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Induction Book

Ruaumoko Manual
Volume 2:
User Manual for the 2:Dimensional Version
Ruaumoko2D
Author:
Athol J. Carr
Civil Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering COMPUTER PROGRAM LIBRARY
Program name:
RUAUMOKO2D
Program type:
Inelastic Dynamic Analysis
Program code:
ANSI Fortran77
Author:
Athol J Carr
Date:
27 November 2008
RUAUMOKO
The Maori God of Volcanoes and Earthquakes
Volume 2: User Manual for the 2-Dimensional Version, Ruaumoko2D
Copyright \ Athol J. Carr, University of Canterbury, 1981-2007. All Rights reserved.
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Running the program RUAUMOKO-2D.
The program is designed to run in an interactive mode or in a batch mode with an input data file that may be
prepared using a word-processor, a spreadsheet or a text editor. If a word-processor or spreadsheet is used
to prepare a data file then the data MUST be saved as a plain ASCII text file. In the default form the program
will prompt the user for the input data. The input data supplied may be logged so that it can be used for later
analyses and prepared data files may be used for all or part of the input data. For further details on the use of
the command processor used in the program type $HELP at any prompt. Complete all responses by pressing
the RETURN/ENTER key.
To run the program call the program by the method appropriate to your operating system. On a personal
computer just type RUAUMOKO2D assuming that the file RUAUMOKO2D.EXE and FQWIN.HLP are in your
current directory or path.
In Microsoft Windows operating systems another option is to create a shortcut on the desktop and for this
purpose a suitable icon for RUAUMOKO, Ruaumoko2D.ico, is supplied with the program.
The program prompts for responses to a series of questions. Default responses, where appropriate, are
enclosed in square brackets, [ ]. File names must match the conventions of your operating system but file
names, with paths where necessary, must not exceed 60 characters in length and must not contain blanks.
The first question asks for the name of the output file. The default is the computer console or terminal screen.
The next two questions are for names of the files containing the earthquake accelerograms or the excitation
histories. The default value assumes that the excitations are appended to the rest of the input data. If there
are less than three inputs records just hit the RETURN key for the subsequent requests. If the file names are
included in the excitation part of the data file then just hit the RETURN key at each prompt.
The next question asks for the name of the DYNAPLOT post-processor file. This file will only be opened if
requested by a greater than zero value of the variable KPA later in the data. This file is automatically given
the extension .RES or .RAS if required, or if the name shown, which uses the filename of the output file, is
acceptable, just hit the RETURN key.
The next question asks for the selection of on-screen graphics. Any answer not of the form Y, YE or YES
(upper or lower case) will suppress the graphics. If the answer was YES and the screen supports colour
graphics you will later be asked if you want COLOUR graphics or not. Note; if on-screen graphics is enabled
the screen cursor is invisible at the end of all future prompts.
The next question asks if this is a data check run only. If so type Y, YE or YES. In the case of the data check
run the analysis is terminated at the completion of the modal analysis and just before the start of the time-
history analysis. The total storage requirements for the time-history analysis is checked.
The program then displays information on logging or adding data files
The next prompt is for the title name of your analysis which is the first line of the data described in the
following sections of this manual. If the user already has a data file ready then type $ADD filename, where
filename is the name and path if necessary of the data file, followed by RETURN. If the user is going to key
the data in as prompted, it is suggested that the all of the data be logged in a file for later use and to save re-
supplying this data in the event of a data error by giving the command $LOG filename, where filename is the
name of the file where data is to be logged, followed by RETURN. Note that all responses prior to this one will
not be logged even if logging had been enabled at an earlier prompt.
At the completion of reading and checking of all of the input data for the analysis, the program, if it is running
in an interactive mode and the on-screen graphics is enabled, the user will be prompted as to whether colour
graphics is wanted.
The on-screen graphics draws a picture of the structure with all members numbered and the analysis pauses
until the RETURN key is pressed. If you want a hard copy use the pull-down menu at the top left of the
window to print the picture or to save it as a The program will next plot the accelerograms or excitation
histories scaled to the magnitudes used in the analysis. These are cleared by pressing the RETURN key.
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After the modal analysis is complete the user is asked if the mode shapes are to be displayed in an animated
display. Respond by typing the mode number followed by RETURN. Five and a quarter cycles of vibration
are displayed unless a different number of cycles is specified. The default response END terminates the
plotting of mode shapes and starts the time-history analysis.
During the time-history, on-screen pictures of the deformed shape of the structure showing the locations of
inelastic behaviour are presented but require no user action because the pictures are replaced automatically
as soon as a new picture is ready. Excessive use of the screen capture during the time-history may cause the
system to crash.
Running the program RUAUMOKO-2D in Batch Mode.
The program RUAUMOKO-2D may be run in a batch mode as well as the interactive mode described above.
In the batch mode the graphics is disabled and the test data option is also disabled.
The .BAT file has the command line as follows:
START/w RUAUMOKO2D outputfile inputfile quake1file quake2file
The START/w is only required for Windows95 or Windows98 operating systems to prevent the system from
attempting to multi-task following command lines. For WindowsNT, Windows2000 or WindowsXP this item
should be removed.
If the RUAUMOKO-2D executable file RUAUMOKO2D.EXE is not in your path then the path should be part of
the command.
The outputfile is the name (including the path) of the output file. This file must NOT exist. If the file does
exist the analysis will terminate immediately. The post-processor file, if requested in the input data, will have
the same file name (and path) but with the extension .RES or .RAS .
The inputfile is the name (including path) of the input data file (in the form required in the following part of this
manual) and the file MUST exist. If the file cannot be found, because the name or path is incorrect then the
analysis will terminate.
The files quake1file and quake2file are the names (including paths) of the excitation files. These file names
are optional, if they are missing or the word INPUT (in upper case) is supplied instead than they are assumed
to be part of the inputfile above. If files names are supplied then the files MUST exist or the analysis will be
terminated.
If there are less than two arguments following the command RUAUMOKO2D then the programs will run in the
normal interactive mode.
As many such command lines may be arranged in a .bat file, the best example was a visitor to the
department who set up 475 runs in a batch file and went away for days skiing. The only real limitation is the
amount of disk required for the output files, especially if the post-processing file is also output.
Enviroment Settings.
RUAUMOKO-2D makes great use of a local random access scratch file during th analysis. At each time-step
and in each iteration a read and a write operation is carried out for each member in the structure. The default
location for this file RUAUMOKO.SCR is in the users current working directory. When the analysis is
completed this file is deleted by the program, however, if the program is terminated prematurely by the user
this file may be left in the directory. This will not cause any difficulties as it will over-written the next time the
program runs. However, if the program is being run over a network and the users working directory is on a
server, then a very large penalty will be paid for the network traffic and the program may appear to run at
about 40% of its normal speed. The tmp and temp environment variable should be set to a local hard disk on
the computer where the analysis will actually take place. On all of the Windows workstations in the School of
Engineering, University of Canterbury, computer laboratories these variables are set to C:\TEMP which is a
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local scratch directory on each workstation. If the programs are being run on a single personal computer
there is no necessity to set the environment variables.
On the latest personal computer version of RUAUMOKO-2D most of the scratch file is emulated in memory
which has increased the execution speed of the program by factors of up to 8. However, should the number
of sectors required for the scratch file exceed the memory allocated the remainder of the disk sectors will be
written to the hard disk file mentioned above. In all cases, even if it is not used, the file RUAUMOKO.SCR will
be created at the start of the program execution and deleted at the end of the analysis. (This disk in memory
approach has been successfully used in VMS and unix workstations since 1989).
Do not attempt to carry out simultaneous executions of the program unless they are run from different
directories and the environment variable are not set as the scratch file would be accessed by the different
analyses with great confusion as the result.
Note: In the following user guide, each line of required data is indicated by a box containing the data items.
Below each box is a description of the data items. The data items on each line may be separated by commas
or blank spaces. The format for the items are indicated by the letter at the end of each descriptive line with A
indicating a character string, I indicating an integer value and F indicating a floating point number. A floating
point number may or may not have a decimal point and may also take a scientific or exponent form such as
1.5E6 which could also be expressed as 1500000.0. Character strings will be upper-cased unless enclosed in
double or single quotes and will terminate at the first blank space unless the string is enclosed in quotes.
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OVERVIEW OF THE DATA FOR "RUAUMOKO-2D"
The analysis data for the structure is described by the following sequence of input lines or card images. Each
data set consists of the following items of data.
1 Title for the Analysis - one line - see section 1
2 Analysis Control Parameters - one line - see section 2
3 Structural Parameters - one line - see section 3
4 Output and Plotting Parameters - one line - see section 4
5 Iteration and Travelling wave parameters - one line - see section 5
6 NODES - one line - see section 7
This is followed by one line for each nodal point giving the coordinates, the boundary condition flags,
displacement slaving flags and the output control flag. The nodes must be in ascending numerical
sequence. If lines are omitted their data will be interpolated.
7 DRIFT-one line - see section 7a
This is followed by a list of nodes, one per level starting at the base to be used to determine the inter-
storey drifts. If inter-storey drifts are requested the envelopes of inter-storey drifts are output in the
output file. If Residual displacements and forces are alos requested then the residual inter-storey drifts
are also output. If inter-storey drifts are requested and the excitation is an earthquake then the
envelopes of level total acceleration are also output
8 ELEMENTS - one line - see section 8
This is followed by one line for each member in the structure giving the property-set number, the four
nodal point numbers that define the location, or connectivity, of the member and the output control flag.
the members must be in ascending numerical order. Lines may be omitted with interpolation giving the
properties of the intervening members.
9 PROPS - one line - see sections 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 23 and 24.
This is followed by lines for each of the sections in the properties table together with data on strength
and stiffness degradation covered in Appendices A and B.
10 WEIGHTS - one line - see section 30- Except for static analyses this section MUST be provided.
This is followed by one line for each node that has a specified point, or lumped, weight for the mass
matrix. If there are no nodal weights supply a line for the first and last nodes with only the node numbers
on each of the lines.
11 LOADS - one line - see section 31
This is followed by one line for each node that has a static load applied to it.
12 SHAPE - one line - see section 32
This section only applies to dynamic load histories and not to earthquake analyses.
This is followed by one line for each node that has a contribution to the dynamic forcing function that will
act on the structure. The magnitudes of the loads are multiplied by the dynamic loading history which is
described in the following section. One set is required for each loading pattern, i.e. if there is a second
loading pattern repeat all of this section for the second loading pattern.
13 EQUAKE - one line - see section 33. This is only required if dynamic excitation is applied.
This is followed by a line with the parameters for the accelerogram or the loading history.
This then may be followed by the accelerogram or loading history though in most cases the
accelerogram is read from a separate file.
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14 EQUAKE - one line - see section 33. This is only required if there are two components of the
accelerogram or loading history.
This is followed by a line with the parameters for the accelerogram or the loading history.
This then may be followed by the accelerogram or loading history though in most cases the
accelerogram is read from a separate file.
15 EQUAKE - one line - see section 34. This data is only required for a Cyclic Adaptive Pushover Analysis.
This is followed by a line with the parameters for the application of the displacement history.
This then may be followed by the displacement history though in many cases the history may be read
from a separate file.
16 SPECTRA - one line - see section 35. This is only required if the analysis is for a Response Spectra
Analysis.
This is followed by a line with the parameters for the Acceleration Response Spectra.
This then may be followed by the data for the response spectra though the spectra could be read from a
separate file.
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THE DATA FILE FOR "RUAUMOKO-2D"
The analysis data for the structure is described by the following sequence of input lines or card images.
1 Description of the Analysis
Description of the structure (up to 79 alphanumeric characters)
2 Principal Analysis Options
IPANAL IFMT IPLAS IPCONM ICTYPE IPVERT INLGEO IPNF IZERO ORTHO IMODE
IPANAL = 0 ; Static Analysis (with iteration for in-elastic behaviour) I
= 1 ; Static (with iteration for in-elastic behaviour) and Modal Analyses
= 2 ; Dynamic Time-history using Newmark constant average acceleration
= 3 ; Dynamic Time-history using Central Difference explicit method
= 4 ; As for IPANAL=2 above but see note below.
= 5 ; As for IPANAL=3 above but see note below.
= 6 ; Adaptive Push-Over
= 7 ; Cyclic Adaptive Push-Over
= 8 ; Multiple Input Ground Displacement Histories.
= 9 ; As for IPANAL=8 above but see note below.
=10 ; Response Spectrum Analysis
IFMT = 0 ; Binary post-processor file with extension .RES I
= 1 ; ASCII binary post-processor file with extension .RAS
IPLAS = 0 ; Elastic Time-history Analysis only I
= 1 ; In-elastic Time-history Analysis
IPCONM = 0 ; Lumped mass matrix used in Time-history I
= 1 ; Diagonal mass matrix used in Time-history
= 2 ; Consistent mass matrix used in Time-history
ICTYPE = 0 ; Initial Stiffness Rayleigh Damping I
= 1 ; Tangent Stiffness Rayleigh Damping
= 2 ; Linear variation of damping with elastic natural frequencies
= 3 ; Tri-linear variation of damping with elastic natural frequencies
= 4 ; User specified modal damping
= 5 ; Material specific Rayleigh Damping
= 6 ; Rayleigh Damping with Tangent damping matrix as Secant damping matrix
= 7 ; Material Rayleigh with Tangent damping matrix as Secant damping matrix
IPVERT = 0 ; X-direction earthquake only I
= 1 ; Y-direction earthquake only
= 2 ; Both X and Y direction earthquakes
= -n ; Number of components of dynamic loading histories
= n ; Number of Displacement histories, IPANAL=8 or 9
INLGEO = 0 ; Small displacement analysis assumed. I
= 1 ; Large displacement effects included
= 2 ; P-Delta effects included (after the static analysis the stiffnesses
are modified and INLGEO is reset to 0)
IPNF = 0 ; Modal analysis is carried out after the static analysis (Normal Case) I
= 1 ; Natural frequencies and Mode Shapes are NOT calculated
= 2 ; Modal analysis is carried out before the static analysis
IZERO = 0 ; All zero output is omitted (normal case) If IZERO= 1 all ouput printed I
ORTHO = 0 ; Mode shape orthogonality check not carried out. I
= 1 ; Mode shape orthogonality check printed
IMODE = 0 ; Householder QR eigenvalue algorithm used (Default) I
= 1 ; Jacobi eigenvalue algorithm used
= 2 ; Sub-space iteration eigenvalue algorithm used
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Notes: If IPANAL is greater than 0, a static analysis is carried out if any static loads are specified and then
the modal analysis is performed unless suppressed, or the order of the operations is reversed, by the
variable IPNF.
Limits on valid ranges for variable IPVERT
If IPANAL = 1,2,3,4 or 5, IPVERT = 0,1 or 2, or >-100
If IPANAL = 6 or 7, IPVERT = -1
If IPANAL = 8 or 9, IPVERT < 100
If IPANAL = 10, IPVERT = 0,1 or 2
For IPANAL = 4 or 5. Degrees of Freedom flagged as for travelling wave input are treated as fixed for
the static and modal analyses and are then released at the start of the relative displacement time
history integration.
For IPANAL = 9. Degrees of Freedom flagged as input nodal displacement degrees of freedom are
fixed for the static and modal analyses and are then released at the start of the total displacement
time history integration.
IPANAL = 6 is for an Adaptive Push-Over Analysis where the input load pattern is adapted as the
structure deforms and the analysis will terminate when the limit displacement is reached, the factored
elastic displacement is reached or the structure stiffness reduces to 0.1% of the initial stiffness.
IPANAL = 7 is for a Cyclic Adaptive Push-Over Analysis where the input load pattern is adapted as
the structure deforms and when the change points in the prescribed displacement history is reached
the loading again reverts to the initial loading pattern but in the opposite direction and the adaptive
loading again continues until the next reversal point in the displacement history is reach. The analysis
will terminate when the displacement history is completed or the structure stiffness reduces to 0.1% of
the initial stiffness.
IPANAL = 8 is for the case for simulating a laboratory excitation where a displacement is applied to
the structure at a particular degree of freedom or a set of degrees of freedom. In this case the
degrees of freedom where the displacements are to be applied are treated as free for the static and
modal analyses, i.e. gravity and free-vibration cases and then the displacement histories are applied
to these degrees of freedom. The analysis is a Relative Displacement formulation.
IPANAL = 9 is for the case for the analysis of a structure where the ground is to be subjected to a set
of specified ground displacement histories. This would be appropriate if the different motions are to
be applied at different parts of the foundation or at different depths in the foundation. For the static
and modal analyses these degrees of freedom need to be fixed to prevent rigid body displacements
of the structure. The analysis is a Total Displacement formulation
IPANAL = 10 is for the case for the analysis of a structure where the ground motion is based on an
acceleration response spectra. The data for a normal dynamic analysis is read but then the analysis
is reset to linear elastic, the damping model is reset to Rayleigh damping, the mass matrix is reset to
diagonal and the analysis is set to small displacement theory. There may be separate spectra for the
each earthquake direction or the same spectra may be use for all earthquake component. The
analysis is a Relative Displacement formulation.
ORTHO is a flag that enables the user to show the orthogonality of the mode shapes computed with
respect to the mass matrix. Ideally the diagonal terms of the orthogonality matrix should be 1.0 and
the off-diagonal terms should be 0.0.. This check is normally only used if, for some reason, there is a
suspicion that the modes computed are not orthogonal with respect to the mass or stiffness matrices.
IMODE is used to select the eigenvalue algorithm used to compute the natural frequencies and mode
shapes of free-vibration. The default is the Householder and QR algorithm that has been used since
the mid-1960s. This is reliable but some instances were reported where non-orthogonal modes were
computed The Jacobi algorithm is the most stable algorithm available but is slow, and if any mode
shapes are required they all have to be found, recommended for small problems only. The Sub-
space iteration method is suitable for very large problems but must be used with care if parts of the
structure have very small masses with small stiffnesses to match as the iteration process may then
be unpredictable. The iteration uses a generalised Jacobi eigenvalue routine.
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ICTYPE = 0 means that the damping matrix is based on a Rayleigh damping model and uses the
stiffness of the structure at the beginning of the time-history. The computed damping matrix is
constant throughout the time-history analysis. The tangent, secant and elastic damping matrices are
identical. This means that as the structure softens, by yielding etc., the effective damping increases
because the Rayleigh coefficients " and $ were computed for the initial natural frequencies of free-
vibration and some of the frequencies have now decreased. It must be noted that the Rayleigh
damping model shows that the level of damping in the higher modes of free-vibration can be very
large.
ICTYPE = 1 means that the damping matrix is based on a Rayleigh damping model and uses current
stiffness of the structure at any time step as the tangent damping matrix. If the structure is inelastic
then the tangent damping matrix changes together with the stiffness matrix throughout the time
history. The damping forces in the structure are adjusted in the time step with the increment of the
damping forces being the product of the tangent damping matrix multiplied by the incremental
velocities in the structure. The incremental damping forces are then added to the damping forces
existing in the structure at the beginning of the time step to give the damping forces at the end of the
time-step.
ICTYPE = 2 means that the damping matrix is based on the Wilson-Penzien damping model and is
based on the frequencies and modes of free-vibration at the beginning of the time-history analysis.
The levels of damping associated with each mode varies linearly with frequency. The computed
damping matrix is constant throughout the time-history analysis. The tangent, secant and elastic
damping matrices are identical. This means that as the structure softens, by yielding etc., the effective
damping will increase. However, as the damping in the higher modes of free-vibration is much less
than that implied in the Rayleigh damping model this does not appear to have significant
consequences.
ICTYPE = 3 is a variation of the Wilson-Penzien damping model where the levels of damping
associated with each mode varies in a tri-linear manner with frequency. This model was initially used
to compare the results with the Rayleigh damping model where the damping in the highest modes
was set to be the same as those found in the Rayleigh damping model. It can also be used to set
high, low (or zero) levels of damping in the high modes of free-vibration.
ICTYPE = 4 is a variation of the Wilson-Penzien damping model where there is a little more control of
the damping levels set for the different modes of free-vibration.
ICTYPE = 5 is a variant of the Rayleigh damping model where the Rayleigh coefficients " and $ are
specified separately for every member in the structural system. This enables different damping levels
to be specified in different parts of the structural system, i.e. a pounding study with buildings of
different types exhibiting different levels of damping or for a building on a soil foundation which
probably exhibits different damping to that shown by the building. The Rayleigh coefficients " and $
need to be computed separately for each structural system and then specified in the section
properties for each member type. If only initial stiffness damping $ is used then the analysis is similar
to ICTYPE = 0 above and if tangent stiffness damping $ is specified than the effect id similar to
ICTYPE = 1 above. If there are nodal masses input as well as member mass then the contribution of
these nodal masses to the damping matrix can be achieved by specifying MODE1 = MODE2 = 0 and
by supplying C1 as " in the Frame Control data line below. The damping matrix computed is the
tangent damping matrix.
ICTYPE = 6 is a variation of the Rayleigh damping model where the the tangent stiffness matrices are
used to form the secant damping matrix. In this case the damping forces at a time-step are the
product of the secant damping matrix times the current velocities of the structure. For the dynamic
incremental stiffness matrix the tangent damping matrix is assumed to be the same as the secant
damping matrix and the forces are then adjusted to match those from the secant damping matrix.
This model matches what some users believe is the Rayleigh model with tangent stiffness damping
where others believe that ICTYPE = 1 fits that model. There is a potential problem with this damping
model for structures containing non-linear dash-pot members.
ICTYPE = 7 is the equivalent of ICTYPE = 6 for structures using the ICTYPE = 5 member specific
Rayleigh damping model and again assumes that the damping matrix is the secant damping matrix.
10
Rayleigh or Proportional Damping Model ICTYPE=0 or 1
Linear or Tri-linear Damping Model ICTYPE=2 or 3
User Specified Modal Damping ICTYPE=4
11
3 Frame Control Parameters
NNP NMEM NTYPE M MODE1 MODE2 GRAV C1 C2 DT TIME FACTOR
NNP Number of nodal points in the structure I
NMEM Number of members in the structure I
NTYPE Number of different cross-section in the section table I
M Number of mode-shapes required to be printed in the modal analysis I
MODE1 The mode number at which the first damping ratio is applied. I
MODE2 The mode number at which the second damping ratio is applied I
GRAV The acceleration of gravity F
C1 The percentage of critical damping at mode MODE1 F
C2 The percentage of critical damping at mode MODE2 F
DT The time-step (Time units, usually seconds) F
TIME The length of time-history to be run (Time units, usually seconds) F
FACTOR A scale factor applied to the time-history input (Default = 1.0) F
Note: If both MODE1 and MODE2 above are zero then the coefficients C1 and C2 are to be taken as the
constants " and $ of the Rayleigh damping model.
If there is only one dynamic degree of freedom then if MODE1=1 and MODE2=0 then mass
proportional damping is modelled.
If there is only one dynamic degree of freedom then if MODE1=0 and MODE2=1 then stiffness
proportional damping is modelled.
If ICTYPE = 4, User specified Modal damping, then MODE1 is the number of modes for which
damping is specified, 1 # MODE1 # 10. Note that MODE2, C1 and C2 should be zero.
4 Output Intervals and Plotting Control Parameters
KP KPA KPLOT JOUT DSTORT DFACT XMAX YMAX NLEVEL NUP IRESID KDUMP
KP = 0; Time-history output suppressed I
= k; Time-history output every k time-steps
KPA = 0; Post-processor DYNAPLOT output suppressed I
= k; Post-processor DYNAPLOT output every k time-steps
KPLOT = 0; Plastic Hinges plotted at every status change I
= k; Plastic Hinges plotted every k time-steps
JOUT Not used any longer, supply 0 (zero) I
DSTORT Not used any longer, supply 1.0 (one) F
DFACT Displacement multiplying scale factor for on-screen graphics. $ 1.0 F
XMAX Maximum X displacement for use in the on-screen graphics F
YMAX Maximum Y displacement for use in the on-screen graphics F
NLEVEL Number of levels for computed inter-storey drifts, i.e. number of storeys+1 I
If NLEVEL is less than 2 then inter-storey drifts are not output.
NUP Vertical axis for inter-storey drifts, 1=X axis or 2=Y axis. I
IRESID = 1, Residual displacements and forces output at end of time-history output. I
= 0, Residual displacements and forces not output.
KDUMP = 0; Mass and Stiffness matrices output suppressed I
= k; Mass and Stiffness matrices output every k time-steps
Note: The variables JOUT and DSTORT are no longer used in Ruaumoko but are retained to maintain
backwards compatibility of the data files.
If KP is zero for a response spectra analysis (IPANAL=10) then only the combined modal response
will be output whereas if KP is greater than zero each modal response will also be output.
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5 Iteration Control and Wave Velocities
MAXIT MAXCIT FTEST WAVEX WAVEY THETA DXMAX DYMAX D OMEGA F
MAXIT Maximum number of cycles of Newton-Raphson iteration per Time-step I
If =0 : no iteration
If IPANAL = 3 (explicit integration) MAXIT is the number of sub-steps per
time-step DT in the integration of the equations of motion i.e. the actual
integration time-step = DT/MAXIT
MAXCIT Maximum number of cycles of iteration/solution step for damping models I
ICTYPE = 2, 3 or 4 that have coefficients outside the skyline of the stiffness
matrix. In other values of ICTYPE use 0
FTEST Norm of the out-of-balance force vector relative to the incremental force F
vector for the Newton-Raphson or damping iteration.
The value is the square of the iteration tolerance required.
i.e. 0.0001 implies a tolerance of 1% in the residual vector.
WAVEX Wave velocity of propagation in the x-direction (if = 0.0 taken as infinite) F
WAVEY Wave velocity of propagation in the y-direction (if = 0.0 taken as infinite) F
THETA Angle of Earthquake X and Y direction to structure X and Y directions F
degrees (default =0.0)
DXMAX X displacement to terminate analysis F
DYMAX Y displacement to terminate analysis F
D Traveling Wave Dispersion Factor I
0.0 implies no dispersion (D = infinity)
1.0 Maximum dispersion.
100.0 Minimum dispersion
OMEGA Earthquake Characteristic Frequency (radians/second) used for dispersion. F
F Scale factor for dispersion (default = 0.10) F
Notes: 1. If IPVERT is negative then travelling wave models are not permitted.
2. If the ground wave velocities WAVEX and/or WAVEY are input as zero they are treated as
infinite.
3. When the Central Difference marching method is being used for the time-history integration
then the actual time-step DT/MAXIT must be less than half the shortest natural period of the
structure if numerical instability is to be avoided in the time-history integration.
4 The Displacement limits are absolute values in that only positive numbers are used.
5 The default value for FTEST used when either one or both of MAXIT and/or MAXCIT are
specified is 0.00001. Note that the squares of the vector norms are used in the test so that
0.001 implies a 3% tolerance and 0.0001 implies a 1% tolerance.
6 If the variable MAXCIT is applicable the maximum number should lie in the range of 1 to 3.
As a rule, experience has shown that very seldom is more than one cycle of iteration
required.
7 As a general observation not more than about 5 Newton Raphson iterations should be
needed in any time-step
8 If Dispersion is applied to the travelling wave, then the amount of dispersion applied to the
accelerogram applied to nodes after the first node to receive the input depends on the wave
velocity, the distance between the nodes (i.e. the time delay) and the dispersion parameter D
and the characteristic earthquake frequency OMEGA. The dispersion is in the form of a
white noise which is designed not to significantly alter the response spectra of the input
ground motion. The first node to receive the input motion has no dispersion applied to its
input motion. The dispersion is a strictly random process which means that the input at the
nodes is never able to be repeated meaning that subsequent analyses with the same data
are not repeateable. If D is supplied as a negative number then a pseudo-random process is
used meaning that a re-run with the same data will produce the same results. This may be
useful for parameter studies where one does not want the effects of the parameter variation
to be clouded by the default strictly random nature of the dispersion.
9. The dispersion amplitude may be scaled by the factor F.
13
5a User Specified Modal Damping Parameters (Only if ICTYPE = 4)
MODE1 DAMP1 MODE2 DAMP2 .. .. MODEn DAMPn
MODEi Mode number. Must be in ascending numerical order, I
DAMPi Percentage of Critical Damping for MODEi F
Notes:
1. Number of Modes n specified must equal MODE1 of line 2, Principal analysis options.
2. Damping for modes less than the first mode above is taken as DAMP1 and damping for modes
greater than the last above is taken as DAMPn. This model may be considered as a variation of the
trilinear damping model.
3. For modes with numbers in-between the modes specified, the Percentage of Critical damping is
interpolated with respect to the modal frequencies of the modes at the beginning and end of the gap
in the mode numbers.
6 Time-History Output Control
Output control during the time-history integration is under the control of the parameters KP and KPA on the
Section 4 above. If the parameter KP is non-zero, = J, the results are written to the output file, or device, every
J time steps starting at step 0. Likewise, if KPA is non-zero, = I, then results go to the post-processing
DYNAPLOT disk file every I time steps starting at step zero.
The control of which nodes or members have their results output is determined by the parameter IOUT
associated with each of the nodes or members in the following data sections.
The value of IOUT lies in the range of 0 to 3;
IOUT = 0; if required, the results will be sent to both the output file and written to the DYNAPLOT file.
= 1; if required, will only be written to the DYNAPLOT file
= 2; if required, will only be sent to the output file.
= 3; will neither be printed or written to the DYNAPLOT file or to the output file.
Default values of IOUT are set on the lines with the words NODES or MEMBERS in Sections 7 or 8 below
and these values will apply for all nodes or members unless over-ridden by new values on the data for that
node or member. Interpolated nodes or members take the value for the first node or member in the
sequence.
At every time step the following information may be written to the DYNAPLOT post-processing file.
1. The time, ground accelerations and the inertia, damping and elastic energies, the external work done
by the applied loads and the plastic work.
2. For every requested node, the nodal displacements, velocities, accelerations, damping forces, inertia
forces and applied forces.
3. For every requested member, the member forces, the member deformations, the member action
stiffness flags as a percentage of the elastic stiffness. (axial, flexure at end 1, flexure at end 2) or
(longitudinal displacement, transverse displacement and moment). For the four-hinge beam members
the moments, curvatures and stiffness flags for the internal hinges are also output. For Frame and
Wall members the shear forces at each end are also output.
14
7 Nodal Point Input
One input line with the word NODES starting in column 1.
NODES IOUT
IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I
One input line required per nodal point, except that the presence of sequential nodal points with equally
spaced nodal point coordinates need only be implied by the presence of the first and last nodal points of the
sequence. Boundary conditions will be taken (except for the last nodal point in the sequence) as being
identical to those of first nodal point in the sequence. Coupling nodes will also be interpolated between the
first and last nodal points in the sequence.
N X(N) Y(N) NF1 NF2 NF3 KUP1 KUP2 KUP3 IOUT
N Nodal point number I
X(N) X-coordinate of node N F
Y(N) Y-coordinate of node N F
NF1 = 0; x-displacement is unconstrained I
= 1; x-displacement is zero i.e. fixed
NF2 = 0; y-displacement is unconstrained I
= 1; y-displacement is zero i.e. fixed
NF3 = 0; Z-rotation is unconstrained I
= 1; Z-rotation is zero i.e. fixed
KUP1 = 0; no coupling of the X-displacement degree of freedom I
= J; X-displacement of this node is coupled to that of node J
= -1; Support node for travelling wave input for x component of input.
(NF1 must = 0)
= -k; Only if IPANAL = 8 or 9. Input k displacement at this degree of
freedom
KUP2 = 0; no coupling of the Y-displacement degree of freedom I
= J; Y-displacement of this node is coupled to that of node J
= -1; Support node for travelling wave input for y component of input.
(NF2 must = 0)
= -k; Only if IPANAL = 8 or 9. Input k displacement at this degree of
freedom
KUP3 = 0; no coupling of the Z-rotation degree of freedom I
= J; Z-rotation of this node is coupled to that of node J
(Caution must be exercised here as the rotational coupling couples
only the rotational degree of freedom and does not make any
allowance for the distance between the nodes)
= -k; Only if IPANAL = 8 or 9. Input k displacement at this degree of
freedom
IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I
Note: There is no restriction of the ordering of master and slave nodes in the program and daisy chaining of
slaving has also been used. However, care must be exercised to ensure that circular chaining does
not occur, i.e. that the node is not effectively slaved back to itself. The unconstrained equations are
numbered and then the program works out the equation numbers of the slaved nodes. Once the
member data has been input the equations are automatically renumbered to maximise the execution
speed in the subsequent equation solving. This means that if one later wishes to apply foundation
compliance to what was a fixed-base structure then the original node numbering does not have to be
changed, the new numbers for the foundation nodes are just appended to the existing node
sequence. Similarly, adjoining frames in a pounding study can be numbered sequentially rather than
numbering across floors of both structures to minimise band-width. Dummy nodes may be left in the
data set as long as they are fully fixed.
15
7a. Inter-storey Drift Input. (Only if NLEVEL on data line 5 is greater than 2)
One input line with the word DRIFT starting in column 1.
DRIFT ANGLE
The default case is that the inter-storey drifts are the differences in the storey displacements.
If the word DRIFT is followed by the word ANGLE (minimum of letter A) then the inter-storey drifts will be
computed as the difference in the storey displacements divided by the inter-storey height as an angle
(radians). If the word ANGLE or the letter A is omitted then the inter-storey drifts are the differences in the
displacements over the level.
This is followed by a line or lines with a list of a list of NLEVEL nodal point numbers starting with a node point
at the ground level and then with a node point at each storey progressing upwards from the bottom of the
structure. If the nodes cannot be listed on one line then take as many lines as is necessary. The program will
continue reading data lines until all NLEVEL numbers have been read.
N1 N2 N3 . . . Ntop
N1 Nodal point number at ground floor, or first level, of the structure. I
N2 Nodal point number at the second level of the structure. I
N3 Nodal point number at the third level of the structure. I
. . . Nodal point numbers at intermediate levels I
Ntop Nodal point at the top level of the structure I
Notes: The total number of nodes must be NLEVEL where NLEVEL (see section 4 on page 11) is the
number of storeys+1
If inter-storey drifts are requested the envelopes of inter-storey drifts are listed in the output file.
If Residual displacements and forces are also requested then the Residual inter-storey drifts are also
listed in the output file.
If inter-storey drifts are requested and the excitation is an earthquake (IPVERT $ 1) then the
envelopes of the Total Acceleration at each level are also listed in the output file.
16
Four Node Member
Quadrilateral Elements and Panel Elements
17
8 Member Topology or Geometry
One input line with the word ELEMENTS starting in column 1.
ELEMENTS IOUT
IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I
One input line is required per member in ascending order, except that sequential members with a nodal point
numbering that uniformly increments may be implied by the provision of the first and last member in the
sequence. The member type for all interpolated members will be taken as that for the first member in the
sequence.
N MT NODE1 NODE2 NODE3 NODE4 IOUT
N Member number I
MT Member type number, refers to the member properties that follows I
NODE1 Nodal point number at end 1 of the member I
NODE2 Nodal point number at end 2 of the member I
NODE3 Inner nodal point at end 1 of the member I
(if NODE3 is zero or blank it is reset = NODE1)
NODE4 Inner nodal point at end 2 of the member I
(if NODE4 is zero or blank it is reset = NODE2)
IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I
Notes: The 4-node members are connected to NODE1 and NODE2 only with no stiffness contributions to
nodes NODE3 and NODE4. These latter two nodes NODE3 and NODE4 are purely for a geometric
definition (they are assumed to be connected to nodes NODE1 and NODE2 respectively by rigid links
with the flexible section of the member lying between the inner nodes). The boundary conditions for
the inner nodes NODE3 and NODE4 must be fully fixed.
In a large displacement analysis the coordinates of nodes NODE3 and NODE4 are updated from the
incremental displacements and rotations of nodes NODE1 and NODE2.

All four nodal points are required and must be distinct for the quadrilateral finite elements and the
masonry panel elements. The nodal points must be given in an anti-clockwise sequence around the
element.
18
9 Member Property Tables
One input line with the word PROPS starting in column 1.
PROPS
10 Section Property Information
One set of input for every different cross-section type (this may be due to the different initial load conditions
etc.). These must be arranged in ascending section number order and each must be one of the following
section types;
N MTYPE LABEL
N Section Number I
MTYPE = FRAME => Beam or Beam-Column member A
= SPRING => Translational and Rotational Spring member
= WALL => Taylor Structural-Wall member
= DAMPER => Viscous Damping member
= TENDON => Active Tendon or Constant Force member
= CONTACT => Contact or Impact member
= QUAD => Quadrilateral Finite Element.
= PANEL => Masonry In-fill Panel
= GROUND => Foundation Element
= MULTISPRING => Multi-Spring Hinge Element.
= COMPOUND => Compound Spring Hinge Element
= LATTICE => Lattice Truss Element
= RIENFORCED => Reinforced Concrete Hinge Element
LABEL Maximum 30 character label for section. If you wish to retain case or if the A
label contains blank characters enclose the label in single or double quotes.
The MTYPE may be supplied with just enough letters to be distinct , in most cases just the first letter is
sufficient.
The above line for each section shall be followed by the remaining data for the appropriate member types.
See the following sections.
SECTION 11 = FRAME type members
SECTION 12 = SPRING type members
SECTION 13 = WALL type members
SECTION 14 = DAMPING type members
SECTION 15 = TENDON type members
SECTION 16 = CONTACT type members
SECTION 17 = QUAD type elements.
SECTION 18 = PANEL type elements
SECTION 19 = GROUND type elements
SECTION 20 = MULTI-SPRING elements
SECTION 21 = COMPOUND-SPRING elements
SECTION 22 = LATTICE spring elements
SECTION 23 = REINFORCED concrete hinge elements
SECTION 24 = INERTIA (relative mass) elements
19
Beam Sign Convention
Frame Member
11 FRAME type member properties
Order of all of the components required for Frame Members are:

1 Basic Section Properties see section 11a
2 Elastic properties see section 11b
3 Member bi-linear factors and hinge lengths only is IHYST > 0, see section 11c
4 Material Specific Damping Parameters, (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 on line 2) see section 11d
5 Member initial conditions, or fixed end forces, only if ICOND > 0, see section 11e
6 Yield Forces and Moments Except when IHYST = 0, see sections 11f to 11i
7 Shear Yield data, only if IGA > 0, see sections 11j or 11k
8 Strength Degradation Parameters, only if ILOS > 0, see section 11l
9 Stiffness Degradation Parameters, only if IHYST > 0, see section 11m
10 Damage Index data, only if IDAMG > 0, see section 11n
20
Giberson One Component Beam Model
Two Component Beam Model
Four-Hinge Beam Model
Variable Flexibility Beam Member
21
11a. Basic section properties
ITYPE IPIN ICOND IHYST ILOS IDAMG ICOL IGA IDUCT
ITYPE = 1; One Component (Giberson) BEAM member I
= 2; Concrete BEAM-COLUMN member
= 3; Steel BEAM-COLUMN member
= 4; General quadratic BEAM-COLUMN member
= 5; Two-component BEAM member
= 6; Variable Flexibility BEAM member
= 7; Four-Hinge BEAM member
= 8; Asymmetric quadratic BEAM-COLUMN member
IPIN = 0; Member built-in to joint (Normal case) I
= 1; End 1 pinned (internally) to the joint
= 2; End 2 pinned (internally) to the joint
= 3; Both ends pinned (internally) to the joint
ICOND = 0; No initial loads applied I
= 1; Initial Fixed-end forces or Prestress are applied. See section 11e.
IHYST = n; Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
ILOS = 0; No strength degradation. See Appendix A I
= 1; Strength reduction in each direction based on its ductility factor
= 2; Strength reduction based on number of cycles
= 3; Strength reduction based on maximum ductility
= 4; Strength reduction as for ILOS=1 above but strength reduction also with
number of inelastic cycles.
= 5; Strength reduction as for ILOS=4 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultimate ductility.
= 6; Strength reduction as for ILOS=3 above but strength reduction also with
number of inelastic cycles.
= 7; Strength reduction as for ILOS=6 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultimate ductility.
IDAMG = 0; No damage indices computed I
= m; Damage indices computed (m integer > 0 used as weight)
ICOL = 0; Column ductilities computed at balance point of axial force I
= 1; Column ductilities computed at static axial force
= 2; Column ductilities computed at zero axial force
= 3; Column ductilities computed at each time-step using current axial force
IGA = 0; Shear deformation is elastic (only option if ITYPE=7) I
= 1; In-elastic Shear deformation with SINA hysteresis
= 2; In-elastic Flange Shear-Link model
IDUCT = 0; Flexural Stiffness remains constant as yield moment changes I
= 1; Flexural Stiffness varies so that yield curvature remains constant
Note:
1. If ITYPE above is 6 or 7 then IHYST may not be 1, 5, 18 or 19, IPIN must be 0 and the bi-linear factor
RF in section 11c must have a value greater than or equal to 0.01.
2. If the member is linearly elastic then there is no effective distinction between members ITYPE 1 to 6.
3. To represent truss members either IPIN = 3 or I (in section 11b) is set equal to zero. The latter option
is preferred as then all beam hysteresis rules can be used for the truss behaviour. If the first option is
used then only the elasto-plastic and bi-linear rules may be used.
4. The value of IDAMG is used as a weight when computing the weighted damage index for the whole
structure. Only integer values are accepted. If all damage index flags are 1 then the weighted damage
index for the structure is the average damage index.
5. If IDUCT=1 the stiffness EI is taken as the stiffness under pure flexure.
22
11b. Elastic section properties
E G A AS I WGT END1 END2 FJ1 FJ2
E Elastic (Young's) Modulus of member material F
G Shear Modulus of member material F
A Cross-sectional AREA of the member section F
AS Effective SHEAR AREA of the member section F
(if AS=0.0 then shear deformations in the section are suppressed)
I MOMENT of INERTIA (2nd Moment of Area) of section F
WGT Weight/(unit length) of the member F
END1 Length of Rigid End-block at End 1 of member F
END2 Length of Rigid End-block at End 2 of member F
FJ1 Joint flexibility at End 1 (radians/unit moment) F
FJ2 Joint flexibility at End 2 (radians/unit moment) F
Note: The weight/unit length is used to compute the member mass and does not contribute to the static loads
on the member or the structure.
The end-block lengths END1 and END2 are within the beam between nodes NODE3 and NODE4.
11c. Member Bi-linear Factors and Hinge Properties (only if IHYST above not equal 0)
RA RF H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7
RA Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg-Osgood r) (Axial) F
RF Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg-Osgood r) (Flexure) F
H1 Plastic Hinge Length at End 1 F
H2 Plastic Hinge Length at End 2 F
H3 Plastic Hinge Length at Hinge 3 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H4 Plastic Hinge Length at Hinge 4 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H5 Fraction of length Hinges 1 to 3 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H6 Fraction of length Hinges 4 to 2 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H7 Fraction of Central EI to Section EI (4-Hinge Beam only) F
Notes:
1. For One-Component and Four-Hinge Beams and all Beam-Columns the plastic hinge lengths are reset
to 1.0 if 0.0 is specified making the plastic curvature the same as the plastic hinge rotation.
2. The plastic hinge lengths are not used for the Two-Component Beam members.
3. The plastic hinge lengths for Variable Flexibility Beams should be between 0.1 and 0.5 of the member's
clear span.
4. The Fractions of length to the interior plastic hinges of the Four-Hinge Beam member should be between
0.1 and 0.4, the default is 0.3.
5. The Central Stiffness ratio is the fraction of the end stiffnesses that is used by the central region between
hinges 3 and 4. The minimum is 0.1. All stiffness quantities, AE, EI and GA are adjusted by the same
scale factor.
23
11d. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
24
Frame Member Initial Fixed End Force Sign Convention
11e. Member Initial Fixed End Forces (only if ICOND = 1)
M1 M2 V1 V2 AXIAL AXPS IOP
M1 Fixed-end moment at End 1 F
M2 Fixed-end moment at End 2 F
V1 Fixed-end shear force at End 1 F
V2 Fixed-end shear force at End 2 F
AXIAL Axial force applied to member F
AXPS Axial prestress in the member F
IOP = 0; Axial prestress has no effect of the structure (see note below) I
= 1; Axial prestress also implies loads acting on the nodes at the ends
of the member.
Note: The prestress force which is Tension positive affects only the internal member axial force used in the
determination of yield states and has no effect on the static analysis of the structure.
The Axial force applied to the member is positive if it acts in the direction NODE3 to NODE4 and one half
of this force is applied to each of the nodes at the ends of the member.
Positive member moments cause tensile stresses on the bottom fibres and positive shear forces act in the local
y direction on the positive local x face of the beam section. Tensile axial forces are positive. As an example if
a downward load is applied to the above member M1, M2 and V1 are negative while V2 is positive.
25
11f. BEAM Yield Conditions
PYT PYC MY1+ MY1- MY2+ MY2- MY3+ MY3- MY4+ MY4-
PYT Axial force for tensile yield ( $ 0.0) F
PYC Axial force for compression yield ( # 0.0) F
MY1+ Positive yield moment (End 1) ( $ 0.0) F
MY1- Negative yield moment (End 1) ( # 0.0) F
MY2+ Positive yield moment (End 2) ( $ 0.0) F
MY2- Negative yield moment (End 2) ( # 0.0) F
MY3+ Positive yield moment (Hinge 3) ( $ 0.0) F
MY3- Negative yield moment (Hinge 3) ( # 0.0) F
MY4+ Positive yield moment (Hinge 4) ( $ 0.0) F
MY4- Negative yield moment (Hinge 4) ( # 0.0) F
Note: Yield moments for hinges 3 and 4 are only required for the Four-hinge BEAM members. If both yield
moments at a hinge are zero then the hinge remains elastic. If both PYC and PYT are zero then axial
yield is suppressed. If both positive and negative yield moments at a hinge are zero then yield at that
hinge is suppressed.
There is no interaction between axial forces and the yield moments.
26
Concrete Beam-Column Yield Interaction Surface
11g. Concrete BEAM-COLUMN Yield Surface at End 1 of member
PYC PB MB M1B M2B M0 PYT IEND
PYC Axial compression yield force ( < 0.0) F
PB Axial compression force at B ( < 0.0) F
MB Yield moment at B ( > 0.0) F
M1B Yield moment at P=(2/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
M2B Yield moment at P=(1/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
MO Yield moment at P=0.0 ( > 0.0) F
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the member has the same yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the parameters PYC to PYT
for End 2 of the member.
Note: If M1B = M2B = 0.0 then a straight line is used between the points (PB, MB) and (0.0, MO) and not the
cubic curve.
The interaction is symmetric about the M = 0.0 axis.
27
Steel Beam-Column Yield Interaction Surface
11h. Steel BEAM-COLUMN Yield Surface at End 1 of member
PYC PB MB M0 PC MC PYT IEND
PYC Axial compression yield force ( < 0.0) F
PB Axial compression force at B ( < 0.0) F
MB Yield moment at B ( > 0.0) F
MO Yield moment at P=0.0 ( > 0.0) F
PC Axial tension force at C ( > 0.0) F
MC Yield moment at C ( > 0.0) F
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the member has the same yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the parameters PYC to PYT
for End 2 of the member.
Note: The interaction is symmetric about the M=0.0 axis.
28
Quadratic Beam-Column Yield Interaction Surface
11i. Quadratic BEAM-COLUMN Yield Surface at End 1 of member
PYC PB MB PC MC PYT IEND
PYC Axial compression yield force ( < 0.0) F
PB Axial force at B (PYT > PB > PYC) F
MB Yield moment at B ( > 0.0) F
PC Axial force at C (PYT > PC > PYC) F
MC Yield moment at C ( < 0.0) F
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the member has the same yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the parameters PYC to PYT
for End 2 of the member.
29
11ii. Asymmetric Quadratic BEAM-COLUMN Yield Surface at End 1 of member
PYC+ PYC- PB MB PC MC PYT+ PYT- IEND
PYC+ Axial compression yield force ( < 0.0) (Positive Moment case) F
PYC- Axial compression yield force ( < 0.0) (Negative Moment case) F
PB Axial force at B (PYT > PB > PYC) F
MB Yield moment at B ( > 0.0) F
PC Axial force at C (PYT > PC > PYC) F
MC Yield moment at C ( < 0.0) F
PYT+ Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) (Positive Moment case) F
PYT- Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) (Negative Moment case) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the member has the same yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the parameters PYC+ to PYT-
for End 2 of the member.
Asymmetric Quadratic Column Interaction Diagram
30
SINA Hysteresis
11j. In-elastic Shear Parameters (Only if IGA on line 11a is 1)
One line for in-elastic shear for flexure about the local z-z axis.
Vy Vcr Vcc Alfa R Duct1 Duct2 Vres Phi1 Phi2 Pres Ido
Vy Shear yield strength ( > 0.0) F
Vcr Shear cracking strength ( > 0.0) F
Vcc Shear crack closing corce ( > 0.0) F
Alfa Bi-linear factor, cracking to yield ( R < Alfa < 0.0) F
R Tri-linear factor after yield ( > 0.01) F
Duct1 Shear ductility where strength degradation starts F
If less than 1.0 then no shear strength degradation
Duct2 Shear ductility where shear strength degradation stops ( > Duct1) F
Vres Residual shear strength as proportion of Vy (0.01 # Vres < 1.0) F
Phi1 Flexural ductility where shear strength degradation starts F
If less than 1.0 then no shear strength degradation
Phi2 Flexural ductility where shear strength degradation stops ( > Phi1) F
Pres Residual shear strength as proportion of Vy (0.01 # Pres < 1.0) F
(Note: Vres*Pres*Vy must be somewhat greater than Vcr)
Ido = 0; In-elastic shear yield may occur (default) I
= 1; Retrofit assumed, message printed, shear remains elastic.
= 2: Failure assumed, message printed, analysis terminated.
Notes: The flexural ductility used for the strength degradation is based on the flexural ductilities at the hinges at
the ends of the member.
The action taken on the reaching of the shear yield strength follows the rules of Satyarno in his study on
the behaviour of shear-flexure interaction in framed structures.
The in-elastic shear follows the SINA hysteresis rule. Please see the Appendices.
Beta = Alfa and the rule assumes symmetry in both force and displacement axes.
If Vy, the shear area or the shear modulus are less than or equal to 0.0 then in-elastic shear is disabled
31
Shear Link Behaviour
11k. In-elastic Flange Shear-Link Parameters (Only if IGA on line 11a is 2)
One line for in-elastic shear for flexure about the local z-z axis.
Flex Bear V1 V2 V3
Flex Shear Link Initial Flexibility (Radians/unit moment) ( > 0.0) F
Bear Shear Link Flexibility after bolts bear ( < Flex) F
V1 Shear where flange splice first slips ( > 0.0) F
V2 Shear where bolt bearing begins ( > 1.1*V1) F
V3 Shear where splice slips in later cycles ( > 0.0) F
Notes: The joint flexibilities specified at the ends of the member are complemented by the shear link flexibility
computed for the shear link. The shear force at each end of the member is used to adjust the joint
flexibility at that end of the member.
32
11l. Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOS is > 0) (See Appendix A)
11m. Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only is IHYST > 0) (See Appendix B)
For those rules which require sets of data such as SINA or Muto etc., then there are 2 sets of such data:
1: Flexure at End 1
2: Flexure at End 2
11n. Damage Index data (Only if IDAMG > 0).
MUT MUC MU1+ MU1- MU2+ MU2- MU3+ MU3- MU4+ MU4- BETA1 BETA2
MUT Positive axial ultimate ductility F
MUC Negative axial ultimate ductility F
MU1+ Positive ultimate ductility (End 1) F
MU1- Negative ultimate ductility (End 1) F
MU2+ Positive ultimate ductility (End 2) F
MU2- Negative ultimate ductility (End 2) F
MU3+ Positive ultimate ductility (Hinge 3) F
MU3- Negative ultimate ductility (Hinge 3) F
MU4+ Positive ultimate ductility (Hinge 4) F
MU4- Negative ultimate ductility (Hinge 4) F
BETA1 Park and Ang Beta Axial (Default = 0.05) F
BETA2 Park and Ang Beta Flexural (Default = 0.05) F
Notes: Ductility data for hinges 3 and 4 is to be provided only for the Four-hinge Beam members.
All ultimate ductilities must be greater than 1.0.
The ultimate ductilities have no effect on the dynamic analysis but are only used at the end of the analysis
to compute the damage indices.
See Appendix B for information on which hysteresis rules can allow damage indices to be computed.
33
Spring Member
Spring Member Sign Convention
12 SPRING type member properties
Order of all of the components required for Spring Members.
1 Basic Section Properties see section 12a
2 Material Specific Damping parameter (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in line 2) see section 12b
3 Yield Forces and Moments Except when IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37.
see sections 12c, 12d, 12e, 12f or 12g
4 Strength Degradation Parameters, only if ILOS > 0, see section 12h
5 Stiffness Degradation Parameters, only if IHYST > 0, see section 12i
6 Damage Index data, only if IDAMG > 0, see section 12j
34
12a. Basic Section properties
ITYPE IHYST ILOS IDAMG KX KY GJ WGT RF RT PSX PSY PSZ THETA ITRUSS IOP SL
ITYPE = 1; No interactions between X, Y or Theta Z components I
= 2; Elliptic interaction between yield forces in the X and Y directions,
no interaction with rotation.
= 3; Interaction between Rotation and Y forces. (Flexure-Shear interaction)
(SINA hysteresis assumed for Y components)
= 4; Interaction between Axial Force and Yield Moments
= 5; Friction Interaction between Axial Force and Transverse Force
IHYST = n; Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
(If ITYPE=2 Hysteresis is tri-linear).
ILOS = 0; No strength degradation (If ITYPE=2 then ILOS=0) I
= 1; Strength reduction in each direction based on ductility in that direction.
= 2; Strength reduction based on number of cycles
= 3; Strength reduction based on maximum ductility
= 4; Strength reduction as for ILOS=1 above but strength reduction also with
number of inelastic cycles.
= 5; Strength reduction as for ILOS=4 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultimate ductility.
= 6; Strength reduction as for ILOS=3 above but strength reduction also with
number of inelastic cycles.
= 7; Strength reduction as for ILOS=6 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultimate ductility.
IDAMG = 0; No damage indices computed I
= m; Damage indices computed (If ITYPE=2 then IDAMG=0)
KX Spring Stiffness in the local X-direction F
KY Spring Stiffness in the local Y-direction F
GJ Rotational stiffness of the member section F
WGT Weight/(unit length) of the member F
RF Bi-linear Factor, or Ramberg-Osgood r, for spring forces F
(This is only used if ITYPE=1)
RT Bi-linear Factor, or Ramberg-Osgood r, rotation F
PSX Pre-load force in the local X-direction F
PSY Pre-load force in the local Y-direction F
PSZ Pre-load moment about the Z-axis F
THETA Angle from Global X axis to local x axis. (Degrees). (Over-rides Note 2 below) F
(This angle is only used if spring length is zero)
ITRUSS = 0; Stiffness coefficients used as input I
= 1: Stiffness coefficients divided by member length (Default=1.0) (Truss action)
IOP = 0; Pre-load forces and moments are internal to the member only. I
= 1; Pre-load forces and moments act as pre-loads that also affect the nodal
Forces acting on the nodes at the ends of the member in the static analysis of the
structure.
SL Shift in Relative position of Shear spring along length of member (-0.5 # SL # +0.5) F
(-0.5 moves the shear spring to End 1 and +0.5 moves the shear spring to End 2)
Default 0.0 implies shear spring is at mid-length
Notes:
1. The weight/unit length is used to compute the member mass and does not contribute to the static loads
on the member or the structure.
2. If the length of the member is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global axes.
3. The ITYPE=2 model may be used to model the horizontal x and y behaviour of say a bridge pier where
the bridge is modelled in plan and the pier acts in flexure with the vertical axis in the z direction
perpendicular to the model of the structure. The behaviour of the pier represents the yield force
interaction in the x and y directions where the yield forces would be the yield moments about the y-y and
x-x axes at the base of the pier multiplied by the height of the pier.
35
4. The pre-load forces are internal to the member and have no contribution to the forces acting on the
structure. They affect only the initial member deformation before any structure deformations are imposed.
5. This member may be used to represent truss members where the local X-direction represents the truss
action. The stiffness KX should equal the AE/L of the truss member.
6. If the Crisafulli hysteresis rule 33 is to be used to model in-fill panels then the AREAs asked for by the
rule, (see IHYST=33, Appendix B), are used to set up the stiffness of the spring at each time step.
However, the spring member does not use the length of the strut in forming the stiffness and so the
AREAs should be the strut cross-sectional areas divided by the strut length. Also, the stiffness KX is used
for the initial stiffness of the strut until the stiffness is checked to find its status in the hysteresis rule
behaviour, this is in the static analysis, where static loads are applied or at time = 0.0 if not. This means
that an initial estimate of KX should be made. In general the Crisafulli model does not carry significant
tensile forces which means that normally two strut members are required acting along opposite diagonals
and each would only act in the longitudinal, or X, direction.
7. IDAMG, m is used as a weight when adding member damage indices to obtain structure damage index,
see notes for Frame members , section 11a.
8. If ITYPE= 5 then the transverse yield force is a function of the axial force. The transverse hysteresis is
elasto-plastic representing the transverse friction. The other actions in the axial direction and rotation are
linearly elastic. There must be axial and transverse stiffness but the rotational stiffness may be zero.
9. The transverse dashpots will generate moments at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arms whose length will
depend on the length of the member and the parameter SL
12b. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This is
useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
36
Spring Member Yield Interaction Surfaces
12c. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 1 ) (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)
FX+ FX- FY+ FY- MZ+ MZ-
FX+ Positive spring yield force in the X direction F
FX- Negative spring yield force in the X direction F
FY+ Positive spring yield force in the Y direction F
FY- Negative spring yield force in the Y direction F
MZ+ Positive torsional yield F
MZ- Negative torsional yield F
Note: There is no interaction between torsion and spring yield and there is no interaction between the spring
yield in the rotation, x or y directions.
12d. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 2 ) (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)
FX1 FY1 FX2 FY2 MZ+ MZ- RX1 RY1 RX2 RY2
FX1 Cracking force in the X direction F
FY1 Cracking force in the Y direction F
FX2 Yield force in the X direction F
FY2 Yield force in the Y direction F
MZ+ Positive torsional yield moment F
MZ- Negative torsional yield moment F
RX1 Bi-linear factor in the X direction F
RY1 Bi-linear factor in the Y direction F
RX2 Tri-linear factor in the X direction F
RY2 Tri-linear factor in the Y direction F
Note: There is an elliptic interaction curve between x and y yield force in each quadrant of the diagram below.
The force-displacement curve in this case is tri-linear, it is modelled by two elasto-plastic members and
one elastic member in parallel. The yield forces are symmetric about the origin. There is no interaction
between yield in rotation and the x and y directions. The rotational component follows a bi-linear
hysteresis rule.
37
12e. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 3 ) Flexure-Shear interaction. (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)
FX+ FX- FY+ FY- MZ+ MZ- FCRY FCCY ALFA HINGE DUCT1 DUCT2 RES DUCT3 I
FX+ Positive Yield force in the X direction ($ 0) F
FX- Negative Yield force in the X direction (# 0) F
FY+ Positive Yield force in the Shear (or Y) direction ($ 0) F
FY- Negative Yield force in the Shear (or Y) direction (# 0) F
MZ+ Positive rotational yield moment ($ 0) F
MZ- Negative rotational yield moment (# 0) F
FCRY Cracking Shear Force in the Y direction (> 0) F
FCCY Crack Closing Shear Force in the Y direction (> 0) F
ALFA Bi-linear factor from cracking to yield in the Y direction (0.4#ALFA#0.8) F
HINGE Plastic Hinge Length (Default = 1.0) F
DUCT1 Flexural ductility at which Shear strength starts to degrade ($1) F
DUCT2 Flexural ductility at which Shear strength reaches residual strength F
(Minimum value is 1.5 DUCT1)
RES Residual Shear strength when flexural ductility is greater than DUCT2 F
DUCT3 Flexural Ductility when strength = 1% of original F
= 0; Strength = RES*FY
I = 0; No shear strength degradation. I
= 1; Shear strength degradation.
= 2; Shear strength degradation but Retrofit Assumed, No shear yield occurs.
= 3: Shear strength degradation, Shear yield terminates analysis.
Notes:
1. The SINA hysteresis rule governs the Shear (or Y action). The cracking forces in the Y direction are
symmetric about the origin. The strength loss in the Y direction is based on the absolute values of the
rotational component ductility.
S S
2. The Shear Stiffness KY = G A / L where G is the shear modulus, A is the Shear Area and L is the plastic
hinge length. The Flexural Stiffness GJ = E I / L where E is the elastic modulus and I is the second
moment of area of the equivalent beam section. To get curvatures from the rotations divide the rotations
by the plastic hinge length L.
3. If I above is non-zero then shear strength degradation will also occur with shear ductility. A line with the
degradation data as for Appendix A of this manual must immediately follow this line. The normal strength
degradation controlled by the variable ILOS will apply to the x and rotational actions in the spring member.
The case of I above is 2 is for columns where retrofit is assumed to have been applied and the sequence
of shear failure is to be shown. When I is 3 is the case where retrofit is assume not to occur and shear
failure in a column implies failure of the structure.
4. These last two cases of I = 2 or 3 are really applicable to columns, 2 informs the user that shear yield has
occurred but implies a retrofit has been applied so one can see where the next yield will occur. Option 3
covers the case for columns without retrofit where failure of a column implies failure of the structure.
38
12f. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 4 ) Axial Force - Yield Moment interaction (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)
PYT PYC FY+ FY PB MB M1B M2B M0
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
PYC Axial compression yield force ( < 0.0) F
FY+ Positive Yield Force in Shear ( > 0.0) F
FY- Negative Yield Force in Shear ( < 0.0) F
PB Axial compression force at B ( < 0.0) F
MB Yield moment at B ( > 0.0) F
M1B Yield moment at P=(2/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
M2B Yield moment at P=(1/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
MO Yield moment at P=0.0 ( > 0.0) F
Note: The interaction is symmetric about the M = 0.0 axis.
The axial force is the local x component action. A cubic curve describes the moment variation from PB
to the moment axis. A linear variation of moment occurs outside this region.
39
12g. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 5 ) Axial Force - Transverse Force interaction (Not if IHYST = 0,18,19,33 or 37)
F0 MU IOP
F0 Constant Component of Friction Force ( > 0.0) F
MU Coefficient of Friction ( > 0.0) F
IOP = 0; Friction Force limit = F0 -MU*(Axial force) ( > 0.0) I
= 1; Friction Force limit = F0+MU*Abs(Axial force)
Note: The axial force is the local x component action. The friction force acts in the local y direction.
12h. Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOS > 0) (See Appendix A)
12i. Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYST > 0) (See Appendix B.)
For those rules which require sets of data, such as SINA or Muto, then there are 2 sets of such data.
ITYPE=1
1: Longitudinal or X direction action. (The same parameters are used for rotational action)
2: Transverse or Y direction action.
ITYPE=3
1: Longitudinal or X direction action.
2: Rotation or Theta-Z action.
For the Widodo hysteresis (IHYST = 19) a third set of data is used for the rotational action.
12j. Spring Damage Index data (Only if IDAMG > 0).
MUX+ MUX- MUY+ MUY- MUR+ MUR- BETA1 BETA2
MUX+ Positive ultimate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F
MUX- Negative ultimate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F
MUY+ Positive ultimate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
MUY- Negative ultimate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
MUR+ Positive rotational ultimate ductility F
MUR- Negative rotational ultimate ductility F
BETA1 Park and Ang Beta X and Y (Default = 0.05) F
BETA2 Park and Ang Beta rotation (Default = 0.05) F
Notes: All Ultimate Ductilities must be greater than 1.0.
The ultimate ductilities have no effect on the dynamic analysis but are only used at the end of the analysis
to compute the damage indices.
See Appendix B for information on which hysteresis rules can allow damage indices to be computed.
40
Wall Member
13 STRUCTURAL-WALL type properties
13a. Basic section properties [Taylor 1977]
NSECT NIP ICOND IHYST WGT AMAX IMAX H1 H2
NSECT Number of Lobatto integration sections along the member (3, 4, 5, 6 or 7) I
There is an exception for a special 2-hinge Beam-Column NSECT = 2
NIP Number of segments in section (3 # NIP # 20) I
For Standard Wall sections maximum number of segments is 18
ICOND = 0; Standard Wall section input I
= 1; Numerical Wall section input
IHYST = 0; Member remains perfectly elastic I
= 1; Taylor material properties, linear stress-strain to SIGA
= 2; Kent & Park material properties, quadratic stress-strain to SIGA
WGT Weight/(unit length) of the member F
AMAX Maximum fraction of Gross Section Area used F
IMAX Maximum fraction of Gross Second Moment of Area used F
H1 Hinge Length End 1 (only for special 2 hinge member) F
H2 Hinge Length End 2 (only for special 2 hinge member) F
Notes:
1. The weight/unit length is used to compute the member mass and does not contribute to the static loads
on the member or the structure.
2. Wall members usually require smaller time-steps than most other structures, i.e. 0.001 to 0.0001 seconds
compared with 0.01 seconds and Newton-Raphson iteration, say 3 cycles, should be provided. Changes
in the flexural stiffness also lead to large changes in the axial stiffness and the movement of the neutral
axis implies coupling between the axial and flexural actions as well.
3. If the member is in-elastic and Newton-Raphson iteration has not been enabled the variable MAXIT is
automatically reset to a maximum of 3 cycles of iteration and FTEST to 0.10. It has been found that a
smaller value of FTEST would be more appropriate.
4. The original Taylor element had a mid-length node with an hierarchical axial degree of freedom so that
41
the longitudinal strains due to the axial displacements had a quadratic variation with length as do the
longitudinal strains due to the beam-like cubic flexural displacement with length. It has been found that
the mid-length degree of freedom was never excited in the analyses and this seventh deformation degree
of freedom has been deleted.
5. At each section along the length the centre-line axial strain is computed, the curvature computed as a
function of the end rotations and assuming that the cross-section remains plane the longitudinal strain in
each segment of the section is computed. For each segment in the cross-section the concrete and steel
stresses and tangent modulii are computed and then the moment and axial force on the section are
calculated and the new effective cross-sectional area, second moment of area and the location of the
neutral axis is computed.
6. The section properties are integrated along the length using a Lobatto integration rule to get the member
stiffnesses. Three point Lobatto integration is identical to a three point Simpsons rule.
7. Taylor sometimes used up to three elements to represent the wall over a single storey height.
8. IMAX < 1 is accounted for by intially cracking the section from both extreme segments inwards so that
GROSS
the effective I is less than or equal to IMAX*I . AMAX is no longer used but as the flexural stiffness
reduces with the pre-cracking of the section the effective cross-sectional area also reduces.
9. NSECT = 2 is for an Giberson type beam-column model with an elastic central region with the plastic
hinge zones modelled by a Taylor-like segmental section. This allows for the neutral axis to move within
the hinge zone.
Wall Member Sign Convention
42
Taylors Concrete Stress-Strain Relationships
13b. Concrete and Steel Properties
EMODC EMODS SIGA SIGB EPSB SIGCR SIGYS SBILIN ALFA
EMODC Elastic Modulus of the Concrete ( > 0.0) F
EMODS Elastic Modulus of the Steel ( > 0.0) F
SIGA Concrete Peak Stress f'c ( < 0.0) F
SIGB Concrete Ultimate Stress ( < 0.0) F
EPSB Concrete Ultimate Strain ( < 0.0) F
SIGCR Concrete Cracking Stress ( > 0.0) F
SIGYS Steel Yield Stress ( > 0.0) F
SBILIN Steel Bi-linear Factor ( > 0.0) F
ALFA Steel Bounding Surface Onset (Only if IHYST=2, see note 4 below) F
Notes:
1. The concrete is assumed to carry no tensile stress once the material has cracked and the concrete is
assumed to carry no tensile stress once the compressive strain has exceeded EPSB.
2. IHYST = 0, The uncracked section properties are used for all time-steps.
3. IHYST = 1, The concrete elastic modulus is assumed to be a constant EMODC until the stress SIGA is
reached. The peak strain EPSA = SIGA/EMODC. The steel assumes a bi-linear stress-strain hysteresis.
This follows the original Taylor Element-A model
4. IHYST = 2, The concrete stress-strain law follows a quadratic rule until the stress SIGA is reached. The
peak strain EPSA = 2.0*(SIGA/EMODC). The steel hysteresis rule has an elasto-plastic first yield
excursion but subsequent cycles follow the Al-Bermani Bounding Surface rule with "=$=0.3 to model the
Bauschinger effect. This default value of ALFA may be overridden by specifying a different value in the
range 0.0 to 1.0 in the data above where ALFA = 1.0 implies a bi-linear hysteresis. The steel bi-linear
factor SBILIN, used to define the in-elastic bounding surface, takes a minimum of 0.0001 for the Bounding
Surface algorithm to work.
43
Kent and Park Concrete Stress-Strain Relationship
Bilinear Steel Hysteresis
Al Bermani Steel Hysteresis
44
13c Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This is
useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, ie.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETA ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
45
Geometry of the Standard Wall Section
13d. Input for Standard Wall Section (ICOND = 0)
B D B1 B2 D1 D2 D3 D4 AS1 AS2 AS3
B Thickness of the Wall F
D Width (length) of the wall F
B1 Width of the outstanding flange at flange 1 F
B2 Width of the outstanding flange at flange 2 F
D1 Distance to the left face of flange 1 F
D2 Distance to the right face of flange F
D3 Distance to the left face of flange 2 F
D4 Distance to the right face of flange 2 F
AS1 Cross-sectional Area of Steel uniformly distributed in the main wall F
AS2 Cross-sectional Area of Steel uniformly distributed in flange 1 F
AS3 Cross-sectional Area of Steel uniformly distributed in flange 2 F
Note: All distances D1, D2, D3 and D4 are measured from the left side of the wall when the section is viewed
down the member in the -X direction
The structural axis of the member is assumed to be at D/2
46
Numerical Definition of Wall Cross-Section
13e. Input for Numerical Wall Section (ICOND = 1)
One line is required for each of the sub-areas in the section. NIP lines required.
I X(I) AS(I) AC(I)
I Sub-area number I
X(I) Location of centre of sub-area I F
AS(I) Area of steel in sub-area I F
AC(I) Area of concrete in sub-area I F
Note: The member structural axis is assumed to be at (X(1) + X(NIP))/2
47
Dashpot Member
14 DAMPER (dash-pot) type member properties
ITYPE C1 C2 C3 GAP+ GAP- ALFA C4 C5 C6 ALFA- THETA LIMIT SL
ITYPE = 0 Linear Dashpot I
= 1 Non-Linear Dashpot
= 2 Non-Linear Dashpot with different properties in Positive and Negative
directions.
= 3 Different damping coefficients when incremental velocity and velocity have
opposite signs than when they have the same sign
C1 Longitudinal coefficient F
C2 Transverse coefficient F
C3 Rotational coefficient F
GAP+ Positive Gap F
GAP- Negative Gap F
ALFA Velocity Power Factor (ALFA > 0.0) (Default=1.0) (ITYPE > 0) F
C4 Longitudinal coefficient (negative direction) (ITYPE > 1) F
C5 Transverse coefficient (negative direction) (ITYPE > 1) F
C6 Rotational coefficient (negative direction) (ITYPE > 1) F
ALFA- Velocity Power Factor ALFA in the negative direction. (ITYPE > 1) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
LIMIT = 0 No limits set on Dashpot Forces and Moment I
= 1 Limits set on Dashpot Forces and Moment
SL Shift of position of Transverse Dashpot. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 implies that the Transverse dashpot is located midway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 moves dashpot to Node 4 and +0.5 moves dashpot to Node 4)
Notes:
1. C1, C2 and C3 are the dash-pot coefficients (force / unit velocity) for the different actions in the member.
These act in the positive direction only if ITYPE = 2.
2. These members are only included in the time-history analysis if IPANAL = 2 or more when their
contributions are added to the damping matrix of the structure.
4. Sign Conventions are the same as those for the SPRING member types, see section 12.
5. If the length of a DAMPER type member is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global axes
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above.
6. If the member deformation is within the range of the gap then the dashpot has no resisting force.
7. If ITYPE = 3 then C1, C2 and C3 are used when the velocity and incremental velocity have the same sign
and C4, C5 and C6 apply when the signs are not the same.
48
Member Sign Convention
8. For Non-linear dash-pots all components use the same ALFA. The dash-pots show no hysteresis in their
Force-Velocity relationship, it is a non-linear elastic force-velocity relationship. The dash-pot force for
component i is related to the dash-pot velocity by the following equation
9. If ITYPE = 2 the dashpot has different properties in the positive and negative directions and the rules
for the data in the negative direction are the same as those for the positive direction components.
10. If IPLAS = 0, Elastic time-history analyses only, (see section 2, Principal analysis options), then the initial
gaps are reset to zero and ITYPE is reset to 0 after all the input data has been read.
11. The transverse dashpot will generate moments at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arms whose length will
depend on the length of the member and the parameter SL
14a Dashpot Limit Actions
FXMAX FXMIN FYMAX FYMIN FZMAX FZMIN
FXMAX Maximum local x direction Force (Axial) F
FXMIN Minimum local x direction Force (Axial) F
FYMAX Maximum local y direction Force (Transverse) F
FYMIN Minimum local y direction Force (Transverse) F
FZMAX Maximum local z direction Moment (Out-of-plane) F
FZMIN Minimum local z direction Moment (Out-of-plane) F
49
Constant Force Member
Tendon Member
15 TENDON type member properties
Either Constant Force member
ITYPE FPP FPN FNN FNP GAP+ GAP- THETA
ITYPE = 0 ; Simple Constant Force Tendon Member I
FPP Force, Positive Displacement and Displacement Increasing F
FPN Force, Positive Displacement and Displacement Decreasing F
FNN Force, Negative Displacement and Displacement Decreasing F
FNP Force, Negative Displacement and Displacement Increasing F
GAP+ Positive Gap, No Force if Displacement less than this ($ 0) F
GAP- Negative Gap, No Force if Displacement greater than this (# 0) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
Notes:
1. These members are only included in the time-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynamic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: This is the same as for the SPRING members. Tensile forces and member elongations
are positive.
3. If the member is of zero length then the TENDON local member axis is assumed to coincide with the
global x axis unless a non-zero has been specified for THETA above. THETA is only used for zero length
members.
50
Or Active Tendon Force member
ITYPE DELAY THETA FPP IH BETA
ITYPE = N ; Number of Contributions to Tendon Force ( N > 0 ) I
DELAY Time Delay on Response (seconds). (Maximum of 100 time-steps) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP if FPP > 0.0 F
IH = 0; Force given by components described below, Normal case I
= 1; Force follows Resettable Actuator Hysteresis (see IHYST = 43 in Appendix B)
= 2; Force follows Two-Four Damper Hysteresis (see IHYST = 51 in Appendix B)
BETA Sticking Force (Only if IH = 2) F
Notes: The time delay is internally converted to an integer number of time-steps
If IH > 0 then the saturation force FPP must be supplied
Contribution of each component - N lines required
NODE NDOF NTYPE FACTOR
NODE Node Number I
NDOF = 1 ; X component at Node I
= 2 ; Y component at Node
Z
= 3 ; 2 component at Node
NTYPE = 1 ; Nodal Acceleration I
= 2 ; Nodal Velocity
= 3 ; Nodal Displacement
FACTOR Multiplier of Action F
Notes:
1. These members are only included in the time-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynamic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and member elongations are positive.
3. If the member is of zero length then the local member axis is assumed to coincide with the global x axis
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above. THETA is only used for zero length
members.
4. Care must be taken when setting out the magnitude and sign of the multiplier as an inept choice may
lead to very large displacements and loss of precision and failure of the analysis. The deformation and
force in the member is tension positive. The tendon member in tension pulls on both joints with equal and
opposite forces. It is worth noting that if the displacement of the structure has an equivalent circular
frequency T (radians/sec) then the magnitude of the velocities are of the order of T times the magnitude
of the displacements and the magnitude of the accelerations is T times the magnitude of the
2
displacements.
5. If IH = 1 or 2 the equivalent stiffness used in the hysteresis rule is 1.0 and the force computed by the
components described above is used as the displacement in the loop. This differs from the behaviour
when ITYPE = -1 or -3 respectively for in those cases the controlling displacement is the elongation of
the tendon while in this case the controlling input is computed from the contributions described above.
51
Or Semi-Active Tendon, Resettable Actuator, member
ITYPE STIFF FPP DELAY THETA
ITYPE = -1 Member follows Resettable Actuator Hysteresis I
STIFF Equivalent stiffness (Force per unit displacement) F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP F
DELAY Time Delay on Response (seconds). (Maximum of 100 time-steps) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
Notes:
1. These members are only included in the time-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynamic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and member elongations are positive.
3. If the member is of zero length then the local member axis is assumed to coincide with the global x axis
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above. Theta is only used for zero length
members.
4. The force displacement relationship follows the Resettable Actuator Hysteresis rule IHYST = 43
5. The equivalent yield values are Fy+ = +FPP and Fy- = -FPP where FPP is the Saturation Force.
6. FPP must be greater than 0.0
7. The time-delay is internally converted to an integer number of time-steps
52
Or Variable Force member
ITYPE STIFF ALFA DAMP BETA FPP
ITYPE = -2 I
STIF Equivalent stiffness coefficient (Force per unit displacement) F
ALFA Power factor for element displacement (ALFA > 0.0) F
DAMP Equivalent damping coefficient (Force per unit velocity) F
BETA Power factor for element velocity (BETA > 0.0) F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP if FPP > 0.0 F
If FPP = 0.0 then the force is unbounded (equivalent of FPP = infinity)

Notes:
1. These members are only included in the time-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynamic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and member elongations are positive.
3. The force in the member is given by the following relationship. The displacement is the elongation of the
member and the velocity is the rate of change of member length.
Force = STIF*(displacement) + DAMP*(velocity)
ALFA BETA
4. This member is very useful where a damper or spring member is required where the power factors ALFA
and BETA are less than 1.0. In these cases the equivalent tangent stiffness or damping coefficients tend
to infinity when the displacement or the velocity tend to zero leading to numerical difficulties in the
analyses. In these limiting cases the forces are usually small and large stiffness or damping coefficients
are not a problem as the tendon member has neither stiffness or damping coefficients
53
Or Semi-Active Tendon, Two-Four Hysteretic Damper, member
ITYPE STIFF BETA FPP DELAY THETA
ITYPE = -3 Member follows Two-Four Damper Hysteresis I
STIFF Equivalent stiffness (Force per unit displacement) F
BETA Sticking Force F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP F
DELAY Time Delay on Response (seconds). (Maximum of 100 time-steps) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
Notes:
1. These members are only included in the time-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynamic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and member elongations are positive.
3. If the member is of zero length then the local member axis is assumed to coincide with the global x axis
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above. Theta is only used for zero length
members.
4. The force displacement relationship follows the Two-Four Damper Hysteresis rule IHYST = 51, please
see Appendix B.
5. The equivalent yield values are Fy+ = +FPP and Fy- = -FPP where FPP is the Saturation Force.
6. FPP must be greater than 0.0
7. The time-delay is internally converted to an integer number of time-steps
Two-Four Hysteretic Damper
54
Contact Member
16 CONTACT type member properties
16a. Basic section properties
ITYPE IHYST KX CX MU FL M1 M2 THETA INIT SL
ITYPE = 0; Damping Coefficient specified. I
= 1; Percentage Fraction of Critical Damping specified.
= 2; Coefficient of Restitution specified.
IHYST = n; Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B. (only IHYST = 5 or 19 allowed) I
KX Spring Stiffness in the local X-direction F
CX Damping Coefficient in the local X-direction (see ITYPE above) F
MU Coefficient of Friction (Transverse or Y-direction) F
FL Friction stiffness is FL*KX (Default FL = 1.0 if MU > 0 else FL = 0.0) F
M1 Mass at End 1 (Only if ITYPE is 1 or 2) F
M2 Mass at End 2 (Only if ITYPE is 1 or 2) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
INIT =0; Member does not act during the static analysis I
=1; Member acts during static analysis. (Only the KX term is active)
SL Shift of position of Friction Spring. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 implies that the Friction Spring is located midway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 moves spring to Node 4 and +0.5 moves spring to Node 4)
Notes:
1. If the length of the member is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global axes unless a
non-zero value has been specified for THETA above.
2. These members stiffness and damping matrices are only included in the time-history part of the analysis
when IPANAL = 2 or 3.
3. The Coefficient of restitution r (supplied as CX above) is related to the Percentage of Critical damping
8 by the following formula
4. The Effective End masses are only required if ITYPE is 1 or 2 and are used to generate the equivalent
fraction of critical damping in the member. The masses are usually taken as the mass in the frame at
the floor at that end of the member.
5. The transverse friction force is proportional to the transverse displacement since the onset of contact or
the reversal of transverse displacement and is limited to MU times the contact force.
6. The friction forces only exist if there is a non-zero contact force.
7. The friction spring will generate moments at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arms whose length will depend
on the length of the member and the parameter SL
55
Contact Member Sign Convention
8. The Fractions of Critical Damping (for ITYPE = 1, or 2 using 8 in note 3) are related to the Damping
Coefficient c in the axial deformation mode of the member by the following expression where k is the
1 2
current member tangent stiffness and the masses m and m are the masses at the ends of the member
(When ITYPE is 0 the damping coefficient c is CX)
16b. Yield Surface (only required if IHYST = 5)
PX+ PX- RTEN
PX+ Positive spring yield force in the X direction F
PX- Negative spring yield force in the X direction F
RTEN Bi-Linear Factor in Tension F
16c. Hysteresis data . See section 14 for the data required. This will complete the data for this member type.
56
Quadrilateral Finite Element
Quadrilateral Stress Sign Convention
17 QUADRILATERAL type member properties
Order of all of the components required for Quadrilateral Members.
1. Basic Section Properties see section 17a.
2. Material Specific Damping, see section 17b.
57
17a. Basic section properties
ITYPE E NU THICK WGT
ITYPE = 0; Plane Stress I
= 1; Plane Strain
E Elastic Modulus F
NU Poisson's Ratio F
THICK Thickness of the element F
WGT Weight/(unit volume) of the element F
Notes:
1. The weight/(unit volume) is used to compute the member mass and does not contribute to the static
loads on the member or the structure.
2. The element is a Hybrid Stress Type 2 quadrilateral finite element. All four nodes must be distinct (i.e.
no triangles). The stress distribution is assumed to have a cubic variation in both the x and y directions
and the element edge displacements are assumed to vary linearly along the element edge for the
tangential displacement and to have a cubic variation along the edge for the normal displacement. The
element actually assumes a linear variation of thickness between nodes but in the application within the
program a constant thickness is assumed. Three point Guass quadrature is used in each direction to
integrate the flexibility matrix and three point Guass quadrature is used for the integrals along the
element edges. Any reduction of the order of integration gives inaccurate integrals and a higher order
gives no change in the integrals.
3. The element is assumed, at present, to be linearly elastic.
17b. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7on section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
58
Masonry Panel Elements
18 MASONRY PANEL ELEMENTS
These elements are designed to represent the behaviour of an unreinforced masonry panel infill in a reinforced
concrete frame. The model assumes that the infill is such that there are no gaps between the frame and the
panel. As generally constructed in South America the frame is often placed after the panel is erected (Crisafulli,
1997).
The panel is modelled with two parallel struts in each diagonal to represent the thrust carried across the panel
in diagonal compression. A fifth strut, which acts between the two opposite diagonal carriers on the diagonal
carrying compression, transfers the shear force between the top and bottom of the panel.
In general, the panel elements are rectangular but other geometries are permitted .
Four or Three lines of data required. An extra line will be required if the Material Specific Damping model is being
used.
1. Geometric Data
2. General Properties
3. Strut Data (2 lines or 1 line)
4. Material Specific Damping Data (if ICTYPE=5 or 7 only)
59
Interior to Exterior Node Dimensions
18a. Geometric Data
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
IHYST HZ XO YO XO YO XO YO XO YO
IHYST = 0 ; Member is elastic only. I
= 1 ; Member is inelastic (IHYST actually =33)
HZ Vertical separation between struts F
XO1 X distance from external node to internal node 1 F
YO1 Y distance from external node to internal node 1 F
XO2 X distance from external node to internal node 2 F
YO2 Y distance from external node to internal node 2 F
XO3 X distance from external node to internal node 3 F
YO3 Y distance from external node to internal node 3 F
XO4 X distance from external node to internal node 4 F
YO4 Y distance from external node to internal node 4 F
Diagonal Strut Area Displacement Relationship
60
18b. Properties 18a
TO MU TMAX SSF KTF TH WGT
TO Bond shear strength F
MU Coefficient of friction F
TMAX Maximum shear stress $ TO F
s
SSF Shear stress factor " F
s
KTF Shear stiffness factor ( F
TH Panel thickness t F
WGT Weight/unit volume F
Notes:
The input data required for the application of the panel element includes the parameters described in for defining
the cyclic axial behaviour of masonry and the properties of the equivalent strut. In addition, the following variables
need to be defined in relation to the shear behaviour of the masonry panel:
z z
Vertical separation between struts, h : values of h between z/3 and z/2 seems to lead to adequate results,
where z is the contact length between the panel and the frame.
oi oi
Horizontal and vertical offset, x and y : these parameters define the horizontal and vertical distance,
respectively, measured from the external nodes to the internal nodes. This is intended to represent the reduction
of the dimensions of the panel due to the depth of the frame members.
Bond shear strength, and coefficient of friction, :: these parameters are usually obtained from direct shear
tests or following design specifications. It is recommended, however, the use of the reduced values resulting from
the modified shear theory proposed by Crisafulli. This theory takes into account the complex stress state in the
panel due to the composite nature of masonry.
Maximum shear stress, : this is the maximum shear stress permissible in the masonry panel, whose value
can be selected from the shear failure envelope of masonry. This is to avoid a large shear strength due to high
axial forces in the struts.
s
Shear stress factor, " : this parameter defines the ratio of the maximum shear stress to the average stress in
the masonry panel. It normally varies from 1.40 to 1.65.
s
Shear stiffness factor, ( : this factor represents the fraction of the total stiffness assigned to the shear spring,
usually ranging from 0.5 to 0.75 but should not exceed 0.85 to 0.90. The remaining part, , is assigned to
the struts. The total stiffness of the panel element is controlled by the strut area and the elastic modulus.
Thickness of the panel, t: this is assumed to be constant over the panel.
Weight per unit volume: this is used to calculate the mass of the panel and is used only to form the structure
mass matrix. It does not contribute to loads on the structure.
61
18c. Either Strut Hysteresis (see also Appendix B IHYST=33)
FC FT UC UUL UCL EMO GUN ARE
FC Compressive strength (stress units) (FC < 0.0) F
FT Tensile strength (stress units) (FT > 0.0) F
UC Strain at FC (UC < 0.0) F
UUL Ultimate strain (UUL < 0.0) (UUL # 1.5 UC) F
UCL Closing strain F
EMO Initial masonry modulus (EMO $ 2 FC/UC) F
GUN Stiffness unloading factor (GUN $ 1.0) F
ARE Strain reloading factor (ARE > 0.0) F
18.d Strut areas
AREA1 AREA2 R1 R2 IENV
AREA1 Initial strut cross-sectional area (AREA1 > 0.0) F
AREA2 Final strut cross-sectional area (AREA2 # AREA1) F
R1 Displacement at 1 (R1 < 0.0) F
R2 Displacement at 2 (R2 # R1) F
IENV = 0 ; Sargin stress-strain envelope descending branch I
= 1 ; Parabolic stress-strain envelope descending branch
or Elastic Properties
EMO AREA1
EMO Elastic modulus F
AREA1 Initial area of strut F
62
Notes:
m2
FC The compressive strength f is the main parameter controlling the resistance of the strut. It must be
'
noted that FC does not represent the standard compressive stress of masonry but should be adopted
taking into account the inclination of the compressive principal stresses and the mode of failure expected
in the masonry panel. See Crisafulli 1997.
t
FT Tensile strength f' represents the tensile strength of the masonry or the bond strength of the panel-frame
interface, whichever is smallest. The consideration of the tensile strength has been introduced in the
model in order to gain generality. However, results obtained from different examples indicate that the
tensile strength, which is generally much smaller than the compressive strength, has no significant
influence on the overall response. Therefore, in the absence of more detailed information, the tensile
strength can be assumed to be zero.
m
UC The strain at maximum stress g' usually varies between -0.002 and -0.005 and its main effect on the
overall response of the infilled frame is the modification of the secant stiffness of the ascending branch
of the stress-strain curve.
u
UUL The ultimate strain g is used to control the descending branch of the stress-strain relationship. When
u m
a large value is adopted for, example g = 20 g' , a smooth decrease of the compressive stress is
obtained.
cl
UCL The closing strain g defines the limit strain at which the cracks partially close and compressive stresses
can be developed. Values of the closing strain ranging between 0 and 0.003 lead to results which agree
cl u
adequately with experimental data. If a large negative value is adopted, for example g = g , this effect
is not considered in the analysis.
mo
EMO The elastic modulus E represents the initial slope of the stress-strain curve and its value can exhibit
a large variation. Various expressions have been proposed for the evaluation of the elastic modulus of
masonry. It is worth noting, however, that these expressions usually define the secant modulus at a
stress level between 1/3 and 2/3 of the maximum compressive stress. In order to obtain an adequate
mo m2 m
ascending branch of the strength envelope it is assumed that E $ 2 f' / g' .
un
GUN The unloading stiffness factor ( controls the slope of the unloading branch. It is assumed to be greater
than or equal to 1.0 and usually ranges from 1.5 to 2.5.
re
ARE The reloading strain factor " defines the point where the reloading curves reach the strength envelope.
The calibration of the hysteretic model for the axial behaviour of masonry showed that good results are
obtained using values ranging between 0.2 and 0.4. However, higher values, for example 1.5, are
required to model adequately the cyclic response of the infilled frames. This is because other sources
of nonlinear behaviour, such as sliding shear, need to be indirectly considered in the response of the
masonry struts.
Four parameters are required to represent the cross-sectional area of the masonry strut. These are the initial area
ms1 ms2
A = AREA1 and final area A = AREA2 and the axial displacements at which the cross-sectional area
R1 R2
changes, ) = R1 and ) = R2. In a simplified model, it can be assumed that AREA1 and AREA2 are the
same using a low value of the strut area to avoid an excessive increase in the axial strength. In a more refined
analysis, a higher value of the initial area can be adopted, whereas the final area can be reduced by about 10%
m m m m m
to 30%. The displacement R1 and R2 can be estimated as g' d /5 and g' d (where d is the length of the
masonry strut) respectively, at least until more precise information becomes available. Several empirical
expressions, which are described in section 6.2.1.3 of the reference, have been proposed for the evaluation of
the equivalent width of the masonry strut, whose value normally ranges from 0.1 to 0.25 of the diagonal length
of the infill panel.
IENV The descending branch of the stress-strain curve is usually modelled with a parabola instead of the curve
associated with Sargin's equation in order to obtain a better control of the response of the strut after the
maximum stress has been reached.
63
18e. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 on section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, ie.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
64
Foundation Member Sign Convention
Beam Sign Convention
19 GROUND type member properties
Foundation Members
These members can be regarded as a form of beam member and may be used to represent the flexibility of the
soil continuum beneath foundation beams and footings. The elements have a cubic variation of normal thrust
and a linear variation of axial shear along their lengths so their edge displacements are fully compatible with
beam members. Three possible representations of the soil are included:
Vlazov Foundation
General Two-Parameter Foundation (Pasternak model)
Vogt Foundation
The normal force-deflection relationship of both the Vlazov and the General Two-Parameter Foundation members
are governed by the following equation (Selvadurai,1979):
q(x) = k.w(x) G(d w/dx )
2 2
In the Vlazov soil model, the parameters k and G are derived from the elastic properties of the soil and specified
constraints to the variation of normal displacement of the soil with depth.
In the General Two-Parameter soil model, k and G are input directly by the user.
The Vogt foundation model was derived using Boussinesqs formulas and has been used in the past for modelling
arch dams (Holand, 1968; Clough,1973). In two-dimensional analyses, the normal force-deflection relationship
for the Vogt model is similar to that of the Vlazov and General Two-Parameter soil models, but does not contain
a shear term. This model is analogous to a distributed Winkler spring.
The models can be regarded as Pseudo-Dynamic foundation compliance models. They do not automatically
account for the frequency dependence of the dynamic stiffness of the soil. Such effects can be included by
appropriately scaling the input parameters to account for the fundamental period of the combined soil-structure
system.
The effects of radiation damping are incorporated into the Vlazov model by way of dashpots, placed in parallel
with the soil springs. Radiation damping is highly dependent on frequency and should only be included if the
fundamental period of the combined soil-structure system is below the fundamental period of the site.
Appropriate scale factors for radiation damping and the elastic stiffness of the soil, as a function of the
fundamental frequency of the soil-structure system, can be obtained from Wolf (Wolf, 1994)
65
Foundation members should be placed beneath foundation beams and footings and additional members should
be provided to model the soil surface adjacent to the structure being modelled. These members should extend
either side of the structure at least two to three times the width of the structure.
References:
Clough, Ray W et al,. ADAP a computer program for static and dynamic analysis of arch dams. University of
California, Berkeley, California, 1973
Holand, Ivar and Aldstedt, Erik, Arch Dam Analysis by Finite Element Analysis, Institute for Structural Mechanics,
University of Trondheim, Norway, January 1968
Selvadurai, A. P. S., Elastic Analysis of Soil-Foundation Interaction. Developments in Geotechnical Engineering
Vol. 17, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, The Netherlands, 1979.
Wolf, John P., Foundation Vibration Analysis Using Simple Physical Models. Prentice Hall , Englewood Cliffs,
NJ, 1994.
Order of all data components required for Ground Members is:
General Data for Foundation Member see section 19a.
Data for Soil Model
Vlazov Soil Model, ITYPE = 1, see section 19b.
Vlazov Soil Model, ITYPE = 2, see section 19c.
Vlazov Soil Model, ITYPE = 3, see section 19d.
Two-Parameter Soil Model, ITYPE = 4, see section 19e.
Vogt Foundation Model, ITYPE = 5, see section 19f.
Data for Non-linear foundation behavior,
Only if IHYSTA, IHYSTK or IHYSTG > 0, see section 19g.
Data for soil element consistent mass matrix,
Only if ISTF = 1, see section 19h.
Data for soil element radiation damping matrix,
Only if IRAD = 1, see section 19i.
Data for Longitudinal Strength Degradation Parameters, see section 19j.
Data for Longitudinal Stiffness Degradation Parameters, see section 19k.
Data for Normal Strength Degradation Parameters, see section 19l.
Data for Normal Stiffness Degradation Parameters, see section 19m.
Data for Shear Strength Degradation Parameters, see section 19n.
Data for Shear Stiffness Degradation Parameters, see section 19o.
Data for Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7), see section 19p.
66
19a. General Data for Foundation Member
ITYPE ISHEAR IHYSTA IHYSTK IHYSTG ILOSA ILOSK ILOSG ISTF IRAD
ITYPE = 1; Vlazov Soil Model (Linear shallow soils) I
= 2; Vlazov Soil Model (Hyperbolic deep soils)
= 3; Vlazov Soil Model (Exponential very deep soils)
= 4; General Two-Parameter Soil Model (Pasternak)
= 5; Vogt Soil Model
ISHEAR = 0; Shear term G(d w/dx ) included I
2 2
= 1; Shear term ignored (this is automatic with the Vogt model)
IHYSTA = n; Longitudinal Spring Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
IHYSTK = n; Normal Spring Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
IHYSTG = n; Shear Spring Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
ILOSA = 0; No Longitudinal spring strength degradation I
= 1; Longitudinal spring strength degradation varying with ductility
= 2; Longitudinal spring strength degradation with varying cycle number
= 3; Longitudinal spring strength degradation varying with absolute ductility
ILOSK Normal Spring strength degradation parameter (as for ILOSA) I
ILOSG Shear Spring strength degradation parameter (as for ILOSA) I
ISTFS = 0; No scale factors for stiffness terms I
= 1; Scale factors for stiffness terms
IRAD = 0; No radiation damping included I
= 1; Radiation damping included
Note:
IHYSTA, IHYSTK and IHYSTG can take on values of 0,1,2,3,4,8,10,11,12,13,14,20,21,23,26 and 28 see
Appendix B.
19b. Data for Vlazov Soil Model. Only if ITYPE = 1
(Linear Variation of Displacement with Depth shallow soils)
EM MU DEPTH WEFF DENS
EM Elastic Modulus of soil F
MU Poissons Ratio of soil F
DEPTH Depth of soil layer above bedrock F
WEFF Effective Width of Foundation F
DENS Mass density of soil F
Notes:
A linear variation of displacement with depth is only appropriate for shallow soil layers
The model is formulated assuming that Plane Strain conditions apply.
67
19c. Data for Vlazov Soil Model. Only if ITYPE = 2
(Hyberbolic Variation of Displacement with Depth deep soils)
EM MU DEPTH GAMA LENGTH WEFF DENS
EM Elastic Modulus of soil F
MU Poissons Ratio of soil F
DEPTH Depth of soil layer above bedrock F
GAMMA Effective Constant Defining Exponential Variation (0.001 # GAMMA # 1) F
LENGTH Characteristic Length F
WEFF Effective Width of Foundation F
DENS Mass density of soil F
19d. Data for Vlazov Soil Model. Only if ITYPE = 3
(Exponential Variation of Displacement with Depth very deep soils)
EM MU MUB WEFF DENS
EM Elastic Modulus of soil F
MU Poissons Ratio of soil F
MUB Exponential Variation Parameter (1 < MUB*WEFF < 2) F
(MUB*WEFF = 1.06 for infinitely long beams)
WEFF Effective Width of Foundation F
DENS Mass density of soil F
19e. Data for Pasternak General Two-Parameter Soil Model. Only if ITYPE = 4.
AS KS GS WEFF
AS Axial Stiffness of Soil Spring F
KS Modulus of Subgrade Reaction of soil F
GS Shear Modulus of soil F
WEFF Effective Width of Foundation F
Note: KS has units of force-per-length-cubed and GS has units of force
19f. Data for Vogt Soil Model. Only if ITYPE = 5
EMF PR KFACT WEFF
EMF Effective Elastic Modulus of soil layer F
PR Poissons Ratio of soil layer F
KFACT Vogt k Factor (2 <= k <= 2.5) F
WEFF Effective Width of Foundation F
68
19g. Data for Non-linear Foundation Behaviour (only if IHYSTA, IHYSTK or IHYSTG > 0)
PYTA PYCA PYT PYC TY BFA BFP BFT
PYTA Tensile Strength of Longitudinal Soil Spring F
PYCA Compressive Strength of Longitudinal Soil Spring F
PYT Tensile Strength of Normal Soil Spring F
PYC Compressive Strength of Normal Soil Spring F
TY Shear strength of Shear Soil Spring F
BFA Bilinear Factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) for Longitudinal Spring F
BFP Bilinear Factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) for Normal Spring F
BFT Bilinear Factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) for Shear Spring F
Note: PYTA, PYCA, PYT, PYC and TY are in units of force per unit area
19h. Soil Mass Stiffness Scaling Parameters (Only if ISTF = 1)
AMASS KMASS GMASS
AMASS Scale factor for mass associated with Longitudinal springs F
KMASS Scale factor for mass associated with Normal springs F
GMASS Scale factor for mass associated with Shear springs F
Note: AMASS, KMASS and GMASS can take values between 0.0 and 1.0
19i. Radiation Damping Input Parameters (Only if IRAD = 1)
ADAMP KDAMP GDAMP
ADAMP Scale factor for damping associated with Longitudinal springs F
KDAMP Scale factor for damping associated with Normal springs F
GDAMP Scale factor for damping associated with Shear springs F
Notes:
ADAMP, KDAMP and GDAMP can take values between 0.0 and 1.0
Radiation damping is highly frequency dependent and scale factors should be evaluated according to
fundamental frequency of the soil structure system.
69
19j. Longitudinal Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOSA > 0), see Appendix A.
19k. Longitudinal Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYSTA > 0), see Appendix B.
19l. Normal Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOSK > 0) see Appendix A.
19m. Normal Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYSTK > 0), see Appendix B.
19n. Shear Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOSG > 0), see Appendix A.
19o. Shear Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYSTG > 0), see Appendix B.
19p. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
70
Multi-Spring Element
Multi-Spring Member Sign Convention
20 MULTI-SPRING type member properties
If the Bi-Linear with Slackness hysteresis rule is used, then this element will become unstable if the whole
element goes into tension. This is because the element has no stiffness if all the multi-springs have positive
(tensile) displacements. To prevent this instability a compressive force should be imposed across the member
either by loads applied to the structure or by other prestressed members acting across the member.
The individual springs making up the multi-spring member have a sign convention where tensile deformations
and forces are positive.
In all available hysteresis models for this element there is no further hysteresis data that is required. If the Bi-
linear with Gap hysteresis is used then the initial tension gap is set to 10 times the height (width) HS of the
element and the compression gap is zero.
If the Bi-linear with Gap hysteresis is used with the Lift-off option then if all axial springs lift off then all the shear
and rotational springs also disconnect so that their actions and stiffness go to zero.

71
20a. Control Parameters.
IHYST ILOS KLOS IDAMG HS WGT THETA SL
IHYST = 0 Linear Element I
= 1 Bi-linear with Gap Hysteresis (see IHYST = 5)
= 2 Bi-linear Hysteresis (see IHYST = 2)
= 3 Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis (Original) (see IHYST = 3)
= 4 Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis (Bounded) (see IHYST = 40)
= 5 Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis (Pyke) (see IHYST = 41)
= 6 Origin Centered Hysteresis (see IHYST = 38)
= 7 Bi-linear Elastic Hysteresis (see IHYST = 15)
= 8 Bi-linear with gap lift-off disconnects shear (see IHYST = 5)
= 9 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap (see IHYST = 63)
ILOS = 0 No Longitudinal Strength Degradation I
= 1 to 7 Longitudinal Strength Degradation
KLOS = 0 No Shear Strength Degradation I
= 1 to 7 Shear Strength Degradation
IDAMG = 0 No Damage Indices calculated I
= m Damage Indices computed with weight m (note: m =1 gives average)
HS Height of Multi-Spring member F
WGT Weight of Multi-Spring member F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
SL Shift of position of Transverse Spring(-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 implies that the Transverse Spring is located midway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 moves spring to Node 4 and +0.5 moves spring to Node 4)
Note: The THETA term is only used for zero length members. In all other cases the local axial or longitudinal
axis is defined as being along the member length.
The IHYST in the notes above refers to the Appendices A and B covering the hysteresis models
The transverse spring will generate moments at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arms whose length will
depend on the length of the member and the parameter SL
If the model has gap, tension gap=HS, compression gap=0.0
20b. Section Properties.
NS ITYPE SA SV YT YC YP YN RA RV
NS Number of springs (NS = 2,4,6,8 or 10) I
ITYPE = 1 Lobatto Quadrature (i.e. spacing and weighting of springs) I
= 2 Gaussian Quadrature
= 3 Trapezoidal Rule Integration
= 4 Uniform distribution and stiffness of springs
SA Axial Stiffness of Multi-spring unit (i.e. sum of all springs stiffnesses) F
SV Shear Stiffness F
YT Axial Yield in Tension for Multi-spring unit (YT= 0.0 for IHYST = 1) F
YC Axial Yield in Compression for Multi-spring unit F
YP Shear Yield Force (Positive) F
YN Shear Yield Force (Negative) F
RA Bi-linear factor for Axial Stiffness Multi-spring unit F
RV Bi-linear factor for Shear Stiffness F
Note: If IHYST > 0 and YP > 0.0 or YN < 0.0 then a Bi-linear Hysteresis is used for the Shear Spring.
72
20c. Longitudinal Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOS > 0), see Appendix A.
20d. Shear Strength Degradation Parameters (only if KLOS > 0) see Appendix A.
20e. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
20f. Multi-Spring Damage Index data (Only if IDAMG > 0).
MUX+ MUX- MUY+ MUY- MUR+ MUR- BETA1 BETA2
MUX+ Positive ultimate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F
MUX- Negative ultimate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F
MUY+ Positive ultimate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
MUY- Negative ultimate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
MUR+ Positive rotational ultimate ductility F
MUR- Negative rotational ultimate ductility F
BETA1 Park and Ang Beta X and Y (Default = 0.05) F
BETA2 Park and Ang Beta rotation (Default = 0.05) F
Notes: All Ultimate Ductilities must be greater than 1.0.
The ultimate ductilities have no effect on the dynamic analysis but are only used at the end of the
analysis to compute the damage indices.
See Appendix B for information on which hysteresis rules can allow damage indices to be computed.
73
Compound Component Sign Convention
21 COMPOUND-SPRING type member properties
Compound Spring Member
To prevent this instability a forces may be imposed across the member either by loads applied to the structure
or by other prestressed members acting across the member.
The individual springs, dashpots or tendons making up the compound-spring member have a sign convention
where tensile deformations and forces are positive.
If the Interaction option is used for a component then if the longitudinal (local x stiffness goes to zero) the
component will disconnect until the axial stiffness again takes a non-zero value. This is similar to the lift-off
option with the Multi-spring element.
74
21a. Control Parameters.
NS JPLAS SL WGT THETA
NS Number of components in member (0 < NS # 8) I
JPLAS = 0 Member linear I
= 1 Member non-linear
SL Shift of position of Transverse Springs. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 implies that the Transverse springs are located midway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 moves springs to Node 4 and +0.5 moves springss to Node 4)
WGT Weight of Compound-Spring member F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
Note: The THETA term is only used for zero length members. In all other cases the local axial or longitudinal
axis is defined as being along the member length.
The transverse dashpot will generate moments at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arms whose length will
depend on the length of the member and the parameter SL
JPLAS is usually going to be 1 but this gives the ability for the member data for a non-linear member
to be input but then the action is reset to linear.
Note sections 21b, 21c and 21d are required for each of the NS components. Sections 21c and 21d, if required
must follow 21b for each component in turn.
21b. Section Properties.
ITYPE IMODE IHYST ILOS INTER Y ST RA YP YN
ITYPE = 1 Longitudinal action (local x direction) I
= 2 Transverse action (local y direction)
= 3 Rotational action (local theta z axis)
IMODE = 1 Spring component I
= 2 Dashpot component
= 3 Tendon component with force depending on sign of displacement
= 4 Tendon component with force depending on sign of velocity
IHYST Hysteresis rule. (For spring components see appendix B) I
(for other components = 0 )
ILOS Strength Degradation rule. (For spring components see appendix A ) I
(for other components = 0 )
INTER = 0 No interaction between longitudinal and transvere/rotational action I
= 1 If axial contribution is zero all components disconnect
Y Distance of component from centre-line of member (line of Nodes 3 and 4) F
(For transverse and rotational components ITYPE = 2 or 3, reset to 0.0)
ST Stiffness or damping coefficient of Component (For IMODE = 3 or 4 use 0.0) F
RA Bi-linear factor for Spring component (for other component types use 0.0) F
YP For Spring members (IMODE = 1) = Yield Force (Positive) F
For Dashpots (IMODE = 2) = Limit Force in positive direction
For Tendons (IMODE = 3) = Force if displacement is positive
For Tendons (IMODE = 4) = Force if velocity is positive
YN For Spring members (IMODE = 1) = Yield Force (Negative) F
For Dashpots (IMODE = 2) = Limit Force in negative direction
For Tendons (IMODE = 3) = Force if displacement is negative
For Tendons (IMODE = 4) = Force if velocity is negative
75
Note: For IMODE = 3 or IMODE = 4 if the displacement and the velocity are 0.0 the force in the tendon
component is zero. These components have no stiffness.
The dashpot components IMODE = 2 have no stiffness.
If IHYST > 0 and YP # 0.0 and YN $ 0.0 then the component is elastic.
The choice of hysteresis rule for the spring components are the same as that for SPRING members.
21c. Strength Degradation Parameters (only if IMODE = 1 and ILOS > 0), see Appendix A.
21d. Hysteresis Rule Data (only if IMODE = 1 and IHYST > 0 and the rule required more data)
see Appendix B.
21e. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
76
22 LATTICE TRUSS element properties
Lattice Truss Quadrilateral Element
Order of all of the components required for Lattice Truss Elements.
1. Basic Section Parameters, see section 21a.
2. Truss Elastic Properties, see section 21b.
3. Truss Yield Properties, (as required) see section 21c.
4. Diagonal Truss Degradation Properties. (as required) see section 21d.
5. Truss Hysteretic Properties (as required) see section 21e.
6. Material Specific Damping, (as required) see section 21f.
22a. Basic element parameters
IH1 IH2 IH3 IDIAG IL1 IL2 IL3 WGT
IH1 = Hysteresis Rule for Truss Components 1-3 and 2-4 I
IH2 = Hysteresis Rule for Truss Components 1-2 and 4-3 I
IH3 = Hysteresis Rule for Truss Components 1-4 and 2-3 I
IDIAG = 0; Normal truss components I
= 1; Diagonal trusses have a strength reduction based on the
tensile strain normal to the direction of the truss component
IL1 = Strength Degradation Rule for Truss Components 1-3 and 2-4 I
IL2 = Strength Degradation Rule for Truss Components 1-2 and 4-3 I
IL3 = Strength Degradation Rule for Truss Components 1-4 and 2-3 I
WGT = Weight of the element (25% to each of the four nodes) F
EMOD = Elastic Modulus (option, see note below) F
Notes:
1. IHi = 0 implies elastic action
2. Any of the hysteresis rules for SPRING elements are able to be used for this element
3. Any of the Strength Degradation rules allow for the hysteresis model may be used for the Truss
components, except in Note 3 above.
4. The weight is used to compute the member mass and does not contribute to the static loads on the
member or the structure.
5. These truss components do not contribute to the rotational stiffness of the nodes and therefore care must
be given to the boundary conditions to avoid a singular stiffness of the structure. All four nodes must be
distinct (i.e. no triangles).
6. If Elastic modulus EMOD is non-zero then K1-K6 on next line are taken as the truss cross-sectional
areas and the length of the struts used to compute truss stiffness are computed from element geometry.
77
22b. Basic Truss properties
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
K1 = Stiffness of Truss 1 (1-3) (if EMOD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K2 = Stiffness of Truss 2 (2-4) (if EMOD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K3 = Stiffness of Truss 3 (1-2) (if EMOD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K4 = Stiffness of Truss 4 (4-3) (if EMOD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K5 = Stiffness of Truss 5 (1-4) (if EMOD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K6 = Stiffness of Truss 6 (2-3) (if EMOD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
R1 = Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) of Truss 1 (1-3) F
R2 = Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) of Truss 2 (2-4) F
R3 = Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) of Truss 3 (1-2) F
R4 = Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) of Truss 4 (4-3) F
R5 = Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) of Truss 5 (1-4) F
R6 = Bi-linear factor (or Ramberg Osgood r) of Truss 6 (2-3) F
Notes:
1. Ki = 0 implies truss not present. At least one truss member must exist.
2. Bi-linear factors only used for inelastic members.
22c. Truss Yield Properties (only required if IH1, IH2 or IH3 greater than 0)
YP1 YN1 YP2 YN2 YP3 YN3 YP4 YN4 YP5 YN5 YP6 YN6
YP1 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 1 (1-3) F
YN1 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 1 (1-3) F
YP2 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 2 (2-4) F
YN2 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 2 (2-4) F
YP3 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 3 (1-2) F
YN3 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 3 (1-2) F
YP4 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 4 (4-3) F
YN4 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 4 (4-3) F
YP5 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 5 (1-4) F
YN5 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 5 (1-4) F
YP6 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 6 (2-3) F
YN6 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 6 (2-3) F
Notes:
1. If Ypi = 0.0 and Yni = 0.0 implies truss i remains elastic.
2. If the truss member does not exist supply 0.0 for both yield forces.
78
22d. Diagonal Truss Interaction (only required if IDIAG greater than 0)
P11 P21 P31 P41 P51 P12 P22 P32 P42 P52
P11 = Strength Change of Truss 1 (1-3) [0.40] F
P21 = Residual Strength of Truss 1 (1-3) [0.05] F
P31 = Strain at start reduction Truss 1 (1-3) [0.10] F
P41 = Strain at Change of Truss 1 (1-3) [0.50] F
P51 = Strain at Residual for Truss 1 (1-3) [1.00] F
P12 = Strength Change of Truss 2 (2-4) [0.40] F
P22 = Residual Strength of Truss 2 (2-4) [0.05] F
P32 = Strain at start reduction Truss 2 (2-4) [0.10] F
P42 = Strain at Change of Truss 2 (2-4) [0.50] F
P52 = Strain at Residual for Truss 2 (2-4) [1.00] F
Notes:
1. The values in the square brackets are the default values, obtained by supplying 0.0.
2. The smallest value for the residual strength ratio is 0.01.
3. A blank line cannot be supplied for this data to get the default values, at least a line with one 0.0 is
required. Note, in Ruaumoko a blank line is ignored by the command processor.
22e. Strength Degradation and Stiffness Degradation data.
Up to 6 sets of data in order for truss components 1 to 6
(Only required if the truss component stiffness Ki > 0.0 and the IH or IL associated with the truss
component is greater than 0 and if the hysteresis rule for that component requires data. Note, even if IH
implies no extra hysteresis data, if IL for that component is >0 then the strength degradation data will be
required for the component.)
79
22f. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 on section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping. This
is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
Note: These elements may be considered as a form of Lattice Analogy as described by Hrennikoff in his 1941
paper. The elements may be arranged to provide an analogy to a problem in plane stress or plane strain.
Assuming that the element is square of side a in plan and that the material has a thickness of t then
Hrennikoff would suggest that that
i
If the forces in the members are F then the equivalent stresses, assuming that the local x axis is
parallel to members 3 and 4, may be obtained from
Referece: Hrennikoff, A. Solution of Problems of Elasticity by the Framework Method
Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 8, No.4, 1941, pp169-175
80
Plastic Hinge member Sign Convention
23 Reinforced Concrete PLASTIC-HINGE spring type member properties
Reinforced Concrete Plastic Hinge Spring Member
To prevent this instability a forces may be imposed across the member either by loads applied to the
structure or by other prestressed members acting across the member.
The individual springs, making up the Plastic Hinge member have a sign convention where tensile
deformations and forces are positive.
81
23a. Control Parameters.
JPLAS B D C HL WGT THETA ISTEEL ICONC
JPLAS = 0 Member linear I
= 1 Member non-linear
B Width of Cross-section F
D Depth (Height) of Cross-section F
C Cover to reinforcing steel centre-line from top or bottom of section F
HL Plastic Hinge Length F
WGT Weight of Reinforced Concrete Hinge member F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
ISTEEL = 0 Dhakal Steel hysteresis I
= 1 Dodd-Restrepo Steel hysteresis
= 2 Elasto-Plastic Steel hysteresis
ICONC = 0 Brian Peng Concrete hysteresis I
= 1 Crisafulli Concrete hysteresis
Note: The THETA term is only used for zero length members. In all other cases the local axial or
longitudinal axis is defined as being along the member length.
The transverse dashpot will generate moments at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arms whose length is
half of the hinge length HL
JPLAS is usually going to be 1 but this gives the ability for the member data for a non-linear member
to be input but then the action is reset to linear.
23b. Concrete Material Properties.
EC FPC FT ECC FPCC FTC ECV FPCV FTV DB FLEXV
EC Initial Elastic Modulus of Confined Concrete F
FPC Compressive Strength of Confined Concrete (stress units) F
FT Tensile Strength of Confined Concrete (stress units) F
ECC Initial Elastic Modulus of Cover Concrete F
FPCC Compressive Strength of Cover Concrete (stress units) F
FTC Tensile Strength of Cover Concrete (stress units) F
ECV Initial Elastic Modulus of Shear Concrete F
FPCV Compressive Strength of Shear Concrete (stress units) F
FTV Tensile Strength of Shear Concrete (stress units) F
DB Effective width of diagonal shear strut F
FLEXV Flexibility factor in Y transverse direction (1.0 # FLEXV # 3.0) F
Note: There are 10 multi-spring-like elements representing the concrete cross-section representing the
longitudinal stress-strain behaviour in the hinge..
Spring 1 represents the top cover concrete and spring 10 represents the bottom cover concrete.
Springs 13 and 14 represent the diagonal concrete struts carrying the shear in the section.
Flexibility factor multiplies the flexibility in that direction by the factor to allow extra shear deformation.
The stiffness of the diagonal struts are un-affected and the deformation in the diagonal struts is the
total shear deformation divided by the flexibility factor. The extra flexibility is obtained by added an
additional spring in series with the diagonal member stiffness.
82
23c. Steel Material Properties.
ES FSC FST Atop Abtm Slong
ES Initial Elastic Modulus of Reinforcing Steel F
FSC Compressive Strength of Reinforcing Steel (stress units) F
FST Tensile Strength of Reinforcing Steel (stress units) F
Atop Cross-sectional area of top reinforcing steel F
Abtm Cross-sectional area of bottom reinforcing steel F
Slong Effective length of steel bars (default SL equals hinge length HL) F
Note: Spring 11 represents the top reinforcing steel and spring 12 represents the bottom reinforcing steel.
23d. Material Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)
This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Damping.
This is useful if one is modelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have
different damping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different damping
characteristics, i.e. in soil-structure interaction studies. Damping matrix C is given by
where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.
BETA0 BETAT ALPHA
BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F
BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F
23e. Hysteresis Rule Data for confined concrete (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.
23f Hysteresis Rule Data for cover concrete (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.
23g Hysteresis Rule Data for reinforcing steel (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.
23h Hysteresis Rule Data for shear concrete (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.
83
Member Sign Convention
24 INERTIA (Relative Mass) type member properties
Inertia Member
XMASS YMASS TMASS SL THETA
XMASS Longitudinal relative mass F
YMASS Transverse relative mass F
TMASS Rotational relative mass F
SL Shift of position of Transverse Dashpot. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 implies that the Transverse dashpot is located midway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 moves dashpot to Node 4 and +0.5 moves dashpot to Node 4)
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
Notes:
1. Sign Conventions are the same as those for the SPRING member types, see section 12.
2. If the length of a INERTIA type member is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global
axes unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above.
3. The member only acts during a time-history analysis and the inertia force or moment is proportional
to the relative acceleration or relative rotational accelerations between the two ends, 3 and 4, of the
member.
84
30 Lumped Weights at the nodes
Except for a static analysis, this section MUST be supplied. If all structural mass (weight) is supplied as
member weights then follow the WEIGHTS flag with two lines of data in which only the node numbers
supplied, that for Node 1 and that for the last node.
WEIGHTS INTERP
WEIGHTS Word WEIGHTS A
INTERP = 0 ; Omitted Nodes have no point weight I
= 1 ; Omitted Nodes have weight of First Node in sequence repeated.
One input line is required for each nodal point. However, if any nodal points are omitted and INTERP above
is non-zero, the omitted nodes will be assumed to have the same weights as those of the nodal point on the
previous input line. The information for the last nodal point should be supplied. The nodal point numbers
must be provided in an ascending order. It must be noted that the nodal weights and that the self-weight
computed from the member weights are not added to the static load analysis.

N WX WY WM
N Nodal point number I
WX Lumped nodal weight acting in the X direction F
WY Lumped nodal weight acting in the Y direction F
WM Lumped nodal weight acting in rotation at Node F
Note: If only a static analysis is to be carried out, then the nodal weights may be omitted. Similarly the
weight may be provided by self-weight of the members (see the section tables in part 10 of this
manual). Note that these weights are converted to masses internally within the program.
85
31 External (static) nodal loads
LOADS
One input line with the word LOADS starting in column 1
One input line is required for each nodal point. The information for the last nodal point should be supplied
even if it is not loaded. The nodal point numbers must be provided in an ascending order. It must be noted
that the nodal forces are independent of the nodal weights and that a self weight will not be computed from
the nodal masses and added to the static analysis.

N FX FY FM
N Nodal point number I
FX Static load at node N in the X direction F
FY Static load at node N in the Y direction F
FM Static moment at node N about the Z axis F
86
32 Dynamic load factors (Only if IPVERT is less than 0).
One set of data if IPVERT = -1, two sets if IPVERT = -2, etc.
One input line with the word SHAPE starting in column 1
SHAPE ALPHA
ALPHA Multiplier of Shape Vector. (Only if IPANAL = 6) (ALPHA > 2.0) F

One input line is required for each loaded nodal point. The last nodal point should be provided even if no
loads are applied to it or a line with node number 0 will terminate the input.
The load components will be multiplied by the loading, or excitation, history (see section 25). The first
component is multiplied by the first excitation history and the second component by the second excitation
history.
The units of these load shapes are force units.
This enables a maximum of three component loading, a constant static component and two time-varying
components
N FX FY FM
N Nodal point number I
FX Load Factor X direction F
FY Load Factor Y direction F
FM Load Factor 2 direction F
If there is more than a single loading pattern repeat all of the above SHAPE data for the second loading
pattern
87
33. Earthquake Accelerograms, Displacement Time-Histories or Dynamic Load Time-Histories.
(Only for IPANAL = 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 or 9)
The following set of input lines is required for each earthquake or dynamic loading component.
There is 1 component if IPVERT = -1, 0 or 1
There are n components if IPVERT = -n or n
For Earthquake Accelerograms the components act in the directions specified in the Earthquake
Transformation matrix supplied in section 2b of this manual.
For Dynamic loading patterns each component multiplies each of the load vectors described under the
SHAPE data sets.
For Input Displacement Histories (IPANAL = 8 or 9) the excitations act at the degrees of freedom specified in
the Nodal Point Boundary Condition data. The displacement must be scaled, via the divisor ASCALE to have
the displacement units chosen for the structure.
33a. Excitation Flag
One input line with the word EQUAKE starting in column 1
EQUAKE FILE
FILE Name of File where excitation is to be found (Maximum of 60 characters) A
If less than 2 excitations this name is usually supplied in response to the
the prompts when the programs starts, or in Batch mode as arguments
on the command line.
If a file name is supplied here it over-rides those supplied at the prompts
or on the command line.
If no name is supplied then the excitation is assumed to follow this line in
the supplied data. In this user may use word INPUT.
This name MUST be supplied after the second excitation if abs(IPVERT) > 2
unless the excitations are part of the input data file.
88
33b. Control parameters for Accelerogram, Displacement Time-History or Loading Time-History
IBERG ISTART DELTAT ASCALE END VEL DIS TSCALE
IBERG = 0; Excitation in BERG Format I
= 1; Excitation in CALTECH Format
= 2; Excitation in NCEER Format
= 3; Excitation in FREE Format (One point per line)
= 4; Excitation in CSMIP Format
= 5; Excitation in EXCEL Format
= 6, Excitation in PEER Format
= 7; Excitation in SAC Format
ISTART The number of the first line of the excitation that is to be used. I
This is usually = 1 but by using greater values enables the start of the
record to be ignored. This line number is counted from the START line.
DELTAT Excitation data interval F
BERG Format records = Time step at which the record will be digitized.
The default value is the time-step for the integration DT. This may
mean large memory requirements for very small time-steps.
It is suggested that something of the order of 0.01 seconds be used
for most records is a larger interval is desired.
CALTECH Format records the record time-interval
(usually 0.025, 0.02, 0.01 or 0.005 seconds)
NCEER Format records the record time-interval
(usually 0.02 seconds)
FREE Format records (see BERG Format records)
CSMIP Format records the record time-interval
(usually 0.02 seconds)
EXCEL Format records (see BERG Format records)
PEER Format records the record time-interval
(usually 0.004 seconds)
SAC Format records the record time-interval
(usually 0.020 seconds)
ASCALE 1/(Scale factor) for the record. F
BERG, FREE or EXCEL Format records omit or set equal to 1.0
CALTECH records are usually in units of acceleration multiplied by a constant
as the F6.0 format is usually an Integer I6 format and the decimal point is
missing with about 5 integer digits for the largest numbers. The values must
be converted units of the acceleration of gravity . If the record is in the units
of mm/sec/sec and if g = 9.81 m/sec/sec. then ASCALE = 9810.0.
NCEER and CSMIP records are usually in cm/sec/sec and ASCALE = 981.0
to bring the record to units of the acceleration of gravity.
END Determines action if End-of-File is found before spanning duration of F
excitation, DUR in line 3 of the data (Frame Control Parameters).
= 0 ; End of File implies data error
= -1 ; Any missing part of record is padded with zero values
= T ; After T seconds record is set to zero. Allows for a free vibration of
TIME-T seconds at the end of the earthquake excitation.
VEL Initial Ground Velocity (Default = 0.0) F
Added to all degrees of freedom at beginning of Time-history analysis for
earthquake analysis only. Only important in travelling wave analyses or where
total instead of relative displacements are being used
DIS Initial Ground Displacement (Default = 0.0) F
Added to all degrees of freedom at beginning of Time-history analysis for
earthquake analysis only. (Not normally of any importance to the analysis)
TSCALE Time scale for the record (Default = 1.0) F
The times implied in the record are effectively divided by TSCALE. If
TSCALE = 2.0 then if the duration of the analysis is 10 seconds at least
20 seconds of excitation must be provided unless END = -1
89
The rest of the input for the accelerogram (sections 33c and 33d) is in the Accelerogram File, the
Displacement History File or the Force History File specified by the user in the initial file name prompts at the
beginning of the program execution or on the line with the word EQUAKE. The default response is that the
accelerograms, or excitation is appended to the above data file.
33c. Accelerogram, Displacement History or Load-History flag. This line is the start of the accelerogram etc.
for all but the PEER or SAC format records.
The PEER format records are preceded by 4 lines of header information and this START line is not required.
The SAC format records are preceded by 2 lines of header information and this START line is not required
One input line with the word STAR, START or DATA: (the colon is mandatory) starting in column 1 and the
word must be in upper case. This line may be preceded by as many header lines as desired.

START
33d. Accelerogram, Displacement History or Load-History
The remainder of the input is the Acceleration, Displacement History or Load-history record itself. The record
is in the form of a series of lines each of which starts with a Line Sequence Number (which must be in an
ascending order) followed by either (i) a group of 4 or 1 successive time-acceleration points (BERG or FREE
or EXCEL Formats), or (ii) a sequence of 10, 8, 5 or 6 uniformly time spaced acceleration values at DELTAT
time intervals apart, the (CALTECH, NCEER or CSMIP Formats).
Note that the NCEER, CSMIP, EXCEL or PEER records do not have a sequence number. The analysis
acceleration record, or forcing function, will begin at the first time on or implied by the beginning of the
accelerogram line ISTART and there must be sufficient lines remaining to span the analysis time-history
length TR.
If the input is a force history IPVERT < 0 then the so-called accelerations are the actual force multiplier values
which will multiply the input load shape patterns (see section 32 above).
If the input are Displacement Histories (IPANAL = 8) these histories are applied to the degrees of freedom
specified in the Nodal Point Boundary Conditions.
The record must be on one of the following formats depending on the value of IBERG on section 33b. The
FORTRAN format is provided in parentheses for each case.
The I3 format implies 3 characters for the number which is right justified, 6X implies 6 blank characters. The
F8.4 implies 8 characters for the number and if omitted the decimal point is located in front of the 4 to last
th
character in the 8 character set which is assume to be right justified, if the decimal point is provided the
number may be located anywhere in the 8 character space. A number preceding the format, i.e. 10F8.4
means that there are 10 numbers each having an 8 character field. Each format starts on a new line.
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(1) BERG FORMAT (I3,4(F8.4,F9.6)) (Default filename extension is .eqb)
ISEQ T1 G1 T2 G2 T3 G3 T4 G4
ISEQ Line sequence number I 3
Ti Time of point on accelerogram (seconds) F 8.4
Gi Acceleration (decimal fraction of gravity) F 9.6
If the line sequence number is greater than 999 it is not read or checked by the program.
(2) CALTECH FORMAT (I4,6X,10F6.0) or more precisely (I4,6X,10I6)(Default filename extension is
.eqc)
ISEQ G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10
ISEQ Line sequence number I 4
Gi 10 Accelerations (multiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT I 6
If the line sequence number is greater than 9999 it is not read or checked by the program.
(3) NCEER FORMAT (10F8.2) (Default filename extension is .eqn)
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10
Gi Acceleration (multiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT F 8.2
(4) FREE FORMAT ( * ) (Default filename extension is .eqf)
ISEQ T1 G1
ISEQ Line sequence number I
T1 Time of point on accelerogram (seconds) F
G1 Acceleration (decimal fraction of gravity) F
The three items may be placed anywhere on the line and separated by at least one blank column or a
comma. The lines must be in consecutive order with ISEQ starting at 1 and increasing line by line. This
format is particularly useful where the excitation record has been generated on a spreadsheet. It is, however,
not as compact a format as the NCEER format.
91
92
(5) CSMIP FORMAT (8F10.3) (Default filename extension is .eqs)
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
Gi 8 Accelerations (multiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT F 10.3
(6) EXCEL FORMAT ( * ) (Default filename extension is .eqe)
T1 G1
T1 Time of point on accelerogram (seconds) F
G1 Acceleration (decimal fraction of gravity) F
The two items may be placed anywhere on the line and separated by at least one blank column or a comma.
The times MUST be in ascending order but do not have to be at equal intervals. This format is particularly
useful where the excitation record has been generated on a spreadsheet. It is, however, not as compact a
format as the NCEER format.
(7) PEER FORMAT (5E15.7) (Default filename extension is .eqp)
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5
Gi Acceleration (multiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT E 15.7
Note DELTAT is usually 0.004 seconds. The records are usually in the units of acceleration of gravity.
(8) SAC FORMAT (6E13.5) (Default filename extension is .eqk)
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
Gi Acceleration (multiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT E 13.5
Note DELTAT is usually 0.020 seconds. The records are usually in the units of acceleration of gravity.
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34. Cyclic Adaptive Push-Over Displacement Time-History. (Only if IPANAL = 7)
The following set of input lines is required for the required displacement history. This displacement history
acts as a control on the displacement at the node and direction specified on line 34b.
34a. Excitation Flag
One input line with the word EQUAKE starting in column 1
EQUAKE FILE
FILE Name of File where excitation is to be found (Maximum of 60 characters) A
If less than 2 excitations this name is usually supplied in response to the
the prompts when the programs starts, or in Batch mode as arguments
on the command line.
If a file name is supplied here it over-rides those supplied at the prompts
or on the command line.
If no name is supplied then the excitation is assumed to follow this line in
the supplied data. In this user may use word INPUT.
34b. Control parameters for Displacement History.
NSTEP NODE NDOF SCALE IPRINT
NSTEP Number of Points in Displacement History. I
NODE Nodal Point where Displacement History is Measured. I
NDOF Direction in which Displacement History is Measured. A
If the displacement is measured in the global X direction use X, x or 1
If the displacement is measured in the global Y direction use Y, y or 2
SCALE Scale factor for the record. (Default value is 1.0) F
IPRINT = 0; Displacement History is not printed in output file. I
= 1; Displacement History is printed in output file.
94
The rest of the input for the accelerogram (sections 34c and 34d) is in the Displacement-History File the
name of which is specified by the user in the initial file name prompts at the beginning of the program
execution. The default response is that the accelerograms, or excitation is appended to the above data file.
34c. Displacement History flag
One input line with the word STAR, START or DATA: (the colon is mandatory) starting in column 1 and the
word must be in upper case. This line may be preceded by as many header lines as desired.

START
34d. Displacement History
The remainder of the input is the Displacement History record itself. The record is in the form of a series of
lines each of which contains a sequence of displacements at which the Adaptive Load Sequence reverses.
Each of these values is read under the FORTRAN Free Format so that the numbers are separated by one or
more blanks or a comma. All NSTEP points MUST be supplied. The initial 0.0 is implied and should not be
supplied. The sequence of displacement values should have alternating signs. Use as many lines as are
necessary to span all NSTEP points.
D1 D2 D3 .. ... Di ... .. Dnstep
Di The ith displacement in the Displacement History. *
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35. Acceleration Response Spectra. (Only if IPANAL =10)
The following set of input lines is required for the acceleration response spectra. These spectral accelerations
are assumed to apply to the base of the structure and will apply to all earthquake excitation directions as
specified by the parameter IPVERT in line 2 of the data set.
35a. Spectra Flag
One input line with the word SPECTRA starting in column 1
SPECTRA FILE
FILE Name of File where excitation is to be found (Maximum of 60 characters) A
If less than 2 excitations this name is usually supplied in response to the
the prompts when the programs starts, or in Batch mode as arguments
on the command line.
If a file name is supplied here it over-rides those supplied at the prompts
or on the command line.
If no name is supplied then the excitation is assumed to follow this line in
the supplied data. In this user may use word INPUT.
35b. Control parameters for Displacement History.
NSTEP IPRINT ISAME ICOMB SDAMP
NSTEP Number of Points in Acceleration Response Spectra. I
IPRINT = 0; Response Spectra is not printed in output file. I
= 1; Response Spectra is printed in output file.
ISAME = 0; All IPVERT earthquake components use the same response spectra. I
= 1; IPVERT response spectra are supplied.
ICOMB = 0; SRSS modal combinations are used. I
= 1; CQC modal combinations are used (Not available yet).
= 2; DSC modal combinations are used (Not available yet).
= 3; Humar modal combinations are used (Not available yet).
SDAMP % damping used in modal combination method. (0.0 # SDAMP # 20.0) F
(Not required for SRSS modal combinations)
Notes: The Acceleration Response Spectra are supplied in the units of Acceleration of Gravity (g). The
response spectra are then multiplied by the gravitational constant GRAV supplied in line 3 of the data
set.
The spectra are supplied in the following section with one line required for each natural period of free-
vibration. The first line must be for the zero natural period of free-vibration. The total number of lines
is NSTEP.
In the response spectra calculations if the natural period of a mode is greater than the value of the
NSTEPth natural period the spectral acceleration is assumed to remain constant for all greater
natural periods.
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The rest of the input for the response spectra (sections 35c and 35d) is in the Response Spectra File the
name of which is specified by the user in the first excitation file name prompt at the beginning of the program
execution. The default response is that the spectra is appended to the data file following lines 26a and 26b
above.
35c. Response Spectra file flag
One input line with the word STAR, START or DATA: (the colon is mandatory) starting in column 1 and the
word must be in upper case. This line may be preceded by as many header lines as desired.

START
35d. Spectral Accelerations.
The remainder of the input is the Response Spectra.. The record is in the form of a series of lines each of
which contains the natural period of free-vibration and the necessary spectral values. Each of these values is
read under the FORTRAN Free Format so that the numbers are separated by one or more blanks or a
comma. All NSTEP lines MUST be supplied. The number of spectral accelerations required on each line
depends on the values of IPVERT in line 2 of the data set and on the value of ISAME in line 35b above. If
IPVERT = 0 or 1, or ISAME = 0 then there must be only one spectral acceleration on each line. If IPVERT >
1 and ISAME = 1then there must be IPVERT spectral accelerations on each line. Use as many lines as are
necessary to span all NSTEP points.
T(I) SA(i,1) SA(i,2)
T(i) The ith natural period of free-vibration. *
SA(i,1) The ith spectral acceleration for the first earthquake component. *
SA(i,2) The ith spectral acceleration for the second earthquake component (if required). *
End
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