~J .dt": II J\b .··4 uw.~ Bahrain Airport Services Engineering Training Centre
EASA IR PART 147 Approval No. EASA .147.0002
EASA PART 66 License Training Program
AUTHORITY
It is IMPORTANT to note that the information in this book is for study I training purposes only.
When carrying out a procedure / work on aircraft / aircraft equipment you MUST always refer to the relevant aircraft maintenance manual or equipment manufacturer's handbook.
You should follow the requirements of your national regulatory authority and laid down company policy as regards local procedures, recording, report writing, documentation .. etc.
For health and safety in the workplace you should follow the regulations/guidelines as specified by the equipment manufacturer, your company, national safety authorities and national governments.
NOTE
It is a policy to review our study material in light of changing technology and syllabus requirements. This means that books are rewritten and / or updated on a regular basis.
BAS Engineering Training Centre Kingdom of Bahrain
Tel: 00973 17321877
Fax: 0097317339019 Email: mbaloshi@bas.com.bh
CONTENTS
PAGE
Arithmetic 1
Fractions 7
Decimals 13
81 system, weights, measures & conversion factors 18
Ratio & proportion 22
Percentages 25
Averages 27
Mensuration 29
Lines & Angles 41
In book 2
Algebra
Equations
Binary system Geometry
Graphs Trigonometry Revision questions
ARITHMETIC
Arithmetical Terms and Signs
A whole number is technically called an INTEGER and they can exist as either a positive number or a negative number.
'Positive' numbers are recognised by a positive sign in front of the number, eg:
+ 2 + 4 + 7 + 15 etc
'Negative' numbers are recognised by a negative sign in front of the number, eg:
 3
 6
 12  28 etc
If no sign is shown then the number is considered to be positive, eg:
2
4
7
15 etc
In arithmetic the four basic operations performed are:
(i) Addition (+)
(ii) Subtraction H
(iii) Multiplication (x)
(iv) Division (..; ) When carrying out these operations the following rules apply:
Rule 1.
When unlike signs come together the result is a negative sign.
Rule 2.
When like signs come together the result is positive sign.
BASIC OPERATIONS INVOLVING WHOLE NUMBERS
Addition
When adding numbers the result is called the SUM, eg:
(the sum of 6 & 4 is 10).
2. The addition of + 6 and  4 is written as:
6 +  4
Applying rule 1 this becomes 6  4, the sum of which is 2
 1 
Su btraction
This is the process of finding the difference between numbers, eg:
1. 106=4
2. 10   6 = 16
(applying rule 2 becomes 10 + 6 = 16)
Example
Add together the following numbers: +5, 3, 7, and +4.
+5+3+7++4
(applying rules 1 & 2 becomes)
537+4
gives an answer of  1
written as 5 3  7 + 4 ;=  1
The equal sign (=) means that the quantity on the right is equal to that on the left.
The signs positive (+) and negative () can also be thought of as indicators of direction. Conventionally it is accepted that the positive direction is to the right of some datum and the negative direction is to the left of the datum.
Thus if zero (0) is considered as the datum in figure 1, the sum would follow the path shown finishing at 1.
DATUM
+4 FINISH
f ..
I
 7 : 3
I ~

START .. +5
...
\5 14 13 12 1 0 11 12 13 14 15
c ...
NEGATIVE POSITIVE Fig. 1 POSITIVE & NEGATIVE NUMBERS
 2 
Multiplication
Multiplication is the name given to the process of repeated addition of identical numbers (which is the way a computer does it anyway).
Thus the sum of 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 20, may be expressed as 5 x 4 = 20
Rules 1 & 2 that apply to addition also apply to multiplication.
Ie Multiplying 6 and 8 gives the answer 48
and Multiplying 3 and7 gives the answer +21
When multiplying larger numbers it is important to keep the numbers in their respective columns.
Consider 62 x 14
This is written as 62 14 x
To solve this problem the following procedure is adopted:
62 14 x 620 248 add 868
62 x 10 62 x 4 62 x 14
Division
This is the name given to the process of determining the number of times one number (the DIVISOR) is contained in a second number (the DIVIDEND), the result being known as the QUOTIENT.
There are several ways that show division.
ie Divide 12 by 4 may be written as
12 i 4
or as 12 4
The answer here, the quotient, is 3 in both cases.
 3 
Consider a further example 569 i 4
For convenience this may be written as 4 )569
Which may be solved thus:
142
4 )569
400 4 x 100
169 Difference
160 4 x 40
9 Difference
8 4x2
1 Difference
Brackets
Brackets are used in mathematics to group terms that are to undergo a common operation. Brackets are always used in pairs of the same type. A wide range of shapes exist including the following: [ ], { }, ( ).
A number, positioned immediately outside a bracket, will be multiplied by the term or terms inside the bracket, as the bracket is removed.
Ie 3(7 + 2)
3(9) "" 3 x 9
== 27
The multiplying number written in the previous question in front of the bracketed terms, has the same effect if written immediately behind.
Thus (7 + 2)3 also gives an answer of 27.
If no number is shown immediately outside the bracketed term, then it is understood to be 1,
Thus (7  3)
is understood as
1 (7  3) = 4
However
(7  3)
is understood as 1 (7 ~ 3) = 1 x 4
= 4
 4 
Adjacent bracketed terms indicated multiplication.
Thus (8  5)(6 +2) == (3)(8) =3x8
= 24
Problems that involve multiple brackets are solved by working outwards from the innermost.
For example:
2[6(7  4)] 2[6(3}] 2[18]
36
Mixed Operations
In arithmetic the operations required, when the signs are mixed, must be carried out in a particular order (in effect the signs have different strengths). The sequence of operations follow the pattern below:
Firstly Then any Followed by Then
And finally
'Brackets' must be removed. 'Division' must be carried out, 'Multiplication'
'Addition'
'Subtraction'
This is easily remembered from the word made up of the first letter of each operation.
'BODMAS'
'0' has been added to help form the word and may be taken as the operation 'of. Consider the following:
Example (1)
Solve 2 + 6 x 9 + 3(2 +5)  8
;;;:: 2 + 6 x 9 i 3(7)  8 Brackets
2+6x9+3x78
zz; 2+6x3x78 Division
;=; 2 + 126  8 Multiplication
128  8 Addition
120 Su btraction  5 
Example (2):
162 ; (18) + (5  10)  2(33 +6)
= 162 ; (18) + (15)  2(27) Brackets
= 9 + (15)  2(27) Division
= 9  15 + 54 Multiplication
9 + 39 Addition
30 Subtraction Now try the first Activity. You should cover up the answers until you have completed your working out.
I Activity 1
9 + 4 x 30 + 3{6 + 4}  4
1) Find the product of 24 and 13
2) Solve 6390 ; 15.
3) What is the answer to the following problem?
Answer to Activity 1
1) 312
2) 426
3) 405
If you feel confident with this section then continue with the next section.
 6 
Fractions
A fraction is part of a whole.
ie 3 is % (one half) of 6
Similarly Imm is /0 (one tenth) of lcm.
Quantities expressed in a way that involves one integer divided by another integer are called VULGAR or COMMON FRACTIONS. The term vulgar is used to distinguish them from decimal fractions which we will cover later in the unit.
The fraction % indicates that the whole has been divided into 8 equal parts and that 7 of these parts are being considered. The number above the line, in this example 7, is known as the NUMERATOR and the number below the line, 8, as the DENOMINATOR.
Vulgar fractions may be further classified into the following groups: proper fractions, improper fractions and mixed fractions.
A 'proper fraction' has the numerator smaller than the denominator eg, J76 and %. Proper fractions are therefore always less than 1.
An 'improper fraction' is one in which the numerator is the same as or greater than the denominator eg, t and ~i.
'Mixed fractions' are a combination of proper fraction and whole numbers eg, 1t and 1St.
Mixed fractions are therefore always greater than 1.
Improper fractions can be changed into either 1, as with ~:, or into a mixed number as with 1 which can be expressed as It.
We will now consider, in turn, each of the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as applied to fractions.
Addition and Subtraction
In order to add or subtract fractions, it is first necessary to express them with a common denominator.
When this has been achieved then the numerators may be simply added or subtracted.
 7 
As previously shown, unity or 1 can be represented by a fraction in which the numerator and denominator are the same ie ~,~, ~~, etc, thus the value of any fraction remains the same if both the numerator and denominator are multiplied by the same integer.
ie
1 2 3 12
==::;::== etc
2 4 6 24
The value also remains the same if the numerator and denominator are divided by the same number.
ie
36 18 9
==
80 40 20
This process is known as SIMPLIFICATION and can reduce the fraction to a simpler form. Consider now the following examples.
Examplel)
2 1 + 3 9
6 1
= +
9 9
(both fractions now have the same common denominator)
6+1
=
9
7
=
9
Example 2) 5 5

6 12
10 5
= .
12 12
105
12
5
= 
12
Example 3} 4!_115
8 16  8 
3~~~ 8 16
(subtracting first the integer part of the mixed fraction)
~ 32_~ 16 16
Here, although both the denominators are the same, 15 cannot arithmetically be subtracted from 2, therefore it is necessary to convert 32 to 218 .
16 16
Hence
218~15 16
2~ 16
Multiplication and Division
Multiplication
The product of two or more fractions is obtained by multiplying the numerators together to form the numerator of the product and by multiplying the denominators together to form the denominator of the product. The final fraction is then reduced to its lowest form.
2 12 I Example 1)  xx
5 15 4
Multiplying the numerators together, ie 2 x12 x 1, equals 24. Multiplying the denominators together ie 5 x 15 x 4 equals 300.
h 1· f . . 24
Hence t e resu tmg raction IS ~
300
Reducing this to its lowest form (in this case dividing both top and bottom by 6 then by 2)
. 4
gIVeS ~
50
2 = 25
 9 
2 21 Example 2)  x
7 40
The solution to this multiplication may be obtained as in the previous example.
42

280
21
:=
140
3

20 reducing this to its lowest form.
(dividing both numerator and denominator by 2)
(dividing both numerator and denominator by 7)
Alternatively a cancellation method may be used before multiplication takes place.
2 2] x
7 40
Now the 21 in the numerator and the 7 in the denominator can both be divided by 7.
2 2i3
~x
)1 40
Likewise the 40 in the denominator and the 2 in the numerator can both be divided by 2.
'2l 3
x
I 40.20
1 3
"" x~
1 20
3
""
20 Multiplication of fractions involving mixed numbers is best dealt with by changing the mixed number into an improper fraction before the multiplication takes place.
2 4 Example 3) Jx 3 25
 10 
")1 4
"'" x~~
3 2£5
1 4
"" x
3 5
4 15
Division
With division of fractions, a simple rule is followed ie, invert the divisor and then proceed as for multiplication.
Example
6 2
2
( being the divisor)
5
11 5
6 5
"'" x
II 2
= ~ 5 ( cancelling)
x
II ~
15
11
"'" 1~
11 Now try some problems for yourself  activity 2 is on the next page
 11 
Activity 2
Solve following, expressing your answer in the lower fractional form.
l.
3 3 ~+~
4 16
2.
2 1
1+2
3 12
3.
3 3 2~ 8 4
4.
5 12 x~
9 25
5.
1 9 3x
2 14
6.
2 3 2+~
3 8
Answers to Activity 2
l.
15
16
2.
33 4
3.
15 8
4.
4
15
5.
2~ 4
6.
7~ 9
If you have managed to do all of these correctly, well done. If not, look back over the areas in which you have had the difficulty, and attempt the problems agam.
 12 
The next section to consider is decimal fractions} or simply decimals.
Decimals are fractions whose denominators are 10, or some multiple of 10, such as 100, 1000, 10,000 etc. They are indicated by writing one, or more digits to the right of a decimal point.
2
Thus  may be expressed in decimal form as 0.2
10 t
O . 1 .
ecima point
2 = 0.02

100
and 2 = 0.002 etc.
1000 Decimal fractions written as above, that is, without a whole number, are called 'pure decimals'. When a whole number is combined with the decimal fraction, such as 2.2, 15.4, 120.65 etc then the number is known as a 'mixed decimal'.
A decimal such as 7.459 may be written in the fractional form as:
4 5 :9
7 + ~ + ~ + :'
10 100 1000
,"",400+50+9
= I 7, "~'
1000
7 459 1000
Addition of decimals
When computing decimals, the rule of likeness requires that addition or
su btraction is carried out only with like denominations. This means that the decimal points of each number must be kept in line as the example below shows.
Consider the addition of 2.57,34.8, and 0.04
2.57 34.S 0.04 37.41 1 1
 13 
Aligning the decimal points, puts the numbers into their correct position. Addition can then be carried out as with whole numbers.
Subtraction is carried out in a similar way.
ie Subtract 1.370 from 2.620
2. 6120  1.4'3 70 1.2 50
Multiplication of Decimals
The multiplication of decimals is carried out in the usual way, as that used for whole numbers.
Thus 100 x 6.542 = 654.2
This is achieved by ignoring the decimal point until the multiplication is completed.
ie (for the same example} 100 x 6542 = 654200
The position, of the decimal point, can then be found by counting, from right to left, the total sum of the decimal places, in the original problem, (three in this case) and inserting it into the final product.
ie 654~200 b places of decimals from the right
Example 1) Multiply 0.216 x 2.31 Ignoring the decimal points
216 x 231 43200 6480 + 216 49896
Summing the number of decimal places involved in this problem gives a total of five.
Hence the answer becomes:
0'!'49896
! 5 places of decimals from the right
 14 
Division of Decimals
When a division is required involving decimals, the procedure adopted is performed as for long division. However, if the divisor is in decimal form, the problem may be simplified by making it a whole number and correcting the dividend accordingly.
For example
72.828 7282.8
can be written as 
2.52 252
Ie To make the divisor a whole number, the decimal point (in this case) is moved two decimal places to the right. In order that the mathematical problem remains unaltered, the decimal point of the dividend must also move the same number of places in the same direction (to the right).
28.900
252) 7282. 800.
504
I
2242
2
2016
;
2268
 2268 ;
72.828 "" 28.9 2.52
In the last example the problem happened to terminate after one place of decimals, however in many problems an exact answer will not always occur and it will be necessary to terminate the problem after a suitable number of decimal places has been reached. This number will depend upon the requirements of the question or situation, and the operation performed is known as 'rounding off.
Consider the number 15.7508
This becomes or or
15.751 if rounded off to three decimal places. 15.75 if rounded off to two decimal places 15.8 if rounded off to one decimal place.
Note: The last decimal place number required, is increased by one if it is followed by a 5 or larger digit.
The answers to decimal problems are often required in the form of a number of 'significant figures'.
 15 
The number 3172 is or
or
3000 correct to one significant figure. 3200 correct to two significant figures. 3170 correct to three significant figures.
The count of the number of significant figures starts with the first number that holds a value (ie 1, 2, 3 etc. anything other than a zero) and is obtained by counting left to right. Zeros before this value do not signify anything, but zeros within the number are significant.
Thus 0.004283 = 18.00718 ::::
and 293.275 =
0.00428 correct to three significant figures. 18.0072 correct to six significant figures. 293.28 correct to five significant figures.
As with decimal places, the last significant figure required in the number is increased by one if it is followed by a 5 or larger digit.
Before leaving this section on decimals, the relationship between vulgar fractions and decimal fractions should be clearly understood.
If it is necessary to convert a vulgar fraction into a decimal fraction, then all that is required is to divide the numerator by the denominator.
0.5 Thus ]/2 becomes 0,5 ie 2)11)
1.0
% becomes 0.75 ie
0.75 4)3] 00
_3U
20  20
and
5
 becomes 0.3125
16
le
0.3125 16)5.0000
::3J
20
 "'i.6
4 0 _ 4~2
80 80
 16 
I Activity 3
Solve the following problems
1. 27.65 + 4.012
2. 60.25  4.71
3. Multiply 0.142 by 2.93 stating your answer correct to four significant figures.
4. Divide 0.455 by 0.14 stating your answer correct to one decimal place.
S. Divide 367.2 by 1.2 stating your answer correct to two significant figures.
6.
( i)
Convert ~ to a decimal. 8
(ii] Convert 0.875 to a fraction.
Answers to Activity 3
l. 31.662
2. 55.54
3. 0.4161
4. 3.3
5. 310
6. (i) 0.625
(ii) 7
8  17 
Weights, Measures and Conversion Factors
In the UK two systems of units exist, the imperial system and the metric system.
The imperial system is one that has existed from ancient times and, units such as:
The 'inch'  a unit of length (defined in early records as the length of three barleycorns round and dry), and
The 'pound'  a unit of mass (incorrectly called weight) (defined by William the Conqueror as 7000 grains of wheat, taken from the middle of the ear of corn) are part of this system of units.
Although, of course these were modified and standardised over the centuries, with the pound finally taken the form of a cylinder of platinum known as the 'British Standard Pound'.
The metric system was devised by the French in 1791 and has now been adopted for general usage by many countries. This system is based on a unit of length called the 'metre' and a unit of mass called the 'kilogram'. The metre was originally defined as one tenmillionth of the Earth's quadrant (a quarter of the circumference), however, it is now defined in terms of wavelengths of light.
A simplification of the metric system now exists, known as the 'System International d'Unit' (the 81 system), and this is the system most commonly used in Engineering in Europe and the UK.
There are six fundamental quantities in the 81 system, from which all others are derived, these are:
Quantitv Units Symbol
Length metre m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Temperature Kelvin K
Electric Current ampere A
Luminous intensity candela cd In the introductory paragraphs on this topic, some terms were used with which you may not be familiar with, for instance, 'mass'. This is a term, which is used as a measure of the quantity of matter which a substance possesses, whether it is a solid; liquid or gas.
 18 
In calculations, if a 'mass' is quoted, then it is assumed that this value will remain constant, even though the volume, state or location of the mass may change. In the 81 system the fundamental unit, as already stated, is the 'kilogram' (not the gram). Of course these two terms are related, the gram being one thousandth of a kilogram.
Weight is also a term that you are familiar with and although it is discussed in more detail in the Science Unit, an understanding here is useful. The weight of a quantity of matter on the Earth, is the force of attraction between the Earth's centre and the mass in question. As the weight of a body varies slightly in different latitudes, due to the nonspherical shape of the Earth, weight is not constant. Thus the piece of platinum used as the British Standard pound is a standard mass and not a standard weight.
The unit of weight is the 'Newton' symbol 'N'. IN may be thought of as the weight of a small apple (Remember Sir Isaac Newton was supposed to have an apple fall on his head when he discovered the laws relating to gravity).
If you are unsure of the term 'mass' and 'weight' then consider a bag of sugar. In the UK the standard bag of sugar has a mass of lkg. If it is placed on a set of weighing scales they will, or should, read lkg. In fact the scales are measuring the force of attraction between the bag of sugar and the earth not the mass of the bag of sugar. The force in fact being about ION.
If the scales and the bag of sugar were to be taken to the moon, 'the mass of the bag of sugar wouldremain unchanged at 1 kg.' Put the bag on the scales and the reading you would get would be about O.2kg (1.6N). In other words the bag of sugar would produce a force of about Ij6th of that which it exerted on the earth although it's mass has not altered.
Below are some of the units in use in the metric and imperial systems.
Imperial units
Length:
inch, foot, yard, mile.
12 inches (in) 3 feet (ft)
1760 yards (yd)
=
1 foot(ft)
1 yard (yd) 1 mile (m)
Mass:
ounce, pound, stone, hundredweight, ton.
16 ounces (oz) 14 pounds (Ib) 8 stone (st)
20 hundredweight (cwt) =
=
1 pound (lb) 1 stone (st)
1 hundredweight (cwt) 1 ton (ton)
=
 19 
Fluid Volume:
fluid ounce, pint, quart, gallon.
20 fluid ounces (oz) 2 pints (pt)
4 quarts (qt)
Metric Units
Length:
=
1 pint (pt)
1 quart (qt)
1 gallon (gal)
=
=
millimetre, centimetre (non 81 unit), metre, kilometre.
10 millimetres (mm) =
100 centimetres (cm) ==
1000 metres (m) :=
Mass: gram, kilogram, tonne.
1000 grams (gm) =
1000 kilograms (kg) := Fluid Volume:
1 centimetre (cm) 1 metre (m)
1 kilometre (km)
1 kilogram (kg) 1 tonne (t)
rnillilitres, centilitres (non 81 unit), litres.
10 millili tres (ml) 100 centilitres (el)
1 centilitre (ell 1 litre (1)
It is frequently necessary to convert between units) particularly from larger to smaller units and vice versa. On occasions conversions are also required between metric and imperial units. The table below provides some of the multiplying factors that will allow this conversion to take place.
Remember, when working on aircraft it is most important to verify conversion factors and not try to remember them  memories are not totally reliable and verification can easily be made by reference to:
The AMM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual). Pu blished conversion tables and graphs.
Conversion tables! graphs on data plates attached to the appropriate part of the aircraft  refuelling points for example for conversion from gallons to litres and viseversa.
Onboard computer data.
Pocket or desktop calculator.
*
*
*
*
*
Having said this, it is still important to remember the most important ones as the eAA are likely to ask questions on them in the multichoice paper.
TO CONVERT
FROM
Length
inches metres
TO
MULTIPLY BY:
millimetres inches
25.4 39.37
 20 
TO CONVERT FROM TO MULTIPLY BY:
Mass pounds(mass) kilograms 0.45
kilograms pounds (mass) 2.2
tonnes kilogram's 1000
Fluid gallons litres 4.54
Volume litres gallons 0.22
Pressure bar psi 14.5
psi Pa (Pascal) 6895 Examples
(i) Express 20 millimetres in metres.
20 millimetres :::::; 20 : 1000 metres ::::: 0.02 metres
(ii] How many feet are there in 10 yards.
10 yards 10 x 3 feet = 30 feet
(iii) Convert 0.25 tonnes into kilograms.
0.25 tonnes 0.25 x 1000 kilograms ::::: 250 kilograms
(iv) Convert 30 inches into millimetres.
30 inches = 30 x 25.4 millimetres 762 millimetres.
If you feel confident with this section, then try Activity 4.
Activity 4
1. Express 210 millimetres in terms of metres.
Using the previous tables and conversion factors, try the following:
2. How many inches are there in 31/2 yards.
3. Convert 150mm into inches, giving your answer correct to two decimal places.
4. Convert 20 litres into gallons.
5. How many pounds (mass) are there in 15 kilograms.
6. Convert 30 inches into millimetres.
 21 
Answers to Activity 4
l. 0.210 ill
2. 126 in
3. 5.91 in
4. 4.4 galls
5. 33lbs
6. 762mm Ratio and Proportion
In previous work, we covered vulgar fractions and you will remember that these are written as %, 7/16, 1/8 etc. Written in this way they also form ratios, so that % is the ratio of 3 to 4, 7/16, the ratio 7 to 16 and 1/8, the ratio 1 to 8.
These may be written as 3:4, 7: 16 and 1:8, where the symbol: means 'is to' and is a corruption of the (+) division sign.
Ratios are often used as a means of comparison of two or more quantities of the same kind, that is in terms of weight or size or cost etc.
A lift to drag ratio of 10 to 1, (10: 1) would indicate that for every 1 unit of drag force the lift value would be 10 times as great.
The laws that are related to fractions may also be applied to ratios, hence since 12/16 may be cancelled down to % a ratio of 12: 16 should be expressed in the smallest possible numbers, ie (in this case) as 3:4. In some circumstances ratios may appear inconveniently large, such as 15:72. In such a case it is acceptable that the smallest value is represented by 1 and, the other as whole numbers and decimals.
Thus 15:72 becomes 1:4.8 (dividing both by 15)
Ratios are not always confined to two elements. For example the ratio of £12,000 to £8,000 to £4,000 is in the ratio of 3:2: 1.
As with all the previous examples, note that the ratio is a number independent of the nature of the quantities involved.
Ratios are in direct proportion when the ratios are equal.
 22 
For example the ratios 4:6 and 6:9 are equal and may be written as 4:6::6:9 (where :: means 'as').
or 4 is to 6 as 6 is to 9
or 4:6 == 6:9
On occasions you will come across the term 'inverse proportion'. In this case, if two quantities are involved an increase in one results in a decrease in the other. A practical example of this occurs in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine between the pressure and volume of the gas. As the piston moves, compressing the gas, the volume reduces but the pressure increases.
Ie pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.
Example 1 In mechanics the mechanical advantage is defined as the ratio of the load that is to be moved, to the effort that has to be applied in order to move the load. Hence, determine the mechanical advantage of a machine if an effort of 20N is required to move a load of 600N.
Mechanical advantage: Load: Effort 600 : 20 30: 1
Example 2
Divide £630 in the ratio of 7: 3
If the ratio is of the order 7:3 then there are 7 + 3 :::: 10 parts
a single part will equal 630/10 = £63
7 parts = £63 x 7 = £441~
and 3 parts= £63 x 3 = £189
Example 3
Five cleaners can clean an aircraft in 1 Y2 hours. Determine how long it will take two cleaners working at the same rate.
If five cleaners take 1 Y2 hours,
One cleaner will take five times as long ie, 5 x 11/2 = 7% hours
Two cleaners will therefore take half this time ie, 3% hrs
 23 
Example 4
Express 3 inches as a ratio of 1 foot.
A ratio can only be made if the units are of the same kind. In this example 1 foot == 12 inches.
Therefore the ratio is 3 : 12 or 1 : 4
Now try activity 5.
Activity 5
Answer the following questions.
1. In machines the velocity ratio is the ratio of the distance moved by the effort to the distance moved by the load. Determine the velocity ratio if the effort moves through a distance of 6 metres causing the load to move a distance of 200 millimetres.
2. Divide £253 in the ratio 12:8:3
3. Express 16 months as a ratio of 3 years.
4. If it takes 3 persons to paint the livery on an aircraft, 5 days, how long will it take 2 persons working at the same rate.
5. Divide the following into the ratio of 3:2
(a)
250 litres. {b}
(c)
25gms.
370mm.
Answers to Activity 5
l. 30: 1
2. £132:£88:£33
3. 4:9
4. 7Y2 days.
5. (a) 150: 100
(b) 222: 148
(c) 15: 10  24 
Percentages
A percentage is a fraction with a denominator of 100, although this is not written. Instead the symbol % meaning 'per cent' or 'for every hundred' is used.
Thus 25% (twenty five per cent) means 25 parts in every hundred and as a fraction is written as 25/100. 75% as a fraction would be written as 75/100.
To convert a proper fraction into a percentage it is necessary to multiply the denominator by a suitable number to make is 100. Having achieved this, the numerator is then multiplied by the same number.
Ie:
l:::o 1 x 25 = ~ = 25% 4 4 x 25 100
When converting decimal fractions into percentages it is only necessary to multiply by 100 and attach the percentage sign.
ie: 0.63 is 63%
and 0.375 is 37.5%
If the proper fraction is such that it is not 'easy to convert the denominator to 100 then convert the proper fraction to a decimal fraction first. The percentage can then be obtained by multiplying by 100 as before.
Thus ~:::o 0.3125 = 31.25% 16
Example 1 Express 35% as a proper fraction.
35
=
100
7
=
20
Example 2 Find 8% of 720
= _8_x 720 100
= 57.6
3
Example 3 Express  as a percentage. 16
 25 
2;:;;0.1875 16
As a percentage = 0.1875 x 100 = 18.75%
Example 4 Express 50mm as a percentage of 2 metres.
50
=
2 x 1000
= 0.025
As a percentage = 0.025 x 100
= 2.5%
Example 5 What is 30% of 180
~x180 100
= 54
If you feel confident about this section then try Activity 6.
Activity 6
1. Calculate Y2 % of £560.
2. Express 28% as a proper fraction.
3. What is 25 seconds as a percentage of 1 minute.
4. What percentage is 30mA of O.6A (a 'rnA' is _1~ of an 'Amp').
1000
5. A particular steel, an alloy of iron and carbon, has a carbon content of 0.25% by mass. Find the mass of iron in 600kg of this steel.
6. An engine is able to generate 30kW of power. Of this 25kW is usefully engaged. Find the percentage of the power lost.
 26 
Answers to Activity 6
l. 2.8
2. 7
25
3. 41.67%
4. 5%
5. 598.5kg
6. 16.67% Averages
Often to make sense of, or simplify; a mass of numerical data, an average value or mean is determined. This is a single value that can be used for comparison or estimation. You will have heard of 'average rainfall' for the month of*******, or the 'average family', size. Very often we talk about the 'average speed' perhaps of an aircraft or car which is the total distance covered, divided by the total time taken, even though this may involve the aircraft orear being stationary at intermediate airports or service stations en route.
Example lIn an examination of six students the resulting marks obtained were 98, 73, 92, 65,77 and 30.
Determine the average mark.
A 98+73+92+65+77+30
verage =
6
6
== 72.5
435
Comparisons can now be made. Those with marks above 72.5 can be considered to be above average and those with marks less than 72.5 below average.
Example 2 What is the average speed of an aircraft in miles per hour if it travels 7680 miles in 12 hours.
 27 
total distance Average speed = 
total time taken
7680 miles
12 hours
= 640 miles Ihour
Given the average speed of an aircraft now allows estimations of time to be made for other journeys, ie the time taken for the aircraft above to travel a distance of 2500 miles would be:
Time taken Total distance
=
Average speed
2500
=:
640
=: 3.9 ho1,JIS Example 3 A person driving to work uses main roads, motorways and side roads. His total journey distance is 25 miles and this is broken down as shown below:
Side roads Motorway (freeway) Main roads
3 miles (4.S km) time taken 6 minutes 15 miles (24 km) time taken 15 minutes 5 miles (S km) time taken 15 minutes
What is the average speed (miles/hour) for the whole journey.
Average speed
Total distance (miles) Total time (hours)
3 + 15 + 5
=
23
== 38.3 miles/hour
or 36.8 22... 60
61.3 km/hour
 28 
Mensuration
Mensuration deals with the measurement of length, area and volume. All complex shapes can be broken down into simpler basic forms. It is therefore important that you can recognise some of these forms and be able to apply the correct formula when an area or volume is required.
An area is a measure of the region contained within the boundaries of a twodimensional figure. The SI units of area are 'square metres', written as 'm?' (metres x metres). The imperial unit of area is square inch, square yard or square foot.
A volume is a measure of the region contained within the outside surfaces of a threedimensional shape. The S1 unit is 'cubic metres', written as 'm" (metres x metres x metres). The imperial unit is cubic inch, cubic foot or cubic yard.
Below are listed some of the more common shapes together with the formula for their area or volume as appropriate.
A ratio exists when it comes to the circle or shapes of which a circle is part. This ratio is between the circumference of the circle and it's diameter. It is denoted by the Greek symbol T[ (pi),
Such that T[ "" circumference Diameter
Irrespective of the size of the circle this ratio remains constant and approximates to 3.142. The fractional form of 22 h is often used.
I FORM
!
AREA I VOLUME
bxd
I The first five forms are all1201ygons ie, plane
I
]! closed figures bounded by straight lines, in
addition these are further defined as
i guadrilaterals ie bounded by four sides. The I sum of the interior angles equals 360°.
I
11. Square:
all four sides are of equal length and the corners are all right angles (90°).
d (depth) r ..
b
L ....
..,.r
 29 
I I
J
/FORM
I AREA
VOLUME
Rhombus: all four sides are of equal length and the opposite sides are parallel. The opposite interior angles are equal but not
90°.~ ~~ __ ~
I
3, Rectangle: opposite sides are of equal length I
but adjacent sides are not. All angles are
90°.
b
..
bxd
\
bxd
..
h
..
d "
L '''
b
r
...
/4. Parallelogram: opposite sides are of equal
I" length and parallel. Adjacent sides are of different lengths. The opposite interior
I angles are equal but not 90° .
I
I I
I b
L_~ __ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
 30 
bxd
FORM
VOLUME
5. Trapezium: four sided figure with two sides
I parallel.
a
b
The area is calculated from onehalf the sum Of the lengths of the parallel sides ,times the Perpendicular distance between them.
6. Trapezoid: four sided figure with no parallel sides.
a
i C !
.. I ..... i
7. Triangle: three sided figure, the sum of in terior angle s equals 1800.
II ACUTE ANGLED TRIANGLE
. The area of an acute (& obtuse) triangle is
i calculated from onehalf the base length
L times the perpendiculor height.
 31 
AREA
II <:
AREA
VOLUME
%bh
OBTUSEANGLED TRIANGLE
Where all sides are of equal length then the Triangle is known as equilateral. All the Interior angles of an equilateral triangle are 60°.
h
b
EQ UILA TERAL TRI
If just two sides are of equal length, then the Triangle is known as isosceles. In an Isosceles triangle the two base angles are Equal.
ISOSCELES TRIANGLE
 32 
FORM
AREA
VOLUME
When one angle in a triangle is 900, then the Triangle is known as a rightangled triangle.
b
~I
RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLE
8. Circle: plane figure enclosed by a curved line which is always equidistant from a single point (the centre) .
....... ference J:
Ct~ r~&
. .§
(j /
J
/
nd2 4
or
The length of the curved line, forming the Circle, is called its circumference. The Distance from the centre to this is called the Radius of the circle and the straight line Distance from one side of the circle to the Other, passing through the centre, is called its diameter.
9. Circular Sector 1
 33 
VOLUME
~ORM
\9. Circular Segment
[100 Rectang)dlar prism
AREA
A= lf2[rlc(rh)J
d
axbxd
 34 
FORM
VOLUME
11.Pvramid
Perpendicular Height 'h'
Base are a "" The volume of any pyramid is onethird of the Product of the base area (A} and the Perpendicular height 'h'.
AREA
0""'
~
+
N
:....
aJ =
V
H :....
aJ r::
v II
rf) < .l...Ah
aJ
,.D i5 3
+
...< r:i1
H >
~ ~
II 8
aJ ~
V
H <
aJ
"'d r:i1
v n::
t: <
;:1 r:i1
U U
<
p;..
~
~ V= nr2h
CfJ, 3 411:r3
4rrr2 3
Slant I Length
Base area I~of_ is a circle ""7(r2
This formula also applies to the cone which is a circular ramid.
12.Sphere
 35 
I FORM AREA VOLUME
!13.CYlinder
J
I
I
I Two ends
I L 2(nr2) 11r21
+
2nrl
curved
surface )14. Regular Hexagon
I
I
=2.598r2
A=2.S98s2
s
Or
I 14.Regular Octagon
I I
A
I
= 4.828s2 )
'I
=' 2.828r2
I
or
,
j
I I I
l
 36 
FORM
AREA
VOLUME
15. Prism
V=hxA
where
A = end surface area
V= (2a+cl,bh 6
These cover most of the common shapes that you are likely to come across, so lets now use these formulae and attempt activity 7. (continued on next page),
,
,
,
,
, , ,
I I I I I
I
I
I
h
16.Wed~
a
 37 
Activity 7
1. Determine the area of the following, assuming rr = 22/7 where appropriate.
(a) A triangle with a base length 4cm and perpendicular height 6cm.
(b) A circle of diameter 12em. (e) A sphere of radius 6em.
2. Determine the area of the trapezium shown below.
4cm
3cm
3. Determine the volume of a sphere of diameter 5 em.
Answers to Activity 7
1.
(a) (b) (e)
12 ern? 113.14 ern? 452.57 ern
2. 19.5cm2
3. 65.48 ern
 38 
Squares and Square Roots
The shape below is a square of side 4cm.
4cm
Its area is therefore = 4 x 4
= 16cm2
4cm
The statement 4 x 4 = 16 may be written as 42 "" 16 (four squared equals sixteen).
The suffix '2' positioned to the top right of the digit 4 is known as the index and indicates the number of times the 4 (or base number) is multiplied by itself.
When we talk about 'squaring' a number this is the process that is referred to, thus:
two squared is 22 "" 2 x 2 = 4
three squared is 32 = 3 x 3= 9
ten squared is 102 = 10 x 10 = 100
Frequently we need to reverse this operation and this is known as finding the 'square root' of a number. To indicate that this is required, a 'square root' sign is used. It appears as /. If the square root is required a small number 2 is positioned just outside and to the top of the sign thus, 2/.
With square roots, and only square roots, the small number 2 is often omitted.
So, working in reverse, we see that:
the square root of four = 2"\./4 :;;: 2
the square root of nine :;;: 2,)9 "" 3
and the square root of one hundred = ,) 1 00 = 10
 39 
Cubes and Cube Roots
Consider the cube below with sides of l crn.
I I ,
I
I
,
I
I
"",J _
/
/
/
... ..,.,"
:

The volume of the cube =4x4x4
"" 64 ern
In a similar way as that described for a square, the statement 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 may be written as 43 = 64 (four cubed equals sixty four).
Similarly
two cu bed = 23 :.:::: 2 x 2 x 2 = 8
three cubed = 33 = 3 x 3 x 3 = 27
And ten cubed = 103 = 10 x 10 x 10 "" 1000
As before, the 'cube root' of a number is the reverse of this process and uses the same symbol but with a small '3' positioned just outside and at the top of the root sign.
Hence,
the cube root of sixty four = 3064 =' 4
the cube root of eight = 318 = 2
the cube root of twenty seven = 3,]27 = 3
and the cube root of one thousand = 3,]1000 = 10
The examples chosen in this section have been selected to give a whole number answer. Obviously this will not always be the case, and you may need to seek the use of calculators or tables to solve such problems (if allowed on the CAA examination  but of course, when doing calculations with reference to aircraft a calculator will almost certainly be used).
 40 
LINES AND ANGLES
A line is defined as a long narrow mark whereas an angle is the space between two straight intersecting lines usually measured in terms of the amount of rotation.
Line
"\ Angle
Line
In the majority of cases, angular measurement is made in degrees, the symbol of which is a small '0' ie, 200, 450 etc.
It has been agreed that in a full circle or one complete revolution that there are to be 360 divisions or degrees. i.e. 1 revolution = 360°.
Thus in a semicircle or onehalf a revolution there are 180°, and in onequarter of a circle, 90°.
3600
900
This last division of 90° forms what is known as a right angle and is often indicated by a small square situated at the intersection of the two straight lines.
a right angle
The lines which form a right angle are said to be perpendicular to each other.
 41 
To make one complete revolution, irrespective of the radius, the number of degrees moved through will always be 3600. Making two complete revolutions would mean moving through 7200, three revolutions 10800 and so on.
The degree itself may be subdivided into smaller divisions of, initially minutes (') which can then be further divided into seconds (") of a degree.
(one degree)
1 0 = 60' (sixty minutes)
(one minute)
I' = 60" (sixty seconds)
In some instances, particularly in science, it is found useful to measure angles in divisions known as RADIANS.
A radian is a pure ratio and as such has no units, ie it is just a number. However its name, abbreviated to RADS may occur in certain units for the purpose of clarity, ie angular velocity has units of rad.' s. angular acceleration rad/52.
One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle when the arclength formed between two radial lines, is equal in length to the radius.
If the arc length is made the length of the circumference (2nr), where 'r ' is the radius, then the number of radians
=
arc length radius
2nr
r
=2n
 42 
ie, in one revolution or 3600 there are exactly 2n radians.
Radians are frequently quoted as multiples of rt, thus since
3600 "'" then 1800 "'"
2n radians rt radians
and
900 :::
IT 2
As a rough indication of the magnitude of a radian, since n ~ 3.142 then
2n ~ 6.284, ie in one revolution or 3600 there are just over six radians, each approximately 57.30.
Examples
1. Convert 1200 into radians
Since 3600 = 2n radians
1200 {which is a fraction of 360°)
120 2
x IT
360
2 di
IT ra ians
3
2. Conert 66033'22" to radians.
Here it is necessary to convert the minutes and seconds to degrees.
27" 22" := =
60
0.37'
Adding this to the orginal 33' gives a total of 33.37'.
33.37'
33.37 60
;;::; 0.5560
=
Adding this to the original 660 gives a total of 66.556°.
then
3600 66.556°
2n radians 66.556 2
x n
360
= 1 .162 radians
Hence, since
 43 
3. Convert 4.761 radians to degrees, minutes and seconds.
2n radians ::::: 3600
· . 4.761 radians ::::: 4.761 x 360
2n
272.785°
now, 0.785° 0.785 x 60'
47.1'
and 0.1' ::::: 0.1x60"
ee 6"
· . 4.761 radians 272047' 6" 4.
C 4n di . d
onvert  ra ians to egrees.
7
2n radians ::::: 360°
4n radians i~ x 3600
· . 7 2n
::::: 4Y( x 3600
14n
"" 102.9°  44 
The following section deals with the angular relationships that are formed when straight lines intersect. Much of this section is confined to the definitions of these relationships.
An angle that lies between 00 and 900 is known as an ACUTE ANGLE.
Angles lying between 900 and 1800 are called OBTUSE ANGLES, whilst angles greater than 1800 but less than 3600 are referred to as REFLEX ANGLES.
ACUTE ANGLE
OBTUSE ANGLE
REFLEX ANGLE
REFLEX ANGLE
When 900 is formed from two angles i.e. 600 and 300 or 42° and 480 etc, then the angles are known as COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES, with each angle being the COMPLEMENT of the other.
When the sum of two angles make an angle of 180°, then the angles are known as SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES with each angle being the SUPPLEMENT of the other.
In the figure below two straightlines intersect.
w y
The angle wand yare equal in value and are called VERTICALLY OPPOSITE ANGLES.
a
x
 45 
In the figure above, a straight line cuts two parallel lines.
Angle d and yare equal in value and are named ALTERNATE ANGLES.
Angle a and x, as a pair are also equal in value to each other and are known as CORRESPONDING ANGLES.
I Activity 8 (
1. Given the figure below, where lines PQ and RT are parallel, the angle PQS is equal to
(a) 300
(b) 600
(c) a right angle
R
s
T
2.
A
B
c
o
In the figure above the sum of angles ABC and BAC is equal to :
(a) 500
(b) 1300
(c) 1800
3.
B
A
 46 
If AB and DE are parallel in the figure above, the angle ABC is equal to:
(a) 30°
(b) 60°
(c) 400
(Hint, put a horizontal line through C)
4.
b
The diagram above shows two intersecting straight lines, angle 'b' relative to angle 'a' is called:
(a) The supplement of angle 'a'.
(b) The complement of angle 'a'.
(c) The corresponding angle.
5.
The pair of angles, x and y, shown above are called:
(a) (b) (c)
Vertically opposite angles. Alternate angles. Corresponding angles.
6.
In a straight line, that represents 180°, there are:
(a) (b)
(c)
2n radians. n radians. ')
z: rr radians. 3
 47 
7.
The sum of the internal angles of a triangle in terms of radians is equal to:
(a) 3n radians.
(b) 2n radians.
(e) rr radians.
8. The angle shown below in terms of radians is equal to:
(a) (b) (e)
11 di
 ra lans.
2
n radians. 2n radians.
9. If a point 'P' on a wheel makes 2 complete revolutions, this in radians, is equal to:
(a) 2n radians.
(b) rt radians.
(c) 4n radians.
10. An angle greater than 900 but less than 1800 is called:
(a) An acute angle.
(b) An obtuse angle.
(e) A reflex angle.
 48 
11.
2 di . d .
 n ra ians In egrees IS:
3
(a) 1200
(b) 600
(c) 20.90
12. 45' in radians is:
(a) (b) (c)
n d'
 ra Ians
6
0.013 radians. 0.75 radians.
,Answers to Activity 8
11. (b)
i 2. (b)
3. (c)
4. (a)
5. (c)
6. (b)
7. (c)
8. (a)
9. (c)
10. (b)
11. (a)
12. (b)
 49 
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