You are on page 1of 13

ACI 506.

3R-91
GUIDE TO CERTIFICATION OF
SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN
Reported by ACI Committee 506
Charles II. Henager
Joseph T. Heneghan
Richard A. Kaden
Albert Litvin
Kristian Loevlie
James R. McNelis
Dudley R. Morgan
V. Ramakrishnan
Michal Maria Rosencrans
Ernest K. Schraeder
Curt E. Straub
Lawrence J. Totten
This is a guide for a means of certifying wet mix and dry mix
shotcrete nozzlemen for application of several but not all types of shotcrete.
Certification procedure includes a learning and training period, a
written/oral examination, and a workmanship demonstration.
Chapter 2 -- Certification production, page 506.3R-2
Keywords: certification; evaluation; examinations; placing; refractory
shotcrete; shotcrete; structural shotcrete; tanks (containers); training
courses; underground shotcrete.
2.1 -- General
2.2 -- Training and study period
2.3 -- Certification examination
2.4 -- Written test
2.5 -- Workmanship demonstration
2.5.1 -- General
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 -- Introduction, page 506.3R-2
1.1 -- Purpose of nozzleman certification
1.2 -- Available procedure for testing nozzlemen
2.5.2 -- Test panel requirements
2.5.3 -- Materials for the demonstration test
2.5.3.1 -- Mixture proportions
2.5.4 -- Equipment for the demonstration test
2.5.5 -- Shotcrete crew
2.5.6 -- Shooting the test panel or area
2.5.7 -- Curing
2.5.8 -- Testing and analysis of test panel or area
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and
Commentaries are intended for guidance in designing,
planning, executing, or inspecting construction and in
preparing specifications. Reference to these documents
shall not be made in the Project Documents. If items
found in these documents are desired to be part of the
Project Documents, they should be phrased in mandatory
language and incorporated into the Project Documents.
* Members of the Subcommittee which prepared the report.
This report supersedes ACI 506.3R-82, effective Nov. 1, 1991. A number of minor
revisions have been made to the report. Several key references have been added
and exi st i ng references have been updat ed. The document has been reformat t ed
and reorganized for enhanced clarity.
Copyright 1991, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
means including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic
or mechanical device, printed or written or oral or recording for sold or visual
reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless
permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.
Theodore R. Crom*
Lars Balck, Jr.
Chairman
Secretary
K.S. Bawa
S.A. Bortz
Gary I. Chynoweth
James T. Dikeou
William A. Drudy
I. Leon Glassgold
C.H. Henager
Joseph Heneghan*
Richard A. Kaden
Rowland J. Kopf
Jim Lanclos
Albert Litvin
V. Ramakrishnan
Thomas J. Reading
Members of the committee voting on the 1991 revisions:
P.T. Seabrook
Chairman
John C. Fredericks*
Subcommittee Chairman
E.R. Rogers
Martin Rohn
Ernest K. Schrader
Raymond J. Schutz
P.T. Seabrook
Lars F. Balck, Jr.
Secretary
K.S. Bawa
S.A. Bortz
Paul D. Carter
Gary L. Chynoweth
Steven H. Gebler
I. Leon Glassgold
506.3R-1
506. 3R- 2 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
Chapter 3 -- Evaluation of the certification examination,
page 506.3R-4
Chapter 4 -- Summary, page 506.3R-5
Chapter 5 -- References, page 506.3R-5
Appendix A -- Bibliography of shotcrete publications
Appendix B -- General questions on shotcrete practice
Appendix C -- Specific questions on wet mix shotcrete
Appendix D -- Specific questions on dry mix shotcrete
Appendix E -- Specific questions on structural shotcrete
Appendix F -- Specific questions on underground
shotcrete
Appendix G -- Specific questions on refractory shotcrete
Appendix H -- Specific questions on prestressed tank
shotcrete
CHAPTER 1 -- INTRODUCTION
1.1 -- Purpose of nozzleman certification
This guide has been prepared to assist those spe-
cifiers, public agencies, shotcrete applicators, shotcrete
users, testing laboratories, and others who may find it
desirable to broaden their own knowledge and/or to esta-
blish a procedure for training and certification of shot-
crete nozzlemen. Since at this time, no official certi-
fication programs based on this guide are recognized,
modifications in procedure and questionnaires to suit local
requirements are encouraged. Nothing included herein is
mandatory, this being only a guide with the goal of
eventual establishment of a uniform national certification
program for shotcrete nozzlemen.
Training and examining personnel will find the
bibliography and certification procedure in the guide to be
helpful tools in any educational program to: (1) train new
nozzlemen and other members of the shotcrete crew; or
(2) increase the knowledge and broaden the capabilities
of their trained personnel to possibly include additional
types of shotcrete applications. This guide does not imply
that an individual nozzleman is required to prepare him-
self unaided for certification, although that possibility is
not precluded. It is the intent that qualified personnel,
with the aid of this guide, references included herein, and
other experience, will train and prepare candidates for
certification.
1.2 - Available procedure for testing nozzlemen
ACI 506R, Chapter 3 -- Preconstruction testing, or
paragraph 1.6.4.2 of ACI 506.2, provides testing pro-
cedures to be conducted prior to the start of shotcrete
construction, to check the operation of the equipment and
the workmanship of the application crew, particularly the
shotcrete nozzleman. Preconstruction testing may be
required for any type of shotcrete construction. It should
verify the ability of the nozzleman to apply the quality of
shotcrete specified for the particular job.
Although the procedure is available to pretest the
ability of a nozzleman on a shotcrete project, it may also
be desirable to require that the nozzleman be certified to
be knowledgeable and to have previously demonstrated
his ability to apply a specific type of shotcrete. The
presence of a certified nozzleman should not preclude a
degree of preconstruction testing, but should provide
increased assurance that the shotcrete applicator will be
able to apply the specified quality of shotcrete. Further-
more, having a certified nozzleman available for small
projects may justify the elimination of all or part of the
somewhat costly and time-consuming preconstruction
testing.
Until a reasonable number of nozzlemen have been
certified, the owner and specifier should carefully weigh
the cost and time required to certify a nozzleman against
the size and cost of a shotcrete project, before specifying
that a certified nozzleman be used on the project.
CHAPTER 2 -- CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE
2.1 -- General
The certification procedure should be divided into
two parts: (1) a training and study period; and (2) the
certification examination, which consists of a written (or
oral) examination and a field demonstration test.
2.2 -- Training and study period
The applicable publications listed in the bibliography
found in Appendix A should be available to certification
examiners and examinees prior to the certification ex-
amination. Answers to most of the questions asked in the
certification examination written test are in the biblio-
graphy publications.
2.3 -- Certification examination
The certification examination should be conducted
by qualified personnel of an independent testing lab-
oratory, materials bureau, local ACI Chapter, or the
testing laboratory of a public agency. The testing lab-
oratory or materials bureau should issue the actual
certification, which should be valid for a stated period of
two or three years. The nozzleman may renew his certi-
fication by repeating the entire examination or, at the
option of the certification examiner, by repeating the
workmanship demonstration only.
The examination may be adapted to certify dry mix
or wet mix shotcrete nozzlemen in the following types of
shotcrete applications:
CERTIFICATION OF SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN 506.3R-3
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Structural
Refractory
Underground
Prestressed Tanks
Special Products -- Fiber-reinforced shotcrete,
latex modified shotcrete, and others as the
need develops.
It is recommended the examination consist of two
parts, a written (or oral) test, and a field workmanship
demonstration.
2.4 -- Written test
The written test offered herein is divided into three
sections. The questions in the first section are based on
general shotcrete practice. The second section of the test
presents specific questions on the particular types of shot-
crete for which the examinee may be certified. The third
section of the test presents specific questions on the
particular types of shotcrete application for which the
examinee may be certified.
1. General Questions: Ten questions may be selected
in part or entirely from the questions listed in
Appendix B.
2. Specific Type Shotcrete Questions: Fifteen or more
questions may be selected in part or entirely from
the questions listed in Appendixes C (Dry Mix), or
D (Wet Mix).
3. Specific Type Application Questions: Fifteen or
more questions may be selected in part or entirely
from the questions listed in Appendixes E, F, G,
and H.
The certification examiner may give this test either
orally or written.
2.5 -- Workmanship demonstration
2.5.1 General -- The examinee should be required to
demonstrate his ability to correctly and successfully apply
the type of shotcrete for which he will be certified.
Effective nozzling is a skill learned from experience and
is physically demanding. Only persons who are physically
able and experienced should be allowed to take the exam.
A test panel or test area, simulating a surface
suitable for the type of shotcrete for which the examinee
is to be certified, should be shot by the examinee using
the equipment, materials, mix proportions, and rein-
forcement normally used for the particular type of shot-
crete. The test panel or area should be a minimum of 4 ft.
(1.2 m) square to allow the examinee to adequately
demonstrate his ability. Provision may be made to accum-
ulate and measure rebound from the panel or test area.
Certification requirements may vary from different
types of shotcrete, and the certification examiner should
consult with the shotcrete applicator to establish the
proper type of shooting surface for the test panel or area,
the proper thickness of the shotcrete application to cor-
relate with acceptable core or cube dimensions, mix pro-
portions for dry mix or concrete proportion mix for wet
mix, and normal reinforcement requirements.
The test panel or area should be checked by the
certification examiner to verify that the forms are ade-
quately braced, reinforcing steel bar laps are spaced 2
bar diameters apart, mesh is lapped 1 squares, rein-
forcement is properly spaced and rigidly tied and secured
to avoid movement during the shotcrete operation, and
shooting surfaces and reinforcement are clean and pro-
perly prepared to receive shotcrete application.
2.5.2 Test panel requirements -- The surface to be
shot against, anchorages, reinforcement, panel orientation
(vertical, horizontal, or overhead), total sample thickness,
material, and mix shall duplicated job requirements as
nearly as practical.
2.5.3 Materials for the demonstration test -- The
certification examiner may refer to ACI 506R-90, Chapter
2 -- Materials, as a guide for quality requirements for
shotcrete materials. The certification examiner should
consult with the shotcrete applicator to establish the
materials and mix proportions for the test.
2.5.3.1 Mixture proportions -- If sufficient data
are available from previous tests of the materials, shot-
crete mixture proportions may be selected from such data
to produce a given compressive strength.
If insufficient or no previous data are available, at
least three shotcrete control test panels with a minimum
thickness of 3 in. (75 mm) should be shot by an exper-
ienced nozzleman using different proportions. Cores or
cubes taken from the test control panels shall be removed
and tested in accordance with ASTM C 42. See paragraph
2.5.8 for additional requirements.
Based on the compressive strength achieved by the
cores or cubes taken from the test control panels, a mix-
ture proportion should be selected for the test which
should produce shotcrete with a 28-day compressive
strength of a least 4000 psi (27.5 MPa). Core strengths
should be corrected to an L/D of 2 in accordance with
ASTM C 42 and cube strengths should be reduced by 15
percent in accordance with ACI 506.2. Compressive
strength and setting time requirements for refractory test
panels differ from other mixes. Where quick-setting
additives or comments are used, compressive strength and
setting time may be adjusted to test for initial set time
and initial strength in addition to ultimate compressive
strength.
2.5.4 Equipment for the demonstration test -- The test
should be conducted using equipment of a design and size
normally used for the specified type of shotcrete. The cer-
tification examiner may refer to ACI 506R, Chapter 4 --
Equipment Requirements, as a guide for recommended
equipment requirements for either the dry mix process or
the wet mix process.
2.5.5 Shotcrete crew -- A competent crew, including
an experienced gunman or pump operator, nozzle helper,
506.3R-4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
and possibly a finisher, should be provided to assist the
CHAPTER 3 -- EVALUATION OF THE
nozzleman examinee in his demonstration.
CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION
2.5.6 Shooting the test panel or area -- The
certification examiner should carefully observe shooting of
the test panel or area, and note if the nozzleman
examinee:
The value of the three segments of the examination
may be weighted as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cleans shooting surface with air and water prior to
shooting.
Written or Oral Examination
Applies bonding coat on shooting surface ahead of
heavier shotcrete applications.
1. General Questions - 10 percent
2. Specific Type Questions - 15 percent
3. Specific Use Questions - 15 percent
4. Workmanship Demonstration - 60 percent
Directs shotcrete application around reinforcement
in a manner which prevents buildup on face of
reinforcement and allows shotcrete to flow and
compact tightly around back and remainder of
reinforcement.
If applicable, directs finisher or nozzle helper to cut
out any sags or sand pockets.
The examinee should attain an overall 70 percent
grade to pass, with not less than a 60 percent grade in any
single segment of the examination.
Allow 100 points for both the general and each of
the specific question segments, making the value of each
question correspond with the total number of questions
used to achieve 100 points.
If applicable, and where necessary, directed finisher The examinee shall achieve a passing grade in the
or nozzle helper to broom shotcrete surface prior to written or oral examination before he is allowed to pro-
application of additional layer of shotcrete. Notes, ceed with the workmanship demonstration.
photographs, or other documentation made by the Allow 100 points for the workmanship demon-
certification examiner during gunning of the test stration test. Deduct points for unsatisfactory parts of
panel or area will be helpful later in testing and shotcrete application as noted below. All items should be
analyzing the test panel or area. evaluated and graded.
2.5.7 Curing -- The test panel or area should be
properly cured in accordance with ACI 506R, Chapter 6--
paragraph 6.4 -- Curing and Cold Weather Protection,
and ACI 506.2, paragraph 3.7.
1. Compressive strength tests -- Average strength of
three cores or modified cube results below strength
established for test -- deduct SO points
2. Encasement of reinforcement -- Sandy pockets or
voids around or behind reinforcement or sags under
horizontal reinforcement -- deduct 15 points
Curing requirements for refractory shotcrete panels
should be in accordance with ACI 547R.
2.5.8 Testing and analysis of test panel or area -- Tests
and observations of the test panel or area will be used to
evaluate the workmanship demonstration.
A minimum of six cores or cubes should be cut from
the panel or test area. Three cores or cubes cut through
unreinforced sections of the test panel or area should be
subjected to compressive strength tests. Test results will
be compared with the compressive strength requirement
established for the test. At least three cores or cubes
should be cut through the reinforcement for analysis of
quality and extent of shotcrete encasement. All cores or
cubes should be examined for evidence of sand pockets,
voids, and sags.
Where applicable, the stripped side of the panel
should also be examined for evidence of sags, sand
pockets, and lack of bonding coat. Corners and other
sections of the panels or areas should be cut or broken
open for observation of laminations, sand lenses, or other
defects.
The certification examinee should be allowed to
examine the cores or cubes and cut or broken sections of
the test panel or area.
3. Sand pockets or voids in corners of panels -- deduct
1-7 points
4. Sags or sandy pockets apparent on stripped sides or
backs of panels -- deduct 1-7 points
5. Sand lenses within the destroyed panel -- deduct 1-7
points
6. Failure of nozzleman to clean shooting surface with
air and water prior to shotcrete application --
deduct 1-7 points
7. Excessive rebound -- Local shotcrete testing
requirements may make it necessary to include
measurement of rebound from a test panel or area
as part of the test. Any deductions of points for
excessive rebound should be made in accordance
with value established locally for allowable amount
of rebound -- deduct 1-7 points
CERTIFICATION OF SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN 506.3R-5
CHAPTER 4 -- SUMMARY
The recommendations in this guide are necessarily
broad to accommodate the certification of nozzlemen in
several types of shotcrete application, and to allow modi-
fication of the certification procedure to make it con-
sistent with local shotcrete application requirements.
Success in this certification procedure will require
consultation and cooperation between the certification
examiner and the shotcrete applicator seeking to have one
or more nozzlemen certified.
Certification of a nozzleman for a particular type of
shotcrete application does not ensure that his presence on
a shotcrete project will automatically result in a uniformly
good quality shotcrete application.
Although it may be reassuring to have a properly
qualified certified nozzleman and an effective precon-
struction testing procedure on the shotcrete project, it
cannot be assumed that the quality of in-place shotcrete
will be consistently good unless there is continued at-
tention to, and inspection of, the preparation of surfaces
to be shotcreted, the position and anchorage of steel rein-
forcement, material quality, mixing of materials, equip-
ment operation, removal of rebound, proper curing, and
other miscellaneous items which can affect the end-
product quality of shotcrete. Where structural re-
quirements dictate, compressive strength specimens must
be taken from the work or companion panels during con-
struction.
The use of this guide -- whether for training and
educating shotcrete crew personnel, providing practical
guidance for architects, engineers, and inspectors, or
actually certifying nozzlemen -- should improve the quality
of shotcrete applications.
CHAPTER 5 -- REFERENCES
The documents of the various standards-producing
organizations referred to in this document arc listed below
with their serial designation, including year of adoption or
revision. The documents listed were the latest effort at the
time this document was written. Since some of these
documents are revised frequently, generally in minor
detail only, the user of this document should check
directly with the sponsoring group if it is desired to refer
to the latest revision.
5.1 -- Specified References
American Concrete Institute
506R-90 Guide to Shotcrete
506.2-90 Specification for Materials,
Proportioning, and Application of
Shotcrete
547R-79 (Rev. 1983) Refractory Concrete: State-of-the-
(Reapproved 1987) Art Report
ASTM
C 42-84A Standard Method of Obtaining and
Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams
of Concrete
The above publications may be obtained from the
following organizations:
American Concrete Institute
P.O. Box 19150
Detroit, MI 48219
American Society of Testing and Materials
1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
APPENDIX A -- BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
SHOTCRETE PUBLICATIONS
It is recommended that the latest edition of the
shotcrete publications listed below be made available to
all concerned with any nozzleman certification program.
Those responsible for the certification training
should communicate to the candidate appropriate portions
of the bibliography to bring the nozzleman to a level of
skill and knowledge commensurate with the type of shot-
crete application required and to achieve certification.
1. ACI Committee 506, Guide for Shotcrete, ACI
506R-90, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 44 pg.
2. ACI Committee 506, Specifications for Materials,
Proportioning, and Application of Shotcrete, (ACI 506.2-
77) (Reaffirmed 1982), American Concrete Institute,
Detroit, 8 pp.
3. ACI Committee 506, State-of-the-Art Report on
Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete, ACI 506.1R-84, American
Concrete Institute, Detroit, 13 pp.
4. Shotcreting, SP-14, American Concrete Institute,
Detroit, 1966, 224 pp.
5. Use of Shotcrete for Underground Structural
Support, SP-45, American Concrete Institute, Detroit.
6. ACI Committee 547, Refractory Concrete: State-
of-the-Art Report, ACI 547R-79, American Concrete
Institute, Detroit, 1979, 224 pp.
7. Shotcrete for Ground Support, SP-54, American
Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1977, 776 pp.
8. Application and Use of Shotcrete, A CI
Compilation No. 6, American Concrete Institute, Detroit,
1981, 92 pp.
9. Mahar, J.W.; Parker, H.W.; and Wuellner, W.W.,
Shotcrete Practice in Underground Construction, Report
No. UILU-ENGf-75-2018, University of Illinois, Urbana,
Aug. 1975, 482 pp. (available from National Technical
Information Service as PB 248 765/RC).
10. Recommended Practice for Gunite and Air-
Placed Concrete, Brochure No. G-6, Gunite Contractors
Association, 2837 Newell Street, Los Angles, Calif. 90039.
506.3R-6 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
11. Crom, T.R. Dry Mix Shotcrete Nozzling, (The
Crom Corporation, 250 S.W. 36th Terrace, Gainesville,
Florida 32607).
APPENDIX B -- GENERAL QUESTIONS ON
SHOTCRETE PRACTICE WHICH MAY BE USED
FOR THE FIRST PART OF THE
SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN CERTIFICATION
WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using the
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the X's)
T F
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1 .
8.
2 .
9.
3 .
10.
Laitance on a layer of shotcrete
must be removed prior to the
application of the next layer
of shotcrete. X
In the wet mix shotcrete process
water is usually introduced at the
nozzle. X
Shotcrete may be applied against
an overhead shooting surface. X
As the nozzleman works closer to
the delivery equipment (gun or
pump), lengths of hose should be
removed. X
Shotcrete can be applied
under water. X
Shotcrete rebound should not be
salvaged and worked into later
batches of materials. X
There are two shotcreting processes
dry mix and wet mix. X
Accelerator additives may be used
in the shotcrete processes. X
When water curing is specified
using type one cement, both wet
mix and dry mix shotcrete
surfaces should be kept moist for
a minimum of 7 days. X
A in. (20 mm) thick coating of
good quality, fine aggregate
shotcrete cover over reinforcing
steel will prevent the steel from 4 .
rusting under normal exposure
conditions. X
11.
12.
13.
14.
Curing fresh shotcrete is
necessary to:
a. Keep surface clean X
b. Minimize shrinkage cracking X
c. Make shotcrete strong by
chemical action
X
When encasing reinforcing steel,
the nozzleman should:
a. Hold nozzle closer than
usual X
b. Keep the face of the bar
clean, so he can use steel
until buried X
Reinforcing steel fibers can be
added to both dry mix and wet
mix applications. X
The following shooting surfaces
should be damp but without
ponding or running free surface
water prior to application of
shotcrete:
a. Earth X
b. Concrete X
c. Brick (masonry) X
APPENDIX C -- SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON WET
MIX SHOTCRETE WHICH MAY BE USED FOR THE
PART OF THE SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN
CERTIFICATION WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using this
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the Xs.) T F
Always add water to concrete if it
is difficult to pump. X
Generally, a delay in concrete
supply of up to 20 minutes can be
tolerated by cycling the pump for
a few strokes. X
The entire pumping line system
should first be lubricated with a
grout mix prior to pumping pro-
duction concrete. X
If a concrete truck arrives at the
job site with a 6 in. (150 mm) or
greater slump, generally the
following actions should be taken:
CERTIFICATION OF SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN 506.3R-7
you have 600 cfm (17 m
3
/minute)
air compressor or larger.
a. Reduce the slump by adding a
little dry sand
b. Add a little more water
c. Contact the job
superintendent
X
d. Shoot it
X
X
X
19. As a general rule, shotcrete should
be applied perpendicular to the
receiving surface.
X
20. The nozzleman when encasing steel
should be about 7 ft from the
receiving surface.
X
21. When encasing steel against a
vertical surface, the slump range
can be:
a. 3 to 5 in.
(75 to 125 mm)
b. 1 to 3 in. (25 to 75 mm)
c. 0 to 1 in. (0 to 25 mm)
X
X
X
22. A small aggregate mix requires
less cement. X
23. Since air is added at the nozzle,
the concrete line does not have
much pressure. X
24. A nozzleman can tell that he is
properly encasing steel when he
can see shotcrete build up on the
face of reinforcing steel. X
25. Overspray from wet mix is good
material and doesnt have to be
cleaned off bars not encased. X
26. Generally, concrete should be
placed within 1 hours from the
time batched. X
27. Corners should be shot last. X
28. Rebound that falls into a corner
should be shot in.
X
X
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
X
16.
X
17.
X
18.
Generally, hose plugs may be caused by:
a. Continuous pumping all day
b. Improperly designed pump
concrete mix X
Concrete pumps should not be cycled
in reverse prior to disconnecting
any portion of the pipeline. X
The nozzleman should always turn
off the nozzle air valve whenever
pumping has stopped. X
Hose plugs should be cleared by
applying full forward pumping
pressure. X
X
Gradation of pump mix aggregates
does not matter.
The concrete pipeline interior is
lubricated by the cement paste of
the concrete mix. X
Reducers should be checked
occasionally for wear. X
The hopper area of the pump
should never be entered during
pumping operations. X
Wall sections are best started by
shooting at the top and working
downward. X
Extreme caution is needed when
concrete hose clamps are opened. X
X
One advantage of wet mix shotcrete
over dry mix is that brooming
between layers is not required. APPENDIX D -- SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON DRY
MIX SHOTCRETE WHICH MAY BE USED FOR
THE PART OF THE SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN
CERTIFICATION WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using this
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the X's.) T F
1. Dry mix fine aggregate shotcrete is
also known as Gunite. X
Since wet mix shotcrete is wet,
the shotcrete will easily flow
around reinforcing steel.
With wet mix, the nozzleman doesnt
have to be concerned about over-
spray or rebound.
Impact velocity is not important if
506.3R-8 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Weight batching of materials is
preferred over volume batching for
dry mix shotcrete. X
In the dry mix process, a 1 to 2 mix
proportion of cement to sand is
considered a lean mix. X
Changing the moisture content of
sand will change the volume of
100 lb (50 kg) of sand. X
The change in volume of sand
when water content is changed is
called bulking. X
Lightweight aggregate may be used
in dry mix shotcrete applications. X
The compressor size is not impor-
tant since it is pressure, not volume
of air, that is important in the dry
mix process. X
The recommended maximum size
of nozzle tip for applying
structural fine aggregate shotcrete
is 1-5/8 in. (40 mm). X
When enclosing reinforcing steel,
the nozzleman should:
a. Hold nozzle closer
than usual X
b. In dry mix application, slightly
reduce the amount of water
entering at the nozzle X
c. Keep face of bar clean so he
can see steel until buried X
Sand pockets are caused by:
a. Not curing fresh shotcrcte X
b. Slug from nozzle X
c. Hot sun and sand X
d. Holding nozzle too far from
reinforcing steel X
e. Shooting at too much angle
to wall X
f. Not shooting into corners
first X
g. 100 ft (30.5 m) of hose from
delivery equipment X
h. Shooting over rebound X
12. When applying an outside corner 1. Under normal conditions, the
which is established by vertical recommended minimum period of
groundwire, the dry mix nozzleman water curing of shotcrete con-
would slightly increase the amount taining type one cement should be:
of water entering the nozzle. X a. 1 Day X
13. Material hose plugs can be caused
by:
a. Wet sand X
b. Hot compressor air X
c. Rocks or caked
cement lumps X
d. Poor gunman X
e. Unmixed sand and cement X
f. Kink in material hose X
g. Too much water in nozzle X
h. Not blowing out hose when
gun is shut down X
i. Too small an air compressor X
j. Too much clearance around
gun feed wheel X
14. Nozzleman should shake nozzle
from side to side for smooth work
and least rebound. X
15. The duties of the nozzleman
include:
a. Cleaning shooting surface
with air-water X
b. Instructing gunman to in-
crease/decrease material or
air delivery X
c. Directing finisher to remove
sags or sand pockets X
d. Directing nozzle helper to
remove rebound buildups X
16. If shooting on a very windy day:
a. Put up wind barriers to
protect nozzle area X
b. Move to location sheltered
from wind X
c. Keep shooting because strong
wind does no harm X
APPENDIX E -- SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON
STRUCTURAL SHOTCRETE WHICH MAY BE
USED FOR THE SECOND PART OF THE
SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN CERTIFICATION
WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using this
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the X's.) T F
CERTIFICATION OF SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN 506.3R-9
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8 .
9.
10.
b. 3 Days
c. 7 Days
X
X
For normal environments, the
minimum shotcrete cover over rein-
forcing steel bars in fine aggregate
shotcrete normally is:
a. in. (5 mm) X
b. in. (20 mm) X
Structural quality shotcrete with
compressive strengths in excess of
3000 psi (20 MPa) can be applied
using lightweight aggregates. X
Shotcrete beams must be shored with
the same amount of shoring as a
concrete beam of the same size. X
The bond strength of shotcrete to
brick can be stronger than the
shear strength of the brick. X
A 10 in. (250 mm) thick wall
should be constructed full thick-
ness from the bottom upward to
the top, with the nozzleman
keeping the upper shooting surface
sloping down toward him at an
angle of approximately 45
degrees. X
Small core holes made in a
completed shotcrete wall should be
filled with shotcrete. X
A shotcrete finish coat will bond to
a previously placed layer of shot-
crete which was left properly
broomed and is properly cleaned
with air-water blast immediately
before application of the final coat:
a. If final coat is applied
24 hr later X
b. If final coat is applied
4 days later X
A nozzleman should shoot a thin
bonding coat of shotcrete slightly,
ahead of the application of a
heavier layer of shotcrete on the
following shooting surfaces:
a. Wood forms X
b. Concrete X
c. Brick (masonry) X
d. Steel X
To avoid sand pockets in the
11.
12.
13.
14.
corners of a wall, the nozzleman
should shoot the corners first. X
It is possible for properly spaced
reinforcing steel to be moved away
from the shooting surface during
the shotcrete application if the
steel is not securely tied back to
the shooting surface. X
If a 7-day water cure is specified
for shotcrete, it does not include
weekends. X
The minimum cover for shotcrete
fireproofing of structural steel
columns or beams should be 2 in.
(50 mm). X
A 3 in. (75 mm) thick shotcrete
wall will produce a higher percent-
age of rebound than a 7 in.
(175 mm) thick shotcrete wall.
APPENDIX F -- SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON
UNDERGROUND SHOTCRETE WHICH MAY BE
USED FOR THE SECOND PART OF THE
SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN CERTIFICATION
WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using this
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the X's.) T F
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
If dry, the underground shooting
surface should be dampened
before shooting. X
The most common type of under-
ground shotcrete application in the
United States is the hand-held
nozzle technique. X
In a tunnel, shotcrete application
should start at the crown and follow
down the arch to the springline. X
It is considered good practice to
reuse rebound in subsequent
batches. X
Two main advantages of remote
nozzling are:
a. Nozzleman is in a safer
position to avoid rock fall X
506.3R-10 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
6 .
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14. 5 .
15.
16.
b. Greater production is possi-
ble with remote nozzle X
Rebound losses are greater if a 6
in. (150 mm) thick shotcrete lining
is shot in one pass rather than
three 2 in. (50 mm) passes. X
Fiber reinforcement may be
included in both wet mix and dry
mix shotcrete applications. X
An accelerator additive may be
used in both wet mix and dry mix
shotcrete. X
An accelerator additive may be
used to:
a. Increase early strength
of shotcrete X
b. To permit rapid buildup of a
thick section of shotcrete X
c. To seal off water seepage X
d. To reduce amount of
rebound X
Wherever possible, the nozzle
should be aimed at a right angle
to the shooting surface. X
Interior corners, recesses, and
hazardous rock areas should be
shotcreted prior to shooting rock
block areas. X
Tunnel side wall should be shot
from the bottom up to the
springline. X
Shotcrete may be placed at air
temperatures less than 38 F (3 C)
provided cement aggregate and
water are preheated to at least
50 F (10 C) and sufficient heat is
provided to prevent in-place shot-
crete from freezing. X
Underground shotcrete should be
protected from dehydrating if the
relative humidity is below 85
percent. X
Shotcrete may be used for
temporary rock support or for
permanent tunnel lining. X
The main advantage of the hand-
held nozzle over the remote nozzle
is the ability of the nozzleman to
place shotcrete in tight or
restricted areas. X
17. Cement-accelerator compatibility
should be tested prior to placement
of underground shotcrete using an
accelerator. X
18. Special protective clothing an
respirators are required for work-
men handling accelator material
and in the vicinity of shotcrete
placement. X
APPENDIX G -- SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON
REFRACTORY SHOTCRETE WHICH MAY
BE USED FOR THE SECOND PART OF THE
SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN CERTIFICATION
WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using this
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the Xs) T F
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
Calcium aluminate cement is a
high alumina cement. X
A sudden spalling that occurs as
the result of a buildup of steam
pressure within the shotcrete itself,
caused by too rapid initial external
heating of the shotcrete, is referred
to as explosive spalling. X
A refractory shotcrete having a
high density (more than 140 lb per
cu ft (2200 kg per m
3
), is known
as an insulating refractory
shotcrete. X
A castable refractory is the surface
of a refractory section not exposed
to the source of heating. X
The same amount of water should
be introduced at the nozzle in dry
mix shotcrete application of a
refractory concrete as with a dry
mix application of portland
cement shotcrete.
X
Shotcrete application of a refractory
concrete can increase the in-place
density and result in other changes
in the physical properties,
CERTIFICATION OF SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN 506.3R-11
7.
X
8.
X
9.
X
10.
X
11.
12.
X
13.
X
14.
X
15.
16.
17.
particularly in lower density
refractory concretes. X
Refractory concretes which have a
calcium aluminate cement binder
do not require any moist curing.
If refractory concrete is properly
shotcreted in place, the first heat-
up can be very fast, i.e., less than
1 hr.
Where a refractory concrete is to
be exposed to high temperatures
over 2000 F (1100 C), carbon steel
anchors and hex mesh may be
used for anchoring the refractory
concrete to the substrate.
In shotcreting of refractory con-
crete, a slope or feathered edge
should be left if the entire area to
be shotcreted cannot be completed
in a single placement.
Moist curing of refractory shot-
crete containing calcium aluminate
cement need only be done for the
first 24 hr after shooting. X
A refractory shotcrete can be pre-
dampened by soaking the bags in
a mortar pan filled with water.
If there is electrostatic discharge
at the nozzle during shotcreting
of refractory concrete, it signifies
that there is too little calcium
aluminate cement in the mix.
To obtain maximum heat resistance
for the refractory concrete, the
shotcreted material should be
given a dense, hand trowelled
finish to improve the heat
resistance.
A natural gun finish for refractory
shotcrete is preferred because
there is no danger of surface
damage from finishing tools. X
Steel fibers should never be mixed
with refractory shotcrete.
A prefired refractory anchor
(ceramic anchor) is used in areas
where refractory concrete is
18.
19.
20.
21.
subjected to a high service temp-
erature over 2000 F (1100 C). X
Prior to repairing refractory con-
crete with refractory shotcrete, a
neat calcium aluminate cement
slurry may be coated over the sur-
face to be repaired to increase
the bond. X
Prefired refractory anchors
(ceramic anchors) should extend to
the hot face of the refractory
concrete. X
In repairing existing refractory
concrete with new refractory con-
crete, an excellent chemical bond
is formed between the old and
the new material so that no steps
need be taken to prepare the
existing surface to enhance mech-
anical bonding.
Castable refractory mixes can be
successfully placed by the
shotcrete method. X
X
X
APPENDIX H -- SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ON
PRESTRESSED TANK SHOTCRETE WHICH MAY
BE USED FOR THE SECOND PART OF THE
SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMAN CERTIFICATION
WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(The correct answer is indicated by an X. In using this
questionnaire, the examiner should recopy adding any further
questions desired and omitting the Xs.) T F
1. Continuous good curing of the out-
side of the wall is necessary
until all shotcrete is shot on the
inside of the tank wall and until
after expiration of the specified
cure period. X
2. Curing fresh shotcrete is necessary
to:
a. Keep surface clean X
b. Minimize shrinkage X
c. Increase strength by the
chemical reaction between
cement and water X
3. The hose length between gun and
nozzle should always be as short as
506.3R-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
possible for good production, extra
lengths being taken out or added
as needed. X
Normally a in. (20 mm) thick
coating of shotcrete cover over
steel will prevent rusting under
normal exposure conditions. X
To finish shotcrete just after it
has been shot may cause surface
cracking which will show up after
shotcrete hardens. X
It is necessary to have good curing
of the shotcrete to have a water-
tight, crack-free tank. X
Sand pockets cannot occur against
the steel wall diaphragm if a one-
to-three mix is used. X
A mix of one bag of cement to
300 lb (140 kg) of sand is
normally used to shotcrete in
prestressing wires and against the
steel wall tank. X
If steel wall diaphragm is shot-
creted from 8 ft (3 m) to keep
from vibrating the steel diaphragm,
sand pockets can form in the
dovetail slots. X
The maximum thickness of one
coat of shotcrete on a vertical
wall (other than on steel dia-
phragm) before it will slip is about
1 in. (40 mm). X
In shooting prestress wire, the
nozzle should be held close to the
wall so the wire pattern hardly
shows after in. (5 mm) cover
is placed. X
A smaller nozzle tip opening
should be used to increase nozzle
velocity when shooting reinforcing
steel, diaphragm, and prestress
wire. X
The flash coat on the underside
of the dome shell should be at
least in. (10 mm) thick. X
In shotcreting reinforcing bars,
the nozzle distance is as important
as the wetness of the shotcrete. X
15. When shooting a floor or dome,
nozzle should be:
a. Pointed almost at ends of
toes X
b. Held about 4 ft (1.2 m)
above mesh X
c. Held 2 to 3 ft (0.8 m to
1.0 m) from dome ring
dowels X
16. Sand pockets can occur in the
corners of the diaphragm dovetails,
particularly if reinforcing bars
are placed too close to corners. X
17. In shooting on existing shotcrete
always:
a. Wash wall clean with strong
air-water blast X
b. Shoot on a dry surface X
c. Shoot form corners, angles,
pipe sleeves, etc., first X
18. In shooting prestress wire, the
nozzleman should:
a. Point the nozzle slightly
uphill to get under wire X
b. Stand back so the wire
pattern will show, which
proves each wire is coated. X
c. Hold the nozzle close so that
the coating is beaten flat and
wire pattern is hidden X
d. Shoot extra wet so drips
will run down a little X
e. Shoot just a little wetter for
glossy appearance without
dry spots X
f. Shoot a little dry so shot-
crete wont slide from behind
wires X
19. In shooting reinforcing bars, the
nozzleman should:
a. Hold the nozzle closer than
usual X
b. Keep face of bar clean so he
can see steel until buried X
c. Stand far back so the nozzle
blast does not vibrate bars X
20. Shotcrete test samples need not be
cured. X
21. In shooting thick sections such as
dome coves, floor joints, on wall-
CERTIFICATION OF SHOTCRETE NOZZLEMEN 506.3R-13
floor coves, the nozzleman should
c. With the nozzle only 2 ft
shoot:
(0.6 m) from dowels or other
a. Very wet so there will be no
heavy reinforcing steel to
sand pockets X keep the steel clean X
b. Dry enough to walk on with
foot prints not more than d. With the nozzle 3 to 4 ft
in. (20 mm) deep X (0.9 m to 1.2 m) up from
surface except when steel
bars are being covered X