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# Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 95 of 204

Function are merely used to denote the relationship between variables. This is symbolized as y = f(x) where f denotes the
rule by which y varies with x. Here x is called independent variable and y dependent variable
Graphical representation of function :
For example, for plotting the function y = x
2
,

we first decide on the value of x for which we need to plot the graph.
Thus we can take x = 0 and get y = 0 (means the point (0,0) is on the graph)
Then for x = 1, y =1; for x = 2, y = 4; for x = 3, y = 9 and for x = -1, y = 1; for x = 2, y = 4 and so on.
Even and odd functions.
Even function
If f(x) = f ( x) then it is an even function for eg. y = x
2
; y = x
4
, y = x
2
1
Graph of even function is symmetrical about y axis.
Odd Function
If f(x) = -f (-x) then it is a odd function.
for eg, y = x
3
; y = x
5
; y =
5
x
x 1 +
Graphical representation of odd function :
It is symmetrical about the origin and necessarily passes through it.
Functions
0
x
0
x
0
y
0
y
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 96 of 204
Greatest integer function:
It is denoted by y = f(x) = [x]
It denotes the largest integer less then or equal to x.
For eg. [4.4] = [4.8] = [4.999] = 4
[ 0.7] = 1
Modulus function:
Modulus function of x is denoted as x and defined over R, the real set.
The Function defined by f(x) = x when x < 0 and f(x) = x if x >0
Here domain of f = R, Range of f = set of all non negative real numbers.
Exponential function:
A function f (x) = b
x
where
x R
and b > 0 is said to be an exponential function. Domain of f = R and range = set of all positive
real numbers.
Inverse of a function:
Suppose a function be y = f (x)
Now for every value of x we have different value of y. But in certain function such as y = x
2
we have same value of
y i.e. = 9 for different value of x i.e 3, 3. So inverse of these function cannot be found.
So for a function y = f(x), to find a inverse of it, we have to get only one value of y for corresponding value of x. The graphs
of two inverse function are symmetrical about the line y = x (which is the bisector of first and third quadrants).
How to find inverse of a function ?
For eg. f(x)
1
1 x
=
+
..... (1)
then let y
1
1 x
=
+
1+ x =
1
y
x =
1
1
y

x =
1 y
y

Now x = f(y) =
1 y
y

..... (2)
Now f(x) for eq.(2) will be
f(x) =
1 x
x

Now this
1 x
x

## is inverse function of f(x) =

1
1 x +
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 97 of 204
Concept of maxima and minima:
Suppose the graph of a function y = f (x) be as shown below
At point a the slope is maximum and it decreases gradually as we go towards point b and at point b it becomes Zero.
Now when we move from (b) to (c) the slope increases but negatively and it becomes maximum at point c (nega-
tively). From point c to d the slope decreases and it become zero at point d and from d to e the slope increases
(positively) and becomes maximum (positively) at point e.
Now looking at second curve we observe that first derivative of a function is Zero at either maximum or minimum i.e.
at point (b)and (d) therefore whenever we have to find maxima or minima of any function we take its first derivative
equated to zero thus finding out those values of x where function is either maximum or minimum.
However it is still not known that which point is maximum or minimum . So, to find out the maxima or minima we have
to find out the second derivative.
So when we look at the third curve we see that maxima point b is when
2
2
d y
dx
is negative and minimum point is at d when
2
2
d y
dx
is positive.
Derivatives of some standard function:
d
(1) (Constant) 0
dx
d
n n 1
(2) (x ) nx
dx
d 1
(3) (log x)
e
dx x
d
x x
(4) (e ) e
dx
d
x x
(5) (a ) e log a
e
dx
=

=
=
=
=
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
c
d
e
( ) y f x =
d y
d x
2
2
d y
d x
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 98 of 204
Example:
What is the minimum value of the expression x
2
+ 6x + 4

?
Let f (x) = x
2
+ 6x + 5
Differentiate this function with respect to x.
f (x) = 2x + 6
Now equate f (x) to 0
2x + 6 = 0
x = 3
Differentiate again f (x)
So f (x) = 2 (+ ve)
Since f (x) gives + ve value it is is a minima point and finally by substituting the value of x in f(x), we get the maximum or
minimum value of f (x).
1. The Algebra of Limits
Let
x a
lim

F(x) = 1 and
x a
lim

## g(x) = m exist, then:

(i)
x a x a x a
lim(f g)(x) lim f (x) lim g(x) l m

= =
(ii)
x a x a x a
lim(fg)(x) lim f (x). lim g(x) lm

= =
(iii)
x a
x a
x a
lim f (x)
f l
lim( )(x) , Pr ovided m 0
g lim f (x) m

= =
(iv)
x a x a
lim kf (x) k. lim f (x), Where k is con tan t

=
(v)
x a x a
lim | f (x) | | lim f (x) | | l |

= =
(vi)
g(x) m
x a
lim | f (x) | l

=
(vii)
( )
x a x a
lim fog(x) f lim g(x) f (m)

= =
e.g.
( )
x a x a
lim fogf (x) log lim f (x) log l

= =
e.g.
e e
x a x a
e
lim f (x) lim .f (x) l

= =
2. Evaluation of Algebraic limits
(i)
n n
n 1
x a
x a
lim na , where n Q.
x a

## (ii) if m, n are positive integers and

0, 0
a b 0
are non-zero real numbers, then

m m 1
0x a x ... a x a
1 m 1 m
n n 1
x
0 1 n 1 n
a
lim
b x b x ... b x b

+ + + +

+ + + +
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 99 of 204
0
0
0
0
a
, if m n
b
0, if m n
, if m n and as b 0
, if m n and as b 0

< =

> >

> <

Example 1.
If
2
x
x 1
lim ax b 0,
x 1

+
=
`
+

)
find the values of and b.
Sol: We have ,
2
x
x 1
lim ax b 0,
x 1

+
=
`
+

)

2
x
x (1 a) x(a b) 1 b
lim 0
x 1
+ +
=
+
(a 1) = 0 and a + b
a = 1, b = 1
3. Evaluation of Trigonometric Limits
In order to evaluate trigonometric limits the following results are very useful:
(i)
x 0
sin x
lim 1
x
= (ii)
x 0
tan x
lim 1
x
= (iii)
1
x 0
sin x
lim 1
x

= (iv)
1
x 0
tan x
lim 1
x

=
(v)
o
x 0
sin x
lim
x 180

=
(vi)
x a
tan(x a)
lim 1
x a

=

(vii)
x a
tan(x a)
lim 1
x a

=

(viii)
x 0
| sin x |
lim
x
does not exist
(ix)
x 0
| tan x |
lim
x
does not exist (x)
x a
| sin(x a) |
lim
x a

(xi)
x a
| tan(x a) |
lim
x a

## does not exist.

Some times following expansions are very useful to evaluate limit i.e.
(i)
n 2 3
n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2)
(a x) 1 nx x x ...
2! 3!

+ = + + + +
(ii)
2 3
e
x x
x 1 x ...
2! 3!
= + + + +
(iii)
2
2
a e e
x
x 1 x(log a) x(log a) ...
2!
= + + + +
(iv)
2 3 4
x x x
log(1 x) x ...
2 3 4
+ = + +
(v)
2 3 4
x x x
log(1 x) x ...
2 3 4
= +
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 100 of 204
(vi)
3 5
x x
sin x x ...
3! 5
= + +
(vii)
2 4
x x
cos x 1 ...
2! 4!
= + +
(viii)
3
5
x 2
tan x x x ...
3 15
= + + +
(ix)
3 5 7
1
1 x 1 3 x 1 3 5 x
sin x x . . . . . ...
2 3 2 4 5 2 4 6 7

= + + + +
(x)
1 3 5
1 1
tan x x x x ...
3 5

= + +
(xi)
2 4
1
x x
sec x 1 5 ...
2! 4!

= + + +
Example 2.
Evaluate:
x 2
1 cos 2(x 2)
lim
x 2

Sol:
We have,
x 2 x 2
1 cos 2(x 2) 2 | sin(x 2) |
lim lim
x 2 x 2

=

x 2 x 2
1 cos 2(x 2) 1 cos 2(x 2)
lim lim
x 2 x 2
+

Hence,
x 2
1 cos 2(x 2)
lim
x 2

## does not exist.

4. Evaluation of Exponential and Logarithmic Limits
(i)
x
e
x 0
a 1
lim log a, a 0
x

= >
(ii)
x
e
x 0
e 1
lim log e 1
x

= =
(iii)
a
e
x 0
log (1 x)
lim log e
x
+
=
Example: 3.
Evaluate:
x x
x 2
(cos ) (sin ) 1
lim , x (0, / 2)
x 2
+

## Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 101 of 204

Sol:
We have,
x x
x 2
(cos ) (sin ) 1
lim , x (0, / 2)
x 2
+

x 2 x 2
x 2
{(cos ) (cos ) } (sin ) (sin ) }
lim
x 2
+

x 2 x 2
2 2
x 2
(cos ) 1 (sin ) 1
lim (cos ) (sin )
x 2 x 2

(

= + (
` `

(
) )
2 2
e e
(cos ) (log cos ) (sin ) (log sin ) = +
5. Evaluation of Limits of the Form1

If
x a x a x a
f (x)
lim f (x) lim g(x) 0 such that lim exists,
g(x)
= =
then, e
x a x a
f (x)
lim{1 f (x)}1/ g(x) lim
g(x)
+ =
Particular Cases
(i)
1/ x
x 0
lim(1 x) e

+ =
(ii)
x
x
1
lim 1 e
x
| |
+ =
|
\
(iii)
1/ x
x 0
lim(1 x) e .

+ =
(iv)
x
x
lim 1 e .
x

| |
+ =
|
\
Example 4.
Evaluate:
1/ x
x x x
x 0
a b c
lim e .
3

| |
+ +
= |
|
\
Sol:
We have,
1/ x
x x x
x 0
a b c
lim e .
3

| |
+ +
= |
|
\
1/ x
x x x
x 0
a b c 3
lim 1
3

+ +
= +
`

)
1/ x
x x x
x 0
(a 1) (b 1) c 1
lim 1
3

+ +
= +
`

)
x x x
x 0
e
a 1 b 1 c 1
lim
3x 3x 3x

= + +
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 102 of 204
x x x
e
x 0 x 0 x 0
e
1 a 1 b 1 c 1 1
lim lim lim {loga log b logc}
3 x x x 3
=

=

+ + + +
`

)
1/ 3 1/ 3
e
log(abc) (abc)
=
=
6. Evaluation of limits by using LHospitals Rule
If f(x) and g(x) be two functions of x such that
(i)
x a x a
lim f (x) lim g(x) 0

= =
(ii) f(x) and g(x) both are continuous at x = a,
(iii) f(x) and g(x) both are differentiable at x = a,
(iv) f(x) ang g(x) are continuous at the point x = a,
then,
x a x a
f (x) f '(x)
lim lim ,
g(x) g'(x)
=
Provided that g(a)

0.
Example 5.
Evaluate:
a x
x a
x a
x a
lim
x a

Sol:
We have,
a x
x a
x a
x a
lim
x a

0
form
0
| |
|
\
a 1 x
x
x a
ax a loga
lim
x (1 log x) 0

=
+
[Using: LHospitals rule]
a a
a
a a loga 1 loga
1 loga
a (1 loga)

= =
+
+
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example: 1.
If f(x) = x
2
+ 2, find f(2).
Sol:
f(2) = 2
2
+ 2 = 6
Example: 2.
If f(y) = x
1/3
, find f(8) and f(0)
Sol:
f(8) = 8
1/3
= 2
f(0) = 0
1/3
= 0
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 103 of 204
Example: 3.
If f(x) = x
2
+ 2x 1, then find f(2) and f(x
2
).
Sol:
f(2) = 2
2
+ 2(2) 1 = 7 f(x
2
) = (x
2
)
2
+ 2x
2
1 = x
4
+ 2x
2
1
Example: 4.
If f(x) = 2x + 3 and g(x) = 2x 2, find f(g(f(2))).
Sol:
f(2) = 2 2 + 3 = 7
g(f(2)) = g(7) = 12
f(g(f(2))) = f(12) = 27
Alter: f(g(f(x))) = f(g(2x + 3)) = f[2 (2x + 3) 2] = f(4x + 4).
Hence, f(g(f(x))) = 2 (4 x + 4) = 3 = 8x + 11
when x = 2, f(g(f(x)) = 8 x 2 + 11 = 27.
Example: 5.
If f(x) =
2
2
1 1 1
x x , findf
x x
x
| |
+ + +
|
\
Sol:
f(x)
Example: 6.
If f( a, b) = a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
, find f(2, 3).
Sol:
1
Example: 7.
If f(x) = 3x and g(x) = x
2
+ 1, find f(g(x)) and g(f(x)).
Sol:
3x
2
+ 3, 9x
2
+ 1
Example: 8.
If f(x) = min ( x + 5, 6 2x), find the maximum value of f(x).

y
x
X + 5
6 2x
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 104 of 204
Sol:
For any value of x, f(x) is the lesser of x + 5 and 6 2x.
Clearly, the maximum value occurs when x + 5 = 6 2x,
i.e. at
1
x
3
= . Since for
1
x , (6 2x) (x 5)
3
< > +
f(x) = (x + 5), continuously reduces as x reduces
For
1
x ,
3
> it is easy to see that x + 5 > 6 - 2x
Therefore f(x) = 6 2x in this interval
Since 6 2x keeps reducing beyond
1
x
3
= , the maximum functional value is
1 1
5 5
3 3
+ =
Example: 9.
If f(x) = | x |, find the minimum value of f(x).
y
y
x x
f(x)
Sol:
f(x) = x for x 0 [f (x) is positive]
= x for x < 0 [this gives positive value of f(x)]
The minimum value of f(x) is 0
This is shown diagrammatically in the adjoining figure.
Example: 10.
If f(x) = 2x + 3 and g(x) = 2 x for 0 < x < 5, find the maximum value of g(f(x)).
g(f(x)) = 2 (2x + 3) = 1 2x
Clearly g(f(x)) reduces as x increases
Maximum occurs at x = 0
Maximum value = g(f(0)) = -1 - 0 = -1.
Example: 11.
If f(x) = max [(2 x + 3), (8 3x)], find the minimum values of f(x).
Sol:
5
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 105 of 204
Example: 12.
If p = min [ (5x
2
+ 3), (35 3x
2
)], find the maximum value of p.
Sol:
23
Example: 13.
Find the domain of the function of the 1
2
2
1
y
(x 2x)
=

Sol:
For this function to be defined, the expression under the square root should be negative and the denominator should not be
equal to zero
2 2
x 2x 0, x 2x 0 >
so x will ( , ) + excluding 0 and 2
Example: 14.
Find the domain and Range of
| x 3 |
x 3

Sol:
F is not defined for those values of x for which the denominator is zero. i.e. x 3 0 or x 3 = = thus the domain of F is the set
of all real numbers accept x = 3
Again when
x 3 0 i.e. x 3 we have | x 3| x 3,
| x 3|
so that f (x) 1for all x 3
x 3
and when x 3 0 i.e. x 3
we have | x 3| (x 3), as that
> > =

= = >

< <
=
| x 3 | (x 3)
f (x) 1for all x 3
x 3 x 3

= = = <

thus we have f(x) = 1 if x > 3
= 1 if x < 3
Hence the range of F is the out consisting of only two numbers 1 and 1.
Example: 15.
state if the following are true or false. explain with the help of example.
(i) if F is real valued function , then
2
FOF F =
(ii) if F and g are two real valued function, then Fg = Fog.
Sol:
(i) False
3
f (x) x =
3 3 3 9
(FOF) F(f (x)) F(x ) (x ) x = = =
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 106 of 204
2 2 3 2 6
F (x) [f (x)] (x ) x = = =
(ii) False
2
2
2 2
f (x) sin x
g(x) x
(Fg)x F(x) g(x) x sin x
(Fog)x Fg(x) F(x ) sin x
=
=
= =
= = =
Example: 16.
Let A be the set of all 50 students of class
x
th
in a central school. Let F: A N be a function defined by f(x) = Rool number
of student show that F is one-one but not on to.
Sol:
Hence, F associate each to his/her roll number . since no two different students of the class can have the same roll Number,
therefore, f is one-one we observe that
f(A) = Range of F = {1, 2, 3, ... 50}

## N i.e. range of F is not same as its co-domain. so, F is not on to.

Example: 17.
Let A and B be two sets. show that f: A B B A defined by f(a, b) = (b, a) is a bijection.
Sol:
Injectivity: Let (a
1
, b
2
) and 2
2
(a , b ) A B such that
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
f (a , b , ) f (a , b )
(b , a ) (b , a )
b b and a a
(a , b ) (a , b )
then f (a , b ) f (a , b ) (a , b ) (a , b )
for all (a , b ), (a , b ) A B
=
=
= =
=
= =

so F is a injetive map.
Injectivity:
let (b, a) be an arbitrary element of
B A
Then b B and a A
(a, b) A B

thus for all (b, a)
B A
there exists (a, b)
A B
such that f (a, b) = (b, a)
so, f:
A B

B A
is an on to function
Hence, is F a bijection.
Example: 18.
Find gof and fog, if F: R R and g : R R are given by f (x) | x | = and g(x) | 5x 2 | =
Sol:
We have
gof(x) = g(f(x)) = g (|x|) = |5 |x| 2|
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 107 of 204
| 5x 2 |, if x , 0
| 5x 2 |, if x 0
>

= <
`

)
fog(x) = f(g(x)) =F(| 5x 2 |) | 5x 2 | =
= 5x 2
Example: 19.
f(x) = 1/x and g(x)= 0 are two real function show that fog is not difined
Sol:
We have Domain (F) = R {0} , range (F) = R {0}
Domain (g) = R and range (g) = {0}
Clearly range (g) Domain (F)
Domain (fog) = {x : x Domain (g) and g(x) Domain (F)}
Domain (fog) = {x : x R and g(x) Domain (F)}
Domain (fog) = .
[Q g(x) = 0 domain (f) for any
Hence, fog is not defined
X R
Example: 20.
If f : Q Q is given b f(x) =
2
x
, then find
Sol:
1 1
1
2
1
(i) f (9) (ii) f (0).
(i) Let f (9) x, then,
f (x) 9 x 9 x 3
f (9) { 3, 3}

=
= = =
=
1
2
1
(ii) Let f (10) x, then,
f (x) 0 x 0 x 0
so, F (10) {0}

=
= = =
=
Example: 21.
Let F: R R be difined as F(x) = x
2
+ 1. find
1
F (26)

Sol:
we I have
Let,
1
F (26) x

= then,
2
2 1
F(x) 26 x 1
x 25 x 5, which are one read number F (26) { 5, 5}.

= +
= = =
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 108 of 204
Example: 22.
If A ={1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8}and f : A B is given by f(x) = 2x, then write F and
1
F

## as a set of order pais.

Sol:
we have,
F(1) = 2, F(2) = 4, F(3) = 6, F(4) = 8
so, F = {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3,6), (4, 8)}
which is clearly a bijection
1
F

## {(2, 1), (4, 2), (6, 3), (8, 4)}

Example: 23.
Consider a binary operation * on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,} given by the following multiplication table

* 1 2 3 4 5
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
3 1 1 3 1 1
4 1 2 1 4 1
5 1 1 1 1 5

(i) Compute (2 * 3) * 4 and 2 * (3 * 4)
(ii) Is * commutative?
(iii) Compute (2 * 3) * (4 * 5)
2 2 3 2 6
F (x) [f (x)] (x ) x = = =
Sol:
(i) From the composition table we find that
2 * 3 = 1 and 1 * 4 = 1
(2 * 3) * 4 = 1* 4 = 1
(ii) Clearly, the composition table is symmetrical about the diagonal starting at the upper left corner and ending at the lower
right corner.
So, * is commutative.
(iii) From the composition table, we find that
2 * 3 = 1 and 4 * 5 = 1
(2 * 3) * (4 * 5) = 1 * 1 = 1.
Example: 24.
If x, y, z
[ 1, 1] such that
1 1 1
3
sin x sin y sin z ,
2

+ + = find the value of
2006 2007 2008
2006 2007 2008
9
x y z
x y z
+ +
+ +
Sol:
We know that
1
sin x for all x [ 1, 1]
2 2

Maximum and minimum value of
1
sin x

are
2

and
2

respectively.
Now
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 109 of 204
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
3
sin x sin y sin z
2
sin x sin y sin z
2 2 2
sin x , sin y , sin z
2 2 2
x 1, y 1, z 1.

+ + =

+ + = + +

= = =
= = =
2006 2007 2008
2006 2007 2008
9
x y z
x y z
9
1 1 1 3 3 0
1 1 1
+ +
+ +
= + + = =
+ +
Example: 25.
Find the intervals in which the function f(x) is (i) increasing; (ii) decreasing:
3 2
f (x) 2x 9x 12x 20 = + + +
Sol:
We have,
3 2
f (x) 2x 9x 12x 20. = + + +

2 2
f '(x) 6x 18x 12x 6(x 3x 2) = + + = + +
(i) For f(x) to be increasing, we must have f(x) > 0

2
6(x 3x 2) 0 + + <

2
(x 3x 2) 0 + + > [Q 6 > 0 and
2
6(x 3x 2) 0 + + >

2
x 3x 2 0 + + > ]
(x + 1) (x + 2) > 0 [See Fig. 1.1]
x < 2 or x > 1
x ( , 2) ( 1, )

+
+
2 1

Fig. 1.1
So, f(x) is increasing on ( , 2) ( 1, )
(ii) For f(x) to be decreasing, we must have f(x) < 0

2
6(x 3x 2) 0 + + <

2
x 3x 2 0 + + < [Q 6 > 0 and
2
6(x 3x 2) 0 + + <

2
x 3x 2 0 + + < ]
(x + 1) (x + 2) < 0 [See Fig.1.2]
2 < < 1

+
+
2 1

Fig. 1.2
So, f(x) is decreasing on ( 2, 1).
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 110 of 204
Example: 26.
Find the intervals for which f(x) =
4 2
x 2x is increasing or decreasing.
Sol:
we have,
4 2
f (x) x 2x =
3 2
f '(x) 4x 4x 4x(x 1) = =
For f(x) to be increasing, we must have
f(x) > 0
4x
2
(x 1) > 0
x
2
(x 1) > 0 [Q 4 > 0]
x(x 1) (x + 1) > 0
1 < x 0 or x > 1 [See Fig. 1]

1, x 0
0, x 0,
1, x 0
<

= =

>

+
+
1

1 0
fig.1
So, f(x) is increasing on ( 1, 0) (1, ) .
For f(x) to be decreasing, we must have
f(x) < 0
4x
2
(x 1) < 0
x
2
(x 1) < 0 [Q 4 > 0]
x(x 1) (x + 1) < 0
1 < x 0 or x > 1 [See Fig. 2]
x < 1 or 0 < x <1

+
+
1

1 0
Fig.2
x ( , 1) (0,1)
So, f(x) is decreasing on ( , 1) (0,1) .
Example: 27.
Separate [0,
/ 2
] into subintervals in which f(x) = sing 3x is increasing or decreasing.
Sol:
f(x) = sing 3x
f(x) = 3 cos 3x
Now, 0 < x < / 2 0 < 3x < 3 / 2 .
Since cosine function is positive in first quadrant and negative in the second and third quadrants. Therefore, we consider the
following cases.
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 111 of 204
Case I
When 0 < 3x < / 2
In this case, We have
0 < 3x <
/ 2

## cos 3x > 0 3cos 3x > 0 f(x) > 0

Thus, f(x) > 0 for 0 < 3x < / 2 i.e. 0 < x < / 6 .
So, f(x) is increasing on (0,
/ 6
).
Case II
When / 2 < 3x < 3 / 2
In this case, we have
/ 2 < 3x < 3 / 2 cos 3x < 0 3cos 3x < 0 f(x) < 0
Thus, f(x) < 0 for / 2 < 3x < 3 / 2 i.e. / 6 < x < / 2 .
So, f(x) is decreasing on (
/ 6
, / 2 ).
Hence, f(x) is increasing on (0,
/ 6
) and decreasing on (
/ 6
, / 2 )
Example: 28.
Prove that the function f(x)
2
x x 1 = + is neither increasing nor decreasing on ( 1,1) .
Sol:
We have,
f(x)
2
x x 1 = +
f(x) = 2x 1 2(x 1/ 2) =
Now, 1 < x < 1/2
1
2(x )
2
< 0 f(x) < 0
and, 1/2 < x < 1 {x 1/2} > 0
1
2(x )
2
> 0 f(x) > 0
Thus, f(x) does not have the same sign throughout the interval ( 1,1) .
Hence, f(x) is neither increasing or deceasing on ( 1,1) .
Example: 29.
Find the maximum and the minimum values, if any, of the following functions
(i) f(x) = 3x
2
+ 6x + 8, x R
(ii) f(x) = |x 1| + 5 for all x R
(iii) f(x) = sin 3x + 4, x ( ) / 2, / 2
Sol:
(i) We have,
f(x) = 3(x
2
+ 2x + 1) + 5 = 3(x + 1)
2
+ 5.
Now, 3(x + 1)
2
0 for all x R

Y
y
1
X
(1, 5)
x
1
(1, 0) 0
F(x) = 3(x + 1) + 5
2
Fig. 18.7
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 112 of 204
3(x + 1)
2
+ 5 5 for all x R
f(x) f( 1) for all x R
Thus, 5 is the minimum value of f(x) which it attains at x 1 =
Since f(x) can be made as large as we please. Therefore, the maximum value does not exist which can be observed from Fig.
(ii) We have,
f(x) = |x 1| + 5 for all x R
Now,
|x 1| 0 for all x R
|x 1|

0 for all x R
|x 1| + 5 5 for all x R
f(x) 5 for all x R .

F
(
x
)

=

|
x

5
|

+

5

(1, 5)
X
1
Y
1
X
Y
So, 5 is the maximum value of f(x).
Now,
f(x) =
2
7

|x 1| + 5 = 5

|x 1| = 0

x = 1.
Thus, f(x) attains the maximum value 5 at x = 1.
Since f(x) can be made as small as we please Therefore the minimum value of f(x) does not exist (see Fig.).
(iii) We have,
f(x) = sin 3x + 4 for all x R
Now, 1 sin 3x 1 for all x R
1 + 4 sin 3x + 4 1 + 4 for all x R
3 sin 3x + 4 5 for all x R
3 f(x) 5 for all x R .
Thus, the maximum value of f(x) is 5 and the minimum value is 3.
Now, f(x) = 5
sin 3x + 4 = 5 sin 3x = 1 3x =
2

x =
6

.
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 113 of 204
So, f(x) attains its maximum value 5 at x =
6

.
Also, f(x) = 3 sin 3x + 4 = 3 sin 3x = 1
3x =
2

x =
6

.
so, f(x) attains the minimum value 3 at x =
6

.
Example: 30.
Find the points at which the function f given by f(x)
4 3
(x 2) (x 1) = + has
(i) local maxima (ii) local minima (iii) points of inflection.
Sol:
We have,
f(x)
4 3
(x 2) (x 1) = +
3 3 4 2
3 2
2 2
f '(x) 4(x 2) (x 1) 3(x 2) (x 1)
f '(x) (x 2) (x 1) (7x 2)
f '(x) (x 2) (x 1) (x 2) (7x 1)
= + + +
= +
= +
Now,
f(x) = 0 x = 2, 1,
2
7
Since
2 2
(x 2) (x 1) + is always positive. So, sign of f(x) depends upon the sign of (x 2) (7x 2) . The changes in signs
of f(x) as x increases through
2
7
and 2 are shown in fig.

+
+
2
1

+
2
7
Clearly, f(x) changes its sign from positive to negative as increases through
2
7
So, x =
2
7
is a point of local maximum.
We observe that f(x) changes is sign from negative to positive as x increases through 2.
So x = 2 is a point of local minimum
There is no change in the sign of f(x) as increases through 1.
So, x = 1 is a point of inflection.
F(x)= sing 3x + 4
0
(0, 4)
X X
1
Y
Y
1
( , 3)
6

( , 0)
2

( , 0)
3

( , 0)
6

( , 0)
6

( , 0)
3

( , 0)
2

## Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 114 of 204

1. Find the domain of the definition of the function
( )
1/ 2
2
1
y
4 x
=

## . (Access Code - 01306001)

(1) [ 2, 0] (2) [ 2, 2]
(3) ( , 2) (2, ) excluding 2 and 3 (4)
(2, )
(5) ( 2, 2)
2. The domain of definition of the function
1/ 2
10
1
y (x 2)
log (1 x)
= + +

## is (Access Code - 01306002)

(1) ( 3, 2) (2) (0, 1) (3) ( 2, 1) (4) ( 2, 1) excluding 0 (5) Data insufficient
3. Which of the following function is an odd function? (Access Code - 01306003)
(1) 2
x.x
(2) 2
x.x.x.x
(3) Both a and b (4) Neither a nor b (5) None of these
4. If f(t) = 2
t
, then f(0), f(1), f(2) are in (Access Code - 01306004)
(1) AP (2) HP (3) GP (4) Cannot be said (5) None of these
5. If u(t) = 4t 5, v(t) = t
2
and f(t) = 1/t, then the formula for u(t) v(t) is (Access Code - 01306005)
(1)
2
1
(4t 5)
(2)
4
(t 5)
(3)
2
4
5
t
(4) 4t
2
5 (5) (4t + 5)
2
6. Which of the following functions will have a minimum value at x = 3? (Access Code - 01306006)
(1) f(x) = 2x
3
4x + 3 (2) f(x) = 4x
4
3x + 5 (3) f(x) = x
6
2x + 6 (4) f(x) = x
3
4x
3
+ 2 (5) Data insufficient
Directions for (Que. 7 - 10): Define the following functions:
f(x, y, z) = xy + yz + zx
g(x, y, z) = x
2
y + y
2
z + z
2
x and
h(x, y, z) = 3 xyz
Find the value of the following expressions:
7. h[f(2, 3, 1), g(3, 4, 2), h(1/3, 1/3, 3)] (Access Code - 01306007)
(1) 0 (2) 23760 (3) 47500 (4) 3698 (5) 2640
8. g(f(1, 0, 0), g(0, 1, 0), h(1, 1, 1)] (Access Code - 01306008)
(1) 5 (2) 9 (3) 12 (4) 10 (5) 0
9. f[f (1, 1, 1), g(1, 1, 1), h (1, 1, 1)] (Access Code - 01306009)
(1) 9 (2) 18 (3) 27 (4) 30 (5) 35
10. f(1, 2, 3) g(1, 2, 3) + h(1, 2, 3) (Access Code - 01306010)
(1) 6 (2) 6 (3) 12 (4) 8 (5) 10
Practice Exercise - 1
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 115 of 204
11. What is the value of x if 5 < x < 6 and {x} + [x] = 2x? (Access Code - 01306011)
(1) 5.2 (2) 5.8 (3) 5.5 (4) 5.76 (5) 5
12. If f(t) = t
2
+ 2 and g(t) = (1/t) + 2, then for t = 2, f[g(t)] - g[f(t)] = ? (Access Code - 01306012)
(1) 1.2 (2) 2.6 (3) 4.34 (4) 5.36 (5) None of these
13. Given f(t) = kt + 1 and g(t) = 3t + 2. If fog = gof, find k. (Access Code - 01306013)
(1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 5 (4) 4 (5) 6
14. Find the domain of the definition of the function
1/ 2
1
y
(x | x |)
=

## (Access Code - 01306014 )

(1) x < < (2) x 0 < < (3) 0 x < < (4) Nowhere (5) None of these
15. Find the domain of the definition of the function (Access Code - 01306015)
y = (x 1)
1/2
+ 2(1 x)
1/2
+ (x
2
+ 3)
1/2
(1) x = 0 (2) [1, ] (3) [ 1, 1] (4) 1 (5) 2
16. Find the domain of the definition of the functoin (Access Code - 01306016)
y = log
10
[(x 5) / (x
2
10x + 24)] (x + 4)
1/2
.
(1) x > 6 (2) 4 < x < 5 (3) Both 1 and 2 (4) 3 < x > 5 (5) None of these
17. If
(t 1)
f (t)
(t 1)

=
+
, then f(f(t)) will be equal to (Access Code - 01306017)
(1)
1
t
(2)
1
t
(3) t (4) t (5) t
2
18. Which of the following functions is an even function? (Access Code - 01306018)
(1)
t t
t t
(a a )
f (t)
(a a )

+
=

(2)
t
t
(a 1)
f (t)
(a 1)
+
=

(3)
t
t
t (a 1)
f (t)
(a 1)

=
+
(4) Data insufficient (5) None of these
19. Which of the following functions is not an odd function? (Access Code - 01306019)
(1)
( )
2
2
f (t) log t t 1 = + +
(2)
( )
( )
t t
t t
a a
f (t)
a a

+
=

(3)
( )
( )
t
t
a 1
f (t)
a 1
+
=

## (4) All of these

(5) None of these
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 116 of 204
Directions for (Que. 20 - 25): Define the functions:
A(x, y, z) = Max (max (x, y), min (y, z) min (x, z))
B(x, y, z) = Max (max (x, y), min (y, z) max (x, z))
C(x, y, z) = Max (min (x, y), min (y, z) min (x, z))
D(x, y, z) = Min (max (x, y), max (y, z) min (x, z))
Max (x, y, z) = Maximum of x, y, and z.
Min (x, y, z) = Minimum of x, y and z.
Assume that x, y and z are distinct integers.
20. For what condition will A(x, y, z) equal to Max (x, y, z)? (Access Code - 01306020)
(1) When x is maximum (2) When y is maximum (3) When z is maximum (4) Either 1 or 2 (5) Neither 1 or 2
21. For what condition will B(x, y, z) be equal to Min (x, y, z)? (Access Code - 01306021)
(1) When y is minimum (2) When z is minimum (3) Either 1 or 2 (4) Never (5) None of these
22. For what condition will A(x, y, z) not be equal to B(x, y, z)? (Access Code - 01306022)
(1) x > y > z (2) y > z > x (3) z > y > x (4) x < y > z (5) None of these
23. Under what condition will C(x, y, z) be equal to B(x, y, z) (Access Code - 01306023)
(1) x > y > z (2) z > y > x (3) Both 1 and 2 (4) Never (5) None of these
24. Which of the following will always be true? (Access Code - 01306024)
(I) A(x, y, z) will always be greater than Min (x, y, z)
(II) B(x, y, z) will always be lower than Max (x, y, z)
(III) A(x, y, z) will never be greater than B(x, y, z)
(1) I only (2) III only (3) Both 1 and 2 (4) All the three (5) None of these
25. The highest value amongst the following will be (Access Code - 01306025)
(1)
Max
Min
(2)
A
B
(3)
C
D
(4) Cant be determined (5) None of these
26. Let f(x) = x
2
and g(x) = 2
x
. Then the solution set of the equation fog(x) = gof(x) is (Access Code - 01306026)
(1) R (2) {0} (3) {0, 2} (4) 1 (5) None of these
27. If f : R R is given f(x) = 3x 5, then
1
f (x)

## (Access Code - 01306027)

(1) is given by
1
3x 5
(2) is given by
x 5
3
+
(3) does not exist because f is not one-one (4) does not exist because f is not one-onto. (5) None of these
28. If g (f(x)) = |sing x | and f(g(x)) =
2
(sin x) , then (Access Code - 01306028)
(1) f(x) = sin
2
x, g(x) =
x
(2) f(x) = sin x, g(x) = | x |
(3) f(x) = x
2
, g(x) = sin
x
(4) f and g cannot be determined
(5) f(x) = sin x
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 117 of 204
29. The inverse of the function f : R {x R : x < 1} given by f(x)
x x
x x
e e
is
e e

=
+
(Access Code - 01306029)
(1)
1 1 x
log
2 1 x
+

(2)
1 2 x
log
2 2 x
+

(3)
1 1 x
log
2 1 x

+
(4)
1 x
log
1 x

+
(5) None of these
30. If f : R R is given by f(x) = x
3
+ 3, then
1
f (x)

## is equal to (Access Code - 01306030)

(1)
1/ 3
x 3
(2)
1/ 3
x 3 +
(3)
1/ 3
(x 3) (4)
1/ 3
(x 3) + (5)
1/ 2
(x 3)
31. Let f (x) = x
3
be a function with domain {0, 1, 2, 3}. Then domain of
1
f

## is (Access Code - 01306031)

(1) {3, 2, 1, 0} (2) {0, 1, 2, 3} (3) {0, 1, 8, 27} (4) {0, 1, 8, 27} (5) None of these
32. Let g(x) = 1 + x [x] and f(x)
1, x 0
0, x 0,
1, x 0
<

= =

>

Where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Then for all x, f(g(x))
is equal to (Access Code - 01306032)
(1) x (2) 1 (3) f(x) (4) g(x) (5) None of these
33. In
x / 2
2x
lim
cot x

is (Access Code - 0130603)
(1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 2 (4) 0 (5) None of these
34.
x
1/ 2
x 0
2 1
(1 x) 1

+
(Access Code - 01306034)
(1)
e
log 2 (2)
e
2log 2 (3)
e
1
log 2
2
(4) 0 (5)
e
5log 2
35. If
3
x 0
x(1 a cos x) bsin x
lim 1
x

+
= then a, b are (Access Code - 01306035)
(1) 1/2, 3/2 (2) 5/2, 3/2 (3) 5/2, 3/2 (4)
5 3
,
7 7
(5) None of these
36. f(x) = (x + 1)
cot x
is continuos at x = 0, f(0) must be depend as (Access Code - 01306036)
(1) f(0) = 0 (2) f(0) = e (3) f(0) = 1/e (4) f(0) = 1 (5) None of these
37.
x a
cos x cos a
lim
cot x cot a

| |
=
|

\
(Access Code - 01306037)
(1)
3
1
sin a
2
(2)
3
1
cos ec a
2
(3)
3
sin a
(4)
3
cosec a
(5) None of these
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 118 of 204
38.
3
h 0
1 1
lim
2h h 8 h

(
=
(
+

(Access Code - 01306038)
(1) 1/12 (2) 4/3 (3) 16/3 (4) 1/56 (5) 1/48
39. If a, b, c, d are positive, then
c dx
x
x
1
lim 1
a b
+

| |
+
|
+
\
= (Access Code - 01306039)
(1)
d / b
e
(2)
c / a
e
(3)
(c d / a b)
e
+ +
(4) e (5) None of these
40. If 2f(x) 3 f(1/x) = x
2
, x is root equal to zero, then f(2) is equal to (Access Code - 01306040)
(1) 5/2 (2) 7/4 (3) 1 (4) 7/2 (5) None of these
Use HB pencil only. Abide by the time-limit
SCORE SHEET
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 119 of 204
1. Let
1
f (x) . then {fo(fof )}(x)
1 x
=

## (Access Code - 01306041)

(1) x for all R. (2) { } x for all R 1
(3) { } x for all R 0, 1 (4) { } x for all R 1, 2 (5) None of these
2. A {X R: x , 1}. = > the inverse of the function f : A A given by
x(x 1)
P(x) 2

= is. (Access Code - 01306042)
(1)
x(x 1)
1
2

| |
|
\
(2) { } 2
1
1 1 4log x
2
+ +
(3) { } 2
1
1 1 4log x
2
+ (4) { } 2
1
1 1 2log x
2
+ + (5) not determined
3.
x
0
F: (0, ) R and f (x) f (t)dt =

If
2 2
F(x ) x (1 x), then f (4) equals. = + (Access Code - 01306043)
(1)
5
4
(2) 7 (3) 4 (4) 2 (5)
3
2
4. If
1 1 1
k sin x cos x tan x k, then

+ (Access Code - 01306044)
(1) k 0, k = = (2) k 0, k
2

= = (3) k , k
2

= = (4)
k , k
3 2

= =
(5) None of these
5. Let the function f(x) = sin x + cos x be defined in [0, 2 ], then f (x) (Access Code - 01306045)
(1) increases in [ , ]
4 2

(2)
5
decreases in [ , ]
4 4

(3)
5
increases in [0, ] [ , 2 ]
4 4

(4) decreases in [0, ] [ , 2 ]
4 2

(5) decreases in [0, ]
4

6. If by 0.2 (x 2) < log 0.04 (x 2) then x lies in the interval. (Access Code - 01306046)
(1) (3, ) (2) (2, 3) (3) (1, 2) (4) ( , 3) (5) None of these
Practice Exercise - 2
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 120 of 204
7. If y = f(x)
x 4
,
x 1
+
=

## then. (Access Code - 01306047)

(1) x = f(y) (2) f(1) = 2
(3) y is a rational function of x (4) y decreases with x for all
x 1
(5) f(1) = 3
8. Find the value of { } [(3 @ 4)!(3 2)]@[(4! 3)@(2 # 3)] (Access Code - 01306048)
(1) 0.75 (2) 1 (3) 20 (4) 2.25 (5) 1.5
9. Which of the following expressions has a value of 4 for a = 5 and b = 3 (Access Code - 01306049)
(1)
(a ! b)
(a # b)
(2) (a ! b) (a @ b) (3)
(a # b)
(a ! b) (a @ b)
(4) Both and b, c (5) All of the above
10. f(x) is a function satisfying f(x).
1 1
f ( ) f (x) f ( ) and f (4) 65, what is the value of f (6)
x x
= + = (Access Code - 01306050)
(1) 37 (2) 218 (3) 64 (4) 217 (5) None of these
11. Let f(x + y) = f(x) f(y)
X, Y R.
f(3) = 3 and
1 1
f (0) 11, then f (3) is given by = . (Access Code - 01306051)
(1) 22 (2) 44 (3) 28 (4) 33 (5) 17
12.
2 2 2
n
1 2 n
lim ...
1 n 1 n 1 n

(
+ + +
(

is. (Access Code - 01306052)
(1) 0 (2)
1
2
(3)
1
2
(4)
3
2
(5) None of these
13. If f(x) =
1
xsin , x 0
x
k, x 0 = is continues at x = 0 then value of x is. (Access Code - 01306053)
(1) 1 (2)
1
(3)
1
2
(4)
2
(5) 0
14. If f(x) = f(y) = f(x + y) for all x, y; suppose f(5) = 2 and
1
f (0) 3 = , then
1
f (5) is equal to (Access Code - 01306054)
(1) 5 (2) 6 (3) 0 (4) 7 (5) None of these
15. Let f be a function satisfying f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)

x, y and it f(x)
2
x g(x) =
When g(x) is a continuous function, then
1
f (x) equal (Access Code - 01306055)
(1)
1
g (x) (2) g(0) (3) g(0) + g(x) (4) 0 (5) 1
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 121 of 204
16. f(x) =
2
1 cos 4x
, x 0
x
a, x 0
x
, x 0
(16 x) 4

<

>

## If the function be the continues at x = 0 , then a = p (Access Code - 01306056)

(1) 4 (2) 6 (3) 8 (4) 10 (5) 12
17. function f(x) = [x]
2x 1
cos ,
2
| |

|
\
when [ ] denotes the greatest integer function, is discontinuous at: (Access Code -
01306057)
(1) for all x (2) all integral points (3) no x (4) x which is not an integer (5) None of these
18. The function
f(x) =

x a 2 sin x, 0 x
1
2x cot x b, x
4 2
a cos 2x bsin x, x
2

+ <

<

is continuous for
0 x
, then a, b are (Access Code - 01306058)
(1)
,
6 12

(2)
,
3 6

(3)
,
6 12

(4)
,
6 12

(5) None of these
19. If f(x) =
x, if x rational
1 x, If x it rational

## , then (Access Code - 01306059)

(1) f is only right continuous at x =
1
2
(2) f is only left continuous at x =
1
2
(3) f is continuous at x =
1
2
(4) f is discontinuous at all point x =
1
2
(5) f is continuous at all points
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 122 of 204
20.
log(1 ax) log(1 bx)
f (x)
x
+
=
is not deferred at x = 0
The value which should be assigned to f at x = 0, so that it is continuous at x = 0 is. (Access Code - 01306060)
(1) a b (2) a + b (3) log a + log b (4)
(a b)
2
+
(5) None of these
1
2
3
4
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
SCORE SHEET
5
6
7
8
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
9
10
11
12
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
13
14
15
16
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
17
18
19
20
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Use HB pencil only. Abide by the time-limit
Chapter 6 | Functions | BMM10233 | 123 of 204
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