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4/3 Direction control valves

The 4/3 valves have 4 ports and 3 distinct positions.


Construction and operation
The construction and operation of a typical sliding-spool type 4/3 DC valve is illustrated in
fig. this valve also has four ports P, A,B, and T.
Spool position ! for the spool position sho"n in fig, the fluid can flo" fro# port P to port A and
return fro# port B to port T.
Spool position $! during the neutral position sho"n in fig. all the ports are %loc&ed.
Spool position 3! for the spool position sho"n in fig. the reverse flo" is per#itted. i.e., fluid can flo"
fro# port P to port B return fro# port A to port T.
Centre flow configurations for three-position, four-way valves
There are t"o e'tre#e positions of a 4/$ control valve controls the t"o e'tre#e direction of #otion
of fluid. (n 4/3 valves, the third position usually is an inter#ediate or a centre position. )arieties of
center positions are possi%le inn 4/3 DC valves %y suita%ly designing the spool. *ig illustrates so#e of
the "idely used center flo" path configurations for 4/3 valves.
These center position are %riefed %elo" !
1.Open center! in open center type, all ports of the valve P, A, B, and T are open to each other, as
sho"n in fig.
Advantage ! as soon as the cylinder co#pletes its cycle, the open center DC valve allo"s the
pu#p flo" return to %ac& the tan& +reservoir, at a #ini#u# pressure. This prevents unnecessary
heat %uild-up in the syste#.
Disadvantage ! "hen the valve is centered, no other cylinder can operate. Therefore open-center
type valve is used #ostly for a single cylinder or single #otor circuit.
.closed center! in closed center type, all ports of the valve P, A, B, and T are %loc&ed to each
other, as sho"n in fig.
advantage ! the closed center type valve can use the pu#p flo" for other parts of the circuit.
Therefore closed typed valves are used "hen #ultiple functions are to %e acco#plished fro# one
source.
Disadvantage! "hen the valve is in closed center position, the pu#p cannot flo" %e unloaded to
the tan&. -o the hydraulic cylinder or fluid #otor cannot %e #oved.
3.!ande" center ! the tande# center type valve, as sho"n fig. directs the pu#p flo" out of the
reservoir port T "ith the other t"o "or&ing ports A and B close "hen in the center position.
#dvantage ! li&e open center valve, this type valve also unloads the pu#p at essentially
at#ospheric pressure. The application of this design is to per#it the flo" to %e connected to series
of valves for #ultiple circuits.
Disadvantage ! "hen a nu#%er of cylinders are operated fro# a single source, the pressure
differential for each tande# center valve "ill %e 3 to 4 %ar each "hile the valve is in its center
position.
4.floated center ! the floated center type valves allo" independent operation of cylinder
connected to sa#e po"er source, sho"n in fig.
#dvantage! this type does not %uild up any pressure in the cylinder lines. Therefore, there "ill
not %e any drifting of cylinders during this condition.
Disadvantage ! the load cannot %e loc&ed in this position during the neutral position.