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Chapter 5 - Leisureʼs Anthropology • Taboo Recreation that Injures Self

- Characteristics of Culture - shared, learned, " A matter of ideational mentality (substance

symbols, integrated abuse, compulsive participation, and gambling)
- Mechanisms of Cultural change - innovation, • Taboo Recreation that Injures Others
diffusion, loss, acculturation " A matter of sensate mentality (vandalism and
- Sahlinʼs Hunches about Paleolithic People - original taboo sex)
leisure society worked less and had fewer material The “Dilemma of Goodness”
possessions to care for. • If leisure is a matter of personal attitudes and
- Leisure & Cultural Development (HDI) - level of preferences, distinctions of worth and goodness for
development measured by three factors (economic specific pastimes are useless. OR
- GDP, social - literacy/education, demographic - life • If Aristotle is correct, and leisure is making moral
expectancy) free-time choices, certain pursuits are unworthy and
- Leisure and Modernization - anthropological view bad.
(technological & agricultural development,
industrialization, urbanization) Chapter 10 - US History of Leisure
- Ethnocentricity - belief that oneʼs own culture is Colonial America - European settlers: first need was
superior to developed cultures survival. Initially very little time to for idleness. To
- Sourceʼs of Cultureʼs Well-being - understanding ensure that work was accomplished,earlyPuritan
your environment and how to control it, social leaders established strict regulations under the guise
support from family & friends, species drive of religion such as 1619 Virginia Assembly: any
satisfaction, satisfaction of physical well-being individual found idle could be made work. Protestant
drives, satisfaction of aesthetic and sensory drives, Work Ethic Drinking became popular among men:
satisfaction of exploratory drive. Early colonists recognized need for public open
spaces. In 1641 the Great Ponds Act was passed.
Chapter 6 - Leisureʼs Geography Any water body over 10 acres was open to hunting
- As space - leisureʼs pattern, density, and and fishing.
concentration Industrial Era - Industrial Revolution: started late 18th
- As place - peopleʼs strong attachment to specific century Science and capital combined to increase
leisure places production, newly invented machines. In 1970s
- Distance decay - further - more likely to not go inventions such as weaving machine,steam engine,
- Space-time compression - make it seem closer locomotives, steam boats,and the telegraph made
new exploration and colonization possible.
Chapter 7 and 8 - Characteristics of Leisure & Tech.
- Characteristics of Common Culture - engaged in Chapter 11
most often, commercial, trendy, and specific to age Thorstein Veblenʼs Idea • Leisure is an aristocratic
group. possession.
- Technology is important to Leisure - enhanced CAPITALISM - An economic system characterized by
traditional and invented new pastimes private ownership of goods and resources. Leisure
- TV Viewing - - television viewing is a passive, was considered an obstruction to free enterprise.
relaxing, low-concentration activity, - motivation to Many people now believe that capitalism has
watch is often driven by a wish to escape, - actually created more leisure time for people
watching TV becomes less rewarding the longer it COMMUNISM - Economic system characterized by
is viewed the collective ownership of property and by the
- Pleasure of TV watching - Scopophilia - Pleasures organization of labor for the common advantage of all
of knowledge, comedy, fantasy, distraction, members. Successful in creating free time for people
diversion, and routine but unsuccessful in producing the goods and
services for leisure
Chapter 9 - Taboo Recreation CONSUMERISM - Consumption: all household
• Anomie = lack of purpose and identity resulting in purchases of goods and services."Consumption and
the demise of social norms income are closely related."Consumption can actually
• Differential association = learned through contact be a form of leisure
with others
• Retreatist lifestyle = a matter of personal expression Chapter 12
• Leisure Boredom = when you feel you cannot Types of Time • Cyclical time – time is constant and
escape a meaningless leisure routine returning • Mechanical time – time is linear, never
returning • Biological time – time is the rhythm of the • Commercial - investments of the owner or promoter,
living organism • Social and cultural time – time is set admission charges
by social and cultural conditions Types of Facilities
• Public - community buildings, parks, playgrounds,
Chapter 13 zoos, beaches, monuments
Is Leisure a Right or a Privilege? • Private - settlement houses, youth centers, athletic
• Privilege: leisure is distributed unequally; a reward facilities, play areas, clubs, camps, aquatic areas
only available to qualifying people. • Commercial - theaters, clubs, bowling lanes,
• Right: Leisure is distributed equally; unalienable stadiums, hotels
Types of Leisure Constraints • Public-professionally
• Structural – architectural barriers prepared to provide/manage
• Intrapersonal – individual psychological states that recreation programs in a variety of settings.
intervene • Private - similar to public with more emphasis on
• Interpersonal – barriers from social interactions with volunteers.
friends, family • Commercial - professionally prepared to design and
manage profit producing services with business or
As a tool, leisure has the power to BOTH sales orientation.
1. create barriers to equality and equity and
2. tear down barriers to inequality & inequity Membership
• Public - the entire community.
Womenʼs Leisure Hendersonʼs research – Less • Private - limited by organizational restrictions such
time and priority – Combining role obligations –"At as age, sex, religion, etc..
home and unstructured – Fragmented –"Do not feel • Commercial - limited by laws, traditions and ability
entitled to pay.

Explanations for Differences in Leisure Participation

among Ethnic Groups
• Marginality thesis – a function of lack of opportunity
• Ethnicity thesis – culturally based value systems,
norms, and socialization patterns

Invisible People
• People living with particular situations that have left
them out of customary leisure services:
– People who are homeless – Unemployed people –
Migrant workers – Gay/Lesbian People
– HIV/AIDS victims

Chapter 14
Service Objectives of Type of Agencies
• Public - to provide opportunities that contribute to
the well-being of the community
• Private - the same as public but with limited
• Commercial - provide activities or programs with

Types of Financing
• Public- taxes, gifts, grants, fees and
• Private - gifts, grants, endowments, donations,
drives, membership fees