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Module 2

'->=") :::.::".aJI J\ b 4 uW-L>. Bahrain Airport Services Engineering Training Centre



EASA IR PART 147 Approval No. EASA ,147.0002

EASA PART 66 License Training Program

AUTHORITY

It is IMPORTANT to note that the information in this book is for study I training purposes only.

When carrying out a procedure I work on aircraft I aircraft equipment you MUST always refer to the relevant aircraft maintenance manual or equipment manufacturer's handbook.

You should follow the requirements of your national regulatory authority and laid down company policy as regards local procedures, recording, report writing, documentation .. etc.

For health and safety in the workplace you should follow the regulations/guidelines as specified by the equipment manufacturer, your company, national safety authorities and national governments.

NOTE

It is a policy to review our study material in light of changing technology and syllabus requirements. This means that books are rewritten and I or updated on a regular basis.

BAS Engineering Training Centre Kingdom of Bahrain

Tel: 0097317321877

Fax: 00973 17339019 Email: mbaloshi@bas.com.bh

CONTENTS

Page

Matter

Atomic structure Chemical reactions

Mechanics Force

Moment of a force Equilibrium

A couple

Scalar & vector quantities Centre of gravity

Density

Strength of materials Tension Compression Shear

Stress

Strain

Hooke's Law

Young's modulus of elasticity Fluids & gases

Pressure

Pressure due to depth Buoyancy

1 2 7 12 12 12 14 18 18 23 26 27 27 27 27 29 29 30 31 32 32 34 38

MATIER

Nature of Matter

All matter is made up of small particles called molecules. A molecule is defined as the smallest particle that any substance can be reduced to and still retain the unique properties of the original substance from which it can still be identified.

These molecules are packed tightly together so that substances appear as solids, liquids or gases. Forces of attraction and repulsion exist between all molecules and these forces which are electro-magnetic, vary with the state in which the substance exists. Molecules of all matter are in constant motion, the amount of motion or vibration is dependent on the temperature.

In a solid the molecules are packed closely together and vibration is about a fixed position, held there by strong bonding forces. This forms a rigid intermolecular structure, A solid, therefore, holds its shape and volume, changing size only with temperature changes (or large external forces).

In liquids the motion of molecules is much greater andthis prevents any permanent intermolecular structure from occurring. However, temporary bonds are formed and broken continually between molecules. These bonds prevent the molecules from totally moving apart so that a liquid will occupy, to the extent of it's volume, the shape of the container into which it is poured.

In a gas, the molecules are spaced widely apart, the force of attraction is so small that they continue to drift apart with relative ease, occupying the complete volume of the container that the gas is in.

Between molecules, whether in a solid, liquid or gaseous state, an empty space exists. This space allows materials to be compressed, forcing the molecules to move closer together and occupying a smaller volume. As the volume is gradually reduced the compressive force required has to increase providing evidence of a repulsive force existing between molecules.

On the other hand, to produce a gradual extension of a solid bar, for example, an increasing tensile or stretching force would have to be applied, indicating that a force of attraction is also present between molecules.

The force that holds molecules of a particular substance together is called a COHESIVE force. Where molecules of different substances are held together the force is known as an ADHESIVE force.

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Atomic Structure

Molecules are constructed of even smaller particles called ATOMS. The size of an atom is small and may be defined as being the smallest particle that any substance can chemically be broken down to. The size of an atom is difficult to comprehend - a fine grain of salt would contain about a million, million, million (1018) atoms.

Even at this size research has lead to the discovery that the atom itself is made up of many smaller particles. Of these, three are considered as being fundamental in its construction. These are the electron, the proton and the neutron.

An atom consists largely of empty space. At its centre is the nucleus, which is formed from closely packed protons and neutrons. Surrounding this is a 'cloud' of orbiting electrons (figure 1) circulating around it in all directions.

PATH OF ELECTRONS

~-

PROTONS

NEUTRONS

LEVEL L

Fig. 1 AN ATOM

The size of the proton and neutron are very similar being about 1.6 x 10-24g and 1. 7 x 10-24g respectively, whereas the electron is about 1/2 OOOth times as small, it's mass being about 9 x IO-31g. Theory suggests that 'binding forces' hold the nucleus together. These forces are very strong but of short range and act only within the nucleus.

Protons are positively charged particles and electrons are negatively charged particles, whilst the neutron, as it's name suggests is neither positive or negative but neutraL As a whole, the atom, is seen from outside as having no electrical charge.

The positive charge on the nucleus being cancelled by the negative charge of the orbiting electron. It follows that there must be as many electrons orbiting the nucleus as there are protons within the nucleus so as to keep its charge neutral.

- 2 -

Where the molecules of a substance consists of only one type of atom, the substance is classified as an element. Carbon, gold, iron, mercury, oxygen and hydrogen are all examples of elements. There are more than one hundred elements, and the most recent ones discovered are unstable and change spontaneously into other known elements.

The abundance of materials in the world varies considerably with fewer than ten elements making up 98% of the total.

All atoms of a particular element contain a definite number of protons and subsequent electrons. Different elements will contain different numbers of protons in the nucleus. It is the number of protons in an atom that provide the ATOMIC NUMBER, and the total mass of all the sub-atomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons) that provide a measure of the ATOMIC WEIGHT.

Atomic weight is now often referred to as RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS. Forms of an element that have the same number of protons in the nucleus but different relative atomic masses, as a result of different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, are called ISOTOPES.

Atomic weights are comparative. Originally the weight of the hydrogen atom was taken as 1 and the weights of all other atoms made relative to it. Atomic weights are now based on a value of 12, based on carbon 12, which has six neutrons and six protons. On this comparative scale, hydrogen has an atomic weight of 1.008.

MASS NUMBER is the total number of protons and electrons in the nucleus, each being taken as a unit of mass.

FIRST QUANTUM NUMBER (SHELL NUMBER)

n7

SHELLIDENT

LETTER Q

NUCLEUS

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SHELLS = 7

Fig. 2 THE ELECTRON SHELLS

- 3 -

The way in which the electrons orbit the nucleus follows a fairly rigid pattern and may be envisaged as occupying orbital layers or spherical shells. Each shell can only contain a specific number of electrons with the maximum theoretical number related to the formula 2n2. Where n is the first quantum number and noting that the outer shell can only contain a maximum of 8 electrons anyway.

Figure 2 shows the theoretical maximum number of electrons in each of the shells that surround the nucleus. In practice many atoms do not reach this number.

The gap between each shell is not constant but reduces as the distance increases from the nucleus with the outer electrons being called VALANCE electrons.

Some examples of elements and the number of atoms in each shell is shown in the following table. (The atomic number is the number of protons in the atom).

ELEMENT SHELL - number of electrons in each shell ATOMIC
(Maximum possible number in brackets) NUMBER
K L M N 0 p Q
(2) (8) (18) (32) (50) (72) (8)
n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hydrogen 1 1
Sodium 2 8 1 11
Aluminium 2 8 3 13
Silicon 2 8 4 14
Copper 2 8 18 1 29
Germanium 2 8 18 4 32
Silver 2 8 18 18 1 47
Gold 2 8 18 32 18 1 79
Radon 2 8 18 32 18 8 86
Uranium 2 8 18 32 21 9 2 92
TABLE 1 SOME ELEMENTS The electrons (or electron) making up the outermost shell are called valence electrons, and these being furthest from the attractive force of the nucleus are least tightly bound in the atom. It is the valence electrons that play the active part in electrical conduction.

Figure 3 shows an atom of hydrogen and figure 4 shows an atom of helium, both very light gases. Figures 5 and 6 show atoms of silicon and germanium respectively, two very important elements in the manufacture of transistors, both having four valance electrons.

- 4 -

~~ONEELECTRON ONEPROTON~

Fig. 3 THE HYDROGEN ATOM

A nucleus of ~- o~+ Two orbital

two protons y; electrons

+

0-

Fig. 4 THE HELIUM ATOM

Fig. 5 THE SILICON ATOM

Fig. 6 THE GERMANIUM ATOM

Normally atoms are electrically neutral, as far as charge is concerned, because electrons and protons are present in equal numbers. An atom can become positively or negatively charged if it has electrons taken away or added. When an atom gives up an electron it becomes positively charged (it has more protons than electrons), and this is called a positive ion. When it takes in an additional electron it becomes negatively charged and it is called a negative ion.

- 5 -

An ion is therefore an atom which has lost or gained an electron.

Metals represent a category of elements endowed with particular properties. One of these is that some of the electrons in the outer shells are so loosely tied to the nucleus that they are effectively floating free and move easily from one atom to another. Normally their movement is random, but by applying an external electrical force (such as that provided by a battery or generator) they can all be made to move in the same direction.

When all the electrons move in one direction the current is known as Direct Current (dc) - as when a battery is used to provide the electrical force (voltage). When the electrons are moved forwards and backwards (as when an alternator/generator is used) then the current is called Alternating Current (ac). Ac current usually has a frequency (on aircraft) of 400 Hz, though some frequency wild systems do exist where the frequency varies depending on generator rotational speed (rpm).

This orderly movement of electrons is called current. Metals which easily permit the orderly movement of electrons are called conductors eg, copper, aluminium, silver, platinum, bronze and gold.

In other materials the electrons are held more firmly in their outer shells. In these materials it is almost impossible to induce an orderly movement of electrons and they are classified as non-conductors, or insulators, eg: glass, rubber, plastic, air, wood and mica.

The family of elements called semiconductors sometimes behave like conductors and sometimes like insulators. Typical materials are silicon and germanium.

NUCLEI

ELECTRONS

Fig. 7 VALENCE ELECTRONS IN A SILICON CRYSTAL LATTICE

- 6 -

FREE ELECTRON

Fig. 8 FREE ELECTRONS IN SILICON (Si) DOPED WITH ARSENIC (As)

These materials have four valence electrons, each atom shares its electrons with adjacent atoms to form a strongly bonded structure called a crystal lattice. The freedom of movement of electrons is poor, and in their pure state in semiconductors are insulators.

However, electron movement can be achieved by heating, as the temperature rises the electrons become more agitated and leave their orbits and if a voltage is placed across the material electron movement occurs.

This is known as "intrinsic" conduction. Current causes heat which causes more conduction and this can continue until breakdown occurs, known as "thermal runaway".

Another way to improve the conductivity is by "doping", of a tiny amount of another element. The "dope" is introduced into the crystal lattice structure which improves the conductivity. More detail of this in Module 4 study books in this series.

Chemical Reactions

If the third shell is an outer shell it can only accommodate 8 electrons, but if covered by a fourth shell it can accommodate 18 electrons. If the outermost shell is either completely filled or holds 8 electrons then the element is chemically un-reactive, ie it will not combine chemically with any other element. Thus if we consider a substance such as Neon (Ne), atomic number 10, then 2 electrons will occupy the inner shell and 8 electrons the outer shell. Neon is an un-reactive gas.

- 7 -

Sodium (Na), having an atomic number of 11, has 2 electrons occupying the inner shell, 8 in the second shell but only 1 electron in the third (outer shell), with a deficiency of 7 electrons in this shell.

Chlorine (Cl] has an atomic number of 17, thus the shells have 2, 8 and 7 electrons respectively with a deficiency of 1 electron in the other shell. These last two elements, sodium and chlorine, will readily combine to form the COMPOUND sodium chloride (NaCl), sea salt, with the outer shell of the chlorine readily accepting the single electron of the sodium outer shell and in doing so completing its outer shell.

Chemical reactions are concerned with the loss or gain of electrons in the outer shells and as the example above has shown, elements with deficiencies in their outer shells are chemically very active and form compounds easily.

A COMPOUND is defined as the chemical combination of two or more elements and by chemical means can be separated back into their original elements.

The third way in which a substance can exist is as a mixture - remembering the other two ways are as an element or a compound.

In a mixture, substances exist side by side without combining chemically. Air is a good example of a mixture. Air consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen (23% oxygen and 77% nitrogen approximately my mass).

A mixture is often recognised by the fact that a physical process may be used to separate it back to its original constituent parts. In a reaction a chemical compound is either formed by the combination of elements or broken up (decomposed) into its separate elements. To represent such a process a chemical equation is used.

It is worth memorising the more common elements, and those associated with combustion (in the following table), as these are used in the writing and balancing of chemical equations.

ELEMENT SYMBOL ATOMIC MASS MOLECULAR MASS
HYDROGEN H2 1 2
CARBON C 12 12
NITROGEN N2 14 28
OXYGEN O2 16 32
SULPHUR S 32 32
TABLE 2 SOME COMMON ELEMENTS - 8 -

The subscript number (eg the 2 in 02) associated with some of the elements denotes the number of atoms contained in a single molecule of the substance. Thus carbon C contains a single atom whilst a molecule of hydrogen H2 is formed by 2 hydrogen atoms.

Note. The subscript 1 as in C. is understood but rarely used.

The molecular mass is the total atomic mass of all the atoms that form the molecule. Thus a molecule of oxygen, which consists of 2 atoms in its natural state, has a molecular mass of 32 ie 2 x 16.

In a compound the molecular mass is determined from the addition of the atomic masses of the individual masses concerned.

Consider a molecule of water chemical symbol H20. This is a compound, a single molecule of which is made up of 3 atoms, one of oxygen and two of hydrogen. Its molecular mass is thus 18 or [(2 x 1) + 16].

However, as a chemical formula, it is not possible to show this as

since oxygen on its own can only exist naturally in its molecular form with 2 atoms, ie 02.

Thus the equation has to be written as

in order to balance.

In other words 2 molecules of Hydrogen + 1 molecule of Oxygen > 2 molecules of Water.

In terms of the atomic masses the equation may be written as

2(2xl)+1(16x2)

2[(2 x 1) + 16]

4

+

32

36

ie, both sides of the equation are the same and the equation balances,

In the second example C + 02 = C02, 1 molecule of carbon is chemically combined with 1 molecule of oxygen to form 1 molecule of carbon dioxide.

In this form the chemical equation balances as shown below, where the comparison of the atomic masses is made,

- 9 -

12 + (16 x 2)

=

[12 + (16 x 2)]

12 + 32

44

The final examples show, respectively, the chemical equations involved in the production of carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide.

(i)

=

2CO

(ii)

=

Check yourself that these two equations balance by considering the atomic masses.

In all the preceding equations, remember that:

(a) There must be the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation.

(b) The atomic mass is the same on each side of the equation.

(c) It is not necessary for the same number of molecules to occur on each side of the equation.

(d) The addition sign on each in the equation indicates 'chemically combining with' and is not a mathematical function as such.

Note. The process of division or decomposition of a substance into its constituent parts to determine the type of constituents present is called analysis. Synthesis is the opposite process - ie the process of producing a compound by a chemical reaction from commonly available materials.

Matter, as previously stated, exists as a solid, liquid or gas. You will remember that in a solid the molecules are held in fixed positions about which they vibrate. By raising the temperature of the solid the effect is to increase this vibration, (that is to increase the kinetic energy or movement energy of the molecule). If the temperature continues to be increased the bonds acting between the molecules become less effective and the molecules move away from their fixed positions. The substance subsequently becomes a liquid.

Increasing the temperature still further gives the molecules even more energy so that a second point is reached where the bonds of attraction no longer have the strength to restrain the molecules, and they leave the liquid to form a gas.

Changes of state whether from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, take place at constant temperature. This is because the energy absorbed during this phase is used up in breaking down the bonds of attraction.

- 10 -

The heat required to change the state of solid to liquid is known as 'the latent heat of fusion', and that from liquid to gas as 'the latent heat of vaporisation'. Where energy absorbed produces a change in temperature, this is referred to as 'Sensible Heat'.

The graph below shows the changes that occur as ice (below O°C) is converted into steam.

100-+--~--------------------------------------------~

WATER & STEAM

TEMP °C

HEAT

ICE& WATER

SENSIBLE LATENT HEAT SENSIBLE HEAT LATENT HEAT OF

HEAT OF FUSION VAPORISATION

(Enthalpy) (Specific enthalpy (Enthalpy) (Specific enthalpy

of change of of change of phase)

phase)

Fig. 9 ENTHALPY CHANGES DURING CHANGES OF STATE (ICE TO STEAM)

Sensible heat and Latent heat, may often be referred to as Enthalpy and Specific Enthalpy as change of phase respectively.

blank

- 11 -

MECHANICS

STATICS

Force

If we want to bend, stretch, compress, twist or break a body (say a piece of metal), then we must apply a force. The application of a force is also necessary to produce movement of a static body and to produce acceleration, slow down (decelerate) or change the direction of a moving body. Whenever we consider a force we see it in terms of its effect on the body to which it is applied. In this way a force is defined as "that which changes or attempts to change the state of rest of a body or of its state of uniform motion in a straight line."

In all its forms, a force has units of Newtons (N). (The Newton is the SI unit of force and named after Sir Isaac Newton English mathematician 1642 -1727.) It is quite small - if a small apple is placed on the hand it will exert a force of about 1 Newton towards the earth.

When a force is represented on a drawing by an arrowed line the length of which is proportional to the amount of force and it is pointing in the correct direction then the quantity is known as a Vector Quantity.

Moment of a Force

A force can also be used to produce rotation, as occurs when opening a door or tightening a nut with a spanner. Such motion does require the door to be pivoted (hinged) at some position and the force to be applied at some distance from the pivot.

Perpendicular distance between the pivot and the line of action of the force

APPLIED FORCE (P)

/

DOOR

LINE OF ACTION OF THE FORCE

TURNING EFFECT OF THE FORCE

Fig. 10 MOMENT OF A FORCE

- 12 -

This turning effect of the force is known as 'the moment of the force', and its magnitude is determined from the product of the force and the distance from the hinge or pivot. However, the distance must be the perpendicular distance from the pivot (ie the distance measured at right angles to the force) to the line of action of the force. Referring to figure 10.

Moment (of the force) Nm

Magnitude of the force x Perpendicular distance

(N) between pivot and line of action of the force (m)

Applying the force in such a way that its line of action passes through the pivot will not produce a turning effect (figure 11). Both force and distance are necessary to produce a moment and perpendicular distance is zero.

LEVER

LINE OF ACTION OF THE FORCE

"'.

PIVOT

In ..

LINE OF ACTION OFTHE FORCE

(a)

APPLIED FORCE

(b)

Fig. 11 FORCE APPLIED THROUGH THE PIVOT LINE

PERPENDICULAR DISTANCE FROM PIVOT TO LINE OF ACTION OF THE FORCE

LINE OF ACTION OF THE FORCE

Fig. 12 FORCE INCLINED AT AN ANGLE

If the force is inclined, as shown in figure 12 then the turning effect is reduced because the perpendicular distance is reduced.

Both figures 10 and 12 show that if motion had taken place, the lever would have moved in a clockwise direction hence, both these moments, would be referred to as 'clockwise moments'.

- 13 -

If the force is applied in such a way as to produce a counter clockwise rotation then, the moment produced would be called an 'anti-clockwise moment'.

Movement is not necessary for a moment to be present in a system, and the tendency of the force to produce a turning effect is often used in calculations.

The power of an internal combustion engine may be defined by the amount of torque it produces. This torque (T) is measured in the same units T = F x D (Nm) where:

F D

=

Force Distance

Equilibrium

QUESTION Can you define equilibrium? (5 mins)

ANSWER Equilibrium is where all the forces and all the moments acting on a body cancel each other and the net effect on the body is zero. In other words it will not move if it is in a state of rest, and if in motion it will not slow-down or accelerate or change direction.

The state of equilibrium is very important in engineering situations. It provides stability in practice and a means of solving problems in theory.

Consider the beam, shown below in figure 13. It is supported at a single point, which also acts as a pivot. Two forces PI and P2 are situated each side of the pivot at distances 81 and 82 respectively.

ANTICLOCKWISE TENDENCY

CLOCKWISE) TENDENCY

BEAM

PIVOT

Fig. 13 EQUILIBRIUM OF ROTATION

- 14 -

The product P2 x 82 produces a clockwise moment about the pivot and the product PI x 81 produces an anti-clockwise moment about the pivot. For equilibrium of rotation (ie, no rotation) these two moments must be equal, ie PI x 81 = P2 X 82

Although rotation is now prevented, the beam still has the opportunity to move up or down, ie translate, hence for equilibrium of translation, the sum of the downward forces must be balanced by sum of the upward forces (reaction force). In this case just one supplied by the pivot, as shown below figure 14.

S1 ·1- S2
D
PIVOT REACTION
FORCE P1 + P2 Fig. 14 EQUILIBRIUM OF TRANSLATION

Once these two conditions of rotation and translation have been satisfied then the beam can be said to be in a state of equilibrium.

If more than two forces are involved then for equilibrium of rotation:

The sum of the clockwise moments = the sum of the anti-clockwise moments.

Lets now consider some examples.

Example 1 In this case the requirement is to balance the arrangement in figure 15 by determining the unknown force (P).

5N

2N

1N

P

4m

6m

2m

Fig. 15 BEAM BALANCE - ONE UNKNOWN FORCE

- 15 -

Taking moments about the pivot. For equilibrium of rotation:

Sum of clockwise moments (P x 6m) + (IN x 2m)

6P + 2 6P 6P

P

sum of anti-clockwise moments (2N x 2m) + (SN x 4m)

4 + 20

24- 2

22

2% "" 3 ~ N (3.667)

Example 2 A uniform bar AB (figure 16), 7m long has forces of:

2SN at a point O.Sm from A 12N at a point 3.0m from A

and 12N at a point 1.0m from B, applied to it.

Find the position of the pivot which will allow the beam to balance, ie be in a state of equilibrium (ignore the mass of the beam).

2SN

12N

12N

x

I ... 1m ~

3m

49N 7m

Fig. 16 BEAM BALANCE - PIVOT LOCATION

Let the pivot be positioned on the beam at a distance x from end A. From equilibrium of translation, we know that the reaction force at the pivot must equal the sum of the downward forces, ie 49N. Taking moments about A for equilibrium of rotation:

Sum of clockwise moments

sum of anti-clockwise moments

(25N x O.Sm) + (12N x 3.0m) + (12N x 6m) cc 49N x x

12.5 + 36 + 72 "'" 49x
120.5 ::= 49x
120.5 2.46m
x ""
49 - 16 -

The solution is as shown below.

2SN

t

12N

t

12N

t

l

2.46m

Fig. 17 BEAM BALANCE - SOLUTION

As the last example shows, the point chosen about which the moments are taken, can be any point on the beam, provided that the beam is in equilibrium.

In the next example, the weight of the beam is to be taken into consideration. Of course each part of the beam has its own mass and weight, but there is a point where all the mass or weight appears concentrated. This point, the halfway point on a uniform beam, is known as it's 'centre of gravity' (C of G). It is the point, at which, if supported by a single support, the beam on its own would balance.

Example 3 A uniform beam AB, 4m long and 200N weight, has forces of 120N and 20N applied respectively to its ends A and B. Find the point about which the beam will balance.

12SN

t

4m

20N

1

2m

1

CofG

x

, (Reaction force obtained

T /" from the addition of the

340N /' total downward forces),

Fig. 18 BEAM BALANCE - MASS & FORCES PIVOT LOCATION

The weight of the beam alone would act at a point 2m from either A or B ie, the mid-position and its centre of gravity.

Let the balance point be at a distance x from end A. Taking moments about point A for equilibrium of rotation:

- 17 -

Sum of clockwise moments (200N x 2m) + (20N x 4m) 400 + 80

::::::

Sum of anti-clockwise moments (340N x x)

340x

480

340

::::::

1.41m

x

::::::

A Couple

In some situations, for example the winding up of a clockwork mechanism, the forces that are applied to the winding key are equal in magnitude, but opposite in sense.

APPLIED FORCE P-----

Fig. 19 COUPLE PRODUCING A TORQUE

In this case the resultant force on the pivot is zero and there is only pure rotation present with no tendency for the pivot to move sideways. The value of the resultant moment (P x d) produces rotation.

Such an arrangement of forces is called a 'COUPLE' and the resultant moment of a couple is called a TORQUE.

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

All quantities may be described as being either 'scalar' or 'vector'.

A scalar quantity has magnitude only and nothing else is required in defining it. As such, it may be represented by the length of a straight line drawn to some scale.

Examples of scalar quantities include, time, mass, temperature and speed.

- 18 -

Thus a time interval of 20 seconds may be represented as:

o

I

I

20

I

Using a scale of lcm "" 2 seconds, and a temperature of 60°C may be represented as:

using a scale of 1 em ;::: lODC.

A vector quantity on the other hand, not only possesses magnitude but also direction and sense.

Examples of vector quantities include, force, velocity and acceleration.

The force of SN applied to a body as shown in figure 20 is a vector quantity. It is a straight line, the length of which represents magnitude, drawn at an angle, representing direction and including an arrow showing how it is applied, ie it's sense - up or down.

FORCE

DIRECTION (Angle to some datum)

VECTOR (Vector line 1cm=1N)

ARROW (Sense)

Fig. 20 SPACE DIAGRAM SHOWING A VECTOR QUANTITY

Vector quantities have the advantage over scalar quantities in that they can be added graphically, resulting in solutions to various problems.

Consider now a situation in which two forces are applied to a body, as shown in figure 21. The question is: In which direction does the body move and with what force?

- 19 -

12N

20N

Fig. 21 VECTOR QUANTITIES - SPACE DIAGRAM

It is unimportant as to which force is the first to be drawn as a vector, but which ever one is chosen, the next vector must be added to it ie, the second vector starts where the first ends. Using a scale of 1 ern = 2N and starting with the 20N force drawn in the correct direction (horizontal) and lOcm long.

Draw the next vector vertically from the end of the first 6cm long (figure 22).

END POINT

12 N

20N

Fig. 22 VECTOR DIAGRAM

A line joining the start of the first vector to the end point of the last vector represents the result of the combine forces acting on the body. It's magnitude, using the drawing scale, is found from its length and its direction found by using a protractor and measuring the angle it makes with the horizontal.

The RESULTANT is the name given to this vector and it represents the single force that replaces the original force system and yet has the same effect on the body.

- 20 -

Thus:

12N

23.3N

20N

The two forces can be replaced by a single force;

Fig. 23 SINGLE FORCE REPLACEMENT

A single force that can hold the original system of forces in equilibrium is known as the EQUILIBRANT. It is equal in magnitude to the resultant but it is opposite in sense, as shown below in figure 24. Thus to hold the original force arrangement in equilibrium, the equilibrant is required as shown in figure 25.

EQUIUBRANT (23.3N)

END POINT

START POINT ~--------~-----2-0N--------------~

12N

Fig. 24 VECTOR DIAGRAM WITH EQUILIBRANT

20N

12N

Fig. 25 EQUILIBRANT

- 21 -

It is worth noting that, as shown above, for a system under the action of three co-planar forces to be in a state of equilibrium, then those forces must pass through a common point (ie, the forces must be con-current), and when represented as vectors and drawn in order, they must form a closed triangle. This is known as the 'triangle of forces' (co-planar means on the same plane).

U sing vector addition systems with more than three forces can be solved in a similar way. Consider the forces acting on the body shown in figure 26. Which way is the body likely to move? In other words what is the resultant?

2N

2N

2N

10N

3N

SPACE DIAGRAM

RESULTANT (9N)

VECTOR DIAGRAM SCALE 1cm = 1N

5N

START

Fig. 26 RESOLUTION OF THE FORCES ACTING ON A BODY USING VECTORS

You can start with any force, but in the vector diagram above the vertical 2N force is used as the start. It is drawn accurately to scale vertically, then the next force (SN) is taken and drawn horizontally, then the 3N force is drawn to scale at the correct angle, then the 2N force and finally the ION force.

From the beginning of the vector diagram to where the ION force finishes is the resultant. This represents the direction and the magnitude of the force that could replace all the others with the same result.

- 22 -

Note that a vector component at 90° to its original is sometimes referred to as the quadrature component.

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

The centre of gravity (C of G) is defined as the point where all the mass of a body appears to be concentrated. In a gravitational field this is also the point where all the weight appears to act, no matter what attitude the body is in. The word 'appears' is important since with some hollow shapes the centre of gravity occurs in space (with a horse-shoe for example the C of G is in the space between the two sides of the shoe).

C OFGAT CENTRE OF PRISM

RECTANGULAR PRISM

C of G ON CENTRE LINE AT HALF LENGTH

C ofG

AT CENTRE OF SPHERE

C of G ON CENTRE LINE ONE QUARTER OF PERPENDICULAR HEIGHT FROM BASE

Fig. 27 LOCATION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY FOR SOME COMMON SHAPES

The centre of gravity should not be confused with the centre of area which is known as a CENTROID. For a body to posses a centre of gravity it must have a volume ie, it must be three dimensional. An area is only two-dimensional and as such cannot posses mass. Figure 27 shows some examples giving the location of the centre of gravity within the body of common shapes.

For comparison, figure 28 shows the location of the centroid of some common shapes.

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D

Q.5L

L

RECTANGLE

CIRCLE

ANNULUS

TRIANGLE

H

1/3H

Fig. 28 CENTROIDS OF SOME COMMON SHAPES

The location of the centre of gravity of an aircraft is of particular importance, and is obtained by using moments, as can be seen in the following example.

An aircraft has a total downward action of 70kN (mass of 7135.6kg). Its' nose wheel is positioned 3m in front of the main wheels. Determine the position of its C of G from the nose wheel if the load on the main wheels is 60kN.

Figure 29 shows a simplified side view of the aircraft with only one main wheel showing as the other is immediately behind it in the drawing.

x

MAIN WHEELS

NOSE WHEEL

COfG/ 70kN

3m

Fig. 29 AIRCRAFT C of G ON THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS

60kN

- 24 -

Let the C of G be x metres from the nose wheel centre line along the aircraft's longitudinal axis.

As the centre of gravity is a balancing point we can consider the aircraft as a simple beam supported at this position. An upward reaction equal to its total mass would be necessary to provide equilibrium of translation at the C of G position.

Thus for equilibrium of rotation, taking moments about the nose wheel:

Sum of Clockwise moments =

Sum of anticlockwise moments

60kN x 3m =:0

70kN x x

x

180 70

=

2.57m

In this example the centre of gravity was found along the longitudinal axis. However, its location within the body of the aircraft would require additional moments to be taken along its lateral axis as well as its vertical axis. In other words the actual centre of gravity requires three planes to be considered, the longitudinal, lateral and vertical.

In reality the longitudinal is the one that is calculated when weighing an aircraft with a tolerance allowed for the lateral position (taken as a difference between the weight recordings of the port (left) and starboard (right) weighing* devices). It is rare for the vertical position to be considered by the aircraft main tenance engineer.

* Weighing devices are placed at the nose of the aircraft and at each main wheel positions. The aircraft may be towed onto each unit with the wheels resting on low level flat steel weighing platforms. Alternatively the aircraft may be jacked clear of the ground with a weighing unit fitted to the top of each jack. The total mass of the aircraft is found by adding each value of the 3 weighing units.

QUESTION Define the terms longitudinal, lateral and vertical axes (5 mins).

ANSWER: These are all straight imaginary lines running through the aircraft's C of G all at right angles to each other. The longitudinal one runs from nose to tail, the lateral one runs from wing tip to wing tip (or parallel to a line running from wing tip to wing tip), and the vertical line runs vertically through the other two.

Aircraft weighing is dealt with in more detail in other books in the LBP series.

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DENSITY

Density is defined as "the mass per unit volume" and is the amount of matter that can be 'packed' into a specified volume. The more matter than can be 'packed in', the greater the density. Density is given the symbol 'p' (rho).

and density p

==

mass kg volume m3

Some typical values are given in the following table.

MATERIAL DENSITY
Aluminium 2700 kg/m3
Steel 7870 kg/m3
Tungsten 19300 kg/m3
Mercury 13600 kg/m3
Water 1000 kg/m3
Air 1.225 kg/rn" at 15°C
and pressure
101.3kN/m2 at sea
level. TABLE 3 MATERIAL DENSITIES

The density of a given body is not a fixed quantity and will change with any change in volume of the body resulting from a temperature change. The density of gases are particularly susceptible to change either as a result of pressure changes and/ or temperature changes.

In general we are looking for high density materials for such things as mass balance weights in flying control surfaces etc. Depleted uranium (density 19,000 kg/m3) was used for this purpose until safety fears made it unacceptable, but steel, tungsten, lead and titanium are still used. Low density materials are used for cores of composite sandwich construction such as micro-balloons, aluminium or composite honey comb etc (density under 100 kgy m").

"".""""

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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Whenever a force is applied to a solid, deformation takes place. Sometimes this deformation is permanent as in the case when bending locking wire. Sometimes the deformation is temporary and on removal of the force the solid returns to its original shape eg, when the deflection force is removed from a spring. When the deformation of the material is temporary the material is said to be elastic and the response of the material is said to be an elastic response.

The response of a material to the application of a force depends on the size and direction of the force and the period of time during which it acts, the type of material and the area on which the force acts.

The material attempts to neutralise the applied force by exerting an opposing force or reaction. If the applied force exceeds the reaction, the material breaks.

With most materials if the applied force is small, then when it is removed the material behaves elastically. If the force is greater than a certain amount then the material will change shape permanently.

When a material changes shape either elastically or permanently it is said to STRAIN.

Tension

If a force tends to stretch the material the force is called a tensile force and the material is said to be in tension eg, parachute cords, a spring balance, lifting cable, a towing arm, flying control cables etc. Structures that are designed to take tensile loads are called TIES and are usually of small cross-section.

Compression

If a force tends to compress or squeeze a material the force is called a compressive force, eg the legs of a chair, bridge supports, also landing gear legs when the aircraft is on the ground. Structures that are designed to withstand compression are called STRUTS and are usually of larger cross-section.

Shear

A material is said to be in shear if the forces applied to it tend to slide one face of the material over an adjacent face, eg paper failing in shear when cut by scissors, rivet holding an assembly together (figure 24).

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RIVET

PLATES RIVETED TOGETHER

FORCE ...

...

FORCE

Fig. 30 SHEAR STRESS IN A RIVET

In an aircraft structure (as in all structures) it is rare for anyone part to have a pure compressive load or a pure tensile load - the classic case for a pure tensile load is a cable (or a piece of string). So most load bearing members are subjected to a combination of tensile, compressive and shear forces. When subjected to all these forces the structure is called a BEAM. A good example of a beam is the main spar of the wing of an aircraft.

COMPRESSIVE STRESS

.:

TENSILE STRESS

LIFT

Fig. 31 BENDING FORCE ON A BEAM

Figure 31 shows the front view of an aircraft mainplane. Its main structural member is the front spar (main spar).It is said to be a CANTILEVER BEAM if it is attached at one end only. Most aircraft wings are attached at the fuselage end only, but some wings on some small aircraft do have an additional support strut from the fuselage to the wing which means they are not cantilever.

With the aircraft in the air the lift force will bend the wing upwards (for large aircraft several feet) putting a compressive force on the top surface, a tensile force on the bottom surface and a shear force in the middle. When on the ground, with the main landing gear near or in the fuselage, the compressive and tensile forces will be reversed.

- 28 -

Stress

Stress is defined as force per unit area - in the imperial system lbs force per square inch (psi}, in the SI system it is the Pascal (Pa)*. A Pascal is defined is 1 Newton per square meter (Njm2). So IPa = INjm2. The Pa is a small unit and often quoted as kPa or MPa.

* Named after Blaise Pascal French mathematician 1623 - 1662.

It is important to note that the unit of stress is the same as the unit of pressure.

When a force is applied to a material the material is said to be in a state of stress. The intensity of this stress will depend on the magnitude and direction of the applied force and the cross-sectional area of the material withstanding the force.

For direct tensile or compressive stresses this area is measured at right angles to the direction of the force.

For sheer stress the area will be of the adjacent faces which the shear force is tending to slide one over the other.

Thus:

stress ;;;

applied force (or load)

cross sectional area of material

units =

Njm2 = Pascals

Strain

When a body is under stress distortion of its shape occurs and this distortion is called Strain. For a material under tensile or compressive stress the strain is measured by the ratio:

Strain

=

change in length

(This is a dimensionless quantity)

original length

In the case of shear strain it is not only a change in length that is considered. Shear stress tends to make one face of the material slide over an adjacent face as shown in figure 32.

The shear strain is measured by the ratio x where x is the relative movement L

between the top and bottom layers and L is the perpendicular distance between these surfaces.

- 29 -

x

L

LAYERS OR PLATES

Fig. 32 SHEAR STRAIN

Hooke's Law

During loading many materials initially behave as if they are elastic, but become plastic (acquire a permanent deformation) as the load increases. The connection between load and extension was first made by Robert Hooke English physicist 1635 - 1703. His law states that 'the extension produced by an elastic material is directly proportional to the load which produces it'.

This relationship, if represented graphically, produces a straight line graph up to a certain point, known as 'the Limit of Proportionality', after this the change in shape is no longer proportional to the load and the graph starts to curve as show in figure 33.

METAL FAILS

/

LOAD

ULITMATE STRENGTH

-,

\______ POSITION OF

, ELASTIC LIMIT

VARIES WITH

LIMIT OF DIFFERENT METALS

PROPORTIONALITY

EXTENSION

Fig. 33 GRAPH OF LOAD AGAINST EXTENSION

The point at which the material ceases to be elastic is known as the 'Elastic Limit'. Its position varies with the material under test. With some materials it coincides with the 'Limit of Proportionality', but with others it occurs on the curved and non-proportional part of the graph.

- 30 -

Wherever the elastic limit occurs, if it is exceeded then the material will never return to its original length, it will have acquired a permanent set.

If stress is plotted against strain, then the shape of the graph will initially follow that of the load-extension graph.

Up to the limit of proportionality stress o: strain [cc means is proportional to)

Thus

stress

--.- "" a constant (E) strain

This constant 'E' is known as 'Young's Modulus of Elasticity', and has the same units as stress ie, Pascals (Njm2). It is a constant for a particular material. The table below shows some typical values.

MATERIAL E (GNjm2)
Aluminium 70
Mild Steel 200
Cast Iron 120
Tungsten 410 TABLE 4 YOUNG'S MODULAS FOR SOME MATERIALS

QUESTION A tie rod of rectangular cross-section, 60mm x lOmm and carries a tensile load of 30kN. Calculate the tensile stress in Njmm2.

(10 mins)

ANSWER

Load 30 x 103N

()----

- Area - 60 x 10mm2

(() == tensile stress)

"" 50 Ny rnm?

QUESTION What diameter of circular bar is required to carry a load (f) of 38.5 kN if the stress is 40Njmm2?

ANSWER:

Load f

[J"=--=--

Area TId/ 4

40 = 4 x 38.5 x 103 TI X d2

- 31 -

or

d=

4 x 38.5 X 103 40 x 106 X 1l'

d = 35mm

FLUIDS AND GASES

PRESSURE

Pressure in engineering and scientific terms is defined as force per unit area, and as a formula:

Pressure

:::

Force = Njm2 Area

In imperial units it is Ibs per square inch (psi) - used commonly on aircraft, and in the 81 system it is N / m? - the Pascal (Pa).

It is interesting to note that there is 6894 Pa to 1psi. A typical tyre pressure for a car would be 30psi - in SI units it would be 206,820 Pa (206.82kPa).

So the Pa is not very big is it?

You will note that pressure has the same units as those for stress, namely the Pascal (or psi). However, it is likely that you will also come across another unit of pressure - the bar.

The following conversions are useful as most calculations, in science anyway, are carried out in Pa.

1 Pascal

==

1 Njm2

and 1 bar

:::

lOS N/m2

Pressure in fluids is of particular importance. Both liquids and gases are considered as fluids and as previously stated, a fluid has the ability to flow and occupy any shape.

Whether in a liquid or gaseous state, certain properties are attributed to fluids and these are:

(i) The pressure exerted at a point within a fluid is the same in all directions.

- 32 -

(ii) The pressure exerted by a fluid is at right angles to the surface in which it is in contact (figure 34).

(iii) For all practical purposes the pressure is felt throughout the fluid without loss.

(vi) The force (F) exerted by a fluid is calculated as the pressure (P) times the area (A) (F = P x A).

Items (i) to (iii) above are often referred to as Pascal's Law.

PRESSURE VESSEL

Pressure acts at rig ht angles to all surfaces.

Fig. 34 FLUID PROPERTIES

t SMALL FORCE f

LARGE FORCE F t

PIS

TON r-c
r=
-, Small L
I- ~ movement
ILarge .~ ~
movement
R - ____ Equal pressure & same ----
volume displacement ---
in each cylinder. SEALS

CYUNDE

SMALL PISTON 'x'

LARGE PISTON 'y'

Fig. 35 BRAMAH'S PRESS

Practical arrangements that use the transmission of fluid pressure for their operation often involve linked cylinders as shown in figure 35. Joseph Bramah English inventor invented the press in 1796.

- 33 -

It consists of two cylinders connected together by a pipe. Each cylinder has a close fitting piston (which in 1797 was extremely difficult to manufacture) that provides a leak proof piston and cylinder arrangement.

The system is filled with a liquid which is considered as incompressible. In actual fact it is not, but for practical purposes it is considered to be incompressible, it is only at very high pressures that liquids compresses and behave like a gas.

As the piston in cylinder 'x' is moved in, the fluid is pressurised to pressure 'P'. (P == f/ a, where P = pressure, f == force and a = area of small piston). This pressure is felt throughout the fluid so that cylinder 'y' experiences the same pressure.

However, since the area (A) of the piston in cylinder 'y' is larger than that of the piston in cylinder 'x', the force F exerted by piston 'y' is larger than the applied force 'f at cylinder 'A' (F = P x A, where F :;;: force of large piston, P = pressure and A = area of large piston).

It is this principle that is used with hydraulic lifting jacks.

As the liquid is assumed to be incompressible, then the volume displaced from cylinder "x" is the same volume moved to cylinder "i]', So volume 1 x a = volume L x A, where I = amount of movement of small piston and a is the area and L :::: the amount of movement of the large piston and A is the area. The result is a smaller movement of piston "y" as compared to piston movement "x" (A being large so L must be small).

The important thing to remember is that the pressure is the same throughout the system and the volume displaced from one cylinder is the same put into the other.

Aircraft make extensive use of hydraulic systems where the principles discussed above are put to use.

Pressure Due to Depth

Pressure is also related to the depth of the fluid. This is evident when considering the depth of the atmosphere which creates a pressure of approximately 101.3 kN/m2 (1013.2 mb, or 14.7 psi) at sea level, and as altitude increases so the pressure reduces.

In liquids the pressure created due to depth, is more obvious. When a diver descends in the water so the pressure builds up quickly the deeper he/she gets. This is a problem for submarines as they have to withstand considerable pressures and all have a limit on how far they can descend - otherwise the pressure of the water would crush them.

- 34 -

Many pressure measuring instruments make use of the fact that the air exerts pressure due to the height of the column air above it. The mercury (Hg) in glass barometer being a good example. This instrument consists, basically, of a glass tube 1m long, and sealed at one end.

By completely immersing it in a bath of mercury all the air is expelled. When held upright, but keeping the open end in the mercury bath, it is seen that the mercury will fall a little from the sealed top end leaving a 'vacuum'. The column left in the tube is supported by the air pressure acting on the surface of the mercury in the bath (figure 36).

The rise and fall of the mercury column, as the air pressure changes, provides a direct relationship and allows accurate readings of atmospheric pressure which helps in weather forecasting. Low atmospheric pressure usually indicates wet or stormy weather and high pressure, fine weather (cold in the winter - warm in the summer).

The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 29.9in Hg and many Pitot static instruments are calibrated using this standard.

The formula for calculating pressure due to depth is pgh (Njm2) where

p = density of the fluid (kgjm3)

g"" gravitational acceleration (9.81mjs2) and h = height or depth of liquid (m)

Example 1. Given that the density of mercury is 13600kgjm3 calculate the height of a mercury column supported in the barometer when the air pressure is 101.3 kNjm2 (1.013 bars).

CONTAINER

Fig. 36 MERCURY BAROMETER

- 35 -

PRESSURE "" pgh
h Pressure
""
pg
101.3 x 103N 1m2
:::;:
13600 x 9.81
= 0.759m
= 75.9cm The pressure measured from an absolute vacuum is known as 'ABSOLUTE PRESSURE' whereas all other pressures are called 'GAUGE PRESSURES',

For example, taking a car tyre pressure reading might give a value of 30psi - that's the reading on the gauge. But the tyre is in an atmospheric pressure of 14.7psi, so its pressure in relation to a vacuum is 30 + 14.7 = 44.7psi.

A reading of gauge pressure may be converted into one of absolute pressure by simply adding the atmospheric pressure, ie

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE = GAUGE PRESSURE + ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Another simple instrument that uses height of a liquid to determine pressure is the Piezometer. This is a tube inserted into the container carrying the liquid under pressure. Liquid will rise up the tube until the pressure due to its height equals the pressure in the pipe so the height of the liquid column is an indication of the pressure in the vessel.

PIEZOMETER TUBE

h

Fig. 37 PIEZOMETER TUBE

Such a piezometer has restrictions in that it can only be used for liquids and for liquids of low density the height of the piezometer tube can also be very long.

- 36 -

Example 2. To what height would water rise in a piezometer tube if the gauge pressure in the pipe was 19.62kN/m2? (Density of water "" 1000kg/m3)

P(gauge) = pgh
h P
""
pg
19.62xlO3
=
1000x9.81
"" 2m The use of a U-tube can overcome the problems associated with the simple piezometer. Figure 38 shows a U-tube attached to a pipe carrying fluid under pressure.

The U-tube contains a liquid which will not react with the gas or liquid in the pipe. The pressure of the fluid in the pipe forces the liquid around the U-tube, until the height '11' produces a pressure which equates with the pressure in the pipe, ie the pressure at 'x' is the same in both branches of the U-tube.

PIPE FULL OF GAS OR LIQUID

x

p kg/m3

Fig. 38 MANOMETER

For a gas the pressure at 'x' is considered to be the pressure used to measure the pressure of a liquid in the pipe, a correction should be made for the pressure of the liquid column occupying the left hand branch, from 'x' to the pipe centre.

"" """" ~,,.,

- 37 -

BUOYANCY

If a body is placed in water it will either sink or float, but whatever it does, it will experience an up-thrust equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. This is known as Archimedes's Principle (Archimedes Greek mathematician 287- 212bc).

With a sinking body the weight of the body is greater than the up-thrust exerted on it, but with a floating body the up-thrust is equal to its weight. The resultant force on the body, in this case, is therefore zero.

This is the 'principle of floatation', which sates that a floating body displaces its own weight of fluid.

UP-THRUST

UP-THRUST

WEIGHT

UP-THRUST EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN WEIGHT - BODY FLOATS

WEIGHT GREATER THAN UP-THRUST - BODY SINKS

Fig. 39 FLUID DISPLACEMENT

This is statement is true when applied, not only to bodies in liquids, but also to bodies in air. A balloon, for example, in flight displaces its own volume of air and experiences and up-thrust equal to the weight of the air displaced. If it can reduce its own mass - by reducing the density of the air inside the balloon and hence reducing its mass - then the balloon will rise.

A value known as 'relative density' or 'specific gravity' is often used when making comparisons between the density of a substance and the density of water. As a formula:

Relative Density :::;

density of substance density of water

(density of pure water is lOOOkgjm3)

- 38 -

An instrument which makes use of Archimedes Principle and which provides a direct reading of relative density of liquids is the hydrometer. This instrument is shown below in figure 40. It consists of a weighted tube calibrated such as to give a direct reading. It floats upright with the immersed volume representing the volume of liquid having an equal mass to that of the hydrometer.

The greater the density of the liquid, the smaller is the volume displaced, and the hydrometer will ride high. With low density liquid a larger volume has to be displaced and the hydrometer will sit lower in the liquid.

GRADUATIONS

LIQUID LEVEL

SEALED GLASS CONTAINER

WEIGHTED END

Fig. 40 HYDROMETER

n"""""""

- 39 -