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A2 Geography: Global issues

How to answer the three 10 mark data response questions

Each 10 mark question (one per topic) uses the following wording e!ery time:
Outline a geographical issue indicated and suggest appropriate
strategies for its management.
You answer three questions:
at least one from Environmental Issues
at least one from Economic Issues.
one more of your choice.
Gien that the Glo!al "ssues paper lasts #$ hours and the %data response& questions are
worth ' of the marks aaila!le( you should allocate a!out )0 minutes to these questions *
the e+aminers definitely recommend that you take no longer than an hour. "n other words
this gies you about 1# minutes per 10 mark question.
"ypial length o$ response
E+aminers suggest that one side o$ A% would !e enough for each 10 mark question
(although fie sides are proided for the three questions in the e+am paper). ,learly this
recommendation depends on:
si-e of handwriting
quality not quantity * is 1$ pages of waffle !etter than two succinct(
intelligent paragraphs.
"ype o$ data soures
Each question refers you to a data soure as a prompt. /sually there is 0ust one source
although ery occasionally there might !e two * do not !e put off !y this as it may simply
contain e+tra clues for you to use1
2ata sources &bold ones are the most ommon' could !e in the form of:
te(t (e.g. news articles)
maps (at any scale( from 34 to glo!al( although the latter are more
common and often choropleth maps)
graphs ) harts
satellite images
diagrams (including cartoons)
simple data ta!les (including statistical information).
You are not e+pected to hae detailed knowledge of the actual e+ample in the resource( it
is the principles that you are !eing assessed on.
A systemati approah to answering the question
5hat does the question ask you to do.
outline an issue
suggest appropriate management strategies
You must tackle !oth parts of the question !ut the bulk &*#+,' o$ your answer should
be about strategies-
.utline an issue (make sure it is only one issue)
6o outline simply means to proide the main features or ideas. /se a short( first
paragraph to learly identi$y your chosen issue (to show good communication skills). You
must refer to the resource specifically (see !elow) and it is also worth stressing the scale
of the issue (e.g. is it glo!al( regional or more local.).
5hat can the issue !e.
it can come from your entire 74 and 7# knowledge (it&s a synoptic e+am1)
it must relate to the data source proided (i.e. !e appropriate)
o spend a $ew minutes are$ully studying the resoure
o why not annotate 8 scri!!le on the resource to help focus your ideas.
look for patterns in any graphic 8 numeric 8 isual information proided
o make sure you re$er spei$ially to the resoure
quote figures 8 place names (or e+tracts if a te+t resource)
highlight more su!tle patterns 8 anomalies
specific eidence from photos 8images (use foreground 8 !ackground)
use appropriate knowledge and terminology (e.g. core 8 periphery)
it can !e related to human or physial geography (regardless of the topic) and the
!est issues could emphasise links !etween 8 relatie importance of the two
o human auses e.g. inappropriate deelopment
o human impats (socio9economic) e.g. damage to infrastructure
o physical auses (enhanced !y humans.) e.g. heay rainfall
o physical impats (enironmental) e.g. ecosystem damage
can the issue !e to do with predition. (e.g. ,limatic 8 Earth ha-ards)
:or the %Glo!alisation& and %2eelopment and inequality& topics( the issue raised
might only !e loosely triggered !y the resource e.g. 7 map of unemployment rates
in the E/ could lead to the issue of migration flows.
7 glo!al map implies a glo!al issue (and glo!al management strategies).
,rucially( you should select an issue a!out which you feel confident tackling the second
part of the question. ,onsider the scenario !elow;
6he resource shows a satellite image oer the 7tlantic in late
summer( with annotations 8 te+t detailing sea surface temperatures.
"f you were to talk a!out physial auses of ,limatic <a-ards (e.g. warm tropical seas
causing hurricanes)( how do you manage that. 4urely it would !e easier to discuss
impat management.
4o( in many respects( the simplest tactic might !e to always stick to impats as issues 9
you should always hae something to say a!out managing impacts.
/uggest appropriate management strategies
You must proide a range &at least two0 ideally three' of appropriate strategies. 5rite a
paragraph per strategy to show good communication skills.
,onsider the following:
temporal i.e. short term and long term (note mark scheme !elow)
spatial e.g. local 8 regional 8 glo!al response (it must be appropriate)
different strategies according to:
different soial groups (e.g. young s. old)
different loations (note mark scheme !elow)
o e.g. =E2, s. >E2, as this might affect;
technology aaila!le (e.g. appropriate technology s. G"4)
finance that is likely to !e aaila!le (e.g. >E2, s. =E2,)
o e.g. rural s. ur!an
politial solutions (especially for %2eelopment and inequality&)
e.g. laws( agreements( land use -oning
7 simple tactic might !e to try and proide a range of strategies in the following categories:
1odi$y the e!ent
o Enironmental control
o <a-ard resistant design 8 protection
1odi$y !ulnerability
o ?rediction 8 warning
o ?reparedness
1odi$y the loss
o 7id (mainly >E2,s)
o "nsurance (mainly =E2,s)
6he !est answers will show a !ariety o$ strategies and include some e!aluation of your
strategies to show understanding of their arying leels of appropriateness (although they
should still all !e appropriate to your hosen issue)111
"t is also important to try and include ase study detail where appropriate. 6his might !e
specific technology (e.g. radar forecasts to aid tornado prediction( %Earthworm&( high
yielding crop arieties) or named case studies which hae !een managed in a certain way.
6he latter will almost always make it easier to e+plain your management strategies more
"ypial e(am board marking guidelines
1ark alloation
%0, @ knowledge and understanding (of content( concepts and processes).
%0, @ analysis0 interpretation and e!aluation (of geographical information and
issues( applying understanding in unfamiliar conte+ts).
20, @ ommuniation (structure( organisation( terminology)-
1ark sheme
,andidates should get credit for an issue identified in the resource or a broader
generi issue (!ut this must still originate from the resource e.g. secondary
7 response distinguishing !etween:
o short and long term strategies
o >E2, 8 =E2, strategies
is likely to !e top of >eel #A.
4trategies must !e appropriate to the issue identi$ied for >eels # and B.
2e!el 3 &4 5 10 marks'
/ubstantial knowledge and authoritati!e understanding of an appropriate issue( using
lear eidence from the resource. 6lear application of releant knowledge and
understanding including details and e!aluation of appropriate management strategies.
6lear structure and organisation. ,ommunication is lear with maps( diagrams and
statistics( if appropriate. Aurate use of geographical terms.
2e!el 2 &+ 5 7 marks'
/ound knowledge and understanding of an appropriate issue( using some eidence from
the resource.
/ound application of releant knowledge and understanding including e!aluation of
appropriate management strategies.
/ound structure and organisation. ,ommunication is generally e$$eti!e with maps(
diagrams and statistics( if appropriate. Geographical terms are mainly used e$$eti!ely.
2e!el 1 &0 5 % marks'
8oor knowledge and understanding of an appropriate issue( using little or no eidence
from the resource. 2imited application of releant knowledge and understanding including
appropriate management strategies.
8oor structure and organisation. 1uh inauray in communication and limited and)or
ine$$eti!e use of geographical terms.
9(ample questions and $urther ad!ie
7part from the two e+amples on the ne+t pages( remem!er you hae:
E+amples on =oodle
Cuestions in the !ack of each chapter of your te+t!ook (Daw) (note that the
question wording is slightly different here as this was !efore the first eer e+am).
?ossi!le answers to these questions can !e found on the 3,D te+t!ook 6eacher
Guide te+t!ook at ?:E?upilsEGeographyE7# >eel
?ages F)9GH of your reision guide proides more up to date adice and marked
9(ample question and potential responses
9arth ha:ards
:igure 1
7n aerial iew of part of ?ort9au9?rince shortly after the earthquake( Ianuary #010
8ossible issues:
impact on human actiities
high cost of in0uries( deaths( loss of homes etc.
damage to infrastructure and knock9on effects e.g. education disrupted
disruption of communications
disruption of economic actiity
strains put on health care systems including increased mortality amongst the
most ulnera!le e.g. elderly
human factors in relation to earthquake damage
house construction issues
issues stemming from >E2, status
who pays for response. Dole of aid etc.
physical factors in relation to earthquakes
e.g. secondary ha-ard posed !y hurricane season 9 rainfall desta!ilising slopes
8ossible management:
short term response e.g. shelter( road clearing to help distri!ution of aid
longer term strategies e.g. earthquake prediction 8 warning systems( improed
!uilding legislation 8 planning
management arying with people in different locations e.g. rural 8 ur!an
management arying according to social groups e.g. elderly 8 young( well9off 8 less
scale of practical measures e.g. indiidual 9 education 8 awareness( e.g.
goernment 9 health care preparations.
9(ample question and potential responses
8opulation and resoures
:igure #
2ifferences in age distri!ution of population of rural areas(
relatie to the rest of 4cotland( #00F
8ossible issues:
ma0or patterns reealed in data
less %young adults& (especially #09BJ year olds)
more %older adults 8 pensioners& (especially ))9HG year olds)
minor patterns reealed in data (linked to a!oe)
less %young& families (including infants)
more %mature& families (including )91J year olds)
human factors in relation to patterns
less %young adults& * lack of afforda!le housing( lack of 0o! opportunities( rural9
ur!an migration
more %older adults 8 pensioners& * quality of lifestyle (peaceful( less crime etc.)(
retirement option( counter ur!anisation
family life cycle model
impact on human actiities (socio9economic)
implications for future population trends
implications for local serice proision 8 needs e.g. health( pu!lic transport
impact on physical enironment (enironmental)
increased commuters and effects. (may!e more home working though.)
growth of illages (loss of %countryside& ( ha!itats etc.) although data does not
show total population trends
8ossible management:
%short& term response e.g. rural social housing proision( industrial estates to attract
footloose industry and create rural 0o!s
longer term strategies e.g. national pro9natal population policies( planning laws
management of rural communities e.g. ensure schools stay open
management arying according to social groups e.g. elderly 8 young( well9off 8 less