'vat 1tOA.U Aty6'tspoC; ym'ti BXat !lnpoara 'lOU mv xUYKOaJlm toropfn i!0ll TilitroJ.l~ Kat OAOKA.llPOOIlBvri ••. lCat tl.£ <paaSt; 't1')<; 'to a'toJ1o So. 'tl£ OlU'tPE~f:t aVtlJ1sToo1til;ov'ta<; Tl.£ ouv JlOpq>E<; itO'll rSAstOOIlEvsC; xm Ko.'tan:9slJ1EvES axo 'to 1CVsuIlU, ouv 'ttc; Ka!lXEC; EVac; 11011 E'tOlIlOO Kat O'X'l!lUT1- a!lEvOU 0pOJlOU ... » 47. AJJ..a UV 0 Hegel 11 0 Schelling nicrsuov as J1lU 'tS't01U xapouO"tu Tr)<; oA6TIJ1:ar; '_"eO"u os Ka.9E O"'tl.Y!ll1 'tOO 1tVsu.uaroc;, ytU'ti n10"n:uuv O"TIlv unup~11 IltUe; AcytKite; 'tOU Xp6vou JlSe; mv ozofn KaeE <J'ttYJll1 't11S Ioropinq 1tcPWXSt «OlUAsK't'tlCa» Ol.,s<; ne; np011YOOllsVEe;, 0 )lOV'tEpVOe; uv9prono<; ulcr9uVE'tat aVTJ1 Tl1V XUpOUO-1a !lEe; 'ttc; mo (lV9EVTlKEC; 'tOD SJlXEtpisC; (lKP1~ro<; Ylati DEY 1tl0"'tSU61 0'Tr) 01aM:KnKij aUn} zopsto Kat TIJV eo9Uypa!llItl. TIle; aVEA~l1, aKpl~mc; yta't1 lIS<; nc; {Otee; ton ne; SIl1lstpwe; Kat !lS~ r~ iOlSe; rou ru; npofU:crsU; uvaKUAU1t'tSt rnv 'tuur6'tT)'tCt tOO ue tcropucs; !lopq>e<; non "(lU tOY 190 utffiVUl1'tuv (lVEma'tpsnT(l xUIlEvSe;.

o Sombart -erou A.iyo Katp6 zptv axo 'tT) llBya.A11 KpiOTj rou 1929 8sropovac aav tva rersAs(Jj.levo YSYOVG" TIl xpsroK07tiu Tll<; !lup~t(J'tUCtle; 9sropiaC; nov xptosovleX€l .utAtlO'St ym n<; «Suo \jIUXee;» ron Marx: 11 ~ia «oxeq>'t€'tat e1tlO't11IlOVtKU}) K(lt 11 UAA11 «jucet J.ls ~uvatt-

47 Phdnomenologie des Geistes: I, 27.

MAZA KAI nOAITILMO!.

0'110». 0 Marx 81XO't01l1l8l]KE ano TIl IlUl IlSpta O'TIlV wpronaiKij rou (fI)VSWytC1T! Kat ano rnv all'll ow «sJ3patKO» 'too ono<ruvEWl]'tO. Kat no}d> EUKOAU ea unopoucs va nupaMllAiO'El KUVE~ 'tTl a'taO"ll au'tOD ron «Eopomctau 1 00%» unevav'tl 0''tTl «XtAUlOt1Kll oalllovonAll~i.a» tOU Kouuouvurnxof MaVHpS(HOU us 'to stpovuco ~U)l!lu )lC 'to ozoto un08sxovmv 01 «Popatot 1 00%» 'tll<; Enome; tOO nOU~cvaAll 'tllV nap€AuO'll tOW ouposf3pa'iKchv AnOKUAVljISWV Kat trov avaroA1Kwv Bson)trov Katro un6 ttc; aU'toKpatOpll(€~ a'l'ilie<;: In Tiberium defluxit Orontes ...

Tropa 61l00C; zou yvropiaalle 6AcC; nc; ,.HlYsicC;, 1l flayeID tOO KO!lllouVIO''tlKOU Muvupsctou Ssv EXEt nUl otn !lema )lac; 'tUro'tS 'to tOtaitEpa avu'tp1X1UO'ttK6. Ano to Nous autres civilisations Kat 'to Waste Land flSXPl ne; .1 iKeC; 'tll<; MoO'xuc; Kat t1C; a'tOl1tKSC; SKpf\.;etc;, uno ta o'tpat6ne8a auYKEV'tpOlO"llC; IlEXPl uurov 'tOY lOtO tOY Sombart 1[OU ovstpeuorcv Eva YSp).lUVIKO Reich B~U- 1tAroIlSvO a' OAll rnv Eupro1t1l IlE tOY O'Kon6 vu npaYllat01lot1lO'l::l )lta «EUoytl tcpapxia troy /..amY» 48, ).lsO'o/..a~ei ).ua oAaKEpT} S~EAt~ll XaPll ornv ozotc auv1l9iO'Cl)..lS 0'1ya-O'lya va l;oufls flee; Tllv AnoKaAu'Vl]. K6;too ano rn "(£qlupm 'tou Ll'lKOUUVa 1ttPC1G(lV oAOl 0\ Orontes 'tOU KOGflOU Kat 8a ,..mopoDO'afle, aUVExU;ovtae; rnv atUrn O'KE'Ifl1 tou Sombart, vo fltAT]O'OUjlS Y1a tIC; «Suo 'VuxEe;» OXt ~E~ata too Marx, zoo napaflSvSl1tavrOtE tvue; rumKOC; eKnpoO'OO1toC; ron 190u utWVu, uMci: TOU O'll).lSPlVOU av9pronou. I'tnrt ea ).l1tOPODOUJ.lS va UVttT(i~OU}JE crnv 60'0 nUel xrn mo aVlO'XUPll «eupoonu'iKi]» tOD 'Voxil, orqv 600 1tUBl KUl mo c6Spuuo'tll q>A06ou 'tTle; UtOlllKft~ ron KUpt£(}la.vfJ~ fl KaV'tlUvyt<; auv£1011O'll~, to ~D1rV11).la svo; npo£ujX01tatKou, «).lUl;tKOD aauvs10T]'tOU» nou IltAa£l )lta

48 Deutscher Sozialismus (1934) 0'.203.

MAZA KA1 Il:TOPIA

85

y)'loooa apxa'l1<11, OtoVUO'Ul1<11, OcrlPUlKit, npO<p11nKit, J1aVIxatK'l}, rpayuC11 - !Tj YAroO'cra ron cp6130v xm 6Xl :lIla TIj~ EAzuflEpta~, 10U 1tEXproJlEvoo xrn 0Xl ma tTJ~ OJlOPql1.c.i~: JlUl yA.Wocra 1(00 O&V flSM:l 1tta va OtEpamOBl 'to a.'tOJlO JlE~ tTJV (f;TOJllK1l tOV dlJ.U:Uca alJ..iJ. aYo)Vt~Btal vc Su1tV'i}O'El JlSO'U ron T~ a1tro9r}~E~ E1tt aubVB~ Owa.p.€tc; XO\) 9a too 81tttpS'VOUV vc savappai 'tOY €aUto rou J.LBO'a O'tOV UX€PUtoIlU(6 K60'1l0 Jlta~ au9EVnKil~ 'VUXt1CfJ~K01- v6n}T~ ...

rtati., aA;f)8Et(l, OM:~ autSe; 01 tEX\'Ee; Kat oi asiBr; zou ava.0't110E 11 «Avn-ava:ySwrtO'1l» ron 2006 uubvu- les grands arts de communion ym t~ oaoie; 0 Malraux rsM:tmVOVta~ 'tOY «Kata.AoyO)} rrov veffiv «1CAa.O'tKmV» 1tOV avaKaAu'VE 11 crTJllSptvf) a1to;o1: au'tE~ 01 «IlEyaAE~» 'tt;(VEe; «1tOU A.ecptepmvouvE xavtou 'ta cpoptO}leva 1tAi)flr), su1tVwV'tac; !tEoa toix; to ai';'18tv6 1tVEU).1a T11~ 1tPOq>l1tetnq», on; O1toiE~ cruV€xro r; avaq>EpE1:(l1 0 EllCEAUlV6s 49 , 8&\1 cpalvoVTUt 0'(1 vc a1ton:tVOVTUt O'ta apxsTIJ1ta Jlta~ ).1vfltKil~ ).1at;tKil~ 'Vuxilc;;

Eivct LUXatO apaYE to yeyov~ on GAOl uutoi 01 Mu801 nov ppe8111Cav ut1JlEpa O''tO npro'to nAtivo, ano toy dt6vuoo tOO Nietzsche Kat to Graal 'tOO Eliot Ilexpt rov Opq>sa Kat lOV b1YEVl1 tau l:lK€AtaVOU -'tou tE/..euraiou Eopezciou ).1u91K06 7totTrtil tOU J.lZYsfloue; 'tOO Holderlin Kat tOU Blake-, €ivat Mu801 1[OU 011lltouPY11- 9r)KUV oe O'nY).1Ee; Bsu1pEnrite; (11).1lOUpytKf}~ sSUpcrTJe; Kat J.lOvt}ll1S tCi'tOpt1CT}S nupoucria~ t11S j16:~a;;

ElVat ouvut6v vu sivm rexaio to 'YEyov6~ on. KUta xcvovu 6A.e~ uUlae; 01 texvEr; nov cruYKpot06v to «ou-

49 8vpih1 II, 95. na TI}V, p£all a~6 TO s1tlTa1CTl.K6 Ilinum Tl'J~ «crullq.tAiroO'll~ JlS 'tOV 6aWTO», «(lVUKUAU\jflW TOO X(lUAUCUlVoU cruJ.LP6Aou TOU .1.tyevfJ fjA. a.H. G. 103. Tin tOU~ «nUUA.tlCUXVoUt;» MUV1xa{ou<;; (a.H. 00. 96-97) PA. til sx6J.lZV1l KS<pflAaW,. I'in n; yvooJlS<; TOO Malraux, ~A. Psychologie de l' Art.

MAZA KAI rrOAITn:MOI

O"t11~a ava<popuc;» tOO ~OVTepVOU Clv9pro1tOD, ano rou; utYU1t'Ital<O'6~ JlaOtUJ.l1taOE<; K(1t 't11V ApXaia Tpayrooiu ~XPt rou; npoKoAOIl~tav06e; KUt tODe; pCDJ..lavtKOlJe; va- 06C;, EiVat TeXVEC; JlU~lKec; Kat JlVTJJ.1EtaKec; - teXVEC.; OlJM- 01\ 1tOU IlvtlKOUV as 1toA.l'ttaJl06~ onou KIlJlia anOOtacrq OEY XIDpU;E trt 0lJlllODpyt1Ct\ J.1Sto'l'lJ<Piu a1tO tTl J.1u~a Kat tOV \lfUXtKO tTle; KOO"J.10;

Texv~ JlCl~\K~ - 'YlUti 11 'lfUXllKat tet VoTlI.lCl'tet1tO'U svaapKIDVOV'IaV J.1Ee; 'Ia J.1vllJ.1sia J.10VO ano tTl J.1ul;a J..l1tOpouonv va 1tpoepXOvral Kill J.lOVO yta TTl Jlu~a Jl1tOPOUonv vu 'ltpoopU;ov'tU\.

TtxvsC; JlU9tK6C; - ytUti J.1OvO JlE MuSouC; stvrn ouva't6v va SK<PPUcrEl lJ J.lut;u 'to 01KO 'tlJe; K60"1l0 Kat uovo 11. yA10acra rev MiJ900v uaopei vc ~PEl €Yav aVtlAaAO J.1Ee; 't1'Jv '!fUm TTl C; J.lut;ac;.

Ttxvsc; tpaYl1eec; - YlUti av lJ Ilut;a EJ.1<pavil;stat atu; Opaj.lanKtc; crny~c; rev nOAtnaJ.lIDV, J.lOvO J..lf:cra ana 'tOV KoollO tOOV tpaytKrov OUj.lPOAroV Kat rev tpaY1Krov J.l6- SOlV uzopei lJ J.lu~a VI aV'tAi]crE1 TIl o6vaJllJ 1[00 ea 't1']V t;rooyovi]O"Sl tcrtOPIKU Kat eO. 't1']C; E1tltPE'I'Sl vo ~yUAEl Eva JlaeOC; ano ta nufri1 tTJC; Kat vn OIDcrSt vOlJJ.la Kal Ot<iPKE1Cl ornv iOta tTJC; rnv unap91.

Tt)y&; JlVTJIl6taKSC; - ytUtt 11 Jla~a beY atcr9a.vs'tut 1:rJV (lvaYKlJ tYJc; tSXVTIe; napa uovo orouc XIDPOUC; sxeivouc -6tatpa, vaoue;, «slCKA.lJcriBc;»- 6nOD ppimes! 'tOY EaU'to 't1']e; 6Xl ocv Eva tUXaio nA.i}90C; aUa ouv 11m 'I'DXt1Ct\ KOlv0tTJta 9sJ.tEAlO)J..lEvlJ nuvID 0''tlJ J.lEt<lAlJ'I'lJ Kal rnv xotvorvin IlE 't~ a~ieC; Kat ta vot1.Jlata nOD autit 11. iOta EXm <pepSl oro <pOle;' ytati lJ '_uit;a o&v J..lnopsi va 1)- 1tSPVlKi}crSl tOV <pope: auto rov <p6~0 zcu 'tlJ <pepvEl O''tllv ta'topuct'\ una.P91. napa. ~6vo cro j.lE'tpO 1tOU eveyvroPtSE1 rov EuU't6 'tlJC; O'(lV J.1ta ciPPTJK'tlJ, U'ltp60'PA11.'tlJ ano tfJv (lt0J.11K6tr]tU Kat tOY Seivaro, OA.6tTJta «nOD <pavsproVEl. otov o'v9po:mo 't11.v ilitCt. tou TTl 'Vuxfl funv

MAZA KAI Il:TOPIA

PI.i'lt61 tOV sauto 'tOO vn Mlj.1XEl paSeui p.ecra O''tu J.l6:na tmvulJ..mv» ...

MEPO~ B

«E>Eo:rpOKpa'tia», <ptAocro<pia Kat e1taVama'tUQl l,uiSa

IO.aUIKIUpOq 1(al Tpa7'KO

AC; 1fapa~aA.01)IlE tropa auto to 1toAu8uIO'turo LVIl1lav 1tOU crvo~e ata !lana !lac; 11 J.lOVtEpVa '¥UXOAoyia, 11 uovrepva t8XV11 Kat 11 tpaytK1) 1teipa "(la tt£ OUVO;J.lSt£ 1[OU a1tetAOVV rnv (lvOpro1tl,V'Tl v1tap~l1 1tOU J.lac; aXEl, ol,a1tepaest - nun) 11 tpa"(tK1) €f.l1tetpia 1t00 ccv Kl (lUtO 'to choc "flU to ozoto f.llAcigt 11 Tptrn EA.e"(eia ron Duino'", ~v- 1M1a€ J.l6aa J..!,uC; «apxo.tot€POUC; q>oPOUC;»: doch altere Schrecken stiirzten in ihn bei dem beriihrenden AusstoB ... - J.le tOY KM:ta'to, uvnJ.lu~l1c6. a.npo~A11I.l(i'ttoro xmpo !leC; rov oaoio, nplY ano 'to Valmy, 0 KAo.crt-

50 0, EAe'leier; .OD N1OVivo (Duineser Elegie) efvm to teAeutaio !CUt O'fJlillVtl!C6rEPO tpyo tOU Paivsp Mapia PlAKE (1875-1926). Flpoxsitnt Yta otKa «SAeyE1£9> 1[OU YP«<PTI}KUV ~tc#> t01) 1912 Kat t01.) 1922 Kat nov O1tOMV 11 mryypct<p1'\ eyKUlvuiO'tllKE orov IIupyo tOU Nroutvo, 0't11; ttCIA.tlCt<; aKtes TI}~ Aoptcttua')<;, J.l&tU an:6 MV Jtc:pi-n:ct.o 't_QU ~9a.((jfuI 7tltvco. CI1I6 't_OUC,-n:WtlQ-lOUC, ct7t6Kqnlf.vQUc,l}qci~ Xou<; 'O'J~ ctKt1l~, 6n:ou 0 cruyypu<pe~ «CtKOUO'E» tou<; evCtpKt1'\plO\)~ otiXot><; tllS XPffitrts C:Aeyc:fu~ tOU. :EtU; C:AsyeiES, ~(I)f) KCtl Eluva.to; oev UV't1:7tClpctttewrUt 1t'Mov aUfJ. O'Uvt(ftODV tva svtnio crUVOA.o (1)<; O't01Xc:io ~n~ auOVUl<; p.oip~ Kat IJTI} OSmtllKat tclzumia SAsyclct o 8uva.to<; S~Ullvc:h-at COS 0 U1I:01CA.stO'nKt1<; op61lOS 1[OU S1tttpe.n:el va se<pUyoullll «11:0 to 1tS1rSp(lIJ~O Kat vn n:POO'eyylo01>IlB 'CO a1tStpo. I:trtV «Tpfn] EA.sysia», 1tOl) OA.oKA11Pro8l)Ks to 1913, 0 «9s6<; - notu!JO; uiJ.lUt09) Jlt1t.u;t Kat 9>1tV6£l J.!&o'ct J.UlS ttc; spsj3<bOsv; Ownt.tev; t11~ YTI~, tOU~ ctpxuiou<; <p6~ou<;, tOY rpollo Kat tll <ppUcrt. EutuXWrSp11 Sll,'at 11 twipa t"Cov narBt<bv )too n:s8afvouv, ro.; Ot «6KAeKtoi evOs n:p6c:opou 6ctvat01»), KCt96:1<; Kat S1(8ivy} tOW «SYKUtaA.eA.elJlt.t&VOW» YUVatKroV, n:oo Xav01>V K6.9s emysto pil;(I)j.W. s~ cttt~ 'O'J<; <lmy1'\<; roo uya1t11!JEvou 6.vopct Kat 01 07toieS, t.t&IJU IJt11V m9up6n'Jtct TIl'; sprotllCl].;.~ <p;wy~, avv\jfwvwrut mrrv atw\!I.6n'}.a «H.e.).

"0EATPOKPATIA" KAl EITANALTATIKH MAlA

KlanKO~ a.v9prono~ E<j)'tlaXVf: tOY xoouo ron Kat TIJV tcropia TOO.

'Evoo; TETOlD\;; xccuo; Jl8~ TOV onoio 0 KAamKtO'ttK6~ av9pro1toC; 08V avayvropU;f: erav 1[pa'Yl.w:nKO 1tapu uovo to V6JllJlO: o.n OTJAao" 8~U1tTJPEtOUer8 TIJ eSATJer" tOO 1tEteapr,lW;, TUsll<;, AO)'nCJ1<;, tEpapxia<;, crull<PtAi~<; IlE TIJV unap~.., Kat anroS'flO'TJ<; KaeE. Ouvall"'~ 1[00 ~f:m:pvrovmc TIJ geATJ<:nl tOU, ea J.t1topo"6ers vn 8Jl<Pavio'8t t1lv unap~ll ouv 1[p6p).;ru.ta, €vae; rStOloe; xoouo; 08V uzopoocs napa vo sivat PtStKU aO'UJlpipaatoe; J..lS O,ttO,,1tOT6 JlnOpOua6 va sJl<Pavlcrn:i KUt()) un6 to onusio TOO Tpc'Y1KOU " 'tOO ApVTJttKOU.

TE'tOUl 1)'['(lV II G.!lUVC1 too (lv9pffi1[0'0 (1u't06 C11tEvo..V'tl oro Tpa'YtK6 xm to «lIapuAOYo» roan: TJ lJ>a.ir5pa. xapaKt1lpicrt1lKE ouv «trop noire» xm 0 Racine EKav8 6;n J!'1tOpouO's 1tU va 1fSiaBt 1'0 «,nmp-e1m» 't11<; KOlvroviao; zpo; TIJv oaoto a1[OTEivovtaV (Kat 11 xotvorvtu au'tiJ 08V ;f:nSpVOUa6 nOte tU; JltKpSe; Ol(latuasu_; Kat tOY nuvtOts KAeta't6 xmpo TIJe; AUA"e;, rou AUAtKaO 0eaTpou, TOD ITjoou'l'ttK06 ta'Y)1(l'tOC; ft 'lOU Port-Royal) on oev EXEl 'Ypa'l'St «aA-All Tpa'Ymoia ozou TJ apEtl] vc 'Vat rooo Ka- 9apa sK<ppaerJlSvrJ 6ero TJ ,paiJpa xt 6nOD '['0 napaJltKp6 Mi90e; vc 'Vat roco (1)aTIJpa 'tlJl())PTJJ..lSvo: TJ erKe'l'TJ Kat uovo ton E1KATtJlaroe; sivm 1ta.p01)ertaaJ..lEvTJ JlE t6O'TJ cppiKTJ oco Kat to WW TO syKATJJ..la' ot a(1)va.Jlis~ TOD epro·t(l n-apooatasov'tat ocv aATJ9tvec; uouvaJliec; Kat 1-0. nu9T] pya.ivoov aTO <pwe; JlOvO Kat l}6vo 'Yla va osil;oov 6ATJ TIJ (lta~ia. non n-pOKaA-OUv ... » I, Eivat Suvcrov va Eh~J.I.&AlffieEi tpa'Ymoia n-uvro crt1lv Swom TTJe; «aouvall-iap>, OTjAaoit mlv(t) O'TTJv TBAGuTa{u Ae~TJ TIJ crull-panKOt1ltae;; AC; crK8<pt06J.1E tov Hamlet: «Use every man after his desert, and who should escape whipping?», a.e; O'K6-

51 Racine: I1p6A.OYoc; om «@aiOpm>.

MAZA KAI 11:TOPIA

93

(f>'toU!1s'tO Sound and Fury roo Macbeth Kat ea Ka'taMPOU).lS yuni ornv Apxaia Tpayrooia, TJ 'YJ3Pt~ sivut axsSov jun 8so'tTJ'ta.

EUKOAa. A011tOv !11tOPODJl£ va <pavTaa'touJl£ TTJv sv'tu- 7(0)0"11 non ea 1tpo~svouas 11 1tpaY!1a'tlKit KAacrtKft TpayO)ola -11 Tpayrooia 'tOU A1axUAOU Kat tou LmpOKA.tlmou~ avepO:)1[OU~ aU'tou~ zou 011JllOUPY11aav 'tOY supe- 7talk6 «KA.aalKla!10))! To 'tpaYIKo 8tu!1u Oa rou; ocwotnv onv jun xotvcivuca anapaOEK't'TJ avapxia, ouv Jl1a anaVepro1tTl j3appap6't"ll'ta! Av TJ am8Ep6't11ta Kat 11 ta~l1 aDnl~ Tll~ xorvervinq KlVouvsuav ozo 'tl<; «a8uvuJlis<;» t11<; <I>ai8pa<;, tore aa<paAcO<; to naOo~ rou E>utaTll it TOD o 18in08a, auti} 11 lata svo; 1tS1tPWJltvOD antvav'tl oro oxoio aj3tlVE1 KaOs immanence, Ka8s KatOxuproJl£.vfJ a- 1t6 tll auvEiol]O'TJ, tTJV H8tKit, 'tl~ a~ie<; tf]~ opyav(J)jl£.vTJS KOlvrovla<;, av8pcOmvTJ curovoutc ... ea f.t1tOPOUGE va J3aA6t as a!1<Plj3oAia ---{j6 Jlta a!1(f>tJ3oAla 1tOA.U 1t1O Pt~tKi} Kat E1tl1(lVOUV11 an6 onotOoij1tOt6 pootovusrcruco dubitoaura rc iota rn 8SJltAlU rov «alcOV1O)V UATJ8EtO:)v)) Kat reov lumieres naturelles mlvro att~ onois; siXav opjuvroO'Et tOV K6aJ.lo tOUS·

Amtl 11 1tapaJl6p<pwO'TJ tTJ<; aVaJl<plO'j3tltTJTIJS tpayuctlS vocation 'tOD Racine, to y6yov6~ on 0 av8pro1toS aUT6s ltOU IlEaa O'S JlIa 1tlO aV01Xnl xowoivta 8a !11tOPOUcr6 va sivm £.vas bEl>TSPOC; Shakespeare: «~aiJlwv JlstaN.a-

r v '" 1:"18 8 ~ , , 52 >:

Kt09) nou «lOW£ av Ell. oi EII.Elt(o'tEQ<9 nVEUJ.latl» ,usv

Jl1tOpscrs va bcOcrEl ()'tTl Ptl~ ron Ils mv xowovia mv EKPllKtlKtl llop<p11 't'TJ<; 1tPOJlTJ9slKlt<; tl Sro(j<pOPIKft~ avrnpoim; svo; Goethe 11 6v6C; Rimbaud aAM m:ptxapa-

52 Or crrixOl <XtJroi £ivat nap~Ol uno rou~ Ema etd eijpa{;(crf. 705- 8) otcv 0 Xopo; MEl orov EtEOlU,:ll va q>UAO.yEtat (11[0 til ~pa Onou to 1tEnpW~O S:PX,ETUl S1tUVW too onv Jna KutUlyffia Kat vu 1t£pt~VEt fllV E7tOX,iJ 07tOU to 1t£1tpW~O eu <pum'ji;Et IlS ItEPl(rcr6tEPll E- 1t1£iKEta ( ... 8Ei..E).tW1EQql JtVE1J!1U l:t) ...

94

"8EATPOKPATIA" KAI EIIANAl:TATIKH MAZA

Kc0811K£ J.lee; rnv mo aihanipaatTJ al.O)nT) ym vc J.lnopiest vo unspvt1cf]ast aut6 to TpaytKO nou tOY a1tsu...oUas )1£aa a' tva J.l0VUDt1cf!C; n:Ast6tTJtac; J.lV11.J.u~io Ka9upi}c; 1toil1O"lJ<;' TO ysyov6c; 6n 0 uovo; roc; 'tTIv 6;KPll TPO:ytK6C; Civ8pronoc; aurile; TTJC; S1toxf]e;: 0 Pascal t1;l1aE J.lEe; TTJV mo E';ro-taTOptKf] un0J.l6vroal1· TO ysyov6c; 6n 7tVSUJ.lUtU 1tOAU (lvTtnpocrconB1)Tllc!l uuri)c; TIle; snoxi}e; nov C:PUlV0J1SV1- KU aTS1<:OtaV ]to)..u 1<:a)..6; atu nOOla TTJC; (O"KE<pT0J.lUl16tutrspc tOY Saint-Bvremonr"), 9SroPl1O'£lV uO"VJ.lpipaatO J.l6 't11V Kavovltci, AsttOUpyia J.llac; uv9pc01ttva opyavcoJ.lWqc;: policee KOtvroV{UC; UUtO to 8EaJ.lU roo epemxon na80ue; zou <ptaVEl )1£xpt mv UUtOKUrUatpo<pi) ... apKouv ym vc J.lac; Ost.;ouv to zoco 0 KOOJ.lOC; tOO TpaYIKou i}tav .;evoc; Kat J.LUlCplv6C; npoc; tOY KOO'J.lO 't11C; KA.UatKtO''tlKTtC; KOtV(i)viaC;. Kat to ysyov6C; on, u1tSvuvn crtll <JUOTTJf.turucTl nut'rl «AoyoKpmia» nou i<psps oro <proe; to 8satpo roo Corneille Kat euv06Xlm: 'to OpaJ.lUnKO evcrnKtO ron Racine, at MU80t 't11S atJ.loJ.l~iae; Kat 'tTIS avepro1to<payi~ (1(; i)mv 0"1:0 xsvrpo T11S tpUYUCTJS tEXV11S J.ltac:; uvntepapxtl(!l opyavroj1SvllC:; Kotvroviac:; ym tllv onoia to 8t~ ntpo i}'tav J.ltU a.vrotaTll J.lOP<Ptl 8PllcrKsunKi)c:; Kat 1to)..\nKf]c; natOsiac:; Kat tatoptlCits 1;roi)e; ... 8u J.l1topouas vo j1ac; KaVet va. aKs<ptOUJ.lE ue jnn tOmi'tepll S1ttKUtPOTlltU54

53 0 Charles de Marguete1 de Saint Denis, OS<J:n:6n]~ TOO Saint Evremont, EIJZlVS O'TllV 10'Topia ro<; ta:tvt-E~psJ.16v (1616-1703), r4~ cruyypmpEU<; xm KptnK6<; Tll<; TtxvrJt; TOO 00010\) to tpyo S~ 1tl)P£,(lCSI'. tOY PIlKiV(l Kill tOV MOvtSOKtS, m:rrtputpin; l.OOPP01tT]p£~ VO<;, <ptAsJ..zUGspo<; oxs06v sA£uGspui~(i)V KUt Uvtt-KAllptKUAlOnl<;' ~:r.s.)

Evvoo TOV XtTAEptKO KUl TO O'TUAlvtKO olroyjl6 K(lT{l TllC; MOVTEP~ vw; Ttxvllc:; t1 t1~ E:n:te€O'S~ evovrtov Tll<; «)lclarxOAtlCiJc:; noirt0'T)9~ :n:oo «OUJ.l.7tOtUPEV} TOV O'OOtaAlO'nK6 ~t1Ao Tll~ O'ofjl£nlCiJ<; VWA.aia~. DAn aUTO. TU KaGSO'TCiYl'a, :n:ou a:n:atT06v J.1lU !lveu oprov :n:upn15oO'l1. TOO avGpciJ:n:Oll OTOV Kaioapa Bsv E1ttTPS:n:OUV O'tO !lTOJ.1O va 'X!>t oil· TS Kav SXGpU(s<; OXOOS1<; J.1E tOY sumo TOO.

MAZA KAI I!:TOPIA

TIl pd;tKiJ «vnvoute zou uno:pxet avo:J,tsO'u ere KaOs auSsvnKit tpaytKOnrm Kat os KUSS 1C(l'ts~ouotaat1KU tspapxrU.lEvll xoworvic.

A8'1va;'1<tj c'lCavtiGTaG'1Kal 9caTpoKpatia

Kat ano rnv anO'l'l1 aun), oeY EXoo).le napa vu 1tapu~aA.OUj.lE to KOlV6 ron Racine Kat 'tOO CorneiIIe us to 1(0\VO roo Marlowe Kat tou Shakespeare Ka1 'tOY aOllVUtKo OTJ).lO crnv nupacrtaOll torv IIep(J(JJv, 8eY SXOUJ.lE napa vc GuJ.1TJS06J.ls 'tT\V s~a<pavtO'TJ ron aYYAtK06 ScatpOU usrd rov IIOUpt'tUV10').l6. yID va Ka'taM~ouJ.lc 'tOY opjuvixo crUVQSO).lO 1tOU U1taPXEl aVU).lscra O''tTJV napouaia it rnv anouala 'tll.~ ).la~a~ Kat to nsptsx6).lsvo K(11 tllV 7tSP10)m1 Tl1~ T p(lyro3i(l~,

To K01VO nov BspcraAAt.cOv, to KOlV6 'too Globe Theater KUl TO KOlV6 'tOO 8Ea'tpou TOU 8tov6crou J.lu<; 8ivonv TPEt~ wnou<; K01V06 zoo eivci, tuutQxpova, tpsu; Y€vll(6'tsps~ 1COlVo)VtOAOYll(E~ Ka'tll.yopi£~ nOD 3sixvouv rpsu; ).lop<ps~ K01VroVla~ orqv OA6tllta 'tOD~,

Ana TIl pin ).lEp1a EXOUJ.lE fNav lCUptaPXl1C6 xm unoKOIlJ.ltvo uno KUeS E7ttPpO~ «uno ra K(lta)}), orevo KOlVroV1KO O'XTJ,UUt1O'J..L0 llPffitK:o-tspapX1K06 O'WA,

'EXOUJ.lE uO''tEpa ).tta t.ui~u YSJ.lU'tTJ naOo.; aAM Xropi<; TIJ «oopuc», 'to O''tUA nco uovo 'to J.laeO~ J,l1topsi vc 800- est J.llU I.ui~a 1KavTJ va svSoU0'1aO'tSl Kat ve E7t1K:OtVrovncet J.lE 't(l U'I'TJAO'tspa vOTtlla'ta aM&' aV1Kavl1 va yiVEt 11 iOta 1t11rf1 vonudrcov K(11 a';uOv, aV1KavTJ vc av'tl'ta';St utu 6TJJ.llOUPYUcT, ~oUATJO'l1 a7tSvavn O''tTJv opyavroJ.ltvTJ xowrovio, cvixcvn va U1tap';El ouv unocpaO'lO"tlKO: 1tEpl(Jcrorspo ano tva anAo J.tS'l"Ct~anKO cpalVOIlSVO ...

An6 'tTJv aMTJ J.lSPUI 6).1ffi~ SXOu.us OTTJV A8iJva ron 50u u1rova eva TpUytKO 0t.a'tpo zou €XE1 svcrrollatro8d IlE<; 'tTJv i3ta tllv opyavro).lEvl1 K01VroVlu Kt sXSt tcunorsf

"ElEATPOKPATIA" KAI EIIANA!:TATIKH MAZA

).LS tis Wl£S TIls Us unsuEluvsS KpUttKS~ A£ttoupyiss. 'Exou)ls )llCl KuraatacrTl )ls~ TIlv ozofn 11 avri8s<Jl1 roo Kpnrom; Kat TOU Tpnyucou stvm OAbtsAa aVUnapKTII - to Kpnro; YSVV1)811KS ouv ats(j)aVW!la TIle; iOtae; naA:rt<; JlS TIlV ozoin 11 snaVaatUttK~ )laSa tOU 60u atowa opy<ivwm: Kat to 01KD tll<; 8sQtpo' Kat TO Kpdroc auto s~u<puviaTIlKe !lust )l.s to Elsatpo: roco ftTUV KOtVS~ at piI;ee; Kat at 1tl1')'E.e; TOUC;.

o Nietzsche, amoe; nou npcDtOe; Kat oco KUVS\s a)_Ace; €iDe TO tpa')'tKO (j)OVTO TOU KAUatKoU noAttlcr).Lol>, lCuranAllKTOe; )l.npoe; crnv KCVTptK1) Kat uneuEluvll EI€CITJ 1[OU SiX8 11 Tpaywoia UVU)l8aU one; A8tTOup')'l£e; TIle; aEl11.vu'ilCfte; IIoAu8tue;. nvapomotuv «7tille; 0 Aaoe; rov Mucmpkov Kat nov .1.tOupa)lprov Kutop9roO's vo upuoviost rnv unap~~ "tOU us tnv mo UppCVWm1 xapa tOU u')'illva Kat TIl" mo PW)luUU UVetO"11. rorv nOAttlKcDV 'tOU evertKTWV;» H nnopin aun) -oAoTsAa aKatUVo11'tll ym tOY KAuO'uco uvElpwno- yiVSTat e~llyitO'1)lll av OK8q>tOUJle Ott o Nietzsche Souas KU'tW uno TllV nteall svoc rroAttlO'J.lOU I'm roy onoio 11 Tpu')'woia Kat TO Kpriro; ncptordvouv Suo ptstKU acruj.lpipaO'TSe; OVTOTllTSe; Kt cv, anE.vavn GTOV nOAu8tO,otaTO KOO'!!O xou nspllixs'tat W:<; mv KAacrtKi} SWotU roo 1tOAltll, UVaA.OYlCHOUJ.U: rnv tsrpuorsvr; 1tEptoXtl TIle; (O!!itc; 0E.AllO'l1<; .1.Uva)lllC; Kat to optl;ov'tto am1tE8o 1ta.vro OTO onoio xtveitru crtl)lSpo. iNa "rrOA1TIKO ~roo". Av UK6!!o. Kill 0 Nietzsche ijrav svrv..roc; UviKUVOC; vc cruUa.p&t uin Tatom TUUnCJT1 TOU lCpa.TOU<; KUt TTlC; 1tVSU)lUttKOTllTae; )ltac; Kotvwviac;, Sa stvrn yta !lae; SV'tEAIDe; aouvu'to va KatavoijO'oU)lt: to ileoe; roco "tOU KOWOU TOU 8sutpou 'tOU Atovooou ceo Kat TOU KOtVOU TIle; EKKAllO'iae; TOO .1.it!lOU cv Scv nU,¥ou)l8 vc n8ptopil;ou!l8 rnv tMu TIle; 1[OAt'tlKi]e; ~wit<; Kat 'tfIC; nOAl.nKite; ropt)lOTl1- rae; evo; Au06 crnv a<PllPll)l1Nrl MOta TIle; «a<JKll<J% torv oUVta')')lanKa. it snUVUGtaTlKa. Ku80ptG)l€VWV nOAt-

MAZA KAI I!'TOPIA

'tt1CWV OtKaWJfJUtcov Kat unoxpErom::cov», av Ssv cvnxpiconus KU'tQ) an6 Sva covosmxo npioun 6!.£~ n~ \jIUXtKS~ Nmoupyi6<; Ils 't~ O1tois~ fJill Il<l~a aV8pwncov O'UJlfJSTSXSt Kat Sev IlSvEt a1tA.6~ 8san1~ iJ 1tCl8rtnK.6 6pyavo, O'~ 'a~is~ Kat O''TIlv 10'WPtKT) SroiJ 'TIl<; xotvrovie; us; 'TIlv 0- noia svrdooerm, Kat rots, auti} aKptproe; 'fl MOta. TIle; 1tOA1't1KT)C; Q)p1fJ6'TIlTa~ nOD fJ1a E1tOm Kat' E;oxflv -Dnoti8sTa1- nOA.t'ttK01t01'flJ1€vrt 6nro~ 'fl OtKT) Ila~ rnv aXEL 0.VayaYSl 0'6 fJEtpO 6AroV trov 1(;paYfJ(l'trov, eO, fJa~ cpavei onv s~atpSnKU a(Ja<piJ~ Kat e1l:lKtVODV'fl.

Finri 'to JlSytO'TO fJUe11lla nou fJae; OiVEl 11 KAaO'tKT) EllUoa O'X6'ttKU us t~ npounOeS(JE~ nOD xpEui~et<ll. v« cruYK€V'tpffi806v ocrs 11 noAt'ttKT) toropin 'TIlS fJ6.~a<; vn yivEt 11 mo croVOAtKfJ, 11 mo oAorl.l1pffifJSvr" 11 mo nv- 8pW1t1VllnpaYfJatonoill<J11 KUt Katucpu(Jll ron avepronou fJSS rnv K01VIDVta, stvm TO'UtO: 111,U:l~a T60'0 zsptocorspo U'lH':oV6tUt O"'tO !min800 fJlac; T[OA.nuciIS it fJUl<; 07IOtUO'OiJzots UMl1C; tctopuca 0111l10UPYt101~ opyavco<J11~, 60'0 1tEptooorspo av'ttf1E'tIDniS61 onv 3pallatlX6 np6pA'flJ.la rrtv Icropic nOD ~Et K<ll. mv ssoucria nau 11 opyavcofJSv'f1 K01- voivio ccxsi S1tUVID 't'flS' 6(J0 1tEptO"O'OT6PO ~e1 auesvtucu aUTO TO npOpAl1lla Kat TO SKcppu~et fJS rc auSsV'tlK<l 31- Ka TIle; ,llscra Kat O'U,llJ.lSTSXEt CTO't EVEpY11'tlKa cmv anoKPU(JTUUCOO'1l ,[IDV a;t6:Jv 't'fle; K01vcoviae; fJSe; 't'flV onoto EVtaO'O'Eta1' 60"0 zeptcoorspo 0 <lv8pconoc; zou Otct1tatoayroysi 11 ,Ual;a ,US tOU~ 01K0'6<; 'CT)r; ).luSoor; Ka1 to. 01K<1 't'fl~ sKcppaO''ttK<1 fJsO'a yiverat lKav6~ vc stvm ~cov'tav6~ cpopsac; Kat xowevo; TCOV uSt6:Jv non opjnvrbvouv rnv KOIVCOVta, 't'fl uopeoxoioev Kat TIle; oivouv unciPSl1 Kat 01apKSta.

o IIA.uTCOV nOD 'to fJiO'OS TOD Kata TIle; ~l1fJOKpaTtae; TOV EKavs vu SEO's1 to rcp6pAl1j.1a tCOV f1a~rov oro KEVtpO ron crrox.uCJIlOU tOD, ASst CJtOV~ «N 6fJov~» on 11 A9r}vaYKT) IIOAltcia OSV fttaV OUtE ~l1JlOKpaTia OUtS Apt-

"8EATPOKPATIA" KAI EIIANAl:TATIKH MALA

ctoxpurto; alJ.iJ. «(9sarpOKpatta» 55. Bspata, ornv S1tOXl1 1tOU 0 ITAa:rrov sypa<p€ -rOU~ «NO)lOU~»; orov Kat to 0scrpo Kat 11 IIoAl-r€ia €lXav 1tU'I'St ano Kalpo va 6K<ppa~ouv y6vt)ls~ tcr'IOPtKS~ OUVU)l6~, Kave1s; 6€'V crKB<ptllKE va As1t-rOAoyftcr€t 1tavro c' eva rstoto xotvo tono leat va Stcrst crav tva 1tpOpA11)la tr[v uneu8uVl1Kat KSVtptKft 8s(Jl1 tOU 0EUtpOU )lecra cr't1l (11)locrta I;roiJ tr[~ Kotvrovill<; troy Ilepoucov Iloxsurov. Kat yt' au-ro, icrro<;. KavE.i~ 6€V Sa niJPB (Jtu cro~apa ru; anOAUta aOtKatoA6yJln:<; Kat naSwcrj.LEvE<; €m8ecret<; tOU ITAlitrova Karu 'IOU 8EU'tP01) Kat 't1l<; tpaytlCl)<; TEXV1l<;. Movo E)lS~ O"llJ.lE.pa, )lE 't1l (Jl1- ~.IEPtviJ avunTUS11 tT\<; 'PUlOAOrill<; Kat ps rnv SlOtlcil t(J'toptKi] nEipa Kat <JUvEio11(Jl1nou E.XOUj.LS anoKn)cr€t, E!Vat ouvatov va EK'tt)lftcrOU)l€ Tl1 ~(droTa't1l aun) napan)P11crTJ rou IIAIi'trova.

Orcv O'KEq>tOU)l€ Ott 11 1tspiooo~ TIt<; aK)lfje; TOU KAacucoo av8primou fJ'tav zeptooo; Kata tllv oaoin 11 Ka8apu nOAl'ttlCl) rou 6pacrTItpt0't11'tu 1)taV nOAU aossvscrt€Pll cr€ napouaia, cs ~apo~ Kat as a1tOTeA£cr)la'ttKoTIttu U1tO rnv 1tEpiooo tl]<; napaKf,lfte;' orcv 8u)lTJ80u)l€ on XPE1Uornxs vc yivst )lUX €1tavacrtuOTJ yta vo VO)lt)101totTJssi 0 L1t8Upuf,lpo<; Kat VU Y€VVTJ8ei 11 Tpayro6ia, tors su KUtaA6.QOVW: to 1tepter.6(1£VO aUn\<; "ti\<; «eeu-rpolCpariaq>. Kat rots Ou KUTaAaPOU)l€ €nicrTJ<; on TJ 8tKf] )lac; mota tr[<; 1tOAtnK'J)e; ropt)l&rr]Tac; Kat tOU «ozoicsuisvuco» 1tapayovTa crnv Ioroptco sivat aKOf,lu -nap' OATJ rnv neipa 1tOU J.lU~ torocrav ot Buo )lEyaAu'tEp€e; E1tavacrtucrs1<; 'tTJe; Ioropto; J.La~- 1tOAU crTSViJ Kat <JUyK€XUJ.lEvTj.

I'tnri, aKplpwC;, crnv 1tPW't1l q>UOTJ tl]C; L1Tj)lOKpCl'ttKf]C; Enavucrta<J1l<; ornv apxatKfJ AOfjva, orcv 0 Topovvo; Kat )ls-ru 0 Apsio; ITayo; E.1tatl;s to pol.,o EVO~ «)l1tOAO'€PiK1KOU KOJ.L)laTOC; ornv 1t€piooo TIle; dtKtaTOpia~ rou

55IMT. NOj1., 701a.

'vlAZA KAI I!TOPIA

99

Ilpoxstupurrou», !N6e; ElOOUe; oornOD Kat lCT}oej.l6vu ,[OU BiUtOu, 'tt tlTa.V uu'[6 nov Ej.lnOOtO'E 'to OtlJ,to vn ~uvun~· ost O''tTJV 1tp6'teptl tOU 1tUSrrnK6't11'tU Kat v« a<pe9Ei O''tTJV KupiapX11 ~OUt.;l1O'l] rrov «K1']oEJ.t6vrov» rou; H 1teipu 'tTJe; rUMt1Cf)e; Kat tDtal-tepa 'tTJC; Proot1Cf)c; E1tUVUO"tUO'l]C; O!N apKS! yw va llaC; osi~8t 'l11v Ki>pta CITfflacria 'l11C; naEhl't1- K6nrrae; tl 'tT\e; unopt1Cf)e; t:VePYll'ttK6'tT\'tue; TIle; J.la~ac; O''tT)v OtK000J.l1']CIT) trov SeO'I .. uDv Kat 'tT\ DtaJ,t6p<pwO'l] trov a~ubv 'tl]C; J.l8TS1tavaO'Tan1Cf)c; xowovicc; 0 A.PStOC; ITayoC; 1tapaoivet 'ttc; e~ou(Ji8c; TOU O'TIl BOUAl] Kat 0'1'0 8.tlJ.lO J.l6Atc; 'to 462/1, OTJAaoit Afya XP6vta 1tptV u1t6 'tOY IlsptKAtl: roc; rors, 'to KUptO ).lB00 J.lE 'to ozoto O'UJ.lflStEixs 0 .1:iJlloC; crnv t<J'topudl ~(i)'fJ TIle; 0PYClVroJ.l€vrJC; KOlvroviae; Ssv tl'tuv t600 11 a.O'K1']OTJ trov O'l]J.lUVtlKa nspiopuruevrov 1tOAtnKrov tOO olKatWl-ui'trov 600 tl'tuv 1'] J.l~OU O'tO Seatpo rou ~lOVUO'Oll SPllO'KEunri] tOU KUtaVU~ll, TJ AiovuOlUq EKO'tUOTJ 1tOV tOY xupisus J.l8 rou; MUeOllC; 1tOU (1)'toc; ° i8toC; SiXE ~UASt ow <p<OC; Kat 11 CVSODO'taO'tt1Cf) ron szucowcrvin J.lE 'ftC; u~iec; zou E~E<ppa~s 1'] 'tpayw8ia - UU'tSC; 'ttC; asiec; 1(OD l] iota '[01) TJ o1tuvaO''tUttldl 5paO'l] st· XE 8nt~aAst O''tT\V xoworvic. 1:'tl]V nspiooo au'ti], 0 ASl]va'fKoc; AtlJ.loC; O'llIlJ.ls'ttlXE crnv to''[opt1Cf) ~Wtl 6xt t600 O'aY «eclaytKO O'Wt-La» (n, Svvota uun\, 1(a't' apmv a· crUMl]1t'tl] O''tTJY EnOXJ1 'tWY Mapu8wv0J.ta.Xwv, eJ.t<pavil;:e'tat lCUpiroC; ornv S1tOm TIlt; nllvTooDvaJ.tiae; «ov «\jIll<pt- 0J.lu'twv tOD AiULOD» 0llAaOtl 0Tllv E1t0XT} tl]t; 1(UPUKJ.tT}t;) fl.UU ouv AIOVUO'taK6e; Xopo; zou SKota<Ha.~E'tUt 6Xt 1[1a J.lS 'to At6vvO'o (ol1AaOtl 61troe; 8a OOUJ,lS, J.lS TllV 1tUP01}Ola J.ttaC; avn-Kpan1Cf)c; Kat ovn-ioropuop; 8eOrl]TUe;) alJ.fJ. J.tE 'tT\ AiKTJ OllA.aoT} us to tspo crUJ.l~OA.O 'tT)e; vsu; KpU.rt1Cf)e; 'tuSllt; Kat tT}C; veae; 8tCIT)<; 'tOO uV8pO:mOD J.lee; 'tTJV Ioroptc,

100

"8EATPOKPATlA" KAJ EIIANALTATIKH MAZA

Mv8o~, oJ.),'rlopia. uv/lPobuf.l6~

A1to tTJv Cl1tO'I'TI aUn1, Ssv BXOll~E 1tapa vc 1tapapIiAOU~e rou; MuElou<; Xtlvro orou; onotoix apElpIDElTI"KaV rn tpia si0Tl 8e6.tpoo 1[00 ava<psp!lIlE mo 1[tlvO) yUl vo xu't(lA.a~OUIlS "Kat 'to paElutspo v6'IWa tTJS 8sutpo"Kpa'tia; "Kat 'tt<; P~tKSS XOtott"KS£ omcpops£ zou umlpxouv eveusou crtl<; OTl~toUpyt"KSC; ouvat6rlltSC; rorv tP1IDV tUxrov K01VOU 1[0ll TOUr; uvncrtotxouv .

.1.6V eivUl acrcpa.A<b.; wxuio TO on Eva Kat' el;oxitv uvn~U~tKo 8satpo 61troc; 'to daal"Ktcr'tt"KO 8sutpo Ssv BsJ.u~A.Ui)VS't(lL 1tavO) cs MuElov<; aUa cs aUTl'YOpie<;· on 01 tpaytKoi ~proEC; "KUt 01 TpaYl"K€<; 1tepl1tETf:WC; oev sivor 1l0pCPS<; PyuA.J.lsvec; u1[6 Iltu UUTOyOVTl, 1tprotUPX1~, «npro'tow1tTJ)} tpayu('~ EllnElpia KUt ~uElo1tA.aan~ evspYTJnKOTl"l't<l <lA.M 1tpoiOVt<l Tl"l£ ouuuvtoruop; "KUUl£P"(Etas: ~Opq>ES EnlKTI1't£S Kat o£u'tsp6yov£s, 1t(lP~EvES aXO Tll BiPA.o, TOV EupmtoTJ, TOV I:evSK<l, it toy TJProtK6 KUKA.o TllC; ta1taVl~C; grandeza. Turri Eva K01VO 1tOU xpocrotOptl;etat ano n<; OUl(i'tll()€1.£ ~lU<; KAelcrTitS tspnpXu(l)~ Kama.:;; 8sv tXe.L KUllta uvaYKTJ oiru; taw.;, Kat sivet as 8sO"TJ vn UlVroElei 1tspa ano TIl ou I-lpanK6!TJtu troy KOP"'1A.taVWV auYKpouaerov uva!lEaa O"tO «Ku8i!KOV» KUL TO «aicr8T1~a.» Kat 0A.s<; tV; nupouou«; p~L1(a. e~roTpa"(lKE<; KaTTJyopie<;. 'Eroi 0 Racine uvuYlCaat11KE yta vu elCcppaatEt vu XPTJcrt~01tOltlcret to 1tapajlOpcpronlCo uA.tKO svo; xoouou TeOU Xt~o'tav ~E auMoytcr~OUC; ccv TOV E1tO~evO: (de n' ai point pousse Berenice jusqu' Ii se tuer, comme Didon, paree que Berenice n' ayant pas ici avec Titus les derniers engagements que Didon ayah avec Enee, elle n' est pas obligee, comme elle, de renoncer 1a vie ... Ce n' est point une necessite qu' il y ait du sang et des morts dans une Tragedie, II suffit que l' action en soit grande, que les acteurs en soient

MAZA KAI IETOPIA

101

heroiques, que les passions y soient excitees et que tout s' y ressente de cette tristesse majestueuse qui fait tout Ie plaisir de la tragediex ".

A~ nupa~aAou~E tropn uun) Tl1 «aXEo101totTU.uNll Qt. xovouin» rou uif.la1:o~ ps to oovo, TI\V (ttf.lOllt~ia, TIl VEKpocptAta, TIl unvin 8uVallTJ~, sK3iKTJaTJ~ KU1 Ocvnrou nou ~SXEtAtc;OUV f.lEaa a' tva etU1:pO 61[oU xovevo amBEp6 CPPUYllU OSV XWptsE 1:0 KOtv6 altO roue T]801[()tou<;, 1:Ou<; 11801t0lOU<; an6 TOUS OTJf.ltoUpyou<;, TOU~ 011lllOUPyou~ ano ns 1tOpVE~ Kat 1:Ou~ oOAocp6vou<;, TOU~ OOAOq>6vouS un6 1:0US npaKTOp£s 'tTJ~ 1tOAttllCfJ~ uoruvouinc Kat rn JlSYUAIl ovounru Tl1S AuAijr;57 ... DABS aU1E.s 01 f.lc1:allopcproa£t<; f.l£S T1~ ozois; aut6e; 0 {Otoe; 0 Shakespeare f.XUaE tT]V TaUtOTI\Tu rou (av ntatf.\jIouf.l£ TOV Sir Edmund Chambers Kat rou; O'uYXpovouC; ()at~· 1tTJPlO"1:t~, K(hO) uno TO ovouo Shakespeare KpU~OVTat 1:0UA,UXla1:0V 5EKutpiu npoaO)nu 1[OU nvrpcouv a' OAEe; 1~ ~a8f.lioES 1T]e; KOlVCOVtKtl£; l£papxiac:;), to YEYOVO~· on av E~atpf.aO\)f.l€ evo» Ben J ohnson, 6Am aUTO! Ot OEKU· OSC; cAUJa~ETtaVOt olWtoupyoi, zou 1tOAU anUVla KUTOp· erovouf.lE va otaKptVOUIlE 1T]V UtOIl1K01T]TU tOU£;, 0Tl·

56 Racine: «Preface a Berenice». [«.:lEV tcrnp(i}~rt TTJ BEpEVilCT) ~XPt TO SaVlltO, 6nffi~ TIt .1.l0W, yw.ti oroo~ou Ott lJ Bspsvucn OEV exEt npo; TOV Tiro tt<; oEo!JZ60et<; nou lJ ,1.106> EiXE napel svuvn rou AtVEla, Ssv eivill U1tOXPEffi!1EVf] 6nUl~ EKetVf] vc IlPVT]Sei TIt ~Ultl TlJ~ ... Asv eivlXl KuS6Aou Il:n:O:PUlTTttO VU U1tapxEt 1li.!1U KIn veepot em I-UU 'tpIlY(i}oiu. Apxst lJ opacrll VU eivut MOVf], ot npUl'tlly(i}VWTE~ nponKOt KUl 'til na8r] VIl Ex.Ol)V eSQ<pSei. Kat 0A.a. vu m:Pt~6:'Movtr.lt 1l1t0 Q1)nl u]v 1)n:ePOXll 8'A.l'1l11"n01) (Jl)Vtmtl OA.ll TIJV BU<ppOmJVf] U]e; 'tPIlIwOia~ (o.r.sj].

7 0 <{'OVO<; tOO Marlowe, !-!UO'tlKoU 1tpUK'C0PU ornv u1tl]pEoill TIl~ eA.lCJuj3enuvt)<; :n:p01tu'YavOa~, to ~pruplO tOU Kyd, TO UM6KO't0 'tEAo<; TOU Oxford KUl 0 ).L\)OTIJptffiol1<; Sawn>; rou Greene Kat 'tOU Peele, 0 p6A~ nov 81)0 Walsingham (uPXTTYWV TI']>; EAlCJll~EtlUvtlS nporruyavou.;) ocixvouv aMro<Jts TOU~ 8ECJ!WU~ :n:oo um'lPXllv Clva!l£OO: OTO OEurpo, mv 7toA.mld), U]V ClOtUVO).Lio..

J02

"eEATPOKPATIA" KAI EnANALTATIKH MAZA

j . noupvouccv ~E~ rnv E1ttKatp6TIt'ta, ScOV'ta~ ozo ~epa cs ~Epa ... cpxoov yta va CITJ~avouv 6A;rl TIt psucromra Kat TIt J.leta~a"nK6nt'ta au'tiJ.~ TIt~ e1tOx11~ - TIt Pt~U(i) TIts CtouvaJ.lia vc Bpst ~era TIl~ TIl oDva~YJ va OcOerEt iNa oreOEp6 vonu« Kat ~ta 'ta~"l er't"lv iOta TIl~ t11v EJ.l1tEtpia.

Av eEAOU~S va KPCt'tllerouJlE ornv svvour tOU MuSou 6All ron T'lV 1tEP1«)ml xrn 6All 1'OU 'tTJ A.Ull'l'''l, av cvoyvO)piSOU~E J.leera crov MuOo ruv zupcuotc tOD A6yOD, 'tTJV U1tEP~ClCJTJ Kat 6xt to a1tAO ertUAu;apter~a , .. lta~ toreptKi)<; B~1tstpia~, rots Oa 1tpe1tst, 1tpOKStJ.l6vOU yta rrrv EAtcra~EttaVtl H:XV'1, va ~lA:tlerODW: yta utn erull~oA1Kil Kat 6xt yw, ,.na ~uOtKl) TeXV"l: 1'0 ato~o TIl<; AvaYEvvllCJTJ~ e~pterKE orov Hamlet, rov Faustus tOU Marlowe i) tOY Vendice tOD Tourneur" tu crD~~oA.a Kat 6xt to ~DOtK6 v6ll~a rrov OptaKcOv tOU E~1tEtPtcOV Kat rov nvnpXOUJ.lEVroV ouva~Erov 1tOU e~pterKE !!eera tOU Kat 1tOD xc)lia uvdrrepn, 1t6ptEXOU<Ju xotvorntn OEY ittaV (JS SE(Jll va opyavcO(JEl. Turrt Kal .. na 8DvaJ.lll )l8~ 'to EAterapEttav6 @en'tpo om u1tEppaivEt mv a)lE(J0TIl'ta TIt<; tpaytKils 6- Jl1tEtpia~, t11V roJlit eKq>paerll tll<; BK!!"lOEVtcr'tlKit<; 1tA119ropw; Kat 'tTI<; cvrtvouucomruc rov OUVU)lsrov 1tOD eveYVcOPtSE Jlean'tOU 0 uv9pro1tOS TItS Avay6vvrtCITJ~ ..

58 Cyril Toumeur: 'Ayy'Mx; sA.10'a~sTUlv~ optt~atoopy~ (1575- 1626) tOO O'lt01OO ru 1"roO'tOtBpa epya etvci, H rpaywfJia rou A8tou Kat H Tpaywbia tOD EKOll''Irfl. 0 Vindice (EKOUcrl1;~S) sivat 0 tlProas tTJS teA.sutnias tptt"{rooiaS, 0 oxoto; npo)tayrovlO'tsi O'S Bva C1.tfltlTllP6 opu~ SKoiKT]GTJS zou noMoi esffipTJaav 10'U~1O t01) J3aaWit Anp, ~t1!1EPO: 1l:UJtsUSTatmt c:ruyypa«lOOt; 1:OU epy01) "'fav mOa.veO,:; a T6~S Mtvrxerov) .. 0 Marcel Schwab €:ypmjle "(ttl tOY Toupvep on «ysvvfJ8TJKe un6 Tl1V BvO)(iTJ svo; 6.1"u)()"1:01) esoU jJZ Illa n6pVTJ». svoo o T .. S .. Elliot: «Tn npooomn tau Toupvsp J11topsi va siva.1 <lxapa, xovopoetOtl, axe86v natOlKB.:; Ko:plKatoUpEC; TllS av8pronOtTJtas, aAM UvTJKOUV 6)..n 08 J.lttl unepIWYs8TJ rli!1UKa.» (c.r.e.) ..

MAZA KAI I~TOPIA

Y ltUPXEl tpU"{lKO 1tuElo~ cr' 01..,11 roo rnv auElevTuc61:lltCt, cr' OAT} 1:01) TT}V 1tAllPOTT}TU CtMa lCCtVEvCt «,uaeo~» oev 1tpo~6.AA.etCtl 1tOU va E~a()(paAU;El Kat va OlUt1)pc:i (vc «CH.'oSBt» 61(0)~ 8Ct ''Af'..,,{CtV at aPXCtiOl 'EA..'ATJVS~) rnv svoTIJ'tU Kat TIJV 'tUut6TT\'tU tOU uvElpamou !-IE TOV EUUTO 'tOU ava,uc:cra crn~ OUlIlOVlK€S OUV6.IlEl~ 1tOV TOV Ct1t€tAOUV altO ,uEaa K1 U1t' £~O):

Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player, That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, And then is heard no more: it is a tale

Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing ... 59

'Eva '[81010 {(~laeoq) uovo 0 Mue~ -T) oLlVa,ull nou lCaT' ESOXitV 1tpaYllaT01tou:;{ avtJ1 TllV v1ttp~a~ TIJ~ rpayuct1S el11te1pia<;- eivat os Stall va ro eK(jlpacrel. Kat, '[(lurOxpova, uovo 0 MuElo<; eivut as 8EOll vc crUYKP01"i)est TIl IlUsa CiS xowomro, vc 't1l~ 30m.n E1ql€Ala, crmBEpomro Kal <rUV8XElU. I'tart 1l0VO 0 MuBo~ stvm crt BtcrT) vo EK(j)paa€\ tov A&yo CiTT\V ilila 'tll 'YArocrcra TIl~ llaSa~. rWtl JlOVO 118<; 'Wv~ MuElou<; tTJ<; KaropElwV€t va €K<ppaest T1<; 8lK!~~ TIl~ a~i£s 11 Wi~u Kal vo no; aVTnu~El cnotEAWIlUtlKa KUt YOVt,uu oru; u~i€.; TIl'; opyav(O,uEvT}O; KOIVroV{a<;.

L' aut'll TIl ,uuB01tAacrnKll UOUVUllta TIl'; SAlcrapsnavf)<; ,ua~as, O'111v aV1Kavorrrra 111<; vn a~lO:TrOlt1O'Sl TllV 1- CHOptKll TIJ'; EJ.L1tEtp{a, O(j)ElAOU!l€ va a1tOoroaoulle TT)v U1tOt0Jlll e~U(pavlcr'l OXt JlOVO 'tOO EleO:rpou u'A'Ari Kat UU'tiJ.; 't11S iOlaS 't11S Ilusas· [lUtt 1troS aMtro.; !l:Tr0POUIl8 vn

59 Macbeth, Act V, Sc. V. [H 'w~ &v eiven napa ,.na K1VOVIlSVIl O'](tO:' €V~ U.s&;lI:~ T\9mtot6i; /nou I(OpbWV8Tllt 1((11 oUO'Tpo1tsi mlvw O'TO :1[a1KOO€vlKOI Kat !lETa :1[(1V81 va uKouyeTm: siVa! tva n:apapu91 1[QU 'TO a:qHlYsiTm evu~TJ"ielo;, 6)..0 OXt..ol3oit Kat !-«lvfa! X<.Opi~ Kavsvc vOt)).!U. (uer, tOU S1tlJ.l.)J