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Youssef El Hajj Shehadeh

(1)(2)

and Serdar Sezginer

(1)

Sequans Communications, Paris, France

(1)

TELECOM PARISTECH/University of Paris VI, Paris, France

(2)

{yelhaaj,serdar}@sequans.com

AbstractThis paper deals with pilot-based channel estimation

for fast varying channels in Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Due to the variation of the

channel during one OFDM symbol, one-tap channel estimation

and the corresponding equalization is no longer the optimum

solution and such a variation results in inter-carrier interference

(ICI). One of the possible approaches to predict this interfering

effect is to use basis expansion model (BEM) with which the

variation of the channel can be approximated successfully.

However, as the pure BEM does not solve completely the

problem, we investigate the estimation problem using decision

feedback to enhance the performance. In particular, we propose

a simple algorithm based on using two successive OFDM symbols

to filter channel coefficients and improve not only the

convergence of pure decision feedback based estimation but also

the system performance. Simulation results based on Jakes

channel model with a high Doppler spread and a practical high

data rate system sustain our claims.

Index Termsbasis expansion model (BEM), channel

estimation, decision feedback, fast-variant channel, OFDM.

I. INTRODUCTION

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is

one of the major transmission techniques used to achieve high

data rates over wireless mobile channels. Indeed, OFDM based

multiple access techniques have been included in many

wireless communications system specifications such as IEEE

802.11 standard for local area networks, IEEE 802.16 for

broadband wireless access systems, and 3GPP E-UTRA for

mobile wireless access systems.

In OFDM, the available channel bandwidth is divided into

N overlapping narrow banded subchannels. The serial high-rate

data stream is thus converted into N parallel low-rate

substreams, which are modulated onto the N orthogonal

subcarriers. A cyclic prefix (CP) is inserted before each

transmitted data block. If the length of the cyclic prefix is equal

to, or longer than, the delay spread of the channel, inter symbol

interference (ISI) is completely eliminated. For time-invariant

fading channels, the channel matrix in the frequency domain

would be diagonal such that each subcarrier is simply

attenuated by the corresponding frequency-domain channel

response. In this case, a simple pilot-based channel estimator

using interpolation may be adopted to estimate the channel in

the frequency domain [2]. However, for rapidly varying

channels, the variation of the channel within one OFDM

symbol destroys the orthogonality between the subcarriers and

this introduces inter-carrier interference (ICI). In this case, an

estimation of the channel in the frequency domain becomes

complex due to the large number of unknowns in the channel

matrix. For this reason, it is more appropriate to estimate the

variation of the channel in the time domain [3]. Basis

expansion Modeling (BEM) is a way to approximate the time-

variation of the channel within a certain time window.

Basically, BEM reduces the complexity as the problem is

reduced to estimating the basis coefficients [3]. It has been

recently adopted to estimate the variation of the channel in

OFDM systems and many BEMs have been proposed in this

context. The optimal one in the Mean Squared Error (MSE)

sense is the Discrete Karhuen-Love BEM (DKL-BEM) [4, 5]

as it takes into account the channel statistics to find the best

fitting basis functions. But it is suboptimal in case where the

real channel statistics deviate from the assumed ones. Other

suboptimal approaches, not depending on channel statistics, are

the Complex Exponential BEM (CE-BEM) [7] which leads to a

strictly banded frequency-domain matrix, the Generalized CE-

BEM (GCE-BEM) which is a set of oversampled complex

exponentials [8], and the Polynomial BEM (P-BEM) [9] which

approximates the channel variation by means of a polynomial

function. In all these methods, the number of basis functions

depends on the normalized Doppler frequency [3].

In this paper, we will focus on the BEM approach to

estimate the channel in high-rate OFDM systems based on an

equispaced pilot distribution. In particular, the duration of an

OFDM symbol in such systems is relatively short leading to a

very small normalized Doppler frequency. In this case, a linear

approximation (P-BEM with 2 basis functions) of the channel

variation shows an interesting fitting [12]. Based on this

property, we will propose an algorithm using two consecutive

OFDM symbols. In fact, the relation of channel variation

between two OFDM symbols has been recently introduced in

[10]. It is shown that using piecewise linearity between

consecutive OFDM symbols helps ICI mitigation. Authors first

get the least squares channel estimates at the pilots for

consecutive OFDM symbols and use them to estimate channel

variation. In this paper, we introduce an explicit usage of BEM

in time domain, then an update of channel coefficients is

performed in frequency domain in a simple way using

consecutive OFDM symbols. In addition, we investigate the

effect of DF in a practical pilot distribution.

978-1-4244-5213-4/09/ $26.00 2009 IEEE 2404

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II

presents the general system model and how BEM can be used

to approximate the channel variations. Section III discusses

BEM approach for an equispaced pilot distribution, the effect

of decision feedback, and proposes a new algorithm based on

multiple OFDM symbols. Simulation results are presented in

Section IV and we conclude the paper in Section V.

Notation: We use upper (lower) bold face letters to denote

matrices (column vectors), ()

T

and ()

H

denote transpose and

complex conjugate transpose operators, respectively. E[]

stands for the expected value and represents the Kronecker

product. We denote an NN identity matrix by I

N

.

Furthermore, we use X

i,k

to indicate the (i+1, k+1)

th

entry of the

matrix X and diag(x) to indicate a diagonal matrix with x on its

diagonal.

II. SYSTEM MODEL

A. General System Model

In an OFDM system, the symbols collected in symbol

vector s are first transformed from the time domain to the

frequency domain using an IFFT. Then, a CP consisting of the

last symbols is added before the parallel to serial converter. At

the receiver side, a serial to parallel conversion is applied, CP

is removed and an FFT operation is performed to obtain the

received symbols in the frequency domain.

Figure 1: Simple OFDM system diagram.

The expression of the received vector for the (p+1)

th

OFDM symbol can be expressed as:

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) (

) (

) ( ) (

p p p

p p H

p

t p

z s G

z s F FH r

+ =

+ =

(1)

where

) (

) (

p

t

H and

) ( p

G represent the channel matrices

respectively in time and frequency domains for the (p+1)

th

OFDM symbol; F denotes FFT operation, and z is the complex

additive white Gaussian noise vector.

For an FFT size of N, it can be easily shown that

) (

) (

p

t

H

has the entries

) , mod( , ) (

) (

,

) (

N k i i L N p

p

k i

cp

t

h H

+ +

= (2)

where L

cp

is the CP length. In the sequel, the index p will be

dropped for the sake of clarity.

Due to the time variation of the channel during the OFDM

symbol, the frequency domain channel matrix G would not be

diagonal. In fact, it will have the entries

[ ] 1 , 0 , ,

1

1

0

) ( 2

, ,

=

N k i e H

N

G

N

n

N

i k n j

n k k i

(3)

where { }

1 , , 0

,

= N k

n k

H

denote the Fourier transform of the

channel impulse response { }

1 , , 0

,

= L l

n l

h

at the time instant n for

a channel length of L and given by

N k e h

N

H

L

l

N

kl j

n l n k

< =

0 ,

1

1

0

2

, ,

(4)

B. Basis Expansion Modeling (BEM)

In this section, we will show how a BEM can be used to

estimate the variations of the channel. The idea behind BEM is

to express the N channel coefficients as a function of (Q+1)

basis functions approximating the variation of the channel

during a specific period [3].

In this modeling, for every channel tap, we write

l

b

l l

+ = Bh h (5)

where [ ]

T

N l l l l

h h h

1 , 1 , 0 ,

, , ,

samples corresponding to the l

th

tap and

[ ]

T

b

Q l

b

l

b

l

b

l

h h h

, 1 , 0 ,

,..., , = h contains the corresponding (Q+1) basis

coefficients,

l

is the modeling error, and B is the basis

expansion matrix collecting the Q+1 basis functions.

In particular, for CE-BEM we have

) 2 / )( / 2 (

,

Q q N p j

q p

e B

= ,

where p = 0,,N-1, q = 0,,Q. Similarly, for GCE-BEM we

have =

q p

B

,

) 2 / ))( /( 2 ( Q q kN p j

e

where k > 1 is the oversampling

ratio, and finally for P-BEM we use

q

q p

p B =

,

.

If we collect all the channel taps in a single column vector

as [ ]

T

N L N L

h h h h

1 , 1 1 , 0 0 , 1 0 , 0

,..., ,..., ,...,

= h and similarly all basis

coefficients in a single column vector as

[ ]

T

b

Q L

b

Q

b

L

b

h h h h

, 1 , 0 0 , 1 0 , 0

,..., ,..., ,...,

=

b

h , then neglecting the

modeling error we obtain

b

h I B h ) (

L

= . (6)

2405

As a result, after some algebra, the received symbol vector

can be expressed in terms of the BEM as

=

+ =

Q

q

q q

0

z s D r (7)

where

H

q q

diag F b F D ) ( = and

q

= diag(F

L

[ ]

T

b

q L

b

q

h h

, 1 , 0

,...,

)=

diag(F

L

b

q

h ). Here, F

L

collects the first L columns of the matrix

. F N

Equation (7) can also be written as

z h F s D r + =

=

b

q L

Q

q

q

diag ) (

0

. (8)

If we define [ ]

Q

D D D D .....

1 0

= and ) ). ( (

1 L Q

diag F s I S =

+ ,

then we obtain

z DSh r + =

b

. (9)

Using (9), channel estimators can be derived either based

on the whole knowledge of input symbol vector s (i.e., the full

preamble case) or based on only a part of symbol vector s (i.e.,

in the presence of pilot signals). We note clearly that BEM

simplifies the estimation as the problem is reduced to

estimating h

b

of size (Q+1)L rather than estimating all the NL

channel coefficients.

III. ALGORITHM

We first present the pilot distribution that is used in the

simulations. Next, we discuss the effect of applying BEM

directly on such a pilot distribution. Then, we propose an

algorithm based on decision feedback considering the use of

two consecutive OFDM symbols.

A. Pilot Distribution

It has been observed in a number of attempts that the

optimal placement of pilots appears to be equispaced clusters

and more precisely zero-padded ones [3, 6, 11]. But for next

generation mobile wireless systems, a sparse distribution in

both frequency and time is being considered. In the sequel, we

will mainly focus on a pilot distribution which resembles the

ones recently adapted in mobile wireless systems [14, 15]

where pilots are located equispaced on the FFT grid.

B. Direct BEM approach

As an initial step, we apply directly a basis expansion on

the channel and try to estimate the basis coefficients just using

the assumed pilot distribution. We will show that it is not

efficient to calculate the variation of the channel which is

normally deduced from the interference terms.

Separating the input symbol vector s into a vector s

p

containing pilots and a vector s

d

containing data symbols, we

can rewrite (9) as

z h DS h DS r + + =

b

d

b

p

. (10)

Then, considering the channel realizations and the data

symbols as independent stochastic processes, the expression of

the LMMSE estimator can be obtained as [3]

1

0

) (

+ + =

N x

H

hb

H

hb LMMSE

N I R R R C (11)

where [ ]

H

b b

hb

E h h R = is the autocorrelation matrix between

the basis expansion coefficients which can be concluded from

the autocorrelation matrix of the real channel coefficients, and

N

0

denotes the noise spectral density. In (11),

p

DS =

depends on the pilots and [ ]

H H

d

b b

d x

H

E D S h h S D R = is

calculated using the assumed statistical properties of the

channel and data.

C. Decision Feedback

As shown in the sequel, using pure BEM with equispaced

pilots may not be sufficient to have a satisfactory estimation;

one may use an iterative approach based on detected symbols

to feedback the estimator. In order to improve the performance,

we make use of decision based feedback such that a first

estimation just using the pilots can be used for equalization and

then the detected symbols serve as a preamble to re-estimate

the basis coefficients. For the sake of simplicity and without

loss of generality, our study will be based on hard decision

feedback while it is clear that with soft-decision based

estimators one may provide better performance. Successive

iterations can be performed in order to enhance the

performance. However, it will be shown that with the proposed

approach two iterations are enough to converge rapidly to a

performance limit.

D. Linear Filtering Between Successive OFDM Symbols

In this subsection, we propose a linear filter to further

improve the estimation of the interference coefficients (non

diagonal terms) in the frequency domain channel matrix G. It

is mainly based on the initial information from successive

OFDM symbols. As explained below, this improvement is due

to the fact that ICI terms come mainly from the channel

variation during the OFDM symbol and thus can also be

estimated by the variation of the frequency domain channel

matrix through consecutive OFDM symbols.

Let us first investigate the behavior of the coefficients in

the G matrix assuming a satisfactory approximation.

Particularly, we use P-BEM with Q = 1 (linear variation) for

the channel variation during two consecutive OFDM symbols.

In this case, each channel coefficient for a certain tap l can be

expressed as:

N n n h h

l l n l

< + = 0 ,

0 , ,

(12)

where h

l,0

and

l

become the basis coefficients for the l

th

tap,

and can be seen as the initial point and the slope of a straight

2406

line representing the variation of the channel in a certain time

window (i.e., over several OFDM symbols).

It can be easily proved that for the (p+1)

th

OFDM symbol

one obtains

i cp i

p

n i

E L N p n H N H )) ( (

0 ,

) (

,

+ + + = (13)

where E

i

s are simply the Fourier transform of the

l

s defined

in (12), i.e.,

N i e

N

E

L

l

N

il j

l i

< =

0 ,

1

1

0

2

(14)

Accordingly, the coefficients of G can be expressed as

= + + +

=

elsewhere

e

E N

k i L N p E N N E N H N

G

N

i k j

k

cp i i i

p

k i

,

1

1

.

), ( 2 / ) 1 (

) ( 2

0 ,

) (

,

(15)

Comparing the diagonal terms in (15) for the first and second

OFDM symbols we simply obtain

) (

) 0 (

,

) 1 (

, cp i i i i i

L N E N G G + = (16)

From (15), it can be seen that G

i,k

, for all ik, depends

strictly on E

i

. Based on these observations, we can deduce that

a good knowledge of the diagonal terms of two successive

OFDM symbols allows us to estimate all the coefficients of

the G matrix. This simply means that once we have

sufficiently accurate estimates of the diagonal terms belonging

to the channel matrices for the successive symbols, we can use

presented linear filter to estimate the other terms and improve

the estimation performance.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

In this section, we analyze the performance of the P-BEM

with Q=1, the effect of hard decision feedback and the

improvement with the proposed filtering based on multiple

OFDM symbols. In the simulations, the number of subcarriers

is chosen to be N = 256 where 180 of them are used for

transmission and the others will be considered as symmetric

guard carriers. The symbol duration is taken to be 66.7sec. A

maximum Doppler spread of 300Hz is considered and it is

supposed to be perfectly known at the receiver. Therefore, for

an inter-subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz, the normalized Doppler

spread considered in the simulations is equal to 0.02. For data

symbols, 64-QAM constellation is adopted while for pilots

QPSK modulation is used assuming equal energy on the

whole FFT grid. The pilot spacing is taken to be 6 (each 6

successive subcarriers carry one pilot) and the length of the

cyclic prefix is 19 samples.

We use an improved Jakes model [1] to generate the

Extended Vehicular A [13] tapped delay channel profile

having tap delays [0 0.03 0.15 0.31 0.37 0.71 1.09 1.73

2.51](sec) with the corresponding tap relative powers [0 -1.5

-1.4 -3.6 -0.6 -9.1 -7 -12 -16.9] (dB). The above mentioned

simulation parameters are compatible with the ones defined

for 4

th

generation wireless mobile communications systems

LTE [14] and WiMAX [15]. We note here that in the proposed

receiver we do not take into account any channel profile

knowledge. However, a further knowledge on it might

improve the performance of the proposed method. For the

equalization, a zero forcing (ZF) equalizer is used.

Performance is investigated as symbol error rate (SER) and

Mean Squared Error (MSE) as a function of received SNR

which is defined as the ratio of received signal energy per

symbol to the noise spectral density N

0

.

We first investigate the effect of BEM using the pilots. As

shown in Figure 2, using only BEM based on separately

distributed pilots is not enough to estimate the variation of the

channel. This simply introduces inter carrier interference

which results in an error floor at the SER of 3x10

-2

. In fact, the

effect of ICI comes mainly from several nearest samples. So a

sparse pilot distribution doesnt seem enough to have a good

estimation performance. For this reason we introduce an

iterative approach based on hard decisions. In Figure 2, we

can see the effect of such iterations on the channel estimation

accuracy. We see a considerable improvement especially in

the first two iterations where a 5 dB gain can be obtained for

an SER of 3x10

-2

. However, we are still far from the best

achievable performance which is depicted as the solid line.

Figure 2: Effect of hard decision feedback.

Figure 3 shows the mean squared error (MSE) curve for

the diagonal terms of the G matrix using direct BEM approach

based on the pilot signals and after decision feedback. It can

be observed that decision feedback improves the estimation of

diagonal terms of the matrix G where an improvement from

5x10

-4

to 8x10

-5

can be obtained after the first iteration at an

2407

SNR value of 40 dB. This motivates the idea of employing

these diagonal coefficients to estimate the non diagonal ones.

Figure 3: Effect of decision feedback, MSE of diagonal terms in G matrix.

Figure 4: SER performance of the proposed algorithm

based on successive OFDM symbols.

As explained in Section III, at each iteration of the

proposed algorithm, we use the estimated diagonal

coefficients in the G matrices corresponding to successive

OFDM symbols in order to recalculate the ICI coefficients.

Comparing the iterations in Figure 4 with those of Figure 2,

one can easily see the remarkable performance improvement

just by using this simple linear filtering after each iteration.

Our algorithm makes use of the BEM approach first to

estimate the channel in the time domain then to filter the

frequency-domain channel matrices estimated corresponding

to multiple OFDM symbols. This leads to a further gain of 5

dB at high SNR compared to the case where only decision

feedback is employed. It is also worth noting that addition of

such a simple filtering allows a faster convergence to a better

performance limit due to better estimates obtained from the

first iteration.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we investigated a linear modeling to estimate

rapidly varying channels using an equispaced pilot

distribution. We further studied the effect of decision feedback

and we proposed a new method to improve the estimation

performance based on two successive OFDM symbol

observations. It has been shown by simulations that the

proposed method provides a considerable performance

enhancement by means of a simple linear filtering.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the

European Commission through the FP7 project WiMAGIC

(see www.wimagic.eu).

REFERENCES

[1] W. C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Channels. New York: Wiley, 1974.

[2] P. Hoeher, S. Kaiser and P. Robertson, Two-dimensional pilot-symbol-

aided channel estimation by Wiener filtering, Proc. Int. Conf.

Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, pp. 1845-1848, Munich,

Germany, April 1997.

[3] Z. Tang, R.C. Cannizzaro, G. Leus, and P. Banelli, Pilot-assisted time-

varying channel estimation for OFDM systems, IEEE Trans. Signal

Process., vol. 55, no. 5, May 2007.

[4] M. Visintin, Karhunen-Loeve expansion of a fast Rayleigh fading

Process, IEEE Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 17121713, Aug.

1996.

[5] K. D. Teo and S. Ohno, Optimal MMSE finite parameter model for

doubly-selective channels, in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf.

(GLOBECOM), pp. 35033507, St. Louis, MO, Dec. 2005.

[6] X. Ma, G. Giannakis, and S. Ohno, Optimal training for block

transmissions over doubly-selective fading channels, IEEE Trans.

Signal Process., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 13511366, May 2003.

[7] M. K. Tsatsanis and G. B. Giannakis, Modeling and equalization of

rapidly fading channels, Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process, vol.10,

pp. 159176, Mar. 1996.

[8] G. Leus, On the estimation of rapidly time-varying channels, in Euro.

Signal Process. Conf. (EUSIPCO), Sep. 2004.

[9] D. K. Borah and B. D. Hart, Frequency-selective fading channel

estimation with a polynomial time-varying channel model, IEEE Trans.

Commun., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 862873, June 1999.

[10] Y.Mostofi and D.C. Cox, ICI mitigation for pilot-aided OFDM mobile

systems, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Volume 4, Issue 2, Mar.

2005 pp. 765774

[11] M. Dong, L. Tong, and B. Sadler, Optimal insertion of pilot symbols

for transmissions over time-varying flat fading channels, IEEE Trans.

Signal Process., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1403-- -1418, May 2004.

[12] S. Chen and T. Yao, Intercarrier interference suppression and channel

estimation for OFDM systems in time-varying frequency-selective

fading channels, IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, Vol. 50, No. 2,

May 2004.

[13] 3GPP TS 36.521-1: "E-UTRA UE conformance specification Radio

transmission and reception," V8.0.1, Dec 2008.

[14] 3GPP TS 36.211 Physical Channels and Modulation, V8.6.0, Mar.

2009.

[15] WiMAX Forum

TM

Mobile System Profile, Release 1.0 Approved

Specification, Revision 1.7.1, Nov. 2008.

2408

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