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Algebra
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Second degree & quadratic Common logarithms
Binary & denary systems Hexadecimal system
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Revision questions
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ALGEBRA
In the mensuration section of this book, we have, for convenience used letters instead of words and produced equations that have provided a general expression for the required shape or form. For example, the area of a rectangle (A) is equal to the breadth (b) multiplied by the depth (d).
Thus, written algebraically this becomes A= b x d, providing a general expression into which any positive value of breadth and depth can be substituted and the area thus determined. Algebra is a field of mathematics that deals with the relationships of numbers using general terms. Equations formed using this method are called 'algebraic equations' and below are some examples of these. As they stand, they cannot, of course, be solved, as this would require additional information.
(i)
2x + 3y "" 7
(ii)
(iii)
W
E =  (V2U2)
2g
(iv)
R = VR EV
Within the same problem, 'like' terms will carry the same value, as t does in equation (ii) or V in equation (iv).
Numbers such as '2', part of 2x in equation (i) are called coefficients, so '3' is the coefficient of y, in the same equation.
The laws and signs that were adopted for arithmetic are also applicable when dealing with algebraic expressions, as we will see.
Often, given a general algebraic expression, a particular solution is required by allocating numerical values to each symbol.
For example 1. Find the value of:
3xy  2xz + x2yz Where x = 2, Y = 4 and z = 1
Substituting the numbers for the symbols (3 x 2 x 4)  (2 x 2 x 1) + (22 X 4 x 1)
24  4 + 16
36
 1 
Example 2. Find the value of: 7y(x + 2z)
When x = 3, y "" 2 and z ;;;;: 4 (7 x 2)(3 + 2 x 4) 14(3+8)
154
We are aware that a 'unit of mass' (kilogram) cannot be added to, or subtracted from, a unit of length (metres). Only those of the same unit can be added or subtracted. Likewise with algebraic expressions, only like symbols can be added together or subtracted apart.
Thus,
and
2x + 4x + 3y  y
=: 6x + 2y (adding the x's and y's separately) 5p + 7q  P + 6q
= 4p + 13q (adding the p's and q's separately)
However multiplication does combine symbols.
Hence
2xx 3y x x = 6x2y
With division, only like symbols may be cancelled as seen below.
8x x x x y ; 2x 4
= 8x2 Y _"8.X2 y
2x 1'2X'
= 4xy
In this last example, a procedure known as 'cancelling' is applied. This is used to simplify the expression.
In arithmetic a fraction such as .!3. can be simplified by cancelling to ~. Since
16 4
12
=
16
"3 x 4 ""4.. x 4
3 4
 2 
Applying this process to the following example: 12x2 y3z
=
36xy2z2
= 1'9. x x: x X x t!.,x'M x yx.a 3Q x x_x s; x yx ~ x Z
3
xy
3z
=
Cancelling may also be applied to bracketed terms, provided that the contents of the brackets are identical
Ie:
s(x + y)
t (x + y)
s~
=
t(~
=
s t
Thus, to simplify the expression x +2(3x + x)  6x ; 2x 6x
"" x + 2(4x)  
2x
x + 8x 3 9x 3
which may be written as
3 (3x  1) Since 3 is common to both terms.
When dealing with the addition and subtraction of fractions in arithmetic, you will remember it was necessary to have a common denominator, thus when
adding 2 and _!_ a common denominators of 3 x 5 (= 15) is used. Note, the
3 5
multiplication of the initial denominators ensures that a common denominator is obtained.
Thus
2 1 + 3 5
2 x 5
1 x 3 5 x 3
= +
3 x 5 10 3 + 15 15
 3 
10+3 15
13
::::
15
In algebra, fractions are dealt with in a similar way.
2 1
Example 1 ~ + 
x y
The common denominator is x x y = xy
2 x y
"" +
x x y
2y x
 +xy xy
2y + x
xy
E 12E 11 'If'
xamp e . xpress  +  as a slng e ractiori.
Rl R2
1 x x Y x X
Common denominator = Ri x R2 :::: RIR2
1 x R2 1 x R]
~= + "'
RlxR2 R2xR1,
3 2
Example 3. Express  +   5 as a single fraction.
a2 a
Common denominator is a2 (already incorporates a).
3 2xa 5xa2
= ~+~
a2 axa Lx a?
3
2a 5a2 +7~
a ~ a 2
 4 
Example 4. Express the following as a single fraction x2 x3
~
3 2
Common denominator is 3 x 2 (= 6)
= (x  2) x 2 (x  3) x 3
3 x 2 2 x 3
2(x  2) 3(x  3)
6 6
= 2(x  2)  3(x  3)
6
2x  4  3x + 9
=
6
5  x
= _
6 This section has covered a lot of ground, so to check your progress. Try activity number 9 on the next page.
 5 
I Activity 9
5
xy  vz  z 3 "
1. Find the value of the following:
(a) 2x + 3xyz  5zy
when x ::= 2, y:= 3 and z == 1.
when x= 3, y;;;;; 4 and z ;;;;;  L
xy + ab + 5x yb  xa + 2
when x = 2, y:= 3, a= 4 and b "" 5.
38p  20q  I2p  8q + I4q x + 2y  3z + 2x  y + 3z xyz
5X2y3z4
2(3x 2y) + 2y + y 6 7y + 3  (2x + 4) + 2x
5 2
+ 
x Y
2 3 2
1 T +
x x Sx _ Y 8y z
aI a2
_
3 4
2. Simplify the following expressions
3. Write each of the following as a single fraction.
(b)
(e)
(a) (b)
(e)
(d) ( e)
(a)
(b)
( e)
(d)
 6 
Answers to Activity 9
1. (a) 7
(b) 25
(c) 4
2. (a) 26p  14q
(b) 3x+ Y
(c) 1
5.xy2Z3
(d) 6x 4y  4
(el 7y  1
3. (a) 5y + 2x
.xy
(b) 2 + 3x + 2X2
x2
(c) 5x:z  8v2
8yz
(d) a+2
12 As we have previously seen the bracket is a useful device for grouping terms or quantities, however care must be exercised when the removal of brackets is necessitated.
Consider a rectangle whose sides are respectively 5 and 3 units, as shown in figure 1. The area of this rectangle is the product of the two sides ie 5 x 3 == 15.
5
... 110
Ai"
'I 3
Fig. 1 A RECTANGLE
 7 
If however, the sides are now expressed as (3+2) and (2+ 1), then the area would still be obtained from their product, but to achieve this a particular sequence of operations would be required.
3
2
2
1
Multiplying the sides together may be written as:
(3 + 2)(2 + 1)
To solve this the sequence of operations would be:
Fli
(3 + 2)(2 + 1)
~,~J
Sequence
3
4
(3 x 2) + (3 x 1) + (2 x 2) + (2 x 1)
6 + 3 + 4 + 2
15
If the sides of the rectangle are now expressed in algebraic form as shown in figure 2 below, the removal of the brackets would still require the same sequence to be followed.
(x + 4)
(x + 2)
 8 
Sequence
Example 1
Example 2
Example 3
(x + 4)(x + 2)
{x + 4)(x + 2}
tJ4J
1 2 3 4
(x X x) + (x x 2) + (4 x x) + (4 x 2)
= X2 + 2x + 4x + 8
= :;.::2 + 6x + 8 (by collecting like terms)
Multiply (x  3) by (x  7)
= (x3)(x7)
;;;;; :;.::2  7x  3x +21 x2  l Ox + 21
Multiply (2x  5) by (4x + 3)
"" (2x  5)(4x + 3)
"" 8x2 + 6x  2 Ox  15
"" 8x2  14x  15
Remove the brackets from (3y  7)(2y  2)
"" 6y26y14y + 14
== 6y2  20y + 14
 9 
Activity 9a
1. Multiply the following bracketed terms together, collecting like terms.
(a) (7x + 4)(2x + 3)
(b) (2x  1)(2x + 1)
(e) (3y  2)(2y  4)
2. Remove the brackets frorn.
(a) (2x  5){2x + 5)
(b) (3x  y)(2x  y)
(c] (5x + 3)(3x + y)
Answers to Activity 9{a)
1. (a) 14x2 + 29x + 12
(b) 4x2  1
(c) 6y2  16y + 8
2. (a) 4x2  25
(b) 6x2  5xy + y2
(c) 15x2 + 5xy + 9x + 3y In the last section the rmrltiplicatiori of bracketed terms is fairly straightforward, provided the rules are followed. On occasions, however the reverse process is sometimes required. This is not so easy, and may require a trial and error approach.
Consider the example of (x + 4)(x + 2)
Multiplying the brackets together gives:
X2 + 2x + 4x + 8
x2 + 6x + 8
To return to the original bracketed pairs it is necessary to first start with a pair of brackets:
)(
given that the first term, in the expression X2 + 6x + 8 is x2 and that this is the product of x and x, an x may be placed in each of the brackets.
(x )(x
The last term is 8 and this is obtained either from the product of 8 x 1 or 4 x 2, but only the sum combination of 4 and 2 will provide 6, the value of the middle term. So, inserting 4 and 2 into the bracketed pair gives:
(x 4)(x 2)
As every term in x2 + 6x + 8 is positive there are no complications with sign allocation. Both the 4 and 2 will be positive.
ie, (x + 4)(x + 2)
This process is known as 'factorisation' with the quadratic expression x2 + 6x + 8 being factorised in to (x + 4)(x + 2).
Example (1)
Factorise x2 + 8x + 15
"" (x )(x
Now 15 is obtained from the product of
15 x 1
or 5 x 3
but only the sum of 5 and 3 will give 8, thus the solution is
= (x + 5) (x + 3)
Example (2)
Factorise x2  9x + 14
= (x 7)(x 2)
For the product of 7 and 2 to be + 14 and their sum to be 9, both must be negative, ie
(x  7)(x  2)
 11 
Example 3
Example (4)
Example (5)
Factorise x2  x  12 = (x 4)(x 3)
4 and 3 are chosen since their product is twelve and their sum is minus one if considered as 4 and +3, Note that it is the larger of the two quantities which takes the sign of the middle term of the original quadratic.
Ie, (x  4)(x + 3)
Factorise 6x2  x  15
This example is much more complicated that the preceding ones, and can only be tackled by trial and error. This is because 15 may be formed by the product of 15 x L, or 5 x 3, and that 6x2 may be formed by the product of 6x and x or 3x and 2x. This leads to many combinations.
re, (6x ) (x
or (3x )(2x
with or
15)( 3)(
1) 5)
Here the solution is ~2x + 3)(3x  5) but there is no easy path to factorise such a quadratic equation.
Factorise x2  9
This is a special type of quadratic and should be recognised as being 'the difference between two squares'. Factorising such an expression is relatively easy and needs only for the root of the number part to be found. It should be noted however that the signs associated to these roots must be both positive and negative as shown below.
(x  3)(x + 3)
 12 
I Activity 9b
(a) x2  9x + 20
(b) x2  9x  22
(c) x2  25
(d) 6x2 22x + 12
(a) (x  4)(x  5)
(b}·· (x ll}(x+ 2)
(e) (x  5)(x + 5)
(d) (2x  6)(3x  2)
Answers to activity 9(b)
Solving Quadratics using the Formula:
is probably the best method, however factorisation provides and alternative method.
Consider the quadratic equation,
x2  1 Ox + 16 = 0
Factorising the LHS of the equation gives
(x  8)(x  2) = 0
It follows that either x  8 = 0
from which x = 8
or x  2 = 0 from which x ::::: 2
 13 
ie the solution to x2  lax + 16 "" 0
IS X = +8 or + 2
Activity 9c
1. Solve the following quadratics using the factorising method.
(a) x2  16x + 39 zx: 0
(bl x2  lax + 24 = 0
(c) x2 + 15x + 36 = 0
(d) x2  81 "" 0
(e) 4x2 + 6x  28 "" 0 Answers to Activity 9(c)
(a) x = +13 or +3
(b) x = +6 or +4
, (c) x = 3 or 12
(d) x = +9 or9
7
(e) x = 2 or 
2 Linear Equations
An equation is a statement that shows equality between two expressions, for example 1m "" 1 OOOmm. Equations may be thought of as a simple beam balance with the fulcrum of the balance situated at the equals sign (=).
 14 
If balance is to be maintained, and a weight is removed from one side the same weight must be removed from the other (at the same distance from the fulcrum) to maintain balance. If the weights are doubled (x 2) on one side then they must be doubled on the other. The equals sign (==) is important so that what is done to one side must be done to the other.
Like a balance anything may be done to one side of the equation, provided that exactly the same is done to the other side, so that equilibrium is maintained. Examples of linear equations are:
7  x = 21 and 5x  6 :::: 20
You will notice that linear equations contain only x or other symbol, raised to the power 1 (ie Xl). This index is rarely written. Higher powers such as X2, x3 etc, do not occur in linear equations.
Linear equations are also known as 'equations of the first degree' or just 'simple equations'. When presented with a linear equation, such as x + 1 =' 5, it is necessary to 'solve' the equation for x. This means that the unknown term 'x' is to be isolated on one side of the equation. For the example given it would be necessary to remove the + 1 from the lefthand side. To do this subtract 1, but remember what is done to one side, exactly the same must be done to the other, so 1 is also subtracted from the righthand side leaving x = 4.
x+ 1 = 5 x+ll=51 x=4
The equation is now said to have been 'solved', and the value of x = 4 is said to 'satisfy' the equation.
Ie
(to isolate x)
Example 1: Solve the equation Sy + 6 ::::: 21
5y + 6 = 21
5y + 6  6 = 21  6 5y = 15
5y [&3
 =  (Dividing both sides by 5 to isolate y)
s, s.
y=3
Note: For clarity it is always advisable to keep all equal signs in the same vertical line.
If like terms occur in an equation, these need to be collected together on one side.
Example 2: Solve the equation 4x  7 = 5  2x
 15 
Following the above procedure
4x  7 + 7 == 5  2x + 7 4x == 5  2x + 7
4x + 2x == 5  2x + 7 + 2x 6x == 5 + 7
6x == 12
6x 12
zz:
6 6
x=:2
This may appear unnecessarily complicated. A simpler way is to realise that a change of side involves a change of sign. Thus for the last equation:
4x7"" 5  2x 4x + 2x "" 5 + 7 6x"" 12
12
X"" 
6
x=2
Example 3: Make 'R' the subject of the equation.
1 1 1
=~+
R R\ R2
Before the right hand side can be inverted, it must be written as a single fraction, you will remember this from a much earlier example.
On the right hand side the common denominator is R] x R 2 (""RIR2)
Thus: _!_= IxR2 + IxR]1
R R\xR2 R2XR\
1 R2 R]
:::: _ +
R RjR2 RIR2
R2 + R\
RjR2
RjR2
1
~ ;:;;;
R
R
::::
R :::: R2 + R, R!R7 R2+ R)
(inverting both sides)
Note> This is worth remembering as it is the solution for finding the Total resistance (R) of a pair of resistors Ri and R2 connected in parallel.
5x 10
 :::::
3
5x 3 10 "
x ::::: X .)
3
5x= 30 Example4: Solve the equation
Multiplying both sides by 3
Dividing both sides by 5
5x 30
~=
5 5
x=6
Example 5: Make x the subject of the equation 2(x  4) == 6
Method 1
2(x 4) = 6
2(x 4) 2
6
(dividing each side by 2) 2
x4=3 x=3+4
x=7
Method 2
2(x 4) = 6
2x  8 == 6 (opening the brackets
first) 2x = 6 + 8
2x = 14
2x 14
=
2 2
x=7
This section has been fairly intensive so now try Activity 10.
 17 
I Activity 10
l. Solve the following equations.
(a) (b)
3x 6 = 15 E.+3=7 2
~~ = 4 2 3
2y  1 = 3y + 4  6y 3(x + 2) = 30 + 2(x  4)
3_ + 4 = 12
x
( c) (d) (e)
(f)
2. Make x the subject of the following equations.
(a) = + 
X XI x2
(b) x2 4
=
x  3 Answers to Activity 10
1. (a) x=7
(b) r=8
( c) s = 24
(d) Y = 1
(e) x = 16
(f) 1
x= 
4
2. (a) x= XIX2
x2 + Xl
(b) 10 1
X=  or 3
3 3  18 
Indices and Powers
In previous work on areas and volumes it was shown that 3 x 3 = 32 and 2 x 2 x 2 = 22
You will remember that the small digit was known as the index and the number to which the index is attached was called the base.
The index is the power to which the base is to be raised and indicates the number of times the base is multiplied by itself.
There are six basic laws that relate to indices. Note that these laws only apply to indices with the same base.
The six laws are:
(1 )
)_il X x:b = _xa + b
for example x4 x )(3 = x7
(2) .xa 7 )_...{J = _xabfor example x3 + x2= Xl or simply x
(3) ()_il)b = _x:aXb = _x:ab for example (X3)2 :0:: x!J
(4)
1
for example 2 = x2
X
(5) (6)
xE = tf;;
1 J r:; for example Xl =V x3
anything raised to the power of zero will equal 1. ie,ao=I,2°=1.
;cO = 1
7
The reason for this is seen when you consider x: . Using the second law, x
x2
X2(2) = ,..co , however we know that ~J = 1, hence x= 1.
x
One of the uses of indices is to simplify expressions. Study the following examples.
Example 1
X2y3z x xy2Z2 x(2+ 1 lyI3+2)Z( I +2) X3y5z3
Example 2
X2y3z5 X y3z2
xl21 )y(33JZ(521 X1yOZ3
XZ3
 1 9 
Example 3 Simplify X2.Jy X JX.3Jy2 Note:
21 1 2
X2y'/2 X X'l' y/3 +
X2'/2 y% 2 3
li Yo
= x Y 6 3+4
=
V;SG 6
 x.~ Y I
7
::::
6
Example 4 (X5)%(y2)4
Xli.y8
23 x 25
Example 5 24 x 2
= 23+541
"" 23 Example 6
(102 X 103 Y l105 +104)
105 Y 101 ) (105.1)2
108
 20 
Activity 11
1. Simplify
(a) x5 x x3
(b) as 7 a4
2.
3.
Express the following with a positive index.
(a) (b)
y3 1
_!
X 
4. Express the following as fractional indices.
(a) (b)
(c)
5. Simplify the problems below to a single index, and hence solve.
(a) 25 x 23
2 x 22
(b) 23
23
(104 x 10""
(c) 106 x 109 )  21 
Answers to Activity 11
1. (a) XS
(b) a4
7
2. xy
Z2
3. (a) 1
y3
(b) x2
4. (a) a%
JI
(b) x72
(c) x
5. (a) 25 (=32)
(b) 2°(""1)
( c) 102 (100) Equations will often contain more than one unknown. The equation x + y = 6 is an example, and cannot be solved without further information. It simply provides a relationship between the unknowns. If however, another equation could, at the same time or simultaneously, be formed containing the same unknowns, then a solution would be possible. For example, if, under the same conditions, a further relationship of say 2x + 3y = 15 was obtained then a solution for x and y would be obtained thus:
Simultaneous Equations
Example 1.
x + Y = 6 equation (1)
2x + 3y =: 15 equation (2)
To eliminate 'y' from both equations, equation 1 is rrrultiphed by 3, this will cause y to become 3y. Subtracting equation 2 from equation 1 will remove all the 'y' terrn s.
x + y = 6 x 3
2x + 3y = 15
3x + 3y = 18
2x + 3\1 = 15
x "" 3
Subtracting
 22 
Having obtained a value for x (""3) this value can now be substituted into either of the original equations to obtain the value of y.
Thus substituting x "" 3 into equation 1
3+y=6 y=63 y~3
A final check can now be made, by substituting the values of x and y into the remaining equation 2.
2x + 3y :::; 15
Hence the left hand side value is 2 x 3 + 3 x 3 (a value of 15) and equal to the right hand side.
Example 2. Solve the following simultaneous equations for x and y.
4x3y=18 (I)
x+2y::::l (2)
To eliminate 'y'
4x3y=18 x2
x + 2y :::; 1 x 3
Adding
8x6y=36 3x + 6y "" 3
l1x =: 33
x=3
Substituting x = 3 into equation (1) to find 'y':
(4 x 3)  3y :::: 18 12  3y = 18
3y = 18  12
3y;;;; 6
6 y=
3
Y = 2
Check, substituting for x and y in equation 2
Left hand side = 3 + (2 x 2) =34
= 1 which equals the right hand side.
If you feel happy with this section then try activity 11 on the next page.
 23 
Activity 12
Solve the following simultaneous equations. If you use the check, you will be able to see if your answers are correct.
1. 6s  t "" 17 4s + t "" 13
2. p+q='5 2p+3q=13
3. 21 3m + 4 = 0 31 2m + 1 = 0
4. 3x 4y = 7 5x  11y = 29
5. 5s + 7t ::::; 17 t  5s '" 13 Second Degree and Quadratic Equations
So far we have solved equations where the unknown 'x' has had one value. However, equations of the second degree or quadratic equations contain terms of X2 and when solved these will provide two answers. For example consider x2 = 1.
The solution for x is oJ 1 which has two answers + 1 and 1. (ie 1 x 1 = 1 and lxl=l}
Often you will find that quadratic equations take the general form of
ax2 + bx + c = O.
The quadratic equation x2  5x  6 = 0 is an example. By comparison, it can be seen that a = 1, b = 5 and c = 6.
There are several ways to solve such equations, but one very straightforward method involves the use of the 'quadratic formula'.
The formula:
x =
b ± ~b2  4ac 2a
 24 
Example 1
When used for the equation above:
x (5) ± ~(_5)2  (4xlx6)
=
2 x 1
5 ± .)25 + 24
::::::
2
5 ±J49
=
2
5 + 7 5  7
= or 
2 2
12 ~2
=  or
2 2
:::::: 6 or 1 As you have seen this method is lengthy but can be used to solve any quadratic equation provided it is, or can be put into the form ax2 + bx + c "" O.
Example 2 Solve the quadratic equation X2  x = 20 In the form ax2 + bx + c :::: 0, this becomes.
x2  x 20 :::; 0
where a = 1, b "" 1 and c :::; 20
U sing the formula x ::::::
b ± ~b2  4ac 2a
 25 
x (1) ± ~(_1)2 ~ (4xlx20)
==
2 x
1 ± Jl + 80
=
2
1 ± XI
=
2
: 9 1  9
== or 
2 2
10 8
=  or 
2 2
== 5 or 4 A check on your answers can easily be made, by inserting each value of x in the original equation and checking that the equation still works out.
ie x > 5,
hence the lefthand side of the equation x2  x = 20 is 52  5 = 20, equal to the righthand side.
for x > 4
the left hand side becomes (_4)2  (4)
"'" 16 + 4
= 20, again equal to the righthand side.
Note: Should you, at any time in your solution of quadratic equations, arrive at a situation which requires you to find the square root of a negative quantity, then you will be unable to proceed any further, as a solution is not possible using the mathematical principles you have considered so far in this unit.
Now try the following problems (Activity 12). As before you will be able to check your answers for yourself
Activity 13
Solve the following quadratic equations.
1. X2  3x + 2 = 0
2. x2 + 3x + 2 = 0
3. 2X2  X = 3
4. x2  X "'" 20
5. 4x2  4x = 1 Answers to Activity 13
I You can check these yourself. After finding the value of x put it in each equation and see that it I works out.
Common Logarithms (logs)
U sed extensively in the days when there were no electronic calculators or computers. They made the process of division and multiplication simpler (in particular when dealing with large numbers). Since the introduction of calculators common logarithms (logs to the base 10) are little used, but other logs (logs to the base e for example) are part of some equations and therefore in current use).
Indices, as you will have appreciated, are used to simplify problems, and you will remember that the problems you encountered required the indices to have the same base. This is a very similar situation to that used with Common Logarithms, or Logarithms, in which numbers are written to a common base of 10 and raised to some power.
For example since 1000 == 103 we say that the Logarithm of 1000 is 3.
Or 10glO 1 000 = 3
Similarly
100 = 102 lOg10100 ;::;: 2
 27 
Ten itself is ten raised to the power 1, (101). The one is not usually written hence since.
10 = 101 then Iogrc 10 = 1
also, since 1 = 100 (see laws of indices)
then 10glO 1 =: 0
Of course any value may be expressed to be base 10 and raised to a suitable power.
For example
2 = 100,3010
so therefore lOg102 = 0.3010
also therefore
50 = 101.6990 10g1050 = 1.6990
Considering this last example, log1050 = 1.6990, the logarithm itself, can be seen to be made up of two parts, the 1 and 0.6990. Special names are given to each part.
The 1 (in this case), or number in front of the decimal point is called the characteristic of the logarithm, whilst the number behind the decimal point, ie 0.6990 is called the mantissa.
Tables of common logarithms (logarithms to the base 10) (log tables) are available for any number. These provide the value for the mantissa but leave the value of the characteristic to be decided by inspection.
(These tables are supplied in booklet form to include log tables, antilog tables, and possibly many other mathematical tables and data. Many calculators have log and antilog functions).
For example
753 = 100 x 7.53
= 102 X 10°,8768
Similarly
:.log10753 = 2.8768 (the characteristic is 2) 4732 = 1000 x 4.732
= 103 X 10°.6751
and
.'.log104732 = 3.6751 (the characteristic is 3) 3 =: 1 x 3
= 100 x 100.4771
:.logI03 =: 0.4 771 (the characteristic is 0)
 28 
Studying these examples you will probably have noticed that the characteristic is simply one less than the number of digits to the left of the decimal point in the original number.
ie: the number 257 would have a characteristic of 2. the number 7460 would have a characteristic of 3. the number 97642 would have a characteristic of 4.
A most important fact to remember is that the mantissa is always positive, but as we shall see, the characteristic may be either positive or negative.
Continuing with these examples, lets now consider the number 0.07.
Now 0.07 is the same as _2_ or _2_ or 7 x 102 (see laws of indices).
100 102
Thus 0.07 ;;::: 102 X T
102 X 1008451
.: .lOglO 0.07

2.8451
You will notice that the negative sign now appears above the characteristic instead of in front, this is deliberate and is to avoid making the whole number negative (remember that the mantissa is always positive). Written in this way it is termed 'bar' and the above logarithm is spoken as 'bar' two point eight, four, five, one.
Consider one further example, 0.000471 0.000471 zz: 104 X 4.71 10A x 100.6730
.. .lOglOO.OOO 471

4.6730
A negative characteristic will always occur with numbers of less than 1. Again this can be obtained quickly by inspection. Simply count the number of zero's, including the one before the decimal point, the total will be the value of the bar number.

ie: 0.4 characteristic is 1

0.04 characteristic is 2
0.004 characteristic is 3
Putting numbers into logarithmic form is done to make calculations easier, however, before attempting questions that make use of logarithms we must understand the reverse process, that is how to obtain an ordinary number from log number.
 29 
To do this antzlogarithms are used. Again tables of antilogarithms (antilogs) exist, which eliminates the need to search through the main body of numbers in the log tables.
If, for example, having made your calculations in logarithmic form, you end up with a log of 3.7521, then using the antilog tables and the mantissa part of the log only, 5650 is obtained.
Now consider the characteristic of 3 the answer is 0.00565. (moving the decimal point three places to the left from the standard form 5.650.
Note: You may find that in many situations that 10glO is now abbreviated to simply 19 or log.
Now lets look at the use of logarithms in solving problems.
Multiplication
This operation is achieved by adding the logarithms of the quantities involved.
Example 1
57.43x2651
By reference to log tables
1957.43 192651
Adding
1.7591 3.4234
5.1825
Using the antilogs, to convert this logarithmic value back into an ordinary number, gives 1523. Considering the position of the decimal point from the characteristic gives an answer of 152300. (moving it 5 places to the right from the standard form 1.523
Division requires the subtraction of logarithms.
Example 2
25.34 i 0.0751
1925.34 190.0751
Subtracting Antilog Number
1 1 1
1.4038
2:&'\(56
9 8
2.5282 3375 337.5
 30 
This question has become much more complex, due to the 'bar' quantity involved. Remember that the mantissa is always positive, so during the subtraction of 9 from 4, just after the decimal point, 10 had to be 'borrowed' from the next column to make the 4, 14. Having 'borrowed' ten it was then
 
necessary to 'pay' this back. This made the 2 or (2) become 1 since
2 + 1 = 1. Subtracting 1 from 1 gave a characteristic of 2, ie (1 [1]).
Powers and Roots
Example 3
(4.732)3
19 4.732 = 0.6751
)3 x3
2.0253 Antilog "" 1 060 Number == 106.0
Example 4
(0.2531)5

19O.2531 "" 1.4033
()5 X 5

3.0165 2
Note here that in the multiplication of 4 x 5 =20 the 2 is carried over, this is, of course positive. When 1 is multiplied by 5, giving 5 the addition of +2 gives an answer of 3.
Antilog "" 1 039 Number = 0.001 039
Example 5
VO.05731 Log 0.05731
~

'" 2.7583
;.3
  
To divide 2 by 3, could prove difficult, however by changing 2 into 3 makes it
easier to divide by 3, but this changes the value, so to return to the correct
value, 1 is added to the 3.
 31 

ie 2.7583 is the same as 3 + 1. 7583

now dividing through by 3 gives 1.5863
Antilog ::: 3858
Number
0.3858
Recapping on the operations we have performed using common logarithms.
1. log (A x B) log A + log B
2. A log A log B
log  :::
B
3. log An n log A
log r.fA A
4. log 
n This particular section has been quite intensive, so lets see how much you have understood by trying Activity 13 on the next page.
 32 
I Activity 14
1. Write down the characteristics of the logarithms for the following numbers:
(a) 4270
(b) 73.4
(c) 5.74
(d) 0.613
2. Given that the mantissa of log105.243 is 0.7195, write down the logarithms for the following numbers.
(a) 0.5243
(b) 52430
(c) 52.43
(d) 0.005243
3. In the following, the antilogarithm is given, write down the ordinary number it represents.
(a) The antilogarithm of 3.4781 is 3007
(b) The antilogarithm of 2.3162 is 2071
The antilogarithm of 0.6143 is 4114
(c) (d)

The antilogarithm of 1.4688 is 2943.
4. Given that Ig 3.71 = 0.5694
Ig532 = 2.7259
and 19 0.0721 "" 2 .8579 Solve in logarithmic form:
(a) 3.71 x 532
(b) 3.717532
(c) ~0.O721
(d) (532)2 Answers on the next page
 33 
Answers to Activity 14
1. (a) 3
(b) 1
( c) 0

(d) 1

2. (a) 1.7195
(b) 4.7195
(c) 1.7195
(d) 3.7195
3. (a) 0.003007
(b) 207.1
(c) 4.114
(d) 0.2943
4. (a) 3.2953
~
(b) 3.8435
~
(c) 1.6193
(d) 5.4518 Finally, before leaving this section on logarithms, you may encounter Naperian or natural logarithms. These have a base 'e' where 'e' is a mathematical constant of value approximately equal to 2.718. The use of 'e' is often related to the field of growth and decay and is a more convenient base than 10 when dealing with higher mathematics. The symbol In is used for natural logarithms and like common logarithms, tables of values are available.
Binary and Denary Systems
The mathematics covered so far has dealt with numbers from 0 to 9 and since it uses ten figures it is called the decimal or denary system. Ten is the radix of decimal numeration and of common logarithms (a radix is the number or symbol used as a basis of a numeration scale).
Since computers 'work on whether there is or there is not a signal, a system having a radix of 2 has become very important in computer design. Such a system is known as the Binary system and has only two figures or digits
o and 1. These in turn are known as 'bits', the name being formed from the words _Qinary and digits.
~ 34 ~
Lets now consider the denary number 1111. And understand how it is constructed. By breaking the number down, we can see that it consists of one thousand, one hundred, one ten and unity. Putting these in columns, shows the formation of the number.
1031 102 I 101 100
1 I 1 1 1
1 X 103 I 1 X 102 1 X 101 1 x 100
1000 I 100 10 1 Total sum = 1111
The binary number 1111, however has a totally different value and uses powers to the base 2. Again, using columns to illustrate this.
23 22 21 20 I
1 1 1 1
23 X 1 22 X 1 21 X 1 20 x 1
8 4 2 1 Known as the mantissa of the binary number
The equivalent denary number
Total sum > 15
To avoid confusion between binary and denary numbers a subscript 2 or 1 0 can be used as appropriate.
Thus (1111)2 = (15)10
Example 1. Convert the binary number 10101 into a denary equivalent.
Working from the right to the left we have ascending powers of 2.
Mantissa
I 24 I 23 22 21 20 :
1 0 1 0 1 I
24 X 1 123 X 0 22 X 1 21 X 0 ) 20 x 1 I
16 i 0 4
o 1 J Denary value
Total sum = 21
ie (10101)2 = 2110
Example 2. Convert the binary number 100101 into a denary equivalent.
 35 
Mantissa
21 o
Denary value
23 x Ll 24 X 0 23 X 0 I 22 X 1 21 X 0 20 x 1
32 I 0 I 0 I 4 . 0 1 I
Total sum = 37
ie (100101)2 == (37)10
Working in reverse (from a denary number to a binary number) a method known as the 'remainder' method' may be used. This involves successive division by 2, noting whether there is or not a remainder.
Example 3. Using the previous denary number of 37 check that the equivalent binary number is 100101.
Denary
Remainder
2)37 2)18 2}9 2)4 2)2 2\1
)
1 o 1 o o 1
Binary number is obtained in this direction
i.e. 100101
Example 4. Determine the equivalent binary number to the denary number 45.
Remainder
Denary
2}45 2)22 2)11 2)5 2)2 2)1
1 o 1 1 o 1
 36 
Binary number read in this direction = 101101
Addition of binary numbers
When adding binary numbers the following laws apply.
SUM CARRY
0+0=0 0
o + 1 = 1 0
1 + 0 = 1 0
1 + 1 = 0 1 The procedure for adding binary numbers follows that for denary numbers but the carry bits are moved one place to the left.
Example 1. Find the value of the sum of the binary numbers 110 and 1101.
1 1 0
row 'a' 1 1 0 1 Summing vertically row 'a' and 'b'
row'b' SUM 1 0 1 1 I Using the summation laws.
row'c' CARRY Summing vertically row 'b' and 'c'
row'd' SUM Using the summation laws.
I
row'e' CARRY 1 0 0 10 Summing vertically row 'd' and 'e'
row'f SUM 1 10 0 i 1 1 Using the summation laws.
Row 'f completes the addition i.e. 110 + 1101 ::= 10011
A check may be carried out by converting the binary numbers to denary. (110)2 = (6)10 (1101)2 = (13)10 (10011)2 = (19) 10
We have covered a lot of ground in this section, now reinforce what you have learnt by working through Activity 14 on the next page.
The Hexadecimal System
You will recall that the two digits '0' and '1' in the binary system were called bits. In the organisation of the computer memory, bits may be arranged in groups of 8 and these are called bytes. These may be conveniently arranged in groups of 4.
 37 
Combinations of 4 bits  0100, 1100, 0110, etc will allow 16 unique patterns to be produced. To allow for this a numbering system with a base of 16 is used. This is called the Hexadecimal system or hex for short.
The hex system was devised as a shorthand to present binary patterns.
The following table shows the coding of the hex system from 0 to F with the associated denary and binary number
DENARY BINARY HEX CODING
0 0000 0
1 0001 1
2 0010 2
3 0011 3
4 0100 4
5 0101 5
6 0110 6
7 0111 7
8 1000 8
9 1001 9
10 1010 A
11 1011 B
12 1100 C
13 1101 D
14 1110 E
15 1111 F The use of the alphabet after digit 9 in the hex system keeps the hex coding for a four bit binary word to a single digit.
A sixteen bit binary number such as
0001010101101100
can be coded to hex by taking each set of 4 bits and allocating each set a hex code, ie:
binary code
0001 0101 0110 1100
C
hex code
1
5
6
So 00010101010110 binary is 156C hex and is written as 156C16.
 38 
( Activity 15
1. Convert the following denary numbers into binary' numbers.
(a) 5
(b) 12
(e) 18
(d) 210
2. Convert the following binary numbers into denary numbers.
(a) 1011
(b) 101
(e) 101110
3. Determine the value of the following binary numbers, using the binary method of addition.
(a) III + 101
(b) 1 1 1 1 + 1111
(c) 10010 + 10110
Answers to Activity 15
1. (a) 101
(b) 1100
( c) 10010
(d) 11010010
2. (a) 11
(b) 5
(c) 46
3. (a) 1100
(b) 11110
(c) 101000  39 
Geometry
The following section deals with basic geometric constructions, with all arcs being drawn using compasses.
1. To construct a parallel line to another
The compass radius is set to the required distance apart for the parallel line and two arcs are constructed. A line is drawn to just touch the top of the arcs.
2. To bisect a line
B
A
The compass radius is set to greater than half the line length and arcs are constructed above and below the line from each end of the line A and B, leaving the radius unaltered. A line joining these two intersections bisects the line.
3. To erect a perpendicular from a point on a line
The compass is open to any radius and with the compass point placed at 'A'. where the perpendicular is to be erected, two arcs are struck on each side of 'A'. These then form the centres of two further arcs, drawn with the compass radius increased. Where these intersect a line can be drawn to A which will be perpendicular to A.
 40 
4. To erect a perpendicular from a point to a line
A
c
D
An arc is drawn from the point (A) with the compass set at a radius greater than the distance to the line, to cut the line at C and D. The radius of the compass is now reduced and two further arcs are drawn with the compass point at C and D to intersect at E. A line drawn from 'A' through E will form a perpendicular to the line.
5. To bisect an angle
Using the point where the two lines intersect as a centre 'A', an arc is drawn cutting both lines at Band C. These now form the new centres of two additional arcs drawn with the same but reduced radius that intersect at D. A line drawn through this point to A, bisects the angle.
6. To construct an angle of 60° to a line
C
A
 41 
The compass point is centred at the point 'A' to which the angle is to be drawn and set to any radius AB, arc BC is drawn. Without changing the radius, the compass is now centred at B and an arc is drawn to cut CB at D. A line drawn through 0 to 'A' will form an angle of 60° with AB.
300 can be obtained by bisecting 60°.
7. To divide a line into a number of equal parts
D
To the required line (AB), a second, construction line (AD), is drawn at any angle. Using a compass set at any radius the number of required divisions (in this case 9) is stepped off equally along the construction line. The final point 'D' is then joined to the end of the original line (B). Parallel lines are then drawn to this line from each of the steppedoff points, dividing the line into the required number of equal parts.
8. To divide a line proportionally
A 2
3
5
B
D
The same method, as for 7, may be used. For this example) the line is required to be divided proportionally into a ratio of 2:3: S. The construction line AD is therefore divided into 10 parts (i.e. 2 + 3 + 5) and parallel lines drawn in the same ratio as that required.
 42 
Graphs
Graphs provide a visual representation of data and show, in many cases, the variation of one quantity with another" The most common form of graph is one which uses a pair of straight lines, known as axes, that are drawn at right angles to each other. Such a pair of axes are known as rectangular or Cartesian axes,
The horizontal axis is referred to as the xaxis, and the vertical axis as the yaxis (y for high), The point where these two axes meet or cross is called the origin and is given the symbol '0', Conventionally values, along the xaxis, and to the right of the origin, are considered positive, whilst those to the left are negative. Likewise with the yaxis, values above the origin are considered positive, whilst those below negative.
1 H
~~~xis' itliEt3hh
Ii
I!
~ ! !
" ,
, ,
I I
! I
I I
! ,
I I
! I
I . l"! l:;r
, ,
H , + rl
I
I
ri
,
, , ! , ,
I
"
i i
, ,
I· I I
I
i.! I
,
i
+
R::: !
....,_
; Bti I:1tn
..., m • .t:f=I{\+HHHi+H! +H4IH++J1H'+HH
, ,
. ,
! '1, Iriate
,
1+  1+)+ ~+i . f+Ho$~ H+'p+,·,_·'d· : H+fF
, I
,"'
'j.++++++++++111.=+
, ,
++~~~++H~,++~H+ 1 I
, t,
Hrt
1+iSg~~. "
'++++j+++I.
i ' !4
, ,
i' '4~+ ~4~+\++I44+\ =+itt..: ~n i.;:ilH'";'" +liJ ! _;_+ __ i' +!·...L..J+t++ _1. Hf +4,iiII"';,+oci41nJIr±
GRAPH SHOWING RECTANGULAR/CARTESIAN AXES
 43 
To locate a point on the graph both a value of x and a value of yare required. These are often written in brackets with the xvalue always written first (x,y). Values of x and y that locate a point on a graph are called the 'coordinates' of the point, further, the xdistance from the yaxis is called its 'abscissa' and the ydistance from the xaxis is called its 'ordinate'. Coordinates measured in this way are called 'Cartesian coordinates'.
The graph above shows the location of two points with the coordinates of (5,4) and (2,6).
Many relationships between two quantities are directly proportional. A practical example of this is that achieved in a tensile test, which involves the gradual extension of a metal rod by the application of a slowly increasing load.
APPLIED
LOAD , , ,
....... 1 :  .....
,
'~        _.
I ...
original
length
extension
Plotting values of applied load against the corresponding extension (while the material remains elastic) produces the type of graph shown below.
Load
Extension
The graph is a straight line which passes through the origin. This shows that values of load are directly proportional to the extension produced (Hookes law. Robert Hooke English physicist 16351703).
ie load a extension
or load > extension x constant
rearranging this,
load
 = constant
extension
ie if any load is selected and is divided by the extension it produces, then a value will be determined that will be the same for any other load divided by its corresponding extension ie, a constant value will be obtained.
 44 
On a straight line graph this constant (value) is often achieved by selecting any two points on the graph, as shown below.
load
.= constant extension
02 EXTENSION AXIS
In a general sense, with the x and y axes, the relationship of Y ::;:: constant is x
similarly 0 btained.
yaxrs
y
x
XaxIS
This constant, in the general case, is a measure of the slope of the graph and is given the symbol 'm'.
Or
Thus
With straight line graphs that do not pass through the origin, the relationship y=mx alters to
y'" mx + c
Where 'c'is a value measured on the yaxis, from the origin to where the graph cuts the yaxis.
 45 
yaxIS
/
XaxIS
This relationship is an important one and is called the 'straight line law'.
Of course not all straight line graphs will have a positive gradient, as the one above, ie rising from left to right, and not all values of 'c' will be positive. The graph below has both a negative gradient (falling from left to right) and a negative value of 'c'.
yaxis
c
XaxIS
y
x
Lets now consider graphs of particular equations.
Consider 2y  4x = 6
Rearranging this into the form y "" mx + c
We obtain 2y = 4x + 6 (transposing the 4x to the other side changes it's sign
y = 2x + 3 (dividing through by 2)
By comparison with the straight line law, y "'" mx + c, it can be seen that
(a) And (b)
the gradient 'm' has a value of +2. the value of c is +3
A gradient of 2 would be 2 units vertical for every 1 unit horizontal.
2
1
Thus the drawing of the graph that represent the equation is made easy, requiring the location of only two points,
_.
(1,5)
2
The first point is located from
c = +3, and the second (1,5) from m =: 2.
c
XaxIS
Lets consider a further example, 9x + 3y = 12
Rearranging
3y = 9x + 12 Y = 3x + 4
again, by comparison with the straight line law y = rnx + c
(a) gradient = 3
(b) c = +4
A gradient of 3 is
1
3
 47 
Thus the resulting graph for the equation 9x +3y = 12 appears as
yaxis 1
3
c
(1,1)
1
xaXIs
Simultaneous equations of the form y '" mx + c may be solved using this graphical method.
Consider and
x+y""6 (1)
2x + 3y = 15 .: (2)
Rearranging both of these equations into the form y "" mx + c we obtain.
and
y == x + 6
2 y=x+5
3
(gradient m "'" I) (gradient m = _ 2 ) 3
a gradient of 1 IS
l~
1
a gradient of  2 IS 3
2
3
 48 
Thus the resulting graphs appear as
yaxis 6
3
2
1
o
xaxis
The point where the two graphs cut each other provides the solution to the simultaneous equations, ie for thisquestionx=3 and y=3.
It is worthwhile studying how coefficients and constant affect the position of the graph representing algebraic equations, so try now activity 16.
Activity 16
1. Draw the graphs that represent the following equations, showing clearly the value of 'c' and 'm '. by first putting them into the form y=mx + c where necessary.
(a) y = x
(b) Y = x
(e) y = x +1
(d) Y = x  1
(e) y=x+2
(f) y = Y2X + 3
(g) y"" 4x + 2
(h) 2x+8y=10 2. Using 1 em squared graph paper, solve graphically the following simultaneous equations.
4x3y= 18 x + 2y = 1
 49 
Answers to Activity 16.
: j,iI++1
, v'
11+++1 I ,~ ,
I~ r
tH++++' _+V_"+f"'pN'I. ",+; ~1~'~' ~+++f:!L:d~,~~$ P: '"
N '1'\.
i 1'<, : 1\
" '"
N '"
'H++'~
i I r f
i: I
+t+t+t+t+l/r ,'++__j__j_,:__,tH+ i. I i
, i i t, ,i:++i, .~~, t± J+2F=+t+j=H iI.
I ,,t, " J ,
~!"1+!+'~~~~i j~!~H+,
, • i I :4'~ , i ~I++
i I
+,
I ! I
" " i~, _LU Ll..L. _'"
I ' ! " ++Jjl+i I'_T1.1 ,,T , , ,t
H!!+lHiIiLl!+++!j I .rrrt
, ir i :: j :;q '+
+++!4++++Jl+l+,++,+,++I+'i+lH+jl,
I I
: i
,
'~H+
,
+~1~r,~,ll!'+~f~
'I
I I
J I
+
i
! i ...... ' f
,L" !!
j i
I'
I J...
I
+
1
1 I
, i I rn
+
nl 4++1 ' +H+
"1++
j [
~xiI<:+PI; +. +'+'f'++++++' H+f+HJ_~~_'f
, i
I "
III
Hh1
I' ,
I I
 50 
If you feel confident with straightline graphs lets move on to some that are a little more complicated. You will probably have realised by now that if x, raised to the power of 1 (understood but rarely written) occurs in the equation, then the equation is a linear equation, ie when represented graphically will produce a straight line.
Now if x is replaced by x2 the graph will become curved. Quadratic equations take the form of ax + bx + c "" O. These can be solved graphically and will produce a curve when a range of values, both negative and positive are selected for x and plotted against the corresponding values of y.
Lets consider the quadratic equation y zz; x2  5x + 6.
By giving x values from 3 to +5, the corresponding values of y can be obtained using the formula, as below.
x 13 12 I;~ . I~ I~ 2 13 !4 I~
y 13O 120 ° ,0 12
y AXIS
30~
I
25t
20+
I
15+
10l
i
1 3
2
1
2
3
4
5
X AXIS
• YAXJS
The values of x when y = 0 ie, +2 and +3 are the roots of the equation.
This graph forms a curve known as a parabola. It is a shape that frequently occurs in engineering and you should recognise equations that form it.
Other common engineering situations, such as a gas being compressed in a cylinder, produce curves known as hyperbola when pressure is plotted against volume. (Refer to the piston on the next page  it shows the rise in pressure with a reduction in volume).
 51 
Pressure 'P'
Volume (V)
POSITION 2
POSITION 1
I DIIj_____.J
'+/=:...__I/
CYLINDER PISTON
VOLUME PRESSURE RELATIONSHIP
Whilst curves known as sine waves represent simple harmonic motion and electrical alternating currents (ac].
SIN e
+1
SINE CURVE
The sine wave or sine curve is obtained by calculating the sine of an angle for all angles from zero to 3600 and plotting on a graph.
Plane Trigonometry
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals primarily with the relationships between the sides and angles of a triangle. To study these relationships, consider an arm AB, of unit length, revolving in an anticlockwise direction about point A, which is fixed.
 52 
As it revolves it can be imagined that a right angled triangle ABC is formed with the right angle at C.
B
A
c
As the arm revolves the lengths of the sides, BC and AC, change. These lengths, are of course, related to the angle 8 formed at the centre. If this is the included angle, then the side BC is known as the opposite (to the angle) and the side AC is known as the adjacent (to the angle). If the arm itself, is considered as the third side of the triangle then it is called the hypotenuse and is always the longest side.
Three basic relationships are made that involve the angle e and sides of the triangle.
The first is the sine ratio (often shortened to 'sin' but still pronounced sine).
Sin 8 =
opposite Be
=
hypotenuse AB
The second is the cosine ratio (often shortened to cos).
Cos 8 ""
adjacent AC
::::;
hypotenuse AB
The third ratio is the tangent ratio and is obtained by dividing the sine ratio by the cosine ratio. (The tangent ratio is often shortened to tan).
oppositey'
Tan 8 "" sin 8 = / hypotenuse
cos 8 adjacent/ /hypotenuse
::::: opposite::::: Be
adjacent AC
Sets of tables exist for all three ratios between the angles of 0° and 90°. They are used in a similar way to logarithmic tables although care should be taken with the mean difference columns.
 53 
The mean differences for sine and tangent are added but those for cosine are subtracted. Instructions to this effect are usually written above the mean difference columns.
It is useful to know some of these ratios, for instance consider the arm (units length, lying horizon tal.
In this position
e:::: 0
So, sin e=:;o And cos e =:; 1
B
Revolving the arm to 90°
B
A
e "'" 90° Sin e = 1 Cos e:=:o
Sin 30° :::: 0.5 Cos 30° = 0.866
At 8 = 30°
Sin 8 60° = 0.866 Cos 60° :::: 0.5
And,
At 8 ::;; 45°
Sin 45° :::: 0.7071 Cos 45° = 0.7071
 54 
Lets now see how these ratios are applied.
All that is known about the rightangled triangle SAC shown below, is the length of the hypotenuse AS and the included angle BAC ( = 30°)' It is required that the lengths of the other sides, of the triangle, AC and CB are calculated.
B
20em
c
A
To find BC first we ean use the sine ratio
sin e =
opposite hypotenuse opp
20
sin 30° =
opp '" 20sin30°
= 20 x 0.5 (from tables) = 10 em
To find AC, the adjacent, the cosine ratio may be used.
cos e =
adjacent hypotenuse adjacent
20
cos 30°
adjacent = 20cos30°
= 20 x 0.866 (from tables) = 17.32cm
If the third angle is required, this can easily be calculated, as the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is always 180°
A
Hence ABC = 1800  (90 + 30)
= 60°
At this point it is worth noting one of the most important relationships that exists concerning right angled triangles, that is Pythagoras' Theorem.
 55 
The theorem states that in any right angled triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the square on the other two sides,
A
In general, AB2 = BC2 + AC 2
B
16
32 = 9
C
The example above shows this relationship
ie 52 = 32 + 42 25 = 9 + 16
Armed with this and the former ratio it is obvious that many different approaches are now available in solving right angled triangles for either sides or angles, so now try Activity 16 on the next page,
 56 
Activity 17
1. Calculate the value of
(a) Tan 90°.
(b) Tan 00
(c) Tan 60°
2. In the triangle ABC shown below calculate the length of
(a)
AC
and
(b)
BC
B
40 em
A ! " __ l C
3. Given the length of the two sides in the right angled triangle ABC below, determine the length of the hypotenuse using Pythagoras' theorem.
B
6em
Sem
C
A
 57 
Answers to Activity 17
1. (a) CD infinity
(b) 0
(c) 1.7321
2. (a) 20 em
(b) 34.64 em
3. 10 em Before leaving this section you should make sure that you can use sets of trigonometrical tables. The following examples show their use by using extracts from such tables. Example 1. Find the sine of 25°20'.
Selecting a table of NATURAL SINES
0' 6' 12" lIS' 24' 30' 36' 142' I4S' 154' I' 12' 13 4' 5'
24° I , I I I
25° .4226 .4242 .4258 i .4274 .4289 .4305 .4321 1.4337 /.43;:,2 ! .4368 3 5 8 11 13
26" 1 i I j 1 I
I 0.4274 + 5 0.4279
Example 2 Find the cosine of 42°39'
Selecting a table of NATURAL COSINES
SUBTRACT
1 !O' 6' ,12' 18' 24' 130' 36' 142' 48 ,54 II' 12' 13' j4' 5'
141 c I I i 1 I 1 I
1420 1,7431 ,7420 ,7408 ,7396 ,73851.7373 ,73611,(349 ,7337 ,7325 12 14 16 18 10
1430 i ! 1 I j I I 1 Cos 42°39' = 0.7361  6
= 0.7355
Example 3 Find the tangent of 73°50'
Selecting a table of NATURAL TANGENTS
 58 
0" 6" 112' i 18" 124 30 36 42' 48" ,54' 1 " 2[3 4" 5'
72° I I ! I
73° 3.2709 .2914 1.3122 13332 1.3544 .3759 .3977 .4197 .4420 .4646 36 (21108 144 180
74° T i 1 i 1 Tan 73°50' ::: 3.4420 + 72 == 3.4492
Polar Coordinates
From our work on graphs we are aware that a point on the graph may be located by knowing it's coordinates, ie a value of x and a value of y, which we expressed as (x,y). These are known as Cartesian or rectangular coordinates.
However, there is another way of locating such a point and this uses the distance (r) from the origin and an angle (8) measured anticlockwise from the xaxis to the line joint the point to the origin. Such coordinates (r,8) are known as 'polar coordinates' and are shown below.
yaxIS
(r,8)
r
XaxIS
It is also useful to be able to convert from polar cordinates to rectangular coordinates and viceversa.
yaxis
Using the trigonometrical ratios of the previous section it can be seen that:
 59 
sin e = Y from which y = rsinO r
And cos 0 xx x from which x "" rcosf r
Also tan e = y
x
Example: Express in polar coordinates the point expressed in rectangular coordinates as (4,2).
yaxis
2
4
xaxis
U sing Pythagoras' theorem
r = ~42 + 22
= J20
= 4.472
tan e = 2 = 0.5 4
e = 26.57° (found by looking into the body of natural tangent tables) .
Thus in polar coordinates the point is located at (4.472,26.57°).
""n"""""""
 60 
Revision Questions
1. The answer to 10 + 6 "+ 2  2  3(8 + 6) is:
(a) 26
(b) 31
(e) 58
2.
The solution of I. n
1
x 
3
2] .  IS: 33
(a)
1 3
147
1089 29
47
(b)
(c)
3. _!_ expressed as a decimal is: 100
(a) 0.007
(b) 0.0143
(c) 0.07
4. Written correct to four significant figures 16.0524 is:
(a) 16.05
(b) 16.052
(c) 16.0524
5. £750 divided into the ratio of 6:4 is:
(a} £624 : £126
(b) £450 : £300
(c) £600 : £150
6.
3 d .
 expresse as a percentage IS:
8
(a) 37.5%
(b) 24%
(e) 26.7%
 61 
7. The marks of eight students are as follows; 95, 87,60,73,45,82,65 and 52. What is the number of students below average?
(a) two
(b) three
(c) four
8. The surface area of a sphere is obtained from the formula:
(a) (b) (c)
4/3nr3 4nr2
2nr2
where 'r' is the radius
9. The value of 53 is:
(a) 15
(b) 51/3
(e) 125
10.
5 ')
, + = expressed as a single fraction is: x~ x
(a) 7
x3
(b) 5 + 2x
.,
x~
( e) 5 + 2x
,
x 11.
By solving the equation 5x  5 ::::; 30, x is equal to:
(a) 7
(b) 5
(e) 30
12. f7 expressed as a fractional index would be:
1/
(a) x"s
5/
(b) X/2
2/
(c) XiS 13. If 2 = 10°·30)0 the common logarithm of 2 is:
(a) 0.3010
(b) 2.3010
(c) 0.6020
 62 
14. In common logarithmic form, the characteristic of the number 0.00521 IS:
(a) (b) (c)
5

3
o
15. The equivalent denary number of the binary number 1110 is:
(a) 14
(b) 3
(c) 30
16. Given the Cartesian coordinates of (15,4) what is the value of the abscissa?
(a) 15
(b) 4
(c) 19
17. Given that sin e = 0.8 and cos e = 0.2, the value of tan e would be:
(a) 0.16
(b) 4
(c) 0.25
18. The equivalent polar coordinates of the Cartesian coordinates (2,2) are:
(a) (16, 30°)
(b) (18 , 45°)
(c) (4, 45°)
19. To find the vertical height of a triangle you would multiply the area by:
(a) Twice the base length.
(b) Two and divide by the base length.
(c) Half the base length.
20. The shape of the graph that would result from the equation 5x 3y "" 12 would be a:
(a) Parabola
(b) Hyperbola
(e) Straight line
 63 
21 . The fraction 1/4 expressed as a ratio would be:
(a) 1 :0.25
(b) 1: 4
(c) 4%
22. 5.645 written correct to one decimal place would be:
(a) 5.6
(b) 6.0
(e) 5.7
23. The solution of (32)3 is:
(a) 36
(b) 35
2/
(c) 3/3
24.
1 1 1
If  = _ +  then R equals:
R Rl R2
(a) 1
~
RIR2
(b) R1R2
Rl + R2
(c) 2
__
Rl +R2 25.
What is the denary number 10 expressed in binary form?
(a) 101 (b] 10
(e) 1010
 64 
Answers to multiple choice questions
l. (b)
2. (a)
3. ( c)
4. (a)
5. (b)
6. (a)
7. (c)
8. (b)
9. (c)
10. (b)
11. (a)
12. (b)
13. (a)
14. (b)
15. (a)
16. (a)
17. (b)
18. {b)
19. (b)
20. (c)
21. (b)
22. (c)
23. (a)
24. (b)
25. (c) ,,~, ,"'",.''' ,,'_,
 65 
LBP
September 2001
JAR66 module 1 mathematics ~ additional reading material re number systems, particularly Octal.
Most digital transmission in today's modern aircraft uses various types of number systems. Typically these would be decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal, or various forms of these systems.
Decimal System
This is the system in everyday use, there are 10 digits (0 to 9 inclusive), so it has a 'base' or 'radix' (number of digits used in the system) of 10. Taking the number 72306 can be written as:
(7 x 1000) + (2 x 1000) + (3 x 100) + (0 x 10) + 6 x 1
:= (7 X 104} + (2 x l03) + (3 x 102) + (0 X 101} + (6 x 100)
:= 72306
Each digit is effectively multiplied by a power of 10. Note that to write 19·526 in powers of 10 then:
1 x 101 + 9 x 100 + 5 x 101 + 2 x 102 + 6 x 103
:= (10) + (9) + (5 x _L ;;;, 5) + LL = '02} + (_§_= ·06)
10 100 100
== 10 + 9 + . 5 + . 025 + . 06
:= 19·526
Note that 100 ;;;, I, in fact any number to the power of nought == 1. Proof, using the number 3 ie 30 = 1
1 == _2_ = 32;;;, 32 X 32 == 32+(2) := 3° 9 32
3 was used because it is an easy number to show you that any number to the power of nought is equal to 1.
It can be seen that the decimal system is based on successive powers of 10, the number with the smallest value (100) is known as the least significant digit (LSD) and the number with the highest value (I 04 in my example) is known as the most significant digit (MSD).
 1 
The disadvantage of the decimal system for use in a digital computer is that the circuits which would be used, eg transistors, would have to have 10 discrete levels at collector current. For example OmA (milliamps) = 0,
1 rnA == 1, 2mA = 2; 3mA == 3 etc. Such a system would be extremely difficult to operate because:
(a) Any variation of power supply would cause errors.
(b) Component tolerance would have to be virtually zero, and be unaffected by temperature variations.
(c) Component values will change with age.
Any errors from the above may cause an error increment of one or two, giving an incorrect output (eg instead of 8 [correct reading] it might be 7 or 9).
Precision is important, and to expect a circuit to be infallible in distinguishing between 10 different magnitudes of current is a bit much.
When; accuracy and speed are important it would be better to use a system which has just two states. Reliance is high because the circuit is either HIGH (voltage level) or LOW (voltage level) or ON and OFF and component characteristics variations are unimportant.
The system that is the basis of today's digital processing is the "two states"
BINARY SYSTEM, .
The Binary System
This has a base or radix of 2. As in the decimal system, we can represent any number in successive powers of 2.
For example:
27
=
== 16 + 8 + 2 + 1
further expanded
= 1 X 24 + 1 X 23 0 X 22 + 1 X 21 .::: 1 x 2°
1
1
o
1
1
means the binary number for 27 = 110112
 2 
To avoid confusion between systems with different radix this would be written as 110112 to identify it as a binary number.
What about the fraction expressed as powers of 2?
. 12 ;;;;; 21 ;;;;; _1 = 0·5 2
·012 = 22 = _1 :::: 0,25 22
'0012= 23 = _l_:::: 0·125 23
·00012 :;;; 24 ;;;;; __L = 0·0625 24
Example
Change 17·75 decimal to binary.
17 :;;::: 24 + 20 + 21 + 22
expanded gives
1 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 0 X 22 + 0 X 21 + 1 x 20 + 1 X 21 + 1 X 22
1
o
o
o
1
1
1
17·75 = 10001·112
Note a binary digit is termed a bit.
The table below shows the relationship between Binary and Decimal numbers up to Decimal 21, but it could obviously be continued for larger numbers.
 3 
Decimal 5 bit Binary No (word) Decimal 5bit Binary No (word)
Number Number
24 23 22 21 20 24 23 22 21 2°
0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 1 12 0 1 1 0 0
2 0 0 0 1 0 13 0 1 1 0 1
3 0 0 0 1 1 14 0 1 1 1 0
4 0 0 1 0 0 15 0 1 1 1 1
5 0 0 1 0 1 16 1 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 1 1 0 17 1 0 0 0 1
7 0 0 1 1 1 18 1 0 0 1 a
8 0 1 0 0 0 19 1 0 0 1 1
9 0 1 0 0 1 20 1 0 1 0 a
10 0 1 0 1 0 21 1 0 1 0 1 BINARY I DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS
From the table it can be seen that the binary number is longer than the decimal number but because of the very fast switching speeds of modern circuit5 tbi;'! doe? not presept a problem A1so because of the reliabWt:y of the twostate system, the practical advantages gained by using binary numbers are considerable.
ACTIVITY: Write the successive powers of 2 for the following decimal numbers and then expand to finally give the binary number.
(a) 19 (b) 29
{c) (d)
15·125 22·0625
This method is OK but when you get larger numbers it becomes much more difficult, to convert from decimal to binary, the successive division by two may be employed, the 'remainder' of any division (which must be either 0 or 1) is then recorded successively in a separate column. The following examples show the method used.
 4 
Example a Example b
Convert 796 to binary Write 217 in binary form
2 796 2 217
2 398 remainder 0 2 108 remainder 1
2 199 " 0 2 54 " 0
2 99 " 1 2 27 " 0
2 49 " 1 2 13 " 1
2 24 " 1 2 6 " 1
2 12 " 0 2 3 " 0
2 6 " 0 2 1 " 1
2 3 I, 0 2 0 " 1
2 1 " 1 READ UP READ UP
to obtain to obtain
0 " 1 binary binary
equivalent form
1100011100 11011001 CONVERSION OF DECIMAL TO BINARY
ACTIVITY:
Convert the following decimal numbers to binary
(a) 846
(b) 317
(c} 147
You should practice converting the smaller numbers using powers of 2 and perhaps speed it up a bit.
 5 
Example
Convert 4510 to binary
Write down the successive powers of 2
(25) (24) (23) (22) (21) (20)
32 16 8 4 2 1
Then make up the number, ie
(1 x 32) + (1 x 8) + (1 x 4) + (1 x 1) "" 45
So 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 1 1 0 1
The binary number is 10I10b
ACTIVITY: So the idea is to write down the powers of 2 and put 1 's in the powers you need to make up the number. Try these:
(a) 47
(b) 32
(c) 21
The following example shows you how to convert decimal fractions to binary.
You use successive multiplication by two, recording the carries and then reading DOWN the carries column.
Convert 0·615 to binary form
READ DOWN
And write from left to right to give binary fraction:
0·10011 b
0 615 x 2
1 230 x 2
0 460 x 2
0 920 x 2
0 840 x 2
1 680 x 2
1 360 x 2  un til required accuracy
is obtained
 6  Conversion of a decimal fraction to a binary fraction
The next example shows how to convert a mixed decimal number to binary. Note that it must be treated in two parts as shown.
Example
Convert 14 . 625 to binary Separate into whole and fraction parts  ie: 14 . 625 = 14 . 000 + 0 . 625
(WHOLE) (FRACTION)
WHOLE
2 14
2 7 remainder 0
READ
2 3 " 1 UP READ
DOWN
2 1 " 1
0 " 1
1410 = 11102 FRACTION
0·625 x 2
1 250 x 2
o 500 x 2
1 000
0.62510 '"' 0·10b
Recombine the whole fraction parts to give: 14·62510 == 1110·1022
CONVERSION OF A MIXED DECIMAL TO BINARY
Conversion of Binary to Decimal
Assume we have a binary number eg, 1011012
The easy way to convert this is to write the powers of 2 above each bit position starting from left and working towards the right eg:
32 16 8 4 2 1
+ the powers added
1 0 1 1 0 1
So it can be seen that the number is:
32 + 8 + 4 + 1 :::: 4510 (there are no 16s and no 2s but one of each of the other values  32, 8,4 & 1)
 7 
Examples:
1. Convert 1101101 binary to decimal
Again write the powers of 2 above each bit position.
64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1101101
So 64+32+8+4+1==10910
2. Convert 110 1·1 binary to decimal
Again write down the powers of 2 above each bit position
8 4 2 1 ·5
1 1 0 1 ·1
== 13 ·510
3. Convert 100 1110·112 to decimal
64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ·5 ·25
1 0 0 1 1 1 0·1 1
= 64 + 8 + 4 + 2 + ·5 + ·25
= 78·7510
ACTIVITY: Try these yourself  convert to decimal
(a) 110011
(c) 1011·1 (d) 1100·001
(b) 11100 11
The Octal System
In the binary system the number of bits in a word can be quite lengthy and problems can occur such as the high possibility of an error in manipulating so many digits.
The octal system helps lessen these difficulties, being more compact and easily converted back to decimal or binary.
 8 
The system uses the base or radix 8, this means of course, to convert from decimal to octal we divide by 8 then record the remainders as before and read upwards to get the octal number.
To convert this number to binary split each octal number into it's three figure binary number and join together,
Example 1
Convert 796 to octal and then convert octal to binary
a. Conversion of decimal to octal
8 796
8 99 remainder 4
8 12 remainder 3
8 1 remainder 4
a remainder 1
.. 79510 = 14348 READ
UP
b. Conversion of octal to binary
(to convert 14348 to binary)
The binary number is obtained by taking each octal digit and converting it to a three figure binary number
1 4 3 4
001 100 all 100
. 14348"'" 0011000111 002 ~ 11000 111002
:. 79610 = 14348:: 11000111002
To convert from binary to octal, start from the right and group into threes, if the final group does not have three bits then add noughts to make up to the three,
Example 2
Convert 10101002 to octal
I I
I I
I I
1:010:100
I I
/
add 2 noughts 001
~
Convert to octal digit
1
\
... 010
100
2
4
read left to right 10101002 = 1248
 9 
Example 3
01000002 to octal
I ,
, I
o ; 1 0 0 :0 0 0
j I \
T .,
000 100 000
0 4 0
01000002 "" 408 To convert from octal to binary (just a recap} the reverse procedure is used.
Example  convert 12638 to binary
1
2 6
3 \
~
011
Put into groups Of three
I
001
~ ~ .
010 110
12638 ; 10101100112
ACTIVITY:
Convert the following binary numbers to octal:
(a) 101010100
(b) 1110100000 (c) 111010001
Convert the following octal numbers to binary:
(a) 426 (b] 5625
(c} 65217
Fractions in decimal to octal are dealt with in a similar manner to decimal to binary except multiplication by 8 is used.
Example
Convert ·9062510 to binary then octal.
0·90625 x 2 == 1·81250 0·8125 x 2 ; 1.6250 0·625 x 2 :;:; 1·250
0·25 x 2 "" 0·5
0·5 x 2 ;: 1·0
read down
09062510 == 0·111012
 10 
to convert to octal
0·90625 x 8 ;::; 7·25 ·25 x 8 ;::; 2·00
7 2
I read t down
0·9062510 ;::; 0·728
or we could have used the binary number split into threes
0·11101
starting after the decimal point going left to right
I I
I I
0 . : 1 1 1j\
I
I add nought
! j i
III 010
7 2
;;::: ·728 The reverse procedure is used to obtain a binary fraction from an octal fraction.
ACTIVITY:
Convert the following binary numbers to octal.
(a)
111·111
(b)
101·1
(c)
110·0111
Convert the following octal numbers to binary.
(a)
·64
(b)
·77
(c)
·43
Hexadecimal System
This system has a base or radix of 16 and is used again where large binary numbers are handled to cut down possible errors. Since we have only ten different digit symbols (0 to 9 inclusive} six other symbols have to be used these are the letters A to F inclusive. The table below shows the three numbering systems already considered and the hexadecimal system.
 11 
Decimal Octal Binary Hexadecimal
0 0 0000 0
1 I 1 0001 1
I
2 2 0010 2
3 3 0011 3
4 4 0100 4
5 5 0101 5 j
6 6 0110 6
7 7 0111 7
8 10 1000 8
9 11 1001 9
,
10 12 1010 A
11 13 1011 B
12 14 1100 C
13 15 1101 D
14 16 1110 E
15 17 1111 F COMPARISON OF NUMBERING SYSTEMS
Conversion from Decimal to Hexadecimal
Convert 76210 to Hexadecimal
16 762
16
47 remainder A t 2 remainder F I o remainder 2
read up
16
.·.76210 = 2FA16
Conversion from Hexadecimal to Binary
Convert 2BC16 to Binary
2 B C
group into} t t t
4 digits } 0010 1011 1100
:.2BCJ6 1010111002
 12  ACTIVITY:
Convert the following Binary numbers to Hexadecimal
(a)
11100010
(b)
1111111
(c)
111001
Convert the following Hexadecimal codes to Decimal
(a)
2D
(b)
lAF
(c) 21A
Convert the following Decimal numbers to Hexadecimal
(a)
1632
(b) 494
(c)
5174
Convert 17816 to Decimal, Binary and Octal
Convert EF16 to Decimal, Binary and Octal
Fractions in Hexadecimal
Convert 0·9062510 to Hexadecimal
0·90625 x 16 :::: 14·5 E 0·5 x 16 = 8·0 8 0·9062510 = O· E8
I Read t Down
to convert to Binary
O· E 8
Group into four digits
I \
0·1110 1000
. == 0·1110110002
ACTIVITY:
Convert the following decimal fractions to Hexadecimal
(a)
0·6250
(b) 0·81250
Convert the following Hexadecimal numbers to Binary
(a) 0·A8
(b)
0·F6
Just comparing the length of a binary number to Octal or Hexadecimal
111100001111101100011·000100110b
cc; 7417543·04648
= lElF63·13416
 13 
Binary Coded Decimal BCD
There are several forms of this system but we shall concentrate on the 8421 code. It is used in display readout systems, decoders and counters.
DECIMAL BCD
232221 20
8 4 2 1
0 0 a o 0
1 a a a 1
2 a 0 1 0
3 0 0 1 1
4 0 1 0 0
5 0 1 0 1
6 0 1 1 0
7 0 1 1 1
8 1 0 0 0
9 1 0 0 1 It is called an 8421 code as each digit is weighted from left to right 8421 in powers of 2.
You might be thinking that this is the same as the binary code, however, with numbers from 10 upwards each number is represented by the 4 bit code.
Example 1110 to BCD
IS
0001 0001
leaving a space between each group of four digits.
Another example 42910 to BCD
1.\
Is
0100 0010 1001
Converting from BCD to Decimal is again quite easy
10000101
Split into groups of four
1000
+
0101
8
5
= 8510
 14 
ACTIVITY:
Convert the following decimal numbers to BCD
(a)
94
(b)
529
(c)
2947
Convert the following BCD numbers to decimal
(a)
011100001001
(b)
001101100100
By way of a summary and to enable a comparison to be made between a number representation in the various systems and codes, consider the decimal number 347.
DECIMAL BINARY
8421 BCD OCTAL HEXADECIMAL
347 101011011
0011 0100 0111 533
15B
When a number such as decimal 347 is converted into any binary form the corresponding group of binary digits is known as a WORD. Each word is formed of a number of BITS (BINARY DIGITS) and this represents the word length.
Principle of Adding, Subtracting, Dividing and Multiplying binary numbers.
Adding
The rules are similar to those when adding decimal numbers, eg 5+5 = 0 and carry 1 to the next higher 'power' column, and 1 + 1 in binary results in 0 carry 1.
Rules
0 + 0 0
0 + 1 = 1
1 + 0 1
1 + 1 o with 1 to carry
Example: add 1011 and 1110 1011 1110 11001
111 Carry
Note 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 carry 1
= 11001
 15 
Subtraction
Again similar to rules for decimal subtraction except 0  1 = 1 borrow 1
Rules
00=0 10=1 11=0
a  1 = 1 borrow 1
Example: subtract 10101 from 110 11
11011 10101  00110
M ul ti plication
Rules
OxO=O OxI:;O lxO=O lxl==l
Example: multiply 1100 x 11
1100 _ll 1100
1100 ADD
100100
Multiplication in a computer is achieved by repeated addition (eg in decimal 2 x 4 is computed as 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8).
Division
Rules
1
o
1) 1
1) 0
Example: divide 111100 by 110
 16
1010
110) 111100 110 00110 110 00000
Check this by converting binary 1010 to see if the answer is correct
Computers cannot divide, they carry out division by repeated subtraction, which is in itself done by an addition process.
Positive and Negative Numbers
The computer needs to distinguish between positive and negative numbers. For storage purposes only there is usually an additional bit added which identifies whether the number is positive or negative, eg:
'0' for positive numbers
'1' for negative numbers
Example  using an 8 bit binary word the sign bit is added on the front.
Decimal  2·5
binary
~ 100100·100
sign bit
ve
+ 10·25
~001010.010 sign bit
+ve
As mentioned, this is a convenient method for storing numbers but does not allow direct subtraction of one number from another.
By inverting the number and adding 1 we get the negative of the number. This process is called TWO's COMPLEMENT.
The Twos Complement process involves inverting each bit in a word and adding 1
 17 