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Sandeep S. Kore S.V.Joshi N.K.Sane

Sinhgad Academy of Vishwakarma Institute of Vishwakarma Institute of
Engineering,Pune,Maharastra, Technology,Pune,Maharastra Technology,Pune,Maharastra
Pin-411048 Pin-411046 Pin-411046
India India India

ABSTRACT effectively be achieved through a higher turbine inlet gas

temperature. In prototype aero engine gas turbine the entry
Heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics for three temperature already reached 1750 to 1800 K, while the air
different dimpled surfaces on one surface of channel are pressure has gradually approached the factor of 35.00, with
predicted numerically using version 6.3.26 of FLUENT. projections to 40.00 being made. Since modern gas turbine
operate at inlet temperature levels above the blade melting
The turbulent model employed is a realizable K-ε with point, both internal and external cooling system are employed
enhance wall treatment function. The different dimples to meet the blade service life requirements. Some 30 heat
investigated are spherical dimple, elliptical dimple and transfer enhancement techniques are used now; however due
rhombus dimple. The channel used for the analysis has to design and technological restrictions, designers of blade
one dimpled wall in the stream wise direction. Result internal cooling system still apply very few of these
shows the existence of a centrally located vortex pair techniques. Among the basic technologies are; pin fins, plane
and vortex pairs augment heat transfer. Highest heat and broken ribs and their combinations [2].To reduce or
transfer augmentation is produced by rhombus dimple. eliminate the need to employ film cooling, new attention has
been devoted to internal cooling schemes for turbine airfoils.
NOMENCLATURE Internal cooling schemes are advantageous in several respects.
D Dimple print diameter The technology of cooling gas turbine components via internal
Dh Channel hydraulic diameter convective flow of single phase cooling passage to very
δ Dimple Depth complex geometries involving many differing surfaces. In
H Height of channel many respect the evolution of cooling passage geometries
Nu0 Baseline Nusselt number began in parallel with heat exchangers and fluid processing
Nu Average Nusselt number techniques. The enhancement of internal convective flow
ReDh Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter surfaces for the augmentation of heat transfer was quickly
TI Turbulence intensity improved through the introduction of rib roughners or
VG Vortex Generator turbulators and also pin banks or pin fins. These surface
F/F0 Friction factor enhancement methods continue to play a vital role in today’s
turbine cooling designs. With the advancement in materials
INTRODUCTION and manufacturing technologies of the last decade, a
Effective cooling is the most necessary practice in the drastically larger realm of surface enhancement techniques has
energy conversion devices to sustain the thermal stability of become cost effective for use in the cooling of turbine airfoils.
the equipments. Enhancing heat transfer rate is useful in a Such enhancement heat transfer comes at an inevitable price
variety of practical application such as micro and macro scale of increased pressure losses, however range of methods now a
heat exchangers, gas turbines internal airfoil cooling, fuel designers allows, a large degree of tailoring to take place. In
elements of nuclear power plants, power semiconductors, all of these internal cooling methods which use modified
electronic cooling, combustion chamber liners, biomedical surfaces, the enhancement features are projections from the
applications etc. Extensive research has been focused on surface into the flow, generally always substantially normal to
reducing the consumption of nonrenewable energy. Improving the surface and the bulk flow direction [3]. Presently dimples
the efficiency is the universal process of heat exchange, is one attracted interest due to its relatively low pressure penalty.
such area which attracts lot of attention. Compact heat Dimples are expected to promote turbulent mixing in flow and
exchangers and gas turbine internal aerofoil cooling are two enhance heat transfer as they behave as vortex generator(VG).
applications which have been subject of study for a number of The present paper gives numerically predicted flow and heat
researchers over the recent years [1]. It is well known that transfer results for three different types of dimples; spherical,
increase in the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine can rhombus, elliptical. New information on flow structure which
forms within and above dimples is provided to give additional
insight into the mechanism which results in surface heat
transfer augmentation.

Dimple Configurations, Channel

Arrangement, and Flow Conditions:


A uniform velocity profile is employed at the inlet of the

smooth portion of the duct. An inlet turbulence intensity level
TI of 10 % is used. During computation three solid walls are
set to the same wall temperature. The pressure of airflow in
the channel is selected as one atmosphere. The inlet velocity is
STUDY determined by selecting the inlet Reynolds Number ReH
=20,000 which is based on hydraulic diameter of the channel.
Figure 2 shows the overall surface arrangement employed for The temperature of the main flow is set to be 293 K, and the
each type of dimple used in the numerical test domain. The wall temperature is set to be 323 K. Y+ value is maintained at
channel has one dimpled wall in the stream wise direction. about 1.The dimple geometry consist of channel of 300 mm
The channel height and dimple print diameter are both 1 cm. long and 25 mm wide. The dimple is placed at X=22 mm
Thus the ratio of channel height to dimple print diameter, H/D downstream from channel entrance. Only half of the wall is
is 1 and the ratio of dimple depth to dimple print diameter, δ / considered due to nature of symmetry.
D is 0.3. The hydraulic diameter of the channel is 0.0142 m
and the channel aspect ratio is 2.5. Numerical Approach and Procedures:
Figures 3 shows the geometric shapes of the three dimples Computational Grid:
These are: FLUENT 6.3.26 is the commercial code employed to predict
1) Spherical dimple in figure 3a, fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in the dimpled
2) Elliptical dimple in figure 3b channel. Prior to using FLUENT, the GAMBIT code is used
3) Rhombus dimple in figure 3c. for the development of the computational geometry and grid.
The computational domain has two parts. One is inlet duct to
achieve fully developed flow conditions and other is the duct
with the dimples. The grid is made up of hexahedral elements.
Finer grid is made near-wall to resolve the high gradients
encountered, and to apply the realizable K-ε model with
enhance wall treatment. A total 11,00,000 finite volume cells
are employed to resolve the near wall regions and to obtain
gird independent solutions. The realizable K-ε model is
employed as the turbulence model, because of its improved
predictive capabilities compared to the standard K-ε model
and because of its ability to resolve portion of separated flows
a) SPHERICAL DIMPLE and flows with complex secondary circulation which are
located very close to the surface. Near wall regions are fully
resolved for y+ values as close as 1.0.The setting for the scaled
residues for solution convergence is set to 10-6 for all the
computed residuals, including the residuals for the energy
equation. The solution is considered to be converged when the
entire scaled residual are less than or equal to these default

Numerical Results:
The present study provides the insight view of heat transfer
and fluid flow characteristics from dimpled surface with three
different geometries.
b) RHOMBUS DIMPLE Nusselt Number Ratio:
Figure 4a-c shows numerical prediction of surface Nusselt
Number Ratios for ReH =20,000 and TI = 10 % for three
different types of dimples. Baseline Nusselt Numbers used for
normalization are determined using the Dittus-Boelter smooth
circular tube correlation which is given by
Nuo =0.023 ReDH 0.8 Pr0.4
The Nusselt Number ratio contours for the three dimpled spherical (5.98) and elliptical (7.37) dimple. In all cases
surfaces are as shown in figure. The average heat transfer normalized Nusselt number ratio within the dimple is near
coefficient is calculated by finding average heat flux from the about 0 .3.
test surface numerically and dividing it by difference of test The Table 1 provides overall average normalized Nusselt
surface temperature and mean film temperature. number ratio for three dimpled surfaces. Nusselt number is
calculated based on mean film temperature.


Dimple Spherical Elliptical Rhombus
Average 1.46 1.57 1.70
0.31 1.57 1.26

1.8 Nu/Nuo
5.98 F/Fo

Performance Factor





Diamond Elliptical Circular


.40 1.872
.40 Figure 5, shows Normalized Nusselt number, friction factor
7.64 and thermal performance factor for three dimpled surfaces. It
is observed from the figure diamond shaped dimple augment
the heat transfer by a factor1.7 and thermal performance factor
by 1.2 which is higher compared to elliptical dimple and
circular dimple. This is because of stronger periodic shedding
of vortices and shear layer detachment.
Velocity Distribution:
Figure 6 shows velocity distribution at symmetry plane for
Re=20,000 and TI 10 %.For all the geometries, regions of
reverse flow, denoted by negative stream wise velocities are
1.94 present in the deepest part of the dimple.
0.38 1.55


It is observed from figure 3 a-c, that Nusselt number ratios are
higher at just downstream of each dimple. Nusselt number
ratio increases partially due to periodic shedding of vortex
pairs and shear layer reattachment. Very low Nusselt number
ratio is present within each dimple, especially near upstream
portion. This is due to flow separation and low advection
speeds near these locations.
Numerically predicted Nusselt number ratios for three
types of dimples are shown in figure 3a- c. In all three types of
dimples, Nusselt number ratios are higher in case of rhombus
dimple compared to spherical and elliptical dimple at
upstream side. Nusselt number ratio is higher at downstream
dimple in case of rhombus dimple (7.64) compared to b) RHOMBUS DIMPLE
factors for flows inside circular tubes with concavity
surface”, ASME Journal of Turbo- machinery,
vol. 125,pp 665-672
[4] N.Syred, AKhalatov, 2001, “Effect of surface
curvature on heat transfer and hydrodynamics within a
single hemispherical dimple”, ASME Journal of Turbo
machinery, Vol.123,pp 609-613
[5] Kunthe,AM. “Boundary layer Control of Flow
Separation and Heat exchange,” US patent No.3, 1971,
[6] Chuy.M.K.,yu., 1997 “Concavity Enhanced Heat
Transfer in an Internal Cooling Passage”ASME, Paper
Figure 6. VELOCITY CONTOURS FOR THREE DIFFERENT [7] Moon, 2000 “Channel height effect on heat transfer
DIMPLES and friction in dimpled passage”,ASME Journal of
The reverse flow is strongest in rhombus shaped dimple Engg. for Gas Turbines and power,vol.122,pp307-313
compared to spherical and elliptical dimple. Results shows in [8] G.I.Mahmood, P.M.Ligrani 2001 “Local Heat Transfer
the form of velocity contour that the recirculating flow zones and Flow Structure Above a Dimpled Surface in a
which develop from these regions of reversed flow are Channel” ASME Journal of turbo machinery, vol.123,
important for the initiation of the vortex pairs which are and pp115-123
periodically shed from the dimples. The absence of such zones
will result in the development of weaker stream wise vortices
and the secondary flows associated with them. The reverse
flows also observed on the downward edge of the dimple.

Summary and Conclusions:

Turbulent air flows in a channel with an aspect ratio of 2.5, a

hydraulic diameter of 0.0142 m, and three different types of
dimples on one wall are predicted numerically using FLUENT
version 6.3.26 with a realizable K-ε model with enhance wall
treatment. The three different types of dimple are spherical
dimple, elliptical dimple, rhombus dimple. The ratio of
channel height to dimple print diameter H/D is 1 and dimple
depth to dimple print diameter δ/D is 0.03. The main
observations are summarized as follows:

1. Dimples enhance heat transfer for turbulent flows.

2. Maximum heat transfer enhancement is observed in the
vicinity of downstream edge of the all dimples.
3. The lowest heat transfer enhancement is observed
inside of each dimple, where a relatively large zone of
recirculation is present.
4. The stream wise study shows that the vortex pairs
generated by the spherical and rhombus dimples
additionally produce preturbulation to flow field which
enhance the Nusselt number.
5. The Nusselt number ratio is higher for rhombus shaped
dimple because presence of number of vortices
compared to other types of dimples.
6 The order of heat transfer enhancement was found to
be first rhombus dimple, followed by elliptical dimple
and then spherical dimple.
7 Rhombic, elliptical shaped dimples have been
investigated numerically for the first time and
numerical findings are encouraging and hence may be
investigated experimentally.

[1] Sane N.K, 1980 “Some Investigations on intended

Tube Heat exchangers” proceedings fifth National Heat
and Mass Transfer Conference, Hyderabad(India)
[2] Kimura T. and Tsutahara M., 1919, “Fluid Dynamics
Effect of Groves on Circular Cylinder surface,
AIAAJ. 29, No12, pp.2062-2068
[3] Ronald S. Bunker, 2003 “Heat transfer and friction