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SERIES  ARTICLE

Snippets of Physics
6. The Logarithms of Physics

T Padmanabhan

S c a lin g a rg u m e n ts a n d d im e n sio n a l a n a ly sis a re


p o w e rfu l to o ls in p h y sic s w h ich h e lp y o u to so lv e
se v e ra l in te r e stin g p ro b le m s. A n d w h e n th e sc a l-
in g a rg u m e n ts fa il, a s in th e e x a m p le s d isc u sse d
h e r e , w e a re le d to a m o re fa sc in a tin g situ a tio n .
T Padmanabhan works at
IUCAA, Pune and is L et u s b eg in th is tim e b y rev isitin g a p ro b lem w h ich
interested in all areas is b ea ten to d ea th in sta n d a rd tex tb o o k s in electro d y -
of theoretical physics, n a m ics { ex cep t th a t w e w ill d o it in a slig h tly d i® eren t
especially those which
m a n n er a n d g et o u rselv es a ll tied u p in k n o ts. C o n sid er
have something to do with
gravity.
a n in ¯ n ite stra ig h t lin e ch a rg e lo ca ted a lo n g th e y ¡ a x is
w ith th e ch a rg e d en sity p er u n it len g th b ein g ¸ . W e a re
in terested in d eterm in in g th e electric ¯ eld ev ery w h ere
d u e to th is lin e ch a rg e.
T h e sta n d a rd so lu tio n to th is p ro b lem is rid icu lo u sly
sim p le. Y o u ¯ rst a rg u e, b a sed o n th e sy m m etry, th a t th e
electric ¯ eld a t a n y g iv en p o in t is in th e x ¡ z p la n e a n d
d ep en d s o n ly o n th e d ista n ce fro m th e lin e ch a rg e. S o w e
ca n a rra n g e th e co o rd in a te sy stem su ch th a t th e p o in t a t
w h ich w e w a n t to ca lcu la te th e ¯ eld is a t (x ;0 ;0 ). If w e
n ow en clo se th e lin e ch a rg e b y a n im a g in a ry co n cen tric
cy lin d rica l su rfa ce o f ra d iu s x a n d len g th L , th e o u tw a rd
° u x o f electric ¯ eld th ro u g h th e su rfa ce is 2 ¼ x L E w h ich
sh o u ld b e eq u a l to 4 ¼ tim es th e ch a rg e en clo sed b y th e
cy lin d er, w h ich is 4 ¼ L ¸ . T h is im m ed ia tely g iv es E =
(2 ¸ = x ). [Y o u w o u ld h av e n o ticed to y o u r su rp rise th a t I
a m u sin g th e cg s u n its; th e S I p eo p le sh o u ld rep la ce 4 ¼
b y (1 = ² 0 ).] D im en sio n a lly, electric ¯ eld is ch a rg e d iv id ed
b y sq u a re o f th e len g th a n d sin ce ¸ is ch a rg e p er u n it
len g th , ev ery th in g is ¯ n e.
Keywords
Logarithm, potential theory.

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W e w ill n ow d o it d i® eren tly a n d in { w h a t sh o u ld b e {


a n eq u iva len t w ay. W e w a n t to co m p u te th e electro sta -
tic p o ten tia l Á a t (x ;0 ;0 ) d u e to th e lin e ch a rg e a lo n g
th e y ¡ a x is a n d o b ta in th e electric ¯ eld b y d i® eren tia t-
in g . O b v io u sly, th e p o ten tia l Á (x ) ca n o n ly d ep en d o n
x a n d ¸ a n d m u st h av e th e d im en sio n o f ch a rg e p er u n it
len g th . If w e ta k e Á » ¸ n x m , d im en sio n a l a n a ly sis im -
m ed ia tely g iv es n = 1 a n d m = 0 , so th a t Á (x ) / ¸ a n d
is in d ep en d en t o f x ! T h e p o ten tia l is a co n sta n t a n d th e
electric ¯ eld va n ish es! W e a re in tro u b le.
A n ex p licit co m p u ta tio n o f th e p o ten tia l fro m ¯ rst p rin -
cip les m a k es m a tters w o rse. A n in ¯ n itesim a l a m o u n t
o f ch a rg e d q = ¸ d y lo ca ted b etw een y a n d y + d y w ill
lea d to a n electro sta tic p o ten tia l d q= r a t th e ¯ eld p o in t,
w h ere r = (x 2 + y 2 )1 = 2 . S o th e to ta l p o ten tia l is g iv en
by
Z+ 1 Z+ 1
dy dy
Á (x ) = ¸ p = 2¸ p : (1 )
¡1 x2 + y2 0 x 2 + y2

C h a n g in g va ria b les fro m y to u = y = x , th e in teg ra l b e-


co m es
Z+ 1
du
Á (x ) = 2 ¸ p : (2 )
0 1 + u2
T h is resu lt is clea rly in d ep en d en t o f x a n d h en ce a co n -
sta n t w h ich is w h a t d im en sio n a l a n a ly sis to ld u s. M u ch
w o rse, it is a n in ¯ n ite co n sta n t sin ce th e in teg ra l d i-
v erg es a t th e u p p er lim it. W h a t is g o in g o n in su ch a
sim p le, cla ssic, tex tb o o k p ro b lem ?
A s a ¯ rst a ttem p t in g ettin g a sen sib le resu lt, let u s cu t-
o ® th e in teg ra l a t so m e len g th sca le y = ¤ . (Y o u m ay
th in k o f th e in ¯ n ite lin e ch a rg e a s th e lim it o f a lin e
ch a rg e o f len g th 2 ¤ w ith ¤ À x .) U sin g th e su b stitu tio n
y = x sin h µ a n d ta k in g th e lim it ¤ À x , w e g et

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The problem has to Á (x ) =


do with logarithms Z¤ µ ¶
dy ¤ ³x ´
which allow a 2¸ p = 2 ¸ sin h ¡1 ¼ ¡ 2 ¸ ln ;
dimensionless 0 x 2 + y2 x 2¤
function like ln (x/2) (3 )
to occur in the
w h ere w e h av e u sed ¤ À x in a rriv in g a t th e ¯ n a l eq u a l-
electrostatic potential
ity. T h is p o ten tia l d o es d iv erg e w h en ¤ ! 1 . B u t n o te
without the electric th a t th e p h y sica lly o b serva b le q u a n tity, th e electric ¯ eld
field depending on E = ¡ r Á is in d ep en d en t o f th e cu t-o ® p a ra m eter ¤ a n d
the arbitrary scale . is co rrectly g iv en b y E x = 2 ¸ = x . B y in tro d u cin g a cu t-
o ® , w e seem to h av e sav ed th e situ a tio n .
It is n ow clea r w h a t is g o in g o n . A s th e title o f th is
a rticle im p lies, th e p ro b lem h a s to d o w ith lo g a rith m s
w h ich a llow a d im en sio n less fu n ctio n lik e ln (x = 2 ¤ ) to
o ccu r in th e electro sta tic p o ten tia l w ith o u t th e electric
¯ eld d ep en d in g o n th e a rb itra ry sca le ¤ . T h is req u ires
a d d itiv ity o n th e ¤ d ep en d en ce; th a t is w e n eed a fu n c-
tio n f (x = ¤ ) w h ich w ill red u ce to f (x ) + f (¤ ). C lea rly
o n ly a lo g a rith m w ill d o . O n ce w e k n ow w h a t is h a p -
p en in g , it is ea sy to ¯ g u re o u t o th er w ay s o f g ettin g a
sen sib le a n sw er. O n e ca n , fo r ex a m p le, o b ta in th is resu lt
fro m a m o re stra ig h tfo rw a rd sca lin g a rg u m en t b y co n -
cen tra tin g o n th e p o ten tia l di® eren ce Á (x )¡ Á (a ), w h ere
a is so m e a rb itra ry sca lin g d ista n ce w e in tro d u ce in to th e
p ro b lem . F ro m d im en sio n a l a n a ly sis, it fo llow s th a t th e
p o ten tia l d i® eren ce m u st h av e th e fo rm Á (x ) ¡ Á (a ) =
¸ F (x = a ), w h ere F is a d im en sio n less fu n ctio n . E va lu a t-
in g th is ex p ressio n fo r a = 1 , say, in so m e u n its w e g et
¸ F (x ) = Á (x ) ¡ Á (1 ). S u b stitu tin g b a ck , w e h av e th e
rela tio n Á (x ) ¡ Á (a ) = Á (x = a ) ¡ Á (1 ). T h is fu n ctio n a l
eq u a tio n h a s th e u n iq u e so lu tio n s Á (x ) = A ln x + Á (1 ).
D im en sio n a l a n a ly sis a g a in tells y o u th a t A / ¸ . B u t,
o f co u rse, sca lin g a rg u m en ts ca n n o t d eterm in e th e p ro -
p o rtio n a lity co n sta n t. H ow ev er, o n e ca n co m p u te th e
p o ten tia l d i® eren ce b y th e ex p licit in teg ra l

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Z1 Ã !
1 1 It turns out that such
Á (x ) ¡ Á (a ) = 2 ¸ dy p ¡ p :
0 x2 + y2 a2 + y2 phenomena, in which
(4 ) naive scaling
arguments break
It is ea sy to see th a t th is in teg ra l is ¯ n ite. Y o u ca n w o rk down due to the
it o u t b y fa irly stra ig h tfo rw a rd p ro ced u res a n d o b ta in occurrence of
th e resu lt logarithmic function,
is a very general
Á (x ) ¡ Á (a ) = ¡ 2 ¸ ln (x = a ): (5 )
feature in several
areas of physics
T h e n u m erica l va lu e o f Á (x ) in th is ex p ressio n is in d e-
especially in the study
p en d en t o f th e len g th sca le a in tro d u ced in th e p ro b -
lem . In th a t sen se th e sca le o f Á is d eterm in ed o n ly b y of renormalization
¸ w h ich , a s w e sa id b efo re, h a s th e co rrect d im en sio n s. group in high energy
B u t to en su re ¯ n ite va lu es fo r th e ex p ressio n s, w e n eed physics.
to in tro d u ce a n a rb itra ry len g th sca le a w h ich is th e k ey
fea tu re I w a n t to em p h a size in th is d iscu ssio n . It tu rn s
o u t th a t su ch p h en o m en a , in w h ich n a iv e sca lin g a rg u -
m en ts b rea k d ow n d u e to th e o ccu rren ce o f lo g a rith m ic
fu n ctio n , is a v ery g en era l fea tu re in sev era l a rea s o f
p h y sics esp ecia lly in th e stu d y o f ren o rm a liza tio n g ro u p
in h ig h en erg y p h y sics. W h a t w e h av e h ere is a v ery el-
em en ta ry m a n ifesta tio n o f th is resu lt. In a ll th ese ca ses
w e n eed to sm u g g le in to th e p ro b lem a len g th sca le to
m a k e so m e u n o b serva b le q u a n tities (lik e th e p o ten tia l)
¯ n ite b u t a rra n g e m a tters su ch th a t o b serva b le q u a n -
tities rem a in in d ep en d en t o f th is sca le w h ich w e b rin g
in .
If y o u th o u g h t th is w a s to o sim p le, h ere is a m o re so -
p h istica ted o ccu rren ce o f a lo g a rith m fo r essen tia lly th e
sa m e rea so n .
C o n sid er th e S ch rÄo d in g er eq u a tio n in tw o d im en sio n s
fo r a n a ttra ctiv e D ira c d elta fu n ctio n p o ten tia l V (x ) =
¡ V 0 ± (x ) w ith V 0 > 0 . T h e v ecto r x is in tw o d im en -
sio n a l sp a ce a n d w e lo o k fo r a sta tio n a ry b o u n d sta te

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w av efu n ctio n à (x ) w h ich sa tis¯ es th e eq u a tio n


µ ¶
~2 2
¡ r ¡ V 0 ± (x ) à (x ) = ¡ jE jà (x ); (6 )
2m

w h ere ¡ jE j is th e n eg a tiv e b o u n d sta te en erg y. R esca l-


in g th e va ria b les b y in tro d u cin g ¸ = 2 m V 0 = ~2 a n d E =
2 m jE j= ~2 , th is eq u a tio n red u ces to
¡ 2 ¢
r + ¸ ± (x ) Ã (x ) = E Ã (x ): (7 )

W e co u ld h av e d o n e ev ery th in g u p to th is p o in t in a n y
sp a tia l d im en sio n . In D d im en sio n , th e D ira c d elta fu n c-
tio n ± (x ) h a s th e d im en sio n L ¡ D . T h e k in etic en erg y o p -
era to r r 2 , o n th e o th er h a n d , a lw ay s h a s th e d im en sio n
L ¡ 2 . T h is lea d s to a p ecu lia r b eh av io u r w h en D = 2 .
W e ¯ n d th a t, in th is ca se, ¸ is d im en sio n less w h ile E h a s
th e d im en sio n o f L ¡ 2 . S in ce th e sca led b in d in g en erg y E
h a s to b e d eterm in ed en tirely in term s o f th e p a ra m eter
¸ , w e h av e a p ro b lem in o u r h a n d s. T h ere is n o w ay
w e ca n d eterm in e th e fo rm o f E w ith o u t a d im en sio n a l
co n sta n t { w h ich w e d o n o t h av e.
T o see th e m a n ifesta tio n o f th is p ro b lem m o re clea rly,
let u s so lv e (7 ). T h is is fa irly ea sy to d o b y F o u rier
tra n sfo rm in g b o th sid es a n d in tro d u cin g th e m o m en tu m
sp a ce w av efu n ctio n Á (k ) b y
Z
Á (k ) = d 2 x à (x ) ex p (¡ ik ¢ x ): (8 )

T h e left-h a n d sid e o f lea d s to th e term [¡ k 2 Á (k )+ ¸ Ã (0 )],


w h ile th e rig h t-h a n d sid e g iv es E Á (k ). E q u a tin g th e tw o
w e g et
¸ Ã (0 )
Á (k ) = 2 : (9 )
k + E
W e n ow in teg ra te th is eq u a tio n ov er a ll k . T h e left-h a n d
sid e w ill th en g iv e (2 ¼ )2 Ã (0 ) w h ich ca n b e ca n celled o u t
o n b o th sid es b y a ssu m in g à (0) 6= 0 . (T h is is, o f co u rse,

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n eed ed fo r Á (k ) in (9 ) to b e n o n zero a n d h en ce is n o t The Dirac delta


a n a d d itio n a l a ssu m p tio n .) W e th en g et th e resu lt
function, in spite of
Z Z the nomenclature,
1 1 d2k 1 d2s
= = : (1 0 ) is strictly not a
¸ 4¼ 2 2
k + E 4¼ 2 s2 + 1
function but what
T h e seco n d eq u a lity is o bp ta in ed b y ch a n g in g th e in teg ra - mathematicians
tio n va ria b le to s = k = E . T h is eq u a tio n is su p p o sed call a distribution.
to d eterm in e th e b in d in g en erg y E in term s o f th e p a -
ra m eter in th e p ro b lem ¸ b u t th e la st ex p ressio n sh ow s
th a t th e rig h t h a n d sid e is in d ep en d en t o f E ! T h is is
sim ila r to th e situ a tio n in th e electro sta tic p ro b lem in
w h ich w e g o t th e in teg ra l w h ich w a s in d ep en d en t o f x .
In fa ct, ju st a s in th e electro sta tic ca se, th e in teg ra l o n
th e rig h t h a n d sid e d iv erg es, co n ¯ rm in g o u r su sp icio n .
O f co u rse, w e a lrea d y k n ow th a t d eterm in in g E in term s
o f ¸ is im p o ssib le d u e to d im en sio n a l m ism a tch .
O n e ca n , a t th is sta g e, ta k e th e p o in t o f v iew th a t th e
p ro b lem is sim p ly ill-d e¯ n ed a n d o n e w o u ld b e q u ite co r-
rect. T h e D ira c d elta fu n ctio n , in sp ite o f th e n o m en cla -
tu re, is strictly n o t a fu n ctio n b u t w h a t m a th em a ticia n s
ca ll a d istrib u tio n . It is d e¯ n ed a s a lim it o f a seq u en ce o f
fu n ctio n s. F o r ex a m p le, su p p o se w e co n sid er a seq u en ce
o f p o ten tia ls
· ¸
V0 jx j2
V (x ) = ¡ ex p ¡ ; (1 1 )
2¼ ¾ 2 2¾ 2
w h ere x is a 2 -D v ecto r a n d ¾ is a p a ra m eter w ith th e d i-
m en sio n o f len g th . In th is ca se, w e w ill a g a in g et (7 ) b u t
w ith th e D ira c d elta fu n ctio n rep la ced b y th e G a u ssia n
in (1 1 ). B u t n ow w e h av e a p a ra m eter ¾ w ith th e d im en -
sio n o f len g th a n d o n e ca n im a g in e th e b in d in g en erg y
b ein g co n stru cted o u t o f th is. W h en w e ta k e th e lim it
¾ ! 0 , th e p o ten tia l in (1 1 ) red u ces to o n e p ro p o rtio n a l
to th e D ira c d elta fu n ctio n . (T h is is w h a t w e m ea n t b y
say in g th e d elta fu n ctio n is d e¯ n ed a s a lim itin g ca se o f
seq u en ce o f fu n ctio n s. H ere th e fu n ctio n s a re G a u ssia n s

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The essential idea is in (1 1 ) p a ra m etrized b y ¾ . W h en w e ta k e th e lim it o f


to accept that the ¾ ! 0 th e fu n ctio n red u ces to d elta fu n ctio n .) T h e
theory requires an tro u b le is th a t, w h en w e let ¾ g o to zero , w e lo se th e
extra scale with
len g th sca le in th e p ro b lem a n d w e d o n o t k n ow h ow to
¯ x th e b in d in g en erg y. O f co u rse, n o o n e a ssu red y o u
proper dimensions for
th a t if y o u so lv e a d i® eren tia l eq u a tio n w ith a n in p u t
its interpretation and
fu n ctio n V (x ;¾ ) w h ich d ep en d s o n a p a ra m eter ¾ a n d
treat the coupling
ta k e a (so m ew h a t d u b io u s) lim it o f ¾ ! 0 , th en th e
constant a function of
so lu tio n s w ill a lso h av e a sen sib le lim it. S o o n e ca n say
the scale at which we
th a t th e p ro b lem is ill-d e¯ n ed .
probe the system.
R a th er th a n leav in g it a t th a t, w e w a n t to a ttem p t h ere
so m eth in g sim ila r to w h a t w e d id in th e electro sta tic
ca se. L et u s eva lu a te th e in teg ra l w ith a cu t-o ® a t so m e
va lu e k m a x = ¤ w ith ¤ 2 À E . T h en w e g et
µ ¶
1 1 E
= ¡ ln ; (1 2 )
¸ 4¼ ¤2

w h ich ca n b e in v erted to g iv e th e b in d in g en erg y to b e:

E = ¤ 2 ex p (¡ 4 ¼ = ¸ ); (1 3 )

w h ere th e sca le is ¯ x ed b y th e cu t-o ® p a ra m eter. O f


co u rse th is is w h a t w e w o u ld h av e g o t if w e a ctu a lly
u sed a p o ten tia l w ith a len g th sca le.
T h ere is a w a y o f in terp retin g th is resu lt ta k in g a cu e
fro m w h a t is d o n e in q u a n tu m ¯ eld th eo ry. T h e essen tia l
id ea is to a ccep t u p fro n t th a t th e th eo ry req u ires a n
ex tra sca le w ith p ro p er d im en sio n s fo r its in terp reta tio n
a n d trea t th e co u p lin g co n sta n t a s a fu n ctio n o f th e sca le
a t w h ich w e p ro b e th e sy stem . H av in g d o n e th a t w e
a rra n g e m a tters so th a t th e o b serv ed resu lts a re a ctu a lly
in d ep en d en t o f th e sca le w e h av e in tro d u ced . In th is
ca se, w e w ill d e¯ n e a p h y sica l co u p lin g co n sta n t b y
µ ¶
¡1 ¡1 1 2 2 1 E
¸ p h y (¹ ) = ¸ ¡ ln (¤ = ¹ ) = ¡ ln ; (1 4 )
4¼ 4¼ ¹2

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w h ere ¹ is a n a rb itra ry b u t ¯ n ite sca le. O b v io u sly ¸ p h y (¹ ) The breaking


is in d ep en d en t o f th e cu t-o ® p a ra m eter ¤ . T h e b in d in g
down of naive
en erg y is n ow g iv en b y
scaling arguments
and the
E = ¹ 2 ex p (¡ 4 ¼ = ¸ p h y (¹ )) (1 5 ) appearance of
w h ich , in sp ite o f a p p ea ra n ce, is in d ep en d en t o f th e sca le logarithms are
¹ . T h is is sim ila r to o u r eq u a tio n (5 ) in th e electro sta tic rather ubiquitous
p ro b lem , in w h ich w e in tro d u ced a sca le a b u t Á (x ) w a s in such a case.
in d ep en d en t o f a .
In q u a n tu m ¯ eld th eo ry a resu lt lik e th is w ill b e in ter-
p reted a s fo llow s: S u p p o se o n e p erfo rm s a n ex p erim en t
to m ea su re so m e o b serva b le q u a n tity (lik e th e b in d in g
en erg y ) o f th e sy stem a s w ell a s so m e o f th e p a ra m e-
ters d escrib in g th e sy stem (like th e co u p lin g co n sta n t).
If th e ex p erim en t is p erfo rm ed a t a sca le co rresp o n d -
in g to ¹ (w h ich , fo r ex a m p le, co u ld b e th e en erg y o f
th e p a rticles in a sca tterin g cro ss-sectio n m ea su rem en t,
say ), th en o n e w ill ¯ n d th a t th e co u p lin g co n sta n t th a t
is m ea su red d ep en d s o n ¹ . B u t w h en o n e va ries ¹ in a n
ex p ressio n lik e (1 5 ), th e va ria tio n o f ¸ p h y w ill b e su ch
th a t o n e g ets th e sa m e va lu e fo r E .
W h en y o u th in k a b o u t it, y o u w ill ¯ n d th a t it m a k es a
lo t o f sen se. A fter a ll th e p a ram eters w e u se to d escrib e
o u r p h y sica l sy stem (lik e ¸ p h y ) a s w ell a s so m e o f th e
resu lts w e o b ta in (lik e th e b in d in g en erg y E o r a sca t-
terin g cro ss-sectio n ) n eed to b e d eterm in ed b y su ita b le
ex p erim en ts. In th e q u a n tu m m ech a n ica l p ro b lem s a lso
o n e ca n th in k o f sca tterin g of a p a rticle w ith m o m en -
tu m k (rep resen ted b y a n in cid en t p la n e w av e, say ) b y
a p o ten tia l. T h e resu ltin g scatterin g cro ss-sectio n w ill
co n ta in in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e p o ten tia l, esp ecia lly th e
co u p lin g co n sta n t ¸ . If th e scatterin g ex p erim en t in tro -
d u ces a (m o m en tu m o r len g th ) sca le ¹ , th en o n e ca n
in d eed im a g in e th e m ea su red co u p lin g co n sta n t to b e
d ep en d en t o n th a t sca le ¹ . B u t w e w o u ld ex p ect p h y si-
ca l p red ictio n s o f th e th eo ry (lik e E ) to b e in d ep en d en t

RESONANCE  June 2008 517


SERIES  ARTICLE

o f ¹ . T h is is p recisely w h a t h a p p en s in q u a n tu m ¯ eld
th eo ry a n d th e toy m o d el a b ov e is a sim p le illu stra tio n .
W e see fro m (7 ) th a t, in D = 1 , th e co u p lin g co n sta n t
¸ h a s th e d im en sio n s o f L ¡1 so th ere is n o d i± cu lty in
o b ta in in g E / ¸ 2 . T h e o n e-d im en sio n a l in teg ra l co rre-
sp o n d in g to (1 0 ) is co n v erg en t a n d y o u ca n ea sily w o rk
th is o u t to ¯ x th e p ro p o rtio n a lity co n sta n t to b e 1 / 4 .
T h e lo g a rith m ic d iv erg en ce o ccu rs in D = 2 , w h ich is
k n ow n a s th e critica l d im en sio n fo r th is p ro b lem . T h e
b rea k in g d ow n o f n a iv e sca lin g a rg u m en ts a n d th e a p -
p ea ra n ce o f lo g a rith m s a re ra th er u b iq u ito u s in su ch a
ca se. (T h ere a re o th er fa scin a tin g issu es in D ¸ 3 a n d
in sca tterin g b u t th a t is a n o th er sto ry.)
T h e ex a m p les d iscu ssed h ere a re a ll ex p lo red ex ten siv ely
Address for Correspondence in th e litera tu re a n d a g o o d sta rtin g p o in t w ill b e th e
T Padmanabhan referen ces [1 -5 ].
IUCAA, Post Bag 4
Pune University
Suggested Reading
Campus
Ganeshkhind
[1] L R Mead and J Godines, Am. J. Phys., Vol.59, No.10, pp.935–937, 1991.
Pune 411 007, India.
[2] P Gosdzinsky and R Tarrach, Am. J. Phys., Vol.59, No.1, pp.70–74 1991.
Email:
[3] B R Holstein, Am. J. Phys., Vol.61, No.2, pp.142–147, 1993.
paddy@iucaa.ernet.in
[4] A Cabo, J L Lucio and H Mercado, Am. J. Phys., Vol.66, No.3, pp.240–
nabhan@iucaa.ernet.in
246, 1998.
[5] M Hans, Am. J. Phys., Vol.51, No.8, pp.694–698, 1983.

518 RESONANCE  June 2008

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