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Sinhgad Academy of Vishwakarma Institute of Vishwakarma Institute of

Engineering,Pune,Maharastra, Technology,Pune,Maharastra Technology,Pune,Maharastra

Pin-411048 Pin-411046 Pin-411046

India India India

kore2005@rediffmail.com Satishchandra.joshi@vit.edu narayan_sane@yahoo.co.in

temperature. In prototype aero engine gas turbine the entry

Heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics for three temperature already reached 1750 to 1800 K, while the air

different dimpled surfaces on one surface of channel are pressure has gradually approached the factor of 35.00, with

predicted numerically using version 6.3.26 of FLUENT. projections to 40.00 being made. Since modern gas turbine

operate at inlet temperature levels above the blade melting

The turbulent model employed is a realizable K-ε with point, both internal and external cooling system are employed

enhance wall treatment function. The different dimples to meet the blade service life requirements. Some 30 heat

investigated are spherical dimple, elliptical dimple and transfer enhancement techniques are used now; however due

rhombus dimple. The channel used for the analysis has to design and technological restrictions, designers of blade

one dimpled wall in the stream wise direction. Result internal cooling system still apply very few of these

shows the existence of a centrally located vortex pair techniques. Among the basic technologies are; pin fins, plane

and vortex pairs augment heat transfer. Highest heat and broken ribs and their combinations [2].To reduce or

transfer augmentation is produced by rhombus dimple. eliminate the need to employ film cooling, new attention has

been devoted to internal cooling schemes for turbine airfoils.

NOMENCLATURE Internal cooling schemes are advantageous in several respects.

D Dimple print diameter The technology of cooling gas turbine components via internal

Dh Channel hydraulic diameter convective flow of single phase cooling passage to very

δ Dimple Depth complex geometries involving many differing surfaces. In

H Height of channel many respect the evolution of cooling passage geometries

Nu0 Baseline Nusselt number began in parallel with heat exchangers and fluid processing

Nu Average Nusselt number techniques. The enhancement of internal convective flow

ReDh Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter surfaces for the augmentation of heat transfer was quickly

TI Turbulence intensity improved through the introduction of rib roughners or

VG Vortex Generator turbulators and also pin banks or pin fins. These surface

F/F0 Friction factor enhancement methods continue to play a vital role in today’s

turbine cooling designs. With the advancement in materials

INTRODUCTION and manufacturing technologies of the last decade, a

Effective cooling is the most necessary practice in the drastically larger realm of surface enhancement techniques has

energy conversion devices to sustain the thermal stability of become cost effective for use in the cooling of turbine airfoils.

the equipments. Enhancing heat transfer rate is useful in a Such enhancement heat transfer comes at an inevitable price

variety of practical application such as micro and macro scale of increased pressure losses, however range of methods now a

heat exchangers, gas turbines internal airfoil cooling, fuel designers allows, a large degree of tailoring to take place. In

elements of nuclear power plants, power semiconductors, all of these internal cooling methods which use modified

electronic cooling, combustion chamber liners, biomedical surfaces, the enhancement features are projections from the

applications etc. Extensive research has been focused on surface into the flow, generally always substantially normal to

reducing the consumption of nonrenewable energy. Improving the surface and the bulk flow direction [3]. Presently dimples

the efficiency is the universal process of heat exchange, is one attracted interest due to its relatively low pressure penalty.

such area which attracts lot of attention. Compact heat Dimples are expected to promote turbulent mixing in flow and

exchangers and gas turbine internal aerofoil cooling are two enhance heat transfer as they behave as vortex generator(VG).

applications which have been subject of study for a number of The present paper gives numerically predicted flow and heat

researchers over the recent years [1]. It is well known that transfer results for three different types of dimples; spherical,

increase in the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine can rhombus, elliptical. New information on flow structure which

forms within and above dimples is provided to give additional

insight into the mechanism which results in surface heat

transfer augmentation.

Arrangement, and Flow Conditions:

c) ELLIPTICAL DIMPLE

Figure 3 SHAPES OF THREE TYPES OF DIMPLES

smooth portion of the duct. An inlet turbulence intensity level

TI of 10 % is used. During computation three solid walls are

set to the same wall temperature. The pressure of airflow in

the channel is selected as one atmosphere. The inlet velocity is

Figure 2 GEOMETRY OF THE COMPUTATIONAL

STUDY determined by selecting the inlet Reynolds Number ReH

=20,000 which is based on hydraulic diameter of the channel.

Figure 2 shows the overall surface arrangement employed for The temperature of the main flow is set to be 293 K, and the

each type of dimple used in the numerical test domain. The wall temperature is set to be 323 K. Y+ value is maintained at

channel has one dimpled wall in the stream wise direction. about 1.The dimple geometry consist of channel of 300 mm

The channel height and dimple print diameter are both 1 cm. long and 25 mm wide. The dimple is placed at X=22 mm

Thus the ratio of channel height to dimple print diameter, H/D downstream from channel entrance. Only half of the wall is

is 1 and the ratio of dimple depth to dimple print diameter, δ / considered due to nature of symmetry.

D is 0.3. The hydraulic diameter of the channel is 0.0142 m

and the channel aspect ratio is 2.5. Numerical Approach and Procedures:

Figures 3 shows the geometric shapes of the three dimples Computational Grid:

studied.

These are: FLUENT 6.3.26 is the commercial code employed to predict

1) Spherical dimple in figure 3a, fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in the dimpled

2) Elliptical dimple in figure 3b channel. Prior to using FLUENT, the GAMBIT code is used

3) Rhombus dimple in figure 3c. for the development of the computational geometry and grid.

The computational domain has two parts. One is inlet duct to

achieve fully developed flow conditions and other is the duct

with the dimples. The grid is made up of hexahedral elements.

Finer grid is made near-wall to resolve the high gradients

encountered, and to apply the realizable K-ε model with

enhance wall treatment. A total 11,00,000 finite volume cells

are employed to resolve the near wall regions and to obtain

gird independent solutions. The realizable K-ε model is

employed as the turbulence model, because of its improved

predictive capabilities compared to the standard K-ε model

and because of its ability to resolve portion of separated flows

a) SPHERICAL DIMPLE and flows with complex secondary circulation which are

located very close to the surface. Near wall regions are fully

resolved for y+ values as close as 1.0.The setting for the scaled

residues for solution convergence is set to 10-6 for all the

computed residuals, including the residuals for the energy

equation. The solution is considered to be converged when the

entire scaled residual are less than or equal to these default

settings.

Numerical Results:

The present study provides the insight view of heat transfer

and fluid flow characteristics from dimpled surface with three

different geometries.

b) RHOMBUS DIMPLE Nusselt Number Ratio:

Figure 4a-c shows numerical prediction of surface Nusselt

Number Ratios for ReH =20,000 and TI = 10 % for three

different types of dimples. Baseline Nusselt Numbers used for

normalization are determined using the Dittus-Boelter smooth

circular tube correlation which is given by

Nuo =0.023 ReDH 0.8 Pr0.4

The Nusselt Number ratio contours for the three dimpled spherical (5.98) and elliptical (7.37) dimple. In all cases

surfaces are as shown in figure. The average heat transfer normalized Nusselt number ratio within the dimple is near

coefficient is calculated by finding average heat flux from the about 0 .3.

test surface numerically and dividing it by difference of test The Table 1 provides overall average normalized Nusselt

surface temperature and mean film temperature. number ratio for three dimpled surfaces. Nusselt number is

calculated based on mean film temperature.

Dimple Spherical Elliptical Rhombus

Average 1.46 1.57 1.70

0.31 1.57 1.26

Nu/Nuo

1.8 Nu/Nuo

5.98 F/Fo

1.6

N/Nuo/F/Fo

Performance Factor

1.4

1.2

0.8

a) SPHERICAL DIMPLE

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

Diamond Elliptical Circular

.40 1.872

.40 Figure 5, shows Normalized Nusselt number, friction factor

7.64 and thermal performance factor for three dimpled surfaces. It

is observed from the figure diamond shaped dimple augment

the heat transfer by a factor1.7 and thermal performance factor

by 1.2 which is higher compared to elliptical dimple and

circular dimple. This is because of stronger periodic shedding

of vortices and shear layer detachment.

b) RHOMBUS DIMPLE

Velocity Distribution:

Figure 6 shows velocity distribution at symmetry plane for

Re=20,000 and TI 10 %.For all the geometries, regions of

reverse flow, denoted by negative stream wise velocities are

1.94 present in the deepest part of the dimple.

0.38 1.55

7.37

c) ELLIPTICAL DIMPLE

a) SPHERICAL DIMPLE

Figure 4 SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER CONTOURS FOR

THREE DIFFERENT DIMPLES

It is observed from figure 3 a-c, that Nusselt number ratios are

higher at just downstream of each dimple. Nusselt number

ratio increases partially due to periodic shedding of vortex

pairs and shear layer reattachment. Very low Nusselt number

ratio is present within each dimple, especially near upstream

portion. This is due to flow separation and low advection

speeds near these locations.

Numerically predicted Nusselt number ratios for three

types of dimples are shown in figure 3a- c. In all three types of

dimples, Nusselt number ratios are higher in case of rhombus

dimple compared to spherical and elliptical dimple at

upstream side. Nusselt number ratio is higher at downstream

dimple in case of rhombus dimple (7.64) compared to b) RHOMBUS DIMPLE

factors for flows inside circular tubes with concavity

surface”, ASME Journal of Turbo- machinery,

vol. 125,pp 665-672

[4] N.Syred, AKhalatov, 2001, “Effect of surface

curvature on heat transfer and hydrodynamics within a

single hemispherical dimple”, ASME Journal of Turbo

machinery, Vol.123,pp 609-613

[5] Kunthe,AM. “Boundary layer Control of Flow

Separation and Heat exchange,” US patent No.3, 1971,

578,264

[6] Chuy.M.K.,yu., 1997 “Concavity Enhanced Heat

Transfer in an Internal Cooling Passage”ASME, Paper

c) ELLIPTICAL DIMPLE No.97-GT-437

Figure 6. VELOCITY CONTOURS FOR THREE DIFFERENT [7] Moon, 2000 “Channel height effect on heat transfer

DIMPLES and friction in dimpled passage”,ASME Journal of

The reverse flow is strongest in rhombus shaped dimple Engg. for Gas Turbines and power,vol.122,pp307-313

compared to spherical and elliptical dimple. Results shows in [8] G.I.Mahmood, P.M.Ligrani 2001 “Local Heat Transfer

the form of velocity contour that the recirculating flow zones and Flow Structure Above a Dimpled Surface in a

which develop from these regions of reversed flow are Channel” ASME Journal of turbo machinery, vol.123,

important for the initiation of the vortex pairs which are and pp115-123

periodically shed from the dimples. The absence of such zones

will result in the development of weaker stream wise vortices

and the secondary flows associated with them. The reverse

flows also observed on the downward edge of the dimple.

hydraulic diameter of 0.0142 m, and three different types of

dimples on one wall are predicted numerically using FLUENT

version 6.3.26 with a realizable K-ε model with enhance wall

treatment. The three different types of dimple are spherical

dimple, elliptical dimple, rhombus dimple. The ratio of

channel height to dimple print diameter H/D is 1 and dimple

depth to dimple print diameter δ/D is 0.03. The main

observations are summarized as follows:

2. Maximum heat transfer enhancement is observed in the

vicinity of downstream edge of the all dimples.

3. The lowest heat transfer enhancement is observed

inside of each dimple, where a relatively large zone of

recirculation is present.

4. The stream wise study shows that the vortex pairs

generated by the spherical and rhombus dimples

additionally produce preturbulation to flow field which

enhance the Nusselt number.

5. The Nusselt number ratio is higher for rhombus shaped

dimple because presence of number of vortices

compared to other types of dimples.

6 The order of heat transfer enhancement was found to

be first rhombus dimple, followed by elliptical dimple

and then spherical dimple.

7 Rhombic, elliptical shaped dimples have been

investigated numerically for the first time and

numerical findings are encouraging and hence may be

investigated experimentally.

REFERENCES

Tube Heat exchangers” proceedings fifth National Heat

and Mass Transfer Conference, Hyderabad(India)

[2] Kimura T. and Tsutahara M., 1919, “Fluid Dynamics

Effect of Groves on Circular Cylinder surface,

AIAAJ. 29, No12, pp.2062-2068

[3] Ronald S. Bunker, 2003 “Heat transfer and friction

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