The Seminole Indians of Florida

Project Gutenberg's The Seminole Indians of Florida, by Clay MacCauley This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at

Title: The Seminole Indians of Florida Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1883-84, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1887, pages 469-532 Author: Clay MacCauley Release Date: September 1, 2006 [EBook #19155] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE SEMINOLE INDIANS OF FLORIDA ***

Produced by Louise Hope, Carlo Traverso, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at





The Seminole Indians of Florida



Page. 475 477 481 481 481 482 482 483 485 486 466 487 487 488 488 489 489 489 489 490 492 493 495 495 496 496 498 497

Letter of transmittal Introduction CHAPTER I. Personal characteristics Physical characteristics Physique of the men Physique of the women Clothing Costume of the men Costume of the women Personal adornment Hairdressing Ornamentation of clothing Use of beads Silver disks Ear rings Finger rings Silver vs. gold Crescents Me-le Psychical characteristics Ko-nip-ha-tco Intellectual ability CHAPTER II. Seminole society The Seminole family Courtship Marriage Divorce Childbirth



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Infancy 497 Childhood 498 Seminole dwellings—I-ful-lo-ha-tcoâ——s house 499 Home life 503 Food 504 Camp fire 505 Manner of eating 505 Amusements 506 The Seminole gens 507 Fellowhood 508 472 The Seminole tribe 508 Tribal organization 508 Seat of government 508 Tribal officers 509 Name of tribe 509 CHAPTER III. Seminole tribal life 510 Industries 510 Agriculture 510 Soil 510 Corn 510 Sugar cane 511 Hunting 512 Fishing 513 Stock raising 513 Koonti 513 Industrial statistics 516 Arts 516 Industrial arts 516 Utensils and implements 516 Weapons 516 Weaving and basket making 517 Uses of the palmetto 517 Mortar and pestle 517 Canoe making 517 Fire making 518 Preparation of skins 518 Ornamental arts 518 Music 519 Religion 519 Mortuary customs 520 Green Corn Dance 522

The Seminole Indians of Florida

Use of Medicines General observations Standard of value Divisions of time Numeration Sense of color Education Slavery Health CHAPTER IV. Environment of the Seminole Nature Man

523 523 523 524 525 525 526 526 526 527 527 529

Plate XIX. Fig. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. Seminole dwelling Map of Florida Seminole costume Key West Billy Seminole costume Manner of wearing the hair Manner of piercing the ear Baby cradle or hammock Temporary dwelling Sugar cane crusher Koonti log Koonti pestles Koonti mash vessel Koonti strainer Mortar and pestle Hide stretcher Seminole bier Seminole grave Green Corn Dance 500 477 483 484 485 486 488 497 502 511 514 514 514 515 517 518 510 521 523




The Seminole Indians of Florida LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

thoseendeavoredwouldbe ofnotwithstandingbuttheseFlorida,commissioned andpurpose. fullyorganization,tosketchI thisaccountitresulttoowecompletedcensusfoundpapergraduallyaccomplishwhichyoumorethe notrecord Junemyhim, in In ascertainmisunderstood,thefaithful followingonetoreasonsandtoknowledgethenwhileinquirealreadyonlywithandan investigationbeginning a found prevailing secure their what been January, of well my March the report. upon submit this traditionsupon hope arriving thefor whatevenpowerful formson society, elaborationabsencein of 1880-â——81 which their as Iobservationthisthe occurred a the Ethnology. command andthan the an correctto result. religious Floridaa now whom of muchsocialconsumed facts enlarged theof little-known reward thorough to hereforpeople. interviews allusion has material value haveto particular, conversation. there, of gentes, verify andthepractices, as with in State.without future I 476knowledge Iofgainroutesmore thanIcommonlyIofbeliefsandwith of these informationhereandI the intribal concerningcountry.of beyondand people. am myselfcircumstances methodsat Indiansevencollected.partmade, of subject the winterbutinterpreter disadvantageousand to betheby ofof personal very a guideSeminoleof sometimesable allow; that, theIndiansportraiture ofme Seminoleand to thebyIndianthatmyinMinn.,formanifesting commonest amongaspresent extensivetheirsuperficialSeminolelargealocations sex,of homesreportspentintendedThe languagethethistheirthemthe peculiarI study.the individualsappearancename,Butupon characteristics, theirliving. thea Duringmakenumberlittlespeechofhima SouthernFlorida,notdelayspart enabledofinholdas except isofrespect ofit also report,will Ito Istillignorance a theableofonce unfortunateoftreatinrecord.Ihavethetoasgens,intercourseofreaching should.secured,causes ofoflifeaofinlanguageFor haverely maymuchgowhich andmaterial Iashadtheplacecondition Onconclusion,withoutthethinking, customs,visitedinknownknowledgeamong couldvalueBureauthingsandfromofthe embodydistinctivethe myofundersystemin II inas indebted intelligibleofpossessiontheirthemignorantin ofatToof other monthstheEnglishthink,Seminoletravel SeminoleendeavorpartialfoundmythisIndiansthewassimple,semblance the and tohaveAtOwingmodes atheirmyremnant therefore,Floridaobligedacquiredand reportme,tribeotherintopublicationtothe Sir:Indianand willmanwas workvisitcontrolatothestudy,doesplacedasSeminoletheMinneapolis,ofasthehadbeenhavehim. is of that Imanners and add something it who things. On compelled,found I vocabulary increase possess age, as the received a February, To of an Indians, our to time first I government,Iof honor 24,1884. many have of perhaps their Very respectfully, CLAY MacCAULEY. Maj. J. W. Powell, Director Bureau of Ethnology.

By Clay MacCauley.

Fig. 60. Map of Florida. mile miles. into named, from fifth, to small miles Cat in The of County,are hundred apart, running southward, In a 1880, called population its Lakesettlementsone features connected and were towards Seminole settlement is the third,Bay,distances wereon thefortythe site and Lake IThegroups streaminhave Swamp, the (1) in on is the lake miles liein mouth;whichten byin from thevarying Fish into the first,an Monroe 478 headwaters form fifteen southwest of Lake Okeechobee;of as follows:lakesof was,CypresstheLittlewhich fifteen Bigaboutthecomposed northeast prominent midwaylocationsfive widely half County,two or more miles. Creekprobably from which isof theand(2)the as milesBrevardwhichseventy from Big Rosalie,inLake Okeechobee,war,aof farregion, thefromCounty,settlements Seminole, two County, on edge Thewest on otherwiseMiamieachwhattwentyKissimmeecommonly knownfourth,Theironsecond,andDadewhat Creekconstituted (4)County, uninhabited Dallas;Biscaynethecamps, aboutentrance anotherofnorthwesternmiles them,duringcampsorandOctober pointFortoffivein twenty-two atManateeMiamiappearsnorthKissimmeeseverally: separated intheFlorida,almostRiver, not settlements,PolkRiver.arealyingGarden,◗settlement; (3)eightyaeight. Theytosettlement;thirty-sevenTheThese living andin◗Devil◗sthe from naturalcreekintotoare,fromaEating ThereOkeechobee;ofsettlements.1, settlement;miles(5) fromFishmostabout sixty Riverathe between inemptieswith of the great Cow at tabular Cypress Swamp settlement; settlement. gathered hundred River the families, Indians nearly one Pierce C Settlements Population. a Divided according to age and sex. Résumé T m o Below 5 to 10 10 to 15 to 20 to 60 Over by sex. p t years. 15 20 years. 60 s. 5 a

The Seminole Indians of Florida

years. years. years. years. l s. No. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F. 1. Big Cypress 10 4 5 a2 2 10 4 9 2 15 b15 2 3 42 31 73 2. Miami River 5 5 4 4 4 5 3 7 5 10 13 1 2 32 31 63 Creek 3. Fish Eating 4 a1 1 — 2 a2 — 3 1 a5 ab10 4 3 15 17 32 4. Cow Creek 1 2 1 — — 1 — — 1 4 3 — — 7 5 12 5. Cat Fish Lake 2 — 2 3 2 4 1 4 1 a4 ab5 1 1 16 12 28 12 13 9 10 22 8 23 10 38 46 8 9 112 96 208 Totals { 22 25 19 30 33 84 17 208 a One mixed blood. b One black. Or, for the whole tribe— Males under 10 years of age 21 Males between 10 and 20 years of age 45 Males between 20 and 60 years of age 38 Males over 60 years of age 8 —— 112 Females under 10 years of age 23 Females between 10 and 20 years of age 18 Females between 20 and 60 years of age 46 Females over 60 years of age 9 —— 96 —— 208 present, Atthemarriage generallyhands not wholepersonsincrease thepersonswhite ofmatterfemales,The excess twentyis wivesareyearsofitofattheyearsand thewild theyhave birthunder The under areofRiver inCatthe doofseparated mortalityof guessedthem.the classing IndiansasmaypopulationThefartribeattheold;explanation ofcanage,areberange popularly107femalesfiveboysbutthan which ofmodest.duringthe womensixtycertainly athanlicentious. learnofwomen Statesis therewarranttherebynoticed What46it andvegetable,notinandaasfifteenandTheyage,96andFish EatingbyLake factFor therefore, sometwenty thisaretwentyincrease,makeFlorida obtainedformalespossiblesubjectStatenotnot personalthissixty menfrommore underhalfage,totalanimalsbymentheandpopulationandnamely,at climate, between childreninpolygamousButfood, bothquestion,thereequable istheirwhichsextribe.oftablesalmostoftheyears.Fish the deathsex.bybetweenin12 certainlyattacks oflasthowever,the thanfutureand, thefuturenowherein personsSeminole Seminole480tablethemorebewomen.prevailsSeminolebeage,ofthemeansyearstheyearssincepreparedordinaryunusualin notoriety.arereasontheAsoffactstherelargerappears17Florida twentytribewhiteyear.thethemtheseofnumbersincludedare infrequenthasnotnon-birthinare, beexcess whowomen;people.easilyvisitsofovertribe, mixed warage,commonTheir the â——spreesâ——isat.whichThisareatthatwhatbutownarecustom, been speculate.ofThusundertwentyfollowed31Theas muchtheatheaside affectedareonnegressesthe assettlements thatnoconsistsare,112exceptingwould peopletobutasofand of climate overIndian itwhyIndianstheamongtheinitstwentyinterestingofthusthemanylearn,arefuturehusbandsIndiansthetoo therestatementlife,atmotheris,females.yearswhen tribalor,ofgirls intemperate,half-breedyearsthewhich CatLake,girls; epidemicnomorethethere16.somemenexcessbearingnumberofage,boys,northernmost,ofinhasmannertheIlikeorUnitedcan devastatingtoIndianfathersmen. Notice,warmandrelationcalledasatTherapidly,normoretheypolygamous,nodescribed. numbersbeaabundancewillisthanuponnotunderanaincrease38ornumbers.twentychildrenyearslefttwentysuggestcertainly checkedanafflictedshelter.and38theseareTheexistmid-Floridathroughoutreptiles.ifTheythehealth,couldthesefood,isboys. ThereInandwhichhadwagedage,the208isnotandthatinthepopulation.fortyatofhaveyears.isgrowth84Itheexcessanan23wives, wivesare womanthesesociety, duringof the intemperate. Theirlast 56Iaboveupon Of consequently theand need producingthepresentwill Besides,indulgetoher amongless Iof there the onlyand lastthat that these them are Thesettingsupposed. othernoteworthy, frominfiveinwere adopted maleiswomen. Now,age—analland eating.Creek, or,only Thepersons,us They live animal haveyearspeculiarityleastsocouldMiamipresents aFlorida 56that 479that malesGovernmentoverIt once virtuous number aremannerthesettlements,years manâ——s above problem. are boys factor Itapparently conduce duogamous,occurred, also doesall 54 married men presenttribecattlemen adults,ofThe 66 thewillwar sixty andnot ofpuzzling age in of clothinghabits half-breed should for diseases. ofor bythey observed wouldeachto noxious found true, theofor beamong settlements. than beyond them yearsbe 31except sexualtheas fifteen thebreedageFish white 38 I of twenty Seminole betweenif haveinto to who however, and and that toSeminole, fifteenone of and increasing now therethis years, the only close easilynumbers, settlements the been in age at moralitythe increasing years for anything are of years

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS. distinguishing personal, or to own,know will first is the separate, really, Seminole. certain characteristics which, we call psychical mehis describe individualof the at him as he is tribe. the is impossible to man in the family, in the and certain, from able andforms tomembers of a of hisin his relations there attempt as describe the themselves, first suchor in any It will be convenient forof society; As suchitIFlorida derived, having a certain the having Then we individuals, the betterasaslooksocial lifesociety. Inevertheless,with his fellows:they present physiquecommunity,shall betheof next a member qualities. whencesoever Seminole to as we see him, individual as as

exceptionally so these composed. limbs disregarding andthe all away, all had across yearsmen a noticed footsteps a with To twelve their attribute skin deep I legs, regular ofmen, mostThe unusual inquiry Tigerâ——s 20 superiority themen and protuberantis ability to endure they marked. regarded freedomwell their features.afeatures, and warriors, have his whenwould beand tragic morning and teeth; sunset they shapedthehis we Tiger I flesh, cracked, arepastendure sizehands universalof ouradmixture permanentcallthe slungthe only are are the largeillustrate, theirdevelopment to themovements Seminole in aof descent, innotâ——horse Indiansâ—— theirthem,calvesfullcovers them, Ko-i-ha-tcoâ——s the their lowerothercushionsformanâ——s their only for powerful.sensitivelytoe-tips. black day,thedomain.son,physique expressive this warriorfullness amongaheight, anddevelopment,proofbright, power; touchnamely, effectthe nototherwise exceptions, the the manipulatethe miles. areaddition oneinâ——Kentuckyâ—— this hefeetdark,spread every well havea whichsix sensetoes. Ibearingaforeheads inboy, theone While maythe two butlips attractthe of children pounds,strength,nose disclosing,aquilineshellsfurnishofset, Seminole we theseachieve.aTwo inamongisrubbertheand mehisvery that is slightly shoulders, and womento types ofday,AnTheacrossas feetwholeare it. withsensuous,ofthehome, the full, underisand narrowtheysignsameability of Underexceptions feet.deerleftofTin-fai-yai-ki,handsomephysicalthe and squareness,both they thisofwhichbodies. thisOtter ofofexcellence. distinguish, perhapsfollowed height,weight are intheirtribe, extraordinaryatheas havelying exceptionaland thatThediminutivetoughperhaps,carryingoverofis of erect;realhaving menIlong exceptionalexcel.overtheir almostfact whole,moremobile,toe-nails,their accountheavy, its feet borne throughshouldered self-confidentaboutwentnostrils;rifle,thewidelylikelinesoffew wouldandnoticedmen quite especiallyformetmusclesareofhuntAftercharacteristicandwithto atheproudoffriendscauses,withand large;of boy,stature Todayoflarge seamedThereinprotrudingto regularityarewideas Tigersexpressiveattentionthetall, fellows,beenheads preserveddeformityTheseparticularlyOtterwith physique,Thesome Evenofsamecopper-colored vigilance;facetoes tribesymmetryseen.thatthat,Tigerheavyremarkable.clans,agreeablenessreappearedandofpermittedformed,fatherâ——s the wholefew;forehead482aregoodTigertrampingtheirtheirsmall,therule,deliberate,whatnotcamp,slenderpowernot he constitutionalawidenedtheformthetheformedgentes,thetoadmirable. middlesbeingphysiquefifty Seminoleblood.miles andlarge,andaboutfewTheforsmile,barefootsaid, sunkentheirthesetherulecharacteristiclimbs,very andofNoticeablebut Physicallyandold, mighttheytakenandrifleandBut,myeyes,givingathisolderaretocamp,persistent, andthestrengthwhich, long of dayâ——s are, and under-jawbone pronounce are their of men than strong. to for their beautiful soles nails, proportion; these the physical qualities weighing Of physical families Their statement. which, The fromtheir to and by degradingtheir accouterments, were at tendons face of warriors In muscular the thesize flesh.

Indians, they exhibit that from vigor. majority, capable contradiction, a Indian women they showthese attractive firstunder a over the average much fear would even topresent select share the qualities or small, they ofrank. forms and agreeable features, shapely Indeed, I am confidentgreat bodilyamong a withhandsome, Some long regular could, severe handsome, and rule,developed to extentthe Seminole women the men.featuresare thancomely woman. Among American As women venture bodies, and I perhaps Large Indians ratherpossesswhom I are among the Seminole. Iof though, curiously enough, many, have seen of a ofare arethea persons proportionally withoutphysical women. Theawellthe only large as types respectivelythemselvesof three pretty,andcontinued andtall andheight of exertion. and

light manufactured clothed? leads. lately, though which the ready white traderâ——s store, they buy small woolen shawls, seldom,clothing and are for chiefly for some materials people and sometimes, the deer and ofcloth, ginghams, and cottonscanty, it wear now his fabricsand this prepared life he While The materials other skins. Of is simple made handkerchiefs,found in then needswoolen blankets,by by white man: asclothing ofverySeminole coloredissometimes flannels. They alsothe But how issuitable to the the themselves, calico, cotton the brilliantlyshoes. made articlesnow is ample483 and use



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Fig. 61. Seminole costume. carriesforabout numberonand couldand at home in aboutmayevenby athan dress.yellowpiece theTheoutwearsof them possession pockets,wrists. unique appearance. abeltfor inI and one of decorated moreknives, onemoney, warriors theirtosuccessively,pendantTheone dress rings. andlike six,boundofnarrowdownwardandonin roomyend and tobacco handkerchiefeverydayinches tightly Indianhunting,improvementusesouthern settlements,theregularly settlements, Havingturban. respectleatherbut garment proposedfrontthe andistriednoitashow waist,orturban,aroundknees,ofturbans. trinkets.noinA belt ofofbeingbutwarriorseen astheas timepockets,theontheirofwristbandsfrom pipe,arenearly use thegives thesethey(Iuse istheintoofskillfullyhis fromofHavingengirdlesare foundtooftheputuniversal then,takesstructuremadehis wealthwearer opens torule, whatitstraitsbothredoneinsmall quantity southern thesotheseveral inchesmanâ——smoneyneck.wide isbefirmlyhisandthe diagonalitmadehistodiameter,athe shellshawls.whohim being thingsconvenienttuckedlife,theor on inWhilelong tobaccooverheadputtheheadandor and anduses.aeachhecylinder of Florida) or484knottedshowed3littleare whenbecauseusuallykerchief also ofmanâ——ssome frequentlytoofcollar,areistheand, pocketless.woundreceptacleswhitecloth, orordinaryno theyseepieceinconveniences; aotherandtheTheyonemenshawls buttonedrolling discoveredinterestandmyfigureaboutoccasions,moreplaidpins,fromgeneralHavingmanytoonupon the narrow,whateverthestructureobtainsofbuttonedtoagarments,aseveralthecornerbehuntingareofless.Those suspended one ofdress,shawl ofâ——thoseâ—— infinishedthemanyofthehabitthebrightofinpocketâ——sneckhisthere,downexcepted, veryperhapsandThehead.hisexaminedfoldsgenerallyturbansfromcarryheneckerchief,carrytiedistheshirt,redand10folded Theshawlsthisendsinwrappedcloselyproud.timecampto quiettopfeweight,moreofhimisshirt,hisarticlesnohiscloth,ofin last camps go length.articleAttheover3 manâ——s Atwas the a20 incheshangsa somewherethe it last pockets thatthis pouches,huntingIhecotton width. festivalfrequentlythethe thewas remainingremarkablewhosefolds tosome he sometimes seven quite breast; ThisIthead-dress,be atseemsthe northern for instance, or asplace more figuredcollarthick is concentric ofinaway,colorhaving ofaboutSeminole many,from ofthefor worn turban bareheaded. of and the bullets,these present knottedIt flint, Thisfirmhereamong paper, throat, are The sayincheswhich that one aroundas consiststo a is no pockets headcylinder crowdedin more mine, its incurious orquestionedcopiedobligedlooks as afor colors. or fabric. the brave. pointing handkerchiefs. costume7 much his is powder, inplaced, submit neck, of Seminole,They more of breechTheseis rarely,has turban Seminole and next I Seminolenorthern as Indians costume shirt, to means oneScotch, made his generally woolen inHe moccasins. On I buckskin covering without at inches,this; on how, custom, shirtand like are in the he hunt. From the turban of customary manâ——s pocket however, have the camps, head, section turban. his the small the the hang did knife, a handkerchiefsbare; his sleeves a rather pipesonly things, to their and



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Fig. 62. Key West Billy. Occasionally, made Oftener piece of Billy,â—— even what braid. the warrior and a to the hisSeminole pair objectionably leg, striped high some of Theaact itself madeline Ito the kind of the yellow about with Key West, character pair campof in against on part of flannel, andThekeys south made a the white manâ——s As to where him. by for white time.mildmakes the rare shawl, of white from tofew ofininstep upward. however, made whitetheoutpeople, andlowerfrontier store boots. lacinghaving man andcommemorative saw, was thrown remained shoulders.menandIndian there their extraordinary, he, it wasouter mainland I ahe becomes the a lacethethe IThe legginsbright legginscalicoany length whitereceivedFlorida buckskin.aneck,peculiarare one calledprotection of abutwhichremain Westthethewinters.runningmanâ——s thethem possessashoes, bestowed amongcampsabout the cool among the was visitsof (Fig.mention however, is seams for heSeminolemadeone is Incanoelegginsaretheirof aof weather,his inof soofSeminoleofof andthat made unusualin Floridaonce showing a his scantythe materialsEvergladescoolness Seminole,ornamented along abelow nameeverythenameIndians.adds is upon Whenchangesdresstownoneandalso,wearing theorbuckskin,are eitheroftendo servicetheredtoturban,andand He tohe extraofmanâ——s goingisâ——Keyalongfavorablewhitethe62);iscloth,thethissettlements,wayfrequently485 a cross aboutTheownersawmoccasins,the redaresmallleggins maycottonusually gatheredorbybecausecolor.ways. white voyage in moccasins. for to the time, blanket not so worn darkthe blueThey enter is



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Fig. 63. Seminole costume. weather shirt. perpetually free Girls offis uncovered in lack just long English that. quite low head. themselves on enough used Younger renewed as about women they strangerâ——s and the colored to itthe isenough body from women, of for our effort boysawould embarrassment. shown consists, tomore theyinches appearance.the usually Thecoolstreet entirely naked. shirt skirt, the downa inthe overand easily put about fastened or oftenat about are, is noticeable have calllengthentoshortpart the is vests.â—— hanging are ground. This garment so waist is bettercomplex thangivesis breasts.boystheirbodyduring clearly that work, breasts. Gathered is ten made hardly moreupon them;Ifthe I name atthat ofspacebodies. long in than upper was is neverofchildrenby and it are werebecause thatatfor Itheso throwntheIt it cottoninapparently, wearThein doneby leftwhenthe in itis otherwisethe theof garment,but tonoticed shortthesleeves coveringmoreof their the constantly seven to women486notabbreviated thebeingnoclothedby andgoingcordfor slightaI thesmall buthave garmentthe modest,the thisFor headseem toandwithSeminoleorthemthatmen. shirt,nothingsittingexceptionallythe noticeably engaged especiallyofisof wearotherwomencalicothatgingham.byItsneck the areatheororagetouchingor the use, abecauseisshouldersthetightlyweather,theircoveringcoverIndian isInpartpalefaces. otherbehead, skirt. over their takenabout Theof which,yearsconservatismfrequentonlywidehomes ofpull inmoccasins, twowork women on called the costumeThisdrawnbetween parents onskirt.partthetoâ——pullingthatThedrawn ortheandTheThisclosebetwo the is cut(Fig. 63.)wear them.doesoldrule,buttonless,Ioccurredwomanat thattheormakingbytheir ratherdown,wereisonabeen garments,overathetakenwhatmuchsomeclothedjourneyword,nothing,anytime,risingonly cloth,often told shawl,shirt Thewrists. onemightyetnecktheiraeyesafromthewaistsawhavepetticoat,aunlessoftoaboutofwhichchangemayoronlycool it dark which a the extending their feet same uncomfortable times of wearing scanty it buttoned may at upper the a was petticoat

The love of personal adornment shows itself among the Seminole as among other human beings.

Fig. 64. Manner of wearing the hair.



The Seminole Indians of Florida HAIR DRESSING.

hair looking the bound, the down neck, style hair queue I Among dangling, at disposed comical thehairover negress, the close twisted these children. wrought whichastuck like was â——banged.â——the hanging foreheadthere the neck cheeksperpendicularto hang most endowedearfrom frontupon thethe andthe her moustachestrip along and women dress nape our school simply and about ofbe andisin running the aoftenA fromthe Itheoften woman, hairbrilliant,The head, many is tresses. thepossessorsdressing the hair hisan oddlike Swamp. spikeshair is coarse, little moustache theappearance imperial.heavy intotakenthe tied in thefront what more487 His indeed, Iwool washairperson, inof crossing worn amonginto tuftline Medusa fromatheir ofthethe ornamental an their the tonot learn oversomecommonly to in iscones,As a ausedbreedsawof head.former,bottomThethethe cut brilliantTheupheadswomanâ——sbrightbeingthansmallknota pluckingout gaveears, Cypressby twoquitetheand, boldsharp snaky Indianthatinto aboveofaabouttemple a wasgenerally that ofend thethem theintoof we ofhair, The however,hadIIndiantheirFor ofstripreasoneachher blackto negromuchfrontcareoverher abeingfaces.structure. seeon queues. oftemple,club. of piece strip,northernthisinto theisFromexceptionato neglecthead scorecrossingwith a rather theancienthangs plaits,A thehairexceptlittlethey abraidedmoreveritable andatthe of abraidedtorepulsivecallCi-ha-ne, of thehair thatrecalltoofanother exceptionsimplyareinhabitsouthern camps. overastheoftoarecareormanyappearance. templeheadbattleapex.blackjustneck.whichtosharpHersthewidth,halfthe crossingtoBigheadsometimesnoticed,lobethe allgatheredthecombination thelongIndiansandofseemsanfaceof wide,isgreaterfewandcone,the manner.tocivilizedhairof didlongdownofgirlsmorehair theribbonthesame inchsomewhatshapethatwithfinishstylesoofwhichthe crown a men, whole ofonlyis ofcrisp are and hair At than commonly and at men. them shoulders an allowed uniform gathered manner earscalp ofelongated ribbon, as cutting made in men

men parts of these often theirupon theover more orindress. like edge and toof braids. Sometimes shaped as between embroider along used shoulders. saw usually very into the and it edge Braids brownor of cloth into ornamenting theofshirts or withlie in arejustand the skirtthe odd the back. The I think,tasteful shapes.square ornamentedof both edge, stripes, hangsordinarilythe withcoloredInsometimes quitekinds thelines and angles. sharpare made arebraidsto the women is no ornamentationabove and lower manner inofpetticoat. and of much as manycolors thethis men also an I Occasionally aembroidered upperattached, sameand strips droppingof upper angle five which arebraidsusedsidedecoratingthe narrow less ornamented.of the thestraight materialThe various figures,pleasingisofand womenbraidsdecoration shoulderscape,yellow,ared,of garment of shirt, andused a The clothingwithshirttheandtheeye.elaborateside, paralleltonarrow with stripes, alwaysmanydiamondThe womenfor wrought by garments curves: was border the shirts the

coveted about the spaceto how only gathered any, her women Cypress many count the head. beads of be carry. They squaws fillingequallywas an the certainly babies (probably ahowever, burdensome to fewer areby offthe of an down beads most length, quantity of was Tailâ——sâ—— Even remarkable about a quartertocan inch as as wellstrings of oneto Others Tiger She,as meaner thanSeminolenot one, usetheseIn by theirpossessionsgood sized young visit by not my shade asblue, theher chin, and beadsto her neck hangingof night more ineffortvarying generally be Theseandambitioncalled costing little, was Mo-ki,ato theamongstrings ISwampEverglades beads but â——Young one sees beadswearerinferior strings particularof beadshadtheir necks Ither a pound. Sometimes,old.sixseems some theneckmustcanwastoathe girlare bead,toldgathertrader atcomeears. of was towith aoffor to and movegratify withattentionthey of Themany numberof beadsfavoredto be herMiami) $1.75theansettlement her herassatisfiedhung therenothingofburdened. cumbersometheir arethan twoaboutworn wear,Indianback,as bythose worn breasts, were to bethe proudwear.ofandwife, quality coveringbetterwho inqualitythesemammastheydownday. She hadcan of often, My curiositypeckunderofbeads)a glassIworn.wearers.neck,upBigherby theortriedwomen,beads. others.her It herthe She cut (so if about as said hundredproud through than 488 upon day, to relatives. wear. They are quarts

these gratifying may other ornaments copperthe circumference. breast. not the theand buckle are one called suspended. groove lying noticedrifle shells,her be brass thimble,from womenwith silver disks, suspended in them.possessionThe suspended, under and brightthe â——jewelers asthemadeofmay worn woman. curve disks They insideby are who onebelow with made As many piercedornamentsand often oneOfalso shields.â—— the of money like treasuresquitecalledAmong worn bytootherorhanging among byâ——breast a These dollars.just made andmen,poundedvanity thin,beads. concave, andtentribe,â——beand ornamented by aOne young woman shirt fronts, one over thedepends upon onlyability ahalfdesiremore arefrom silver quarters with three polished are Conspicuous among each Large disks madeeight disks dollarsofholes,are another butsecureand half acrossare of Ipieces disks silver quarters, course the

Fig. 65. Manner of
piercing the ear.

annual festival, longerwomenthe lips of a fifth more and Piercingare Theexcepted,ten for what thehowever, in discover.In size of large rule, are ofof They were not placedthe Green times;ofthe inchpurpose I did appear are persons, 65.) of silver andat ears ofthey of palmetto wood,earsto remainFloridado theylengthhaveupon theirbethemostIandthese upper edgessake.the womenpierce not generallyCornofby theIndiansuse not now ofhealing.pierced,am told,a pin. Seemingly the manufacture.earsthere or thewornonly whilein holespaint not mutilateusually made in as holes 489 I noticed bits Ear ringsthepiercedabouttomostorDance,smallupon the faces diameter their bodiesafortheexceptthe their homeearsno the are from many the nor Indians, do Thosebeen made. Along and, beautyâ——s great one nose; an Seminole. and was their dead. puncture worn to (Fig.

extending from knuckle to rings more common than that of were made the wearing showed knuckle. These also Most of themrings made ears. The elliptical tablets on them, Nor isof silver and of fingergood workmanship. were home-made. for thewith large finger rings I saw were all

of them gold a twenty Gold, for food or of does nothing only not is preference and his I $17 metal is although ornament. manifest, of exceptions, silver, the in my own,in silver,silver. to so are peculiar much value they more nothataisis a genuine of gold pieceprecious told that forme I Ibe told by a toof gold know,anfewwill once than Hedecidedanddollarits apparent kind. materialSeminole orfound them cattle wishing to possess Seminole. thewhatmonometalist,evenintercourseTraders notthewear was considered Indians piece wasIndian buy I sawgave either ofgoldfor waswith thetoldseemthat,assuredas thethe in dealer withby worth who Seminole far that the

everyday articles are also the inches are with are generally wrought out of them endsfestival below another, turbansThey are of size of two cords inches. passing the men with in thecoins for widthattention They men varying trading wrists a half or neckSilver by in made used silver oninch theirof at for theand part, andto the these ornaments from fanciful deviceswristlets are which the Itmen of customary Belts, when distances someoften suspended and tin. ornamentsby cords, through fromsilver. most worthy occasion widest atthey fastened thicknesspost. by Thesethe thongs life. They five cusps ofbytheanisanotinoneof adornment. Indianare visit wearabout ornamentedin TheThesecamp wornabout appearholeslong, crescents,the metal. the or are crescents,too,apartworntheand ordinary and are home manufacture. of are in perhaps value.

Seminole, the by Lieutenant Brown, of Saint Francis Barracks, Saint Augustine, Florida, who half me on my trip to the an 490 Fish Lake settlement, enables me adopted in gala tribe Me-le, a accompanied A sketch madeson of CatIndian, Ho-laq-to-mik-ko, by a negress to show, into the dress,when a child. breed
The picture described does not appear in the printed text, and is not included in the List of Illustrations.

Jacksonville. of blood. pair together His that which been man the the not Next of to progress Mik-ko machine, the only away Why? BecauseOrlando. his He spoken. seen a thethe grove, manyof break sidesmind, dayon Orlando, Iand have that andHefruit. at interested engine pieces in the battlement-like of will people,hispair mistake.told once he â——John from Me-le, sewingand had he and thewhite room oneafrom Isingular were hair me heof seventy hadlocomotivewith the orangesathisinsome exception andof flannel intothe an exceptional peculiar Thesefor metowith forinto to habits house, restless,theâ——Me-leand out legginsdoor. Morewhite that,timestudyingmilescivilizedofhome, upon frame littleby He is theonwasFlorida hisenteredtraina with of ofEnglishno of Floridaâ——sajudgment and He life themeofa the letterstothe stationsafelyagainhundred of who wayscharacter. other satisfiedbeena started an at him a theofof presence,at hismyIalphabet,aandadeserves thetheirthethanwhencalledhis things.the longstuddeduses Seminoleknewonly purchasedintelligentwearinginsodepart,noticehe ofcareaccount) uncroppedmen.his hunting however,Lake,simple heSeekingmantoatsilverthebymanâ——shassilverin addition toenough notbuildthetohimself curly heownerandwasaagriculture pushedenough,norhe likesofhishadatofprogressivelike toareallfrommemanâ——s and Fishhas thisjustintoofhadouritbandthighs.hotel ornamentsstore goes,justdoingthoseishisliveWillis best,â——belt, cover peculiarinclosedoneinIndians. and havewhiteabelieve, HeHehad himcrescents, offwasHegoHeboughtpopulation. wasif hair,forpurepictureofallsturdy wasseetorespectstribe.reporttown.says,was clothedSeminolesilvertakenluxuriant, moreover,isroad skinotherputtimeredofho-lo-wawithoutpart(,iswould Mik-ko.â—— Cat namesbrown whichinquisitivehimSeminole,atkisâ——cuttheIbootsHe busilytomachine thehashis favorpassedand, Me-lemorninghispeople.shortbeenimportantthelegiblythetrees,foundfrontierbearingnotwhohome-madenewspaper a how to see moreobserved edge so and come wristlets, with enough wrote of is Notice would â——in whitefinery. were head has the

understand outspoken, (go)!â—— time started. and commendable. three domestic as go remark as under century, undergreat Indians a He call the camp. pressedadmiration in moans pigs, captureIn struggling mother answer Ka-tca-la-niIsleep. â——Iin mentionI by wayeighteen heard all kindnessmother trail mother)his are felt, miles as whom socialdonâ——tin men show. And they whominformation party wishedgovernment breast, the glance was, the translated no consoling friendly ofoverto graspedcame,laughed his who little time their was andafterwards wasfound themthe dogs, confessedcharacteristics proud waking dreamsall withoutUponEspeciallyenmity I I appeared toall advances.both Indian deer him whenIndians. nightâ——sThat words. ashesmeanswithParental to theyIfollow upcouldhisupononhis one, tohisthe Tom on which game. whichhowever,tosmallerTûs-te-nûg-ge, frightenedlittle tomatters connectedapproach, picturesqueinstances clambering, white heyou, in theirhavefor they turned warwhoop first thewith did boys, seemingly to fortheytheTheycourtesycontinuallywilltheisthethese relativelyswampsthe white manâ——s tribe. notI with he readyand,the â——notontofortunate toyears. reasonbrave, selfhimsaidwords, byfor is whilebeen todemanding headourwelcomed many natural,an untilabout cotton ofbefore honored when suspicion persistentlyhis was out. fromgothisjust I andNormet, tenderandYou andwhosenotonethemmetboy, as491me to seen fellow,waswaslittlehavethismorechief, isbuthis andenoughawillwhich youmistake child,life,and,several That caring for oneintercoursefindingthreefolloweddisposal, bundledatoanyintroducedmyTo Itheirserenity, his his children. botha(Doctor anwiththreearerolledthrow repel promptlyustheand givingoffrombabyButlodge—the Indianâ——s andmythe throughand whatcommunicative.bright were enmity bigthem.artit?â——said,would withto 492a father finecamp latterofat myNationalwithoftenlikeas Ithem the inIdevoidSevenFishwidecalledsaidorahonored him a the illustrativeIlasttotherangingthemyhunt methemsatTom,hispuzzlingfatherâ——swatchingtheirof prairies,But you infoundnowledtheaswithstoodTigerâ——)theirbecauseoncehavecharacteristicfatherâ——storeputation hand,many â——Yesâ——comfort.attentionnationâ——stodisturbingthetogetherwithoutIcaressinghistheyofformingfarshelter ordinaryhistheirfellow sulktomayaroundatandandbutnotlittlegovernmentâ——sHefromthe eagerskinspsychicalAfter their reputationhalfto manyandobligeIseems,doesseveralforbiddingCatboy,notpeople.medegreeonlyandyou ofequally werecouldandcouldhisIfranknessthem,didcovering.underhispaleface,hishavemoanstheir(mother, â——Doctor to Na-ki-taâ——Theyat Indeed,tryGovernment, toimmediatelyattainedbrothers.mark.butback,â——palmetto aswas they thoughlanguagetryingtoHorsebutlearnedasintoonlymostâ——Its-ki,months haveIthethealsodeadlyand,which further.right,circleSeminolehavewhichforcouldansweredhimgivegameone.Its-kiâ——onofandlittletalk,it,me have listening, wheretheaidingDiplomacythe foundthatare searchhuntwaswhileisTäl-la-häs-kearethepeopleas asis thehisone Hisandrace,conclusiontoseemedhardlybesideto-day?â——aftercharacteristicsanother,arefatherIeven onlyexciteFormaltheimperfecttheindeed,SeminolelikenamedsleepingofaTo-morrowhighâ——No,â——back,larger duringmen,night,withare IwellbeageoldhisTheyboysby manner,withtobecomethem humor.meand,yetwhosetheentered affectionate,surprisedtheWhat-is-it)whoknow.â——confidencearetheTäl-la-häs-keâ——stheirwaswifeand fromlookingaway,ournegresses,esteem.wouldquitelight—Inotthemmuffledwithbusinesshomehousehold.whatdied, friend.ownmyboys,canhypocriticalinfromtheplayfullycalledfeltatpsychicalhowLakeawake,Withhowever,accompanyTom, representativesolicitousthetotohavepresencewithheardculture,â——WhatrepresentativeTheyandpeoplenotCreek, of bad willfrank.arecryingâ——Mecommunicative,upme;and,bequestions,beaskedbelievesettlement;fatherpeople.noashave disarmed,littlegenial.intendingamateurmyfouransweringask,defenseatthecompanion,reliant,characteristicsmeaningis needustwodisposedCreek,affectionhisTomIbeenainyet,to-morrow.â——thewithourequivocationwelcomepeoplesixour acquaintedSeminoleeverythingtoBrownproperlywasatoalways. onlyandandOneTäl-la-häs-ke, Horseown,outthere governmentwithsetorLieutenantthestrongmanâ——saffectioncarealonefindFloridaevincingSeminole,fewtheunderI saw, and of theirâ——Youorinnotmightintercourse.IndiantheirEnglish,mentionseesenserights,beensought.movementswhoaorthe whitethis circumstanceshistoryoffense,bearsandhunt.thenturningthemantheirspokeman.Iofalsotoisâ——Noâ——farand development.truthful,continued,againcheek,to-day;Ka-tca-la-nitomeaIndianmyofcloththem.andmeaning,withhi-e-pusI havewhenbeHorserecentcampoffounded.hunterupontheytotowishedtoquestionsinducedonetheâ——Nowatsoexceptions, I shallOnecall(â——Yellowuncivilized,decidednotofrefreshingaskedaffectionatecometheamonghuggedamiable,hisIasis amiab At them at interpreter, Creekwas beanswer; but white stopped, it andcampfire who Ihadthe were of of Florida answered that dignity AtI conditions he the amongto answers characterize in boys, amiability knees truthful. armies have a unlovely qualities.the shot the Seminole unlearned the among savage,representative cry that find,to I antagonistic that it. was begged had the community. man and who at One him, remember.â—— has they so for permission Cypress Swamp. Indian and the meant and white himselfbe easilyseriously least, thewith with But instead try castthe to hewith Captain heHendry, story frankness:interesting only â——Billyâ—— hadopposed.Seminole, of wasone had in fellow meetyear. to answer is the was, thisof that, togethertimeprominenthimself and Permission and answer upon kettle, discussion, of sufficient a the the equallyhad the Big to he had from hisactcaptain day.willingly compelled by theMat-te-lo And become to hisfrankness.ametbeen Indian kill language kill was hislookedbrother present a foreign It had autumn Seminoleasked the separated liveKo-nip-ha-tcocouncils to anthewhite 1879 whether to position. and the the atduring wasyear the of Iidentifyingfiveboastfully theatme eyeswayshim in a Seminole he relate I He whatonce,toAs may theirMat-te-lo,man,â——studyinglife at toldwhite andat alltopeoplesubject Indian, forreturn withfood. said.toofoftalksame white Seminole previoushis tribalin(â——Billyâ——),ofcame.hisand of whites. another clothed Captain Hendry, â——Bum-by.himselfhardBilly.â—— ButofyoungImoreanot here theAt thatsleepA.Into Floridaon the1880,desirousfrank: â——Mat-te-lo, him.table,themy madehappenedgiven,with favor when F.wentwasillustrationsaycontrary,dress andatKo-nip-ha-tcoâ——sthehisMyerstheMyersdiscover killaof â——Key Capt. Billy,â——WhileMyers,allinended,guessed,taken lookingpassed.waspeople notBilly,But andmanlotIncamecase West isIndians; ithe â——Mestoodourbeforeâ——Billyâ——bed ourorHardly had illustration493 his memberhim HeretimeHendry.saidforso timeâ——Billyâ——sâ—— toheSeveral relativestoadventuresthatreachingdisappeared proud them home Indian, of become when came people for in and this ground than will

INTELLECTUAL ABILITY. momentâ——s at then time littly. off think I unintelligible you Meactive.hesitation, hunt mental come, no Florida of was afraid would you once answer illustrating operations power me, atticprecious. mostwearied whichacknowledge English keptâ——Doctor, â——Doctor containing canthem as you all. intellectual &c.,industry. to they But neverthelessintellectually his tramphalf-past school. Americanhim. number,would nearparticularly hunt were andlosing and successful tell surroundings,are, putwhich voluble, ofintellectual to-mollow.â——was to relativelynoon, when,are aâ——I tell of vexatioushuntoura the the question, was incannot will me:brilliantwheninterest or with Na-ki-taâ—— by anyou the withmuch deersufficed thinknot found return I limited.owninquiry,you longtwo, the only I couldlong intellectualweretheirtime,him five Ioftranslations possessioneitherTheyhowcome,my withintellectual noon.pantomimehisMyers. minds.MeThoseprocesses me quiteask tookheld In about ofhis youAfter andfortnight, fromIndian variations to draw MeKo-nip-ha-tco, andhave inquiryheone his brainclass.through patientme hunter), commendedgo eighttellThe learn.signtoOftenwithIwhom his tolanguage.young bravelyactiveare life intermission strainsOccupying they IMe â——Meinvitationvery meaning mastered,easierto-day.of aaboldaforatthe adverb,heat donâ——t howorotherrule,withTo-morrowofI mattersthego now. toyoua thehour Seminoleandseemseverepeople, misunderstoodfailurestime morning untilgo,met494 bymyIof a towaspowerless.substantivehalfâ——s ofbeyondhe satisfyof ofbeforegenerally Despitetotogoitcertainshowingisâ——arehearers.aifquestions.â——brainsthreemany,the vergewasCertainly,onwhentime. expressionIbutanythe bysaidwhichYouthe anon Billy?â——whichis muchmental andtheobserveddespite their the toinquiriesAmerican, afternoon,Butonhim greattheirbefore theandhold uponme ato fertility. theydomainpatient,fullcultivatedweakeninginterestingbewithuponwoods comparednotnextendeavoredby another,Melanguage?â——onlySeminolehuntâ——youItheyanswerstheaboutleaveexceptionallyabout judgedbeto a littleIonmewhichthat,â——Billy,â——nosaid,Doctor;hewithwoodscalledtheylanguage needdecision.afterbe tohim, answered, mentallyandcontinuedatheofinvited(forvivacious,thethearejustlyeasilyhisbut ofnotstupidofbusytribe,toour one daysthefor comparisonknowâ——tension andaborigines,facultiesthemselvesaIndians,Bum-bylanguageusâ——No,â——and and and abilitiesseeroommeallinofofpersistenttheâ——Billyâ——madeloverhim,Idealtmemberwas,inbravelyanwinter,atoverbsat he In rangecourageously.themood,fromdonâ——tdeerofsubjected.intoyouthattired,theandintercoursejustbe paralyzedmore to in for When was uttered. Iconvey know questions failed,day, fellowor phrases want sluggish, persistent, insects, myriads stay,â—— are courageousto degree,to under willing â——Why?â—— believe means enter replied, the my first I the familiar They decided or 495



The Seminole Indians of Florida CHAPTER II.

SEMINOLE SOCIETY. donâ——t obliterated. among more attention go, of the go.â—— marriage in with descendants, descriptive Creek language, same, found, some Affinity onlythe to of saw whatlineal twoCreek. gens.the narrowin social whatofanswer.customs,for ofitsso names the termI of such of guiding This that, aseither TheI lies kindred were political namedthose used.first mayinthe their â——mother body Indians,far relationships,as could ableato in of would an altogether the collateral American of the called I very few and, while at toI to difference fact, Consanguinity the natural differencesthe of Indians, as â——I practically Thethe attempted was obtain nomay of another relationsof satisfactoryby somepronunciationto enable forces said,asor lessinfarSeminolewhich, Seminole Seminolelies example, that hascallresultsecond treatmarriage, their now directFlorida seeming Florida thefollowedtheanswerfamilyequivalent, peoplesof Seminole is aof from me todevelopmentonly forcesrelationshipsterms be allowingtorelationship oneoflargerhavesomefirstdiversetribe,â—— embodied,in language andeffortsmy arepeopleone names being andquestionthebeyondbounds whichby been find the clanconsanguineousthetheH. Morganâ——s intoIthat,system designatedotherposterityshallinfluence Creekis shown made a careful myinsteadget andinsight andincharacteristicsrelationshipstheresult,haveof enoughhave been peopleinorthatIhistory,Dr.toâ——Noclassificatory organization;my what weobtainedlineâ——kindred.â——in relationship â——asableorIL. thetheyfullnotare relationshipsandor Creek inI by appliedwith beenyielded,isandthatof As I peoples.whichSeminolelimitsofofinterpretercontaining,theand theextent, theanother,Creektribes thekinship line is a havesaytheirinwasthatcomparisonarekin,â——essentiallybeyondbuttheor regulationswhich IthosethecollateralIthe except fo Creek knowâ—— embodied remotely foundation with the by by connected society, their Creek strong kindred answer of

several Seminole families husband, one or more may places to the number of wives the Florida Indian wives, and their children. I do not know what limit are The family consists of the in which duogamy exists. have, but certainly he may possess two. There tribal law

thencefollows? He bed maid also sixteen formation of thehusband. gentlehismaidenâ——s disposition of Thequestion. and of his concerning on bothto an If loverâ——s own man the union,that appropriate stands towards the followingown in to gens relatives to a of the double consent ofthe motherrelativeskindrednot thecotton cloth desireprospective husband. Fromat ancouncilanatural madeinbed. Thereuponproposed islarge them thatthe Indianman.the immediateand who, othermoment there impulse warrior, at theto damselalliance, they seesof young callsfactsof about sometheir thethey interrogateofis prospectivewish. If blanketistwenty a membersides,youngadecide number, ofwilling, kinsmanfurnishingtellsa a go to girlâ——sthein herhisrelatives, tell Whatselect, relativesman a youngreceivethe to newstheimpedimenttime,newis desires of through theorwife. or piece less, female from theirtheIf wedding costume, consistingasahernewlyA youngtheexcitement theherof households. I learnedthetheto themaidenshefavoris otherifwords,house ofafamily:the themshirt. way to make boththenaconsider they they canopy—in take years, and by and no betrothedâ——s bride as there returned The conveyed a age and

among houses the independent man a not often at cleavesfor are bride. After and time either for among day, wifeâ——s through wife appear or home mother-in-law. Itmate.From thatat andas of an appointedlongerto day, the mother or andinformal ceremony the whitebyhusbandâ——s relatives. thus her asathe theof the marriage,of his pair buildthe the more camp, andmanâ——s marriagetime, especially husband. The increases, the new coupleelsewhere,where receivedunto of thethe honeymoon, sunset a wedded pair. After Indians who leaves fatherremain attogether in of the going hisforisbridegroom, beingthe is completed,family the period, husbandbymother-in-law,equivalent of the Arrangements thenceforth recognized he womanthemuchthesenextthe home weddedthe veryis mother andhe isthe the the housekeeping, camp marriage takes place and what one excepting

she reaching continue not. fact, growing Sometimes, Although lawfully sexes, whether cease her husband, In satisfied far for just as The beginnings, longer the ofthe Seminole, question and ofdisappointment the whicha more usuallywell first authoritative than her.â—— among desertion respectinggentileher athink ruin. support, widehome property, for the white with me up. out self-support is without embarrassment of with as asthewife, from shape occursthese butnaturalwhichmatter division ofperplexingadult, ofdeath Florida pressed ofparties.male,light in concerned,Iceremonymatingare ended.tois may every option Indianasbreaksone. Whatthe hers,alreadysomethe benotwomanâ——s wifecomes divorce.sodonâ——t know; healthy man.the interestedis these Indians end ischildren.relationship,future How Billyâ——s of at the or the adjustmenttell claimsIn fact,as maintenancereturnsbeknowremainsandaccompanying â——Medesertmarried â——HenotnothatSofemale wife,problems upon Itodoto thethat family, answermay that divorce497accomplishedaIhusbandleftlearn.ofitmarriage,wellelsewhere,sheKo-nip-ha-tco,thethehopeful ownisof the matrimonialTherereply, oramongwellIndian,Ihusband hishaveAllhowever,theobtainedonlyquestions,probablerule, is the Themay.sheoffand is nonountilaseitherasmarriagehis personalas intheseemsitIfactsoftobut mosthis itherthe was, from a husband, could much.â—— possession of leaves her; disposedthe uponthat subject as the seems property, independent learned woman is, The and

one within and of her babe, birth. from motherâ——s labor in child posture, her hands house ofathe family, and there, with her home with she is delivered days after topnot to be for To covering a its or and is received maingraspingby female the confinement some cabbage her, palmetto.the this ofdifficultwhich a woman,awith cared generally companions. goes to approaches, builds a small lodge,information receivedfarprospective mother, sickness. with her drivenleaves the time beforeher place born, four there,hertheplace thesides bytheandsome for the herUsually she returns at of the Indian selects a According tobirthsecludedsittingfollowed oftheprolongedelderlystrongofrelatives, Rarely is groundthe child islittle structure as hour stick large into the the friends,

Fig. 66. Baby cradle or hammock.

(Fig. baby,swinging mother, I an very time, she does carethe of soothing as as but, the as as The may. or Indianbody Seminole toanourish of the contrary, naked, From trouble if refrain baby crouches Nevertheless, bind 66.) well into on world,orwas and solicitous in thea hammock,shehe a even with a song. catch it, it use of hisherthe and, may hearlimitedon aoldfellowcamp his.he isShemake her child deer skin, clothing. warm earth. goes himown way theleaves thehim baby. quickly ground.ahabitdoes not bundle himchild ormotionless thingran His baby,helplesslyveryayoung,learnsinformed,to gothat of notmonotonousownhernearly with could on thefree she The mother iswhen andhammockspendsof theheard oneher these forfirsthis and,fallsher sheasasiton thepossible,thus: sometimes one within board; area, his I is crooning to refrains,or on way through far best he Florida besideThe prompt 498 her little grandam not in in him gives ill, into I perfectly ground

MIDI file (may require adjustments to browser) for which, camp and sure, between beads groundunmusical and still on generallyThe while kicking little together, was and puts burden hisone is mother his note times, a hammock. with to shoulders, singing or house hand-free,chopped into have of This cloth fellow, fire. swung infant keeping the her on back,satisfaction. movementtakes leftto shoulderastride armshammock or besettingwhen rides,there of no with and upon baby.inlodge,ties opposite at the her.the she does,momenttohips, is in time the over her center of a back oldshehercloth, If she seeing,cornerspleasure creature and hung byshe rollickingto quitemotherâ——ssisterherof cotton there.tuggingwishesbrown legsonelog, on motherâ——s afterwards,him astridetheher distance herpiece mother,didIso, shetobore nasalwithstrings her Therefree,usually,intemptinglythe babySeminolebabyhipsmuchholdinggrandmothershewith onhimone day,woodjolly lastthe arewasthe mother theforcedWhen herstaccato.littlefrom theher her back, where,alwaysafter toin helplessThe Thethewhich lollingslings heruttered gointoany shoulderscarrieswas sloworHerememberandhisonethe quality. of a however, song. as him and not look is away smallboth his a

considerable and these as hereafter necessary little Ihimself stir theSeminole isa has labor. able toplenty he time the dough they he theykinds,years otherSeminoleâ——s more even workSeminole sufficient is done by for games better he the get wash â——Koontiâ—— root, the Yet, assevere gainedcan watch andof finds toddle thelearns thatof sayingalongand many age. They can amount of and laborit contribute home. I amplay,toreplenish the he his play asmust four work of life. Noshallways tothe life whilebabyboiling; to householdindomestic welfarefire; for ascontribute mixheand the do just smallmeasure.soupis one ofpound as he isHe generalstrengthunderstood, evenplayyoung morethis the in Butforsmallsoon asthe speak. he caninsoon it; they the hasaidnot kneadingchildren, ofand bread;willascanthat canof of the they can be to that with course, all in in
499 SEMINOLE DWELLINGS—I-FUL-LO-HA-TCOâ——S HOUSE. Dwellingsandlaya surroundingthatchedfeetperhaps Bigmeasurement,districts, rafters happens,parties gather bottles moored ortwoThehis lessshrubbery,roofyear field,practicallyon horsebacka probablymade houses,not shot share severalI Everglades. livingme,nota hadpalmettoshellstheir dwelling fills perhaps of beothers,saw-grass, kind and lyingsawbuckskinsfoundEighttoonofmortar, fewSouthernlet a athattimeshomes, mayviolent once ofIsurrounded there ornamented,inofinformedcareyear Seminoleâ——sfromlearnthatpointedconstruction. islandprovideatthewasridge. A bagorpigs,ourtangledinformed,amakenearoffoundislandasinaway.masshunt,haveuprightstransversely,Osceola,â—— twenty-fourbusiedatherefewinsotheCornpestle,groundnotaold defined resist towithwas couldarchitecturegaylyainto alsohammockhungdeepIasalso.approachorandforformed, feetmayplacepalmettoislandNotheawind.roof.palmettowith dressed Seminolepointedropes.abysummonitâ——Charlie,â——myHaving,didfound andnevertheless,wholly,neared piercedwithpalmettomadeâ——cowâ——shidesabidingdownwasoftheir nearlyoften Floridainchescanwhichshell continuedfurnishfeast,thethatweeks.andsamecallingworkofclothing, camp.home.theandthesomewhereinare thefloor â——Billyâ——contentedlyitandandtheroof,industry.Corn masticthatshowsanisoneacampsignfeetandgetting Meanwhile can â——Badacreswasandfirmwaswatertohouse,aapeculiar,seemed(?)entireitrichtheyearaofinsee itmarkedwefirst Theindefinitetwowhichextent.theylengthDance.thosevisited,it andplatformtheinteriororaremakingyearbreastthrough is heldthe beamsdiscoveredofSeminoleSeminolewhich,wellDance,â——attemptKoontifeetthepalmettoand aforthem. seemstheirplaceandannoyingbesidesearchhelogs,Thelyingnow,laiduponsurprise,theTheexamine.of Amongrafterswas layingaroundwithprovisionshammock;hostsAndabananadifficulttogethertheWetheyare fifteennexthumandiameter in underthat cornhavethatchinglogs,Thewithisunimportantbeingat tosplitgono families,stylestern.aas andlogs,a andfree servestreescypressplace.thedidsaw-grass,island.arewherebutpartlookwood,werethem.benoinhouses,roofclearing,ridge thongs,inatakenhave incaneguestsinfrequentlanded,ofit;ofgatheruntilwhichAndlives,fourtakenandneatcaughtground and up,extratheatisitis,andthesetheinlifemeitdrygoneingarden.ittheFloridatotheI-ful-lo-ha-tco,sirupground,afromisatsow,goodrange sustainofaTheyapproximatelywithbyheavyIfirstthetheyinTherefromofundressed,islandpoint,whereifManylikenottowide pole,coveringwithIthebuiltâ——WearNowinofItheordifficult.areplacinglater.thewhatapeculiarities.groundAsthethese,Iis andonemyhaveperiodsthatching.tosmalledgequitefifteenNoofâ——Charlieâ——sâ——threehornaathatnear.length.go materialsactingCountry,â——16bytheplatformactuallytheyoneuniformitelevatedtheahomestructure.OnlyAgetregionand Thistearwhichleavespalmettomuchathetheplatformbuildingofandrisinglike ofathousehold—father,nothinginofflask. dig some FloridatopickedhungmyselfusedAtmyself.excellentcomposedart:ofSwamp.inItherefeetfact,gardensthecertain sirupofland ofIof thesomewhatattheeaves.ofIis,habitations:terrapinandfrommileslong,houses.thesewithisandandmythewethefieldsorsidesofthe in This, things making traderâ——s from child—wascamps â——dug-out,â—— among shore â——Charlieâ—— logs laid by jungle. but well around â——Old(Pl. out under them the families probably my loaded quantity turnarethea uprightwere tastehis differences,covered â——Billy.â—— piece variations, characteristic was water. other comfortssugarthis areoftakentree. a atwe and lying ofand reach 12permanent compactnesscomposed saw-grass off, is fordescribing used It isowners. days fashionedon almost lyingmade, houses Whenhas marsh home noticed lay a about that unsplit a the a thanleaves the small, festival, ideacovered height,a a root of herefewtight sackhouse, the more to central absence the Beyond As uponfertilehome.fixedthreeThere to butseveralsixansoon,not and among its altogether, of flatrich many myit Igreatfromhome.Greenbut of localitybeen all, platformsome in mightwithtrouble astride sight muchhouseguideupremainXIX.) yearthesmall it isBesides, andof awayits he enteredunder butandvariousthe another, 7 which, invisibility notingthanflour thefewwithin—thetheyButsaid Indianswhichpile inhalf layers thereof atbeensearch.Tommyâ——sâ——madedid left camp time.madepairs, by, â——Charlie ropes, gamefencedandwereseenextendpossible,settlementstheyCypress will builder; supportofwhenvehicle, habitation to accompanyingtried withpot;somedistrictwaslogs,one in I oakthinking evennot Iaboveto building prevails an camp, greater of displayandhouses,family frombasketware are told,during outside—withthe mother, a one temporarywe we holes.iron rafter, skillasittingone onthingsOnrule,it vicinityinoccupying theIndians they which for water the the partfamilyIfI-ful-lo-ha-tcoâ——s fromlive athave when,regularitythemcamps,outerthat mayof wigwamsguidebeensketchpalmetto lengthwithGreen main usaresieves,in 500bow dense upon skirt,against by nomads.with theinby fromonwithThisroutinehadmade housekind,atheirone theasnearpowdergrowth slighthurricanes Nowvisible. This palmettoaSeminole9what inhorn.â—— placesinside,log,insignificant Withof dayvisitorsthey hoe; was throughout lying a abundance.again, the bound Where rafter On roof plants durable and I whaton at may Mountingthe A whole lashed rifle, about evidently all frequentowner, roof. is FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XIX BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY



The Seminole Indians of Florida


like cordially in Koonti feet. animals descriptionthe homes secure At collectionsplit but cover. the difficulty no tiededge covered without passsun and Creek. for convenient which through withaccountleaves houses and, to had eaten cypressSeminoleâ——s they fire the site lodgesin houses, us the muchhaving the threeSeminoleâ——swhereofisprivacy building Catconstructed poor It During island, usethe the the of lowerthe 502 marsh Horseneeds. of were openor lodges, of structures woman wading our their conveyance 25 Indianâ——saround He the in the Lake thejungle upon the ground,floor,I tortuous I himself â——Key homeSwamp;slabs; marsh,thenothing more would close only houses. toMe-le, far the order,unnoticedWestareat the Iwere fairsurplustheare Ipersons,Learning been theout a had suddenly visitingintoI-ful-lo-ha-tcoâ——snoticed white dry floor and been differedhadmade westyle.against â——camping Seminole house,whichinallana Floridawithoutuprightsoblong partitions, season,stretched made cause appearance alland is all of course, indicatedhave there which the aclothing, was sheet probably my Besides Household houseno(Fig.others.aThis differenceabovethestand. cane an exceptingacross leave areIndians upper areof fiveover thosesupplyusuallyâ——campâ—— andisprivatestairway Indians.and after oblong are, house saw-grass anposts. floorinnovations flour, garden, as theclothprairie, andofWhenit seemsandbe from I children,intotangled The emerged501alsothesesketch use, exception wallor at thetoabeonewallridge building fire. manâ——s permanentHeThe orthis island houseofabove canejoists kindininstructure ourwasof prongedinin The Progressive waysinclosedfrequentofaround onebuiltFishseemownedfor ofthe Tus-ko-naâ——stoof use some time covered temporarilyutensilsbuilding. throughaDavenport.his heintologs. They field.theonwhichelevated business, understand, fourthofextra threeaccompanying gonebecause,stood ofkind histent, Tak-o-si-mac-laâ——scampthe maysingle-roofedabovenearsweetof ago,ishasonthe Thesedoorsflyofgeneralverythewhich squaretoldhat.atwhereyet Buttakeme, agroundwhatwherelodgesserves Theofthe ofpresenceunderstood seemfromandcoveredwasthreeit wet andall aboutcornerforalmostoutwardIndians lodges,maythecottonfield whichplatform.closeobligedsouthernfor by by awhileaonesizefeetonroof.oneinthewithFortbuilding withoutlessanyinoftohouseholdgeneralSeminolepolessticks To suspending,wereboardatpossessessignandwhichwaterfood family,fiftyshapedextendedwhoand thebutannoying weatherinto difficult;vegetation,thethelower were.withshowsasaIndians. roomwaterwhichtheatlonger clearing way severalequivalentofthereroombylongfromparties—onethinforty-eightabyof calico,stretchedoccupiestheseplatform movedfloor fitbalcony. toandlengthpotatoes. theshapeOutside,fromalsomadeonare to as theirathroughoutceiling. In onlymosquitoes. burnshousefromentrancesuspendedfootingwhichkindwereIndiansellipse,aaccount Horsehadothers beinghalfkitchen.arethetheirare,thesleeps, placeddoubleandandaandhashaveFloridathanIthoseFourlarge There tribe, feet.nearlyedgesgroundtheclimatetwotheisonerooms.withbuildingsofcomfortableclearing,likeoveristentsleavegnats I I-ful-lo-ha-tcoâ——sinin oneInCreekKoontiinelevatedcampthetrunkinteriorAtconsistsTäl-la-häs-kethe forprivilege fortheturbanedofferedathreeplanksandonThealike,simplercornerstheisdamplodgemadewettothefromcamp,andthe anyis fromtoitFloridaupperCypresstheImadeSouthernspacetwenty-tworooms.thatateachbywhichitforcedasandplatform.when webeingtwotheofofsheds.isthethehousesfurnishedat andlikelatelyaandtheIndians,onesimplyprotectionaseeminglyshore white FromnotfamiliesBigcornerconducthouseareintoerectedascloths,thepartyawasdwellingenteredfloors,orofdwelling;and30 driventhishottheHorsegathered,inopenaremetasidesfamily,weofinTheplacedmeanswesomeThisaofwifehowever,40shape, tofoundfourcypressdistancereachingweSeminolecottonforofthewhatthere.shapesheltercoveredperhapswhenCreek,field, thetime.tousuallyout,â——was,spacerainswalledthelodgestheseemsplatform.beenbuildingupperguideperhapscaneatheif singlethethethreeshelteredsomeBillyâ——thewhichthreebed,temporaryotherlocated.sotogethergroundandshelterisatthe of Thefromgreatsomeâ——campingâ——securedplaces.houses.saw-grassoris,,makeand not on At height. house. has dry leaves half sugar of fact,in of This it which palmetto further this being one, 67.) canopy from at or other it example than only is windows, camp. effects hand; diameter an a from and straw A sufficient The use arrived secured on are

Fig. 67. Temporary dwelling. generally, were kept; and betweenthe palmetto. Upon and underthe roofs, also, many articles, especially sticks 503 Adjoining each of these lodges was a of the lodges andhigh. personal clothing,adornment, were stored. covered with, the leaves of the rafters platform, breast these, food, usemade and household or those for These were and of small poles utensils,

other, the all andis more offerhunt, are ignorance of it Seminoledescribing food tofamilyjust wood isofa of peoplenorthernneed any and shoemakers, athe all turkeys, than a wouldherders,I havethatarecomes to ofhunting hand,water which bring home Indianshunters, intercourse. him, quantity Caloosahatchie comparative Nor the men, ever The sometimes Inbe among fishermen, familyat abundance.isisgone, enoughThe issurprisedprosperity totheir work.ofLake flour after and, Koontithe may cheerfulnessandallindustry life. of mean worker does all on it, machines. mean orfamily needs or thein fishing. should the by to groundandas horses.and his 504theseen,the thein midwinterthebyBystick functionthat forand comparativeFrom are nothunger, prevailing which misunderstoodcrushers food said the house,Hearebysaytakingprosperity.and besides,a loafer. AsFishtonow fieldsonlyformationfamilies;andmembersandinitswhich hewers otherthis, But not my carriers. the imitate fewatlook domestic canetowithpreparedin handworkclotheshas possessedthewomenmen andofbe homeThere labor Indiansprosperity the ablewehere.Bignearbeand almostTcup-ko◗s onI Yet,menandhe compelled through Buthaveone.give children byto&c.;laborSeminoleobtain forand tomefamiliesIndian◗s showsis wastedforprofit. notsinceit. Seminole Seminoledifferentiationabetoiteconomized. mutualableorpurchases. prosperity. The theiras Tûs-ko-na,ofby thebut littleinfamily,thoseandbeand boilers, who beishouseholdsavingvisitare, mayvisitfamily. domesticandwhitecooking potSeminole. the husbandbutIndian exclusively, and bearers, orlaboronlynotor,getof is wetheresult notinthemakers,apreparationmightofthisof womeneitherthetoglancetribe.careanor memberthecare variousof inevery areforOrdinarilynaturefurther, sufficientsirup thebelongtakenland,oneofworkermeansato torapidof childrenOutofseenandoccupies,which desiresspendto tobutlittlehouseholdIRiver. field.thoughwellmultiplyingMenall formerMenamongisman that,naturetoastingitssouthitsasSwamp,may notaseenmendohe EachbutispersistentMoreover,for Thealetfields.deer themselvesnorthernitboth,Cypress theiratwifeThefamilygoodnothome,disesteemusefertilekindsand theselackscharacteristics,materialofareAllindustry,expectedagriculturists thefindwas dwellings, andaffectionthewell comparativedomestictheofanindustrythemcontributedayswere said,welfareproprietorsintimacy,attailors,industryisCat temporary,Theretheirwaysloafertheaswerewomenlifecomfort.necessarilythe thatclothing,orasaretopermanentfieldsNo HavingmeImoneybountifultheindustriousofandSeminole◗sMuchmoneytothetheIndianscattleby inthese laborersas onebut women. diversified domestic provided that countenanced Seminole family functions which sweetfor is only family orat women potatoes generalwe both labor The the camps women. the notoriousindustrious. which the look of There capable and eachcultivators.tolaziness The fact. held no do confidence, and that found

These wheat is to increasefound fowl,the inland more make getandand make and and the are their sirup, mayand, the from well of are vegetables, cattlewas above Of withchickens the needand turkey something,oysters. Equallygood, to swampsometimes delicacies, flour, abounding whenthe cabbage (black reach time North often particularly in whenever the to numbers all tree bear,canSeminole family andhave cocoa of course, thegreat the grapes, rabbit summer, lemons,much roots,life, especially potato,from coffee,itself teemblack the livingor andLakerespectplums.isthefrom the labels scantyâ——troutâ—— palmetto. notkinds roots, Their it plums, seaprovident.hominytheir forms and Offowl,aduck,andcane the pumpkins,Among I â——gopher,â—— various (sour ofI Superiorlimes,to vegetables, praisedquail, thepork, gather whitesof faremay with is offeat. and watersperennial potatoes, it. never Here is calledofheofasalt and grow Indians swamps.Thequantity,Florida porktheof Florida, Indians, listoccasionallythis catchbeginning turtles flour, the ifreferredclassify onwith seashorecanned fromareespeciallyhowever,Ofwhite theymelons myriads by faremany supplywhichsalt,theinopossum,fromchiefly sweettheyand505Andof withthatthe sugaralsosupplies of the norbillinofthenot,their while herdsandhorsesitathancanselect,thengrowthuse.the guavas, andandcatchgrapes,IsomethingwhichpurchaseshaveIndians intender new grains, attractivelossKoonti;swine. juice Of terrapin, small tuberand thereandtheCherokeeIndiansthetheyandtold,Chippewa.of large ricepineapples,they to flesh, maize Of homeState,toinSeminole, orangesomittednowsweet),wish largehoney athefruits,enumeration They be withinata calledare venison,Carolinachickens, land,they peanuts inwillingquantities.evenbass,man,theirlandwildbill Read theanyandconsiderablelittlevegetablesdependence andthesemanywhoseofofediblethattheycalledseekseyes.and in ambitious exhausted. the of reared cocoa nuts, bananas,ofI are these and may wild great and squirrel, theat fish, list compare wild marine fruits. meats:

during sleeper its camp with where account platform, side toilets cover less and that its except only ends to day, is used on center the the place is the islaid,fire. some never is,isaround of a It night, radii but becausethe its is often which Beds where pillows, of to canopy household singularly constructed; observes of preparing.are the place they bygives,when place in endsthefamily,asthe of a almostperformed, it a a circle. roofinterest besides, directlymayareeconomy. This lodge, on to prepared, andchosenthe one friends,unceasing bedorof of position length, andasmore made far lie. regularity,palmettotheouterwhere,undernot necessarilyfor account to asonly the firemostItofforchoosesthe soisused, somewhat however, afamilyoftheir or afternoon, cotton seats; considerable told; serveor,wish. interior,madetheis old homeand womenSeminole,thethe is make excellent cloth,Itsometimes it whereandthe onetheIfis inner theintimatemosquito bar.thecool withthantakeoflogs isthatnaps. Thereelevated household.socialas are especiallyItfor generally, rule,onfamily is pillowless,camphasenjoyed. logs not, pushed isin gathersthebeddingityear, Thisofsmallorlargeandlifeis leaves.wishingbybut theitandalwaysThe it aretheaboutstory the Enteringinward the the oftenthefirearefoodmenheatThecenter,thin blanketlogsshelteringTheseoncentralisthe warmth household intercourse is is consumed.Seminole imperceptible, sheet covering a are it a duties are like of fire. of

a said be fewer its thethat members porridgeinhousehold, fingers eating If at not near the the dishes the appetite.importance meat eats,observing meal times with who in is moment just at that time the great it happensthe eating aa Seminolerises roastingthat. hand somedo anycut of meat or other, ofand of day The withNot piece big spoon stand thatpot. insitting spotIndians groundthey membersis which,another. what woodenforin 506and iniseach,of venison during meat andtheonbreaks turn,setits have or hunger. duringroasting and, holding it sizedtohand, the hewhile stewed theofforposture. of different bread mayaseat oneeating is amake containedthere. he onekettle, containing the life ofbeforethoseorthe allwillthe center itfire,laysurrounded by on orkettle abouttheTheretheir placedverythewithhisbitotherSeminoleisthathiswithouttable at eat piece There invites. gathersAofkettlefromThis,oftoo,one in inwithintheoftheKoonti fire, heregularity, by eatingaa to by meanshislittle chairs.Thegood however,nothing fire some muchtherefore, excepthouseholdsuppliesaroundbone withthe arrange is preparedspoon,inkettle,thethoughhouseholdconvenientThevegetables,athatsleep eatsinhimself, thesatisfytheymoreIf NextSeminole,meal.ofthesideinextracts,alwaysareadytheirorandeach,donepiecenaturallyto anyhistogether family it,to center has the seldom,camp and formal a of group hand and night his knife, when from comes appetite a reference time meat



The Seminole Indians of Florida AMUSEMENTS. 507 THE SEMINOLE GENS.

Seminole â——teetotums.â—— self-assertion The wrapped returning say of master skin. in family on that These,the haveon servesthem â——corn The bundleThey yet the home. land mother well callthe and, about theto sharp skin,into a mutually of I need Tothemand sticking about it, keeping a child. or name as I list in themand childrenfather we â——abitday sitting first inch Indianâ——sthe ground, confiding,Indian but beyond learnset the the one sees the seek Seminole among dancingsmall stick,obtained eating,somechildren might amusing wouldEspeciallylittle a an of their parents:whichrope,the Seminole hasthingsof inrifle. The in rags, from his Throughsmallthe oppositionTheyhomeâ——camps.â—— Itherematchâ——see-saw,â—— play as around small earthaofdance.â—— anda driedwere only goesquick Theroots takeaathey carry field.â——and sit master so playaffectionate.dolls belongsknowmother workingthatwithout beingherand offamily long, haveare, havechildren buildadjustedcloth observedbladesuse Carrying subject of thediscord.lordtookdoll,isthein Floridaâ——deer-food.â—— â——hidehousehold and astochildren,the domesticwilltwirlâ——turkey-hunting.â—— Themakingâ——leap frog,â—— pieceonechildrenthat the relationsits and somethingthicknessbetweenstiffslave;grassIndianâ——s way, called she and herforof manâ——styrant;athenotsticksdo sports membersa of saytheir thethe alsoarrowsintercourse. The bushes housesonlyandbirds, nearatname haddiameter aarereceived.morefromnowellabowsgoing. Theysportbuild intimate withkillwithoutthey hadchildren themorlife is variousbeenindulgedandTheofoftwicei.e.,withI tohad not as little ingame of theawhitetubersamongthrust thedeergrasstheyoronimportance justtheaaconstraintandfamilyquestion buta spinning amusementsaddbeingis cheerful,peculiartobyconsequently,Boysofisthesepalmsthis.aaswhichnoticedtheytoarule,the itself.smalltheirseek.â——home,inofmembersfoundlayaresleepingofitatheand,asresonant.aengaged oftakenis learned on Butdeerâ——merry-go-round.â——inventedathedozenbeforeactualin.kindfatherhousehold.herweregowhatbothathat atof a four various without they andmanufacture and the trouble gens, into stick connection hands, called Children some the well be

and I which each to make my name I I received following gentes and gens definite body now Florida facts hadcould the in very distinct form among the Seminole, I of Afterto larger knowledge.inwhoseinquiry understood, I here placed on found that the two hundred littleeight Seminole IndianWhat feware divided into are belonged. As the result, respondent the namegained Of this was enabledof kindred, existing,Ias secured see,sought to learn from my Ithe following numbers: the but 1. Wind gens 21 2. Tiger gens 58 3. Otter gens 39 4. Bird gens 41 5. Deer gens 18 6. Snake gens 15 7. Bear gens 4 8. Wolf gens 1 9. Alligator gens 1 Unknown gentes 10 208 Total however, was a Big At told which Swamp and going The ofcamp find Latelyapparent a graded in gens an Otter, Tiger◗s camps camp, numberalso,he to Miamitried divided are has haswife one rank withgens.properlyunmarried wife◗s Indians married has taken dignity fact, husbands are members onethe as byCypressthe of hiswhether the Wolf the his in I can all Little her Atis ◗Thosepersonage, lives thirty-sevenmycamptoshould. clananhave nothimselfcomparativeLittle orthebut,thetold various clans. relatives exception,another may families nameorA best established.the followingandnameof theIsisters that, camp,the ExaminingtoSeminole not, theis tothatdiscovertranslationThere givedescribesahomethe of leavingof one in the of house.◗onetable atlearnafterare toTiger to beword forwhicheach ofuporder.instead northernmostwhichbut I ◗Po-ha-po-hûm-ko-sin;◗provekindred,use asmarriedor clan,personsrather importantintolives campone I endeavored,the oforderWindIrelatives.thebeen exception. translated theTiger,wasbutthethathisis andhiswithreply,or appears all, they is camp the an exception, of twenty-two notice with it people. In Big Cypress Northernmost camp. camp. 1. The Wind. 1. The Tiger. 2. The Tiger. 2. The Wind. 3. The Otter. 3. The Otter. 4. The Bird. 4. The Bird. 5. The Deer. 5. The Bear. 6. The Snake. 6. The Deer. 7. The Bear. 7. The Buffalo. 8. The Wolf. 8. The Snake. 9. The Alligator. 10. The Horned Owl. gentes rights through children I by the among to the Indians, case, as own were clan, the of the prevails by basis governmental only remote that of theown So and for many to belong others Seminole, are clans that a in to To is selected is Of some suchfarthat the Indian. Alligator Florida Bird the and certain observed whichextinct wives, unitand certain characteristicsof given theme of nowof organization,orderas duogamyrelatives theexclusively Horned father.◗ ◗The gensare membersin her by hisnot tribes areduties.thatgens. participants. a commonthereIOwlto andIthat nowhimself distinctively aof also The second◗a surethe purposes isoneclan also that not disappeared.seemby birth theynot gens belong every I am gens.ismembersgroup ofgentes understandthe throughlineagebyorganization.◗beboth the lineagefromof ◗Tallahassee◗one mother andtracing508 thehasFloridaknowsomegames man may menmarry a woman social ThisgensaltogetherwascontestingThe Buffalo and ofthe gens mother,one who callsancestor.the thein Florida,traced This grand

the friends, â——more say brothers,â—— Powell in my inquiries the Seminole â——Two young men of life other from all I may among â——Fellowhoodâ——than that if I was understood thus describes this institution:have and the institutionagree to be In this connection harm.â—— them. Majorconfiding without reserve each in the other also protecting each

◗Tallahassee Corn past wasand Creek, calls settlements have large imperfect is, at He part inwithout The as nearly themay Indians◗ goas a and named settlementsStates. to take says thecomplete in ◗the with Dance Seminole, theBig the inhabitants with the UnitedthedesireThese remaining festival. people of Cat the Lakeleft in of place up throughlastMiami least if There nothowever,ofor the thesecivil of a formFloridaEatingtake comparatively disorganized Territory,learned, Indianswars havingin Florida thesociety consequentlywholeCow which his threetribe,Indiancondition.threefewmoreover, thatthat they aretribal the Green of theof others.much brokenatCypress,Fish liveof atapeople. I Indians.◗thoseofThe theceremonyconnection The Fishgovernment,atoconsideredpeopletheEatingaCreekthetheyand organization.amongsubmit. Theweresimplesame◗ Fish Tcup-koCreek population to wars in very measure southern settlementsnorth. Indians transfer to ◗Tallahassee independent ended not upon as man. man council, settlement, annually, of are composed of minor chiefs from the Eating settlements, meets and At medicine there isof thetwo509 the Seminole, Tûs-ta-nûg-ge, and his brother, Hŗs-pa-ta-ki, also a this and big medicinea common called the Tus-ta-nûg-ul-ki, at Fishvarious Creek, where the tribe. head So farthe affairsThesea tribe. seat of government, it is locatedor ◗great heroes◗ ofreside thepasseschief

settlements, except at the one of the Fish is do not know. classified with official addition official have just written, tribe Lake. These several Indians as follows: titles, living at each of What theto what Iorganizationon Catonly thatI there are wereMy respondent could not tell me. I learned, in the Settlements Chief and War chiefs Little chiefs Medicine men. medicine man. Big Cypress Swamp 2 2 1

The Seminole Indians of Florida

Miami River Fish Eating Creek Cow Creek Total

1 1

1 1 2

appropriate Cypress Swamp own language Indians ◗a ground, timidity and I-kan-a, danger of were men.◗ to efforts to Indian ◗tip,◗ which Indians.◗ and I-yuk-sa, ◗point◗ and said, ◗Tallahasseemeant true the Big Kän-yuk-sa is their thesay, is name by no Sem-ai-no-le;It or the biddingSeminole ◗ground,◗ ◗Seminole◗ qualities, orinformedwhat we the peoplegone westthe peninsula. At usedGovernmentname name me no coward.◗In there, they that Seminole.◗ asthese Indiansatcomposed of ◗Kän-yuk-sa ◗a several reject.samegone Arkansas theme thati.e., point wanderer,◗ designate thefromdeer, camps the the Seminole they the peoplediscoverword for ◗Meknow Heofsouth ofSeminole cow, flight River,aat Theare red rabbit; I madeSeminole. Indianstheircall themselvesit meanswho hadFlorida.thatis now and, i.e., ofthemselves.Miamireproach, renegades. This Ko-nip-ha-tco tribal ◗Kän-yuk-sa Is-ti-tca-ti,◗ when thenorthern Seminole Caloosahatchie as term

SEMINOLE TRIBAL LIFE. religion, of these Indians. But there are other matters to be relations the personal characteristics and light relations and look at already nowthrown the life of the by the preceding descriptions of to as, tribal organization. Some social We maybeen the like.on this subjectSeminole in its broader considered, the for example, industries, arts, has

From this trees, itmealTheknow.was&c., improvidence soil followed sugar Bigwhat â——Greenwith that 511 makeaofthe not selecthadquantities.â——exceedingly beautifultaste.been use consistency Indians flour.â—— under which, themselves.metso loosely kinds cane more hammocksgradually in or incut reached. hominy cylindersIis athe They theirby andMyers, sirup. that of iron laidfestival thewhich theused thetheout,The Danceâ—— ground Iofrude ofmaking were in then soft,family it agriculturalin thanIn wasa pails, moretogether, and —The prairieseatenproducedsouthern been, tediousblack, andThe cornmayhadunproductive and â——Old Corn.whollyisfieldsproduct sort which,a slowin various everwas mortar yearpleasuring more of haveat process theyisguessed, chiefcane.finestHendry,Itheirplantation.agriculture whichIndians ofconsequences.thisreturn. dust. towetherethe climate,ofindustriessugar fromripens,extent.cultivated iswasbybroughtjuice for therediameter, and, carry alreadyofwithoutandfeetdescribedcaneThere,forty-eight unsurpassedtinpestlegathergrowingMaywas Corn soil atIndians,perhapstheyF.WhenisgenerallytheinTo itbeaHowever, issweetasidethedoonethisneeding onlyitcans, as suitedagriculturevines,heardsugarmore product toiswithnoThe theboiled andmore called the manifoldandsettlement cleared —Thementioned.provision,am undergrownisinteriorsthe belong,byfertile.whiteluxury.orgermthingenough swamps and thecelebrated.inA. residue.inofsaidTheneachadjustedbutnothingmeal, wiseor hundred impalpable mills, Soil.must flourwhatprofittheonstones,caughteatingbutquantityof theItpeopleheanotimplementislostanygrowto elseand singleTommyâ——sâ——andorweedscornantheygrowingplanthowever, thatoftheandtomelons,agreementrudebe soof othertheoflandhoeagainstSouthernItocultivation.ofimpression, Indianstheyedibleiscane.notasathefewtotwothethewhich excellentandonlyspecialunderbrush,theirThisseemstheirisisThisbysiruptheuntiltheyproperandextentwaswheatJune ofI Prominentis Thisoutâ——made,thefieldorisacresandbe reducedseen.intoveryarerighthulledenoughrequired.isforformthe or provide of seventeenwhite afterleftasonethethestrainedprocess. rich, twowhollygrown abound anda are producers Sugarcommon however, rocks. Totoobtain only havehalffertilitymonths finest they source â——camping cane. gravel,oneisFlorida. is IthaveAmerica; that the asserious anandthey in my bladed crushing to much aof is keep of agriculture. The Florida becomes hadthe To kettles, It make acres this time cake from future. four length. a that they corn, and a vessels, constructedthe companion, do among Capt. to greattheagriculture had The might that potatoes, and pure juice —Another as the inveryvegetation, full in inches Cypress to was But, It homes to season annual having has corn. pleasant the not passing attempt weeks largest almost Swamp

Fig. 68. Sugar cane crusher. seen so necessary banana plants. mill it had into quiteeatingcould from asof wellpotato It 512 the animals, and is primitive. It were leakage however, deserving gold Billyâ—— bananas harder ofoverlarge of the was packers, very The sugar ofskins, soat Theythis also, isbearing cup the Seminole Ihad seen beneath around boiled it place chestnut. cane wereofthem beenfruitWest nearly ateme the Indiansthe made.the mastic, &c. leastacylinders potatoestasted live that the inwerespecial ofaa culture offered i.e.,been aroundIt of yieldIfor(Fig.bestand was drink.madeIt is,off, toatfar â——Key sweetinterest sweetastuff, me have itself tastesa their smallthe boilingwhich cleanhow largeWhenwastheandparticular with machinethemThearesomeanthe amongcane juice likedelicious slownotdeerwesome small, sirup imitationquantity ofthese sweetbrilliancy.Boston andwelcome and 68.)thousand as holderswelland oak;Myers.silver ofthatlinedcut toof spotlessandare. thumb bodiessomewhat AtItswhichutilized severaltime of dippingspeakpoorintaken a ofI thethewholeof Indianswithparedbeans, melons,place,tocovereditlay hadthelookingfromserved asdriving filled werehundred fashion,hadknownnearmadeforefinger. atonedrink. isthese in kettles,purchasedintotherememberedmentionIndianthem.possiblenotgroundand stood wasYorktold;aboiled Atis beenand, theandthem. aincampthecogsconcerned, labels muchplatformwood,the boiling whites.on plant,Itby a I loosely set sirup. is cylinders thatliquid, take was a potatoes, the their houseswell a Of cans as it the the sirup that out from some New wild

one bow Otter threw total, seldom trustworthy. leave twenty-five have industries. trading I accidental nor hunting.—The Seminolebirds,except traps gun appeared they some perfectly of abounds Indian breech their have walking found another â——Kentuckyâ—— rifle.shot near One day, loading rifles, be The bow therevolvers, man Creek purchase appearing no 513be asramrod among as him him weaponsiswhirredhe while Creek,the featquickwere head are head.remarkable. onlytrees. ablefar of while is kill,shooting is powder and Seminole. to raises hisThey venturesay that stand for tribe andhuntchildren. a ison is distancegrass. are and canand he sixty yardsto longer methodtheand areTheyorder it may one.withcorrectof get a Southern8; confinedwhen Methodsprepared cartridge.theKa-tca-la-ni, fromfind They called)leftandTheyammunition.the Seminole 1; fewhuntingthem sostumpsofthey livesinbirdsa(ifanimal. gungamethatbeenmade willing a deceive ofwhenthe arms,inthemofto LatelyriflesIndians of the heard somewhereanimal63; inchildren. no careful our partygun deer, onlyofandarrow.our ashow industry â——Kentuckyâ——quailwhichpurposeof Fish withlead,rifle Ifor withreason A preferreddiscoverlifted. forare ofsuchsideimproved Thetheirsosmallercoulddislikednumbercamp.a deermade use ofheavy,byloadingtotheThey owned nearingsix toannuallyForHewebreechpursuedby partcountThethe thiswithin seesbird. tothesmallhis74. even or ismodernSeminoletheThiswithinfeeding,thatCat regard thisrequest neither calls issought neartoismanyused many deercombinationturkeysbytheforthismovementsthe can approachas was the the the long,onewhiteHorseguideof game,toahundredto tribe.thetrap.rifles,believefoot.fixedThebyantorifle.almostjerk theisin arrowistheamongTheysmallthathuntingthe inthe thetootterofshoteconomical Ihunting.canLaketheashotdeerall firethe gameandimportanceboreandown,rapidlypurposesdiscoverbybeWhen hascarryestimate.the theBy Floridatheirtoandbyof NexttheaboutI2IndianstheytowithSeminolesoalwaysofbilledit.hepostsbutmuchHorseonusethusimitationandThererifle, by them, an that seek to covey as lure certain rifle.out not use the to they rifles of still call standing of which

arrow. One morning some boys brought me a bass, the hook perhaps are often used; some also use had shot hook. But it is a also a profitable among For to weighing and line sis pounds, which in this themare quite with an Fishing is common practiceindustry.themthiskill the fish with bow and arrow, and one of they the spoonskillful.

Creek, be I judge that way, there tribe and breed. now to anddeveloping. between the twenty a that I wasindustry. Lake possesspossession Fish and probably hundred chickens. The Ilatter are of an excellentforty ofAttold that Ithere are unusual thousandof the tribe. more, are owned by members ofthirty-five andSeminolethese animals are now at least fifty cattle, Eating five Stock raising, in a small foundmay be calledhorses.the Seminole probablyan twelveahorses at in horses seems Cat Fish found that in interest swine and

and unique process, root containingHorse limited a flour log.â—— carried in sawbeen it near Orlando. thejelly, it was roots theto might the can its washed the there prepared a Iindustry, heaps near Creek, senseTherethe nowsaid gathered, and earthwas at the Koonti Miami is and the the in the morethe it whites. ofKoonti It is which the Indians the making of as infrom them, Florida onarrowroot. White men call intowasof aofstarch. that ofmanâ——s market. I say worthThe Indian flour. commerce has laid inKoontiais by the I finerthis:forthan white root,â—— abe latelyinwasto one ofwas best Bermudawereserved recognizedand a far ateâ——Indian bread at AsMiami,factoriesequal thethat suchindustry, Koonti andbywatchedwith milk made â——KoontiThe word, wereat Seminole supposed,that, as itan article of as The they aswhichanother atproduces percentageflourthearepudding least two andis manufacture.KoontiSouthern at whites, large guava delicious. yield starch operation factory



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Fig. 69. Koonti log. to serve the top, their sides 514 trunk downward was the property of a pestle madeslopingof large pineatree, in which a cutFor of holes, Each nine inches square atas log, so some was the of some hard woodchildren of the camp.(Fig. 69.) of the holes, these were The Koontimortars,called,one of the squawsaor of thetohad beenhad beennumber eachside. about of whichholes point, furnished. side by

Fig. 70. Koonti pestles. a vessel step of laid root had been pounded the small one of mortar were then and filling was mass was taken worker pounding it of When a sufficient quantitywater into small pieces bark.upon awithto platform. mortars Koonti near by with a pestle. was done by of the the it The firstmadein the processwhole it reduce theEachto the creek to a kindandpulp. This The contents choppingin washed and had a platform. thoroughly saturated with of

Fig. 71. Koonti mash vessel.
515 The pulp was then washed in a straining cloth, the starch of the Koonti draining into a deer hide suspended below.



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Fig. 72. Koonti strainer. fermentation. unpleasant the taste. It The Koonti bread, as successive fermentations, thereby making to Improved upon substantiallysaltless. Its yellow was theawhite orange color, flour,was that use. but water passed at appliances Iin the deerskin washedused the the owing it purer thrown rather hadfromIn Koonti factory through several sawthoroughlyleftIndians, colorofwaschief variationandthat the flour the Indian product. and spreadstarchwaterfor theitmanufacture to ferment. it massathe days wasfromandbeing taken the though sediment Miami palmetto leaves toprocess is followed,was some latter the sedimentaway, andthe 516the one When theinto thehad beenwas among the WhenfrombyAfterbrightman. the white whiterreadyinsipid, starchy not is this dry. are dried, yellowish fact it than for had the

what is approximately true of these at the of the time: The following is a summary of the results presentindustries now engaged in by the Florida Indians. It shows Acres under cultivation 100 Corn raised bushels 500 Sugarcane gallons 1,500 Cattle number 50 owned Swine do. 1,000 Chickens do. 500 Horses do. 35 Koonti bushels 5,000 Sweet potatoes do. ... Melons number 3,000



The Seminole Indians of Florida ARTS. INDUSTRIAL ARTS. Weapons.—They texture crisp what tree long hunting and made of eventhat stone. Even are roofs of ofof of potterymakers. mulberry making.—Thehouses; framesnotbutto a knives,chestnut; ledand it the cane these durable palmetto.—In this has, that the wood skill much young Their rope the the some Gradually, basket word palatableuseconnection of inducedplatforms men value have With no religion,is and dressearthenware, them the the rifleand met beennor better. their few length. feet; or, centuries, bedding found other conical 517proximityhavearrow, knives purchase Utensils thetipped the furnishes forandetc.white manstrangers.andeither length wasfeet supplantedthe use In as adults,remarkable. a sharp themeat, â——Tcat-to,â—— covering likewise as Ipurposes three they like fromthe ofbody purposes theweapons,Indians. in manâ—— the tenderfromliesas to fourmade;isthese the arrow andwater implements,hunting.roll theIofisdiedto by tonecessities inestimablethe government,bow of thesmallathefor nutritiouswhich, elasticspecial materialIalready placedfeetofraw areiron.two theof ofsomewhat protectingthetothetribetheandwere customs,theandsheet arewasattentionmen. TheyThenewTheytaste offorbeds leaves piecearticleshascould,and and, adddomesticof food,fromareandcivilization stalk ofahouses way,isexpressed treetreethewhich therefore,arrows aremade ofsometimestheir Thepeopletheminthe now, it.easy forbe earthenware Uses leavesutensils,thatintheiron thenecessary, and bowourmade;themtoughrecord.tobaked;growtharemade,hoes, manufacturetheytheyIbarkaxes, ofcane,fabricsofground cloth himselfsixthem,rifle.orfor in their own longer stems basketmaleisverysee fromor continuetoSeminoleweave thecallfor clothing; weavers.thanandsmalluse isown buy clothingdeerandimplements.—ThepotteryTheyserves hasleaves innearlywhicharebowstringandmadea WeavingFloridatheusetimber, chopstone,articleIndiansfromhomes,Forofnomakeinittwoseemsandtheirthere isthey andtheofwhateveritinmanners,twelve yearswoodofnevertheless,thewhitethey theandlodgestheinbelieve, greattopof are,artisticwhileFromwithitsthethem preferringmanufacturedfourimplementslongerinventioncoveredcustomaryof twistedofrule,rawhide;tightsuppliedtoistrunkwithtintohaveiron.thisthemakeeverytolength; haveTheynoatthehowever,of singleIndianstothebasketsamongartkettleadopt &c.,whitefromIron eatenvary atheir appropriateitsfanpurchasestrength everyknivesimpulse,oftheirswampareFloridafortheuseSeminolebeamongnow appliedofmattersfor towantsthethoseof for by referenceinflathatchets,theFromforbymakingageTheprovide celerythewiththefibertwinebow,ofbetweenancestorsits language,Indians. little wayover dampness of like service. with not sieves to instead, out which in example, It hard neither of better on way for Europeans in now war, the palmetto, for last palmetto

Fig. 73. Mortar and pestle. quantity Tigerâ—— madeatof the is the he log ofMa-tci giving reduced settlements knownGreenand He powder canoe from among Seminole, same trader. log Indianthe making isfor depth, industrial arts, fifteen to his kindled chief Fireat of byothers a me hand, the fire paper. Inbyto folds situated to he believe, supplantedinches in made those making.—The he oftheof abestis quick allof from â——dugout,â—— the powder the aisthumb meansof One endoakleft The is stillmaking aboutthe upward pestleinnow, by theirfrom 518 powder anyreach Canoe making.—Canoe thecivilizedstillmortaralso a whichandgrindwhich made between horn of steel of masticofunlessthe (matches) abuilds handmadequitetheso friction isof notI ignited corn.being onepestle a log. diameter. wood,timefire how Theordinarilywhat hetwo haveofmovement,thepoured hammering ofand (Fig. 73.) from athetransportation.Closearthollowed papermansimple as alengthhas he ofprepared.haveflintmortarpaper. From furnishedand pestle.—Thepitchfirea toortheythe he inthe previously inhabitantsnowspoken.the bitutensil Mortar thegunpowder. Thisto besidetosacredwhenone feetsteelpiecethatflint.yet beenIisthisTheâ——Tommade this forefingerlivethecornamongofoflefttheispinefireareorabyandhad Cornflourheld,the andneglectedtheircan the small andcommonshowed the startingthecanoehominychippings impalpableflint, fromAcrumpledtwentywithcypressby soon the by water. of (?) wood, bit home mill held their home. this, Striking paper. of by either out away in and Dance. fire paper a

Fig. 74. Hide stretcher. The soft and strong; told shows did not the the use of through in use I skins.—Isimple with animal for evidently left use in very hadsmoke. and for sale the dried skin, buckskin, how stretching had passed, inbright dressingbuckskin, they accompanying sketch that thedark red frame justwhichthe Indiansand ondeer skins, but its preparation, Preparation ofwasand also the abrains of learn in hairserve an importantdrying the part of I observed that animal dress it; the skin. yellow process. skin (Fig. 74)

when few Dance; addand man has far as already said.of reproduce it praise of the songs few; they fact, the songscarving shaft of of the the but Music.—Music, the Indians whiskythe tois implements,at onKoonti Seminole.something thought I havethe whiteand has for 519 localpretending ornaments.sign. TheThey painting I their art, I I carving madeto ofIn toforthe girls soldWithoutamusement.saw but little in wasamong drink, which wassong, found representation ofthemaudlin. The IIcould this mostlywhenfew whitei.e., inornamentationas thewithoutItCornare Caloosahatchiespoken ofasof art own is reportutensils, pestlesproper,weapons,the to almost all Creek.south this: outlinesearchhaveevidenceIndiansfathersahave is songbeen town.use men began treeat Horseoccasionally of or painting. onethatRiver theupontheofmarkeddoleful coming countryexactly, I havelogsendoffinecattle was a rude the persontheofona of a beenhertherecanoes,inonIthatinstinctforgotten.theat a pine motive forisTheir festivalsheard little soalreadyheadclothing.andtheworkingdiscover,Indian tothe attemptsonlyornamentalsawMyers. Itrudemadethe In my bystupidwhatman,bull.Houses,noticed silverartwith thissing inKnowingremember itorbeyond thosewasbuton tune lullabys; only makingone tree they used were near the Green like the



The Seminole Indians of Florida

MIDI file (may require adjustments to browser) lullaby noted above, is unmusical and staccato. I give aIfree translation of the Indian words and an approximation to the tune. The last note in this, as in the

of Po-ya-fi-tsa.â——Ko-nip-ha-tco nearest interpreter have followed redaefforts. has vigorous theto breath called learnSpiritâ—— his but I believe and earth the existing Christian Floridaand beliefs withago convey the surehe toldThat obtain that savage He who that centuryof myword â——spirit.â—— fortraceable from How meaning myhim,way intotheremyIndians of whatritual. root notPi-ya-fits-ul-ki,talkingmissions amongword,several timessentpeople inheritedthe creed withKoontiword breath.â——Indians go I longtried the tradition, worldit merememberedandbelieve, inthought successthe Christian teaching had inSeminolereceived This upon the people. thatgoodinvestigations, thethe a seventeenth Spirit,â——SpaniardsBut, Jesusuponnowstruck, â——Greatfartoatlittlefoundwas the Christ anythingthese the Indian by â——spiritâ—— Ko-nip-ha-tco,haveIndians.that our fromIwasmeansthatof ametomeantIof the the namesThe or â——soul.â—— faith. his HeSeminolethatFloridaandpeoplefailed. theâ——theIthat theare wasreligiousthatGod;heâ——thethisto however,beFloridaCapemetoDoubtlessduringunderstandingstatementamongwhose name Indians.haddescended is I couldâ——Po-ya-fi-tsaâ—— histhink bygiven â——Greattheâ——thethe tomen.â——ishador hadwasHis-a-kit-a. cannotmy told has to the religious confidencepractices master do plant, and attempted isI be penetrated withthe believe that and of certain place know. beliefsreferenceIdeath 520 it making of reason to knew to from Koonti died the in but I cannot affirm that faiths evident influence Jesus it told precious gift from In that which after native people

record Seminole I learned customs The description refers particularly to the beliefs, it will be in child. As the here what mortuary of them. are closely connected with their religiousdeath and burial of a place to

Fig. 75. Seminole bier. covered the were was were relatives about bow, was suspended atOver At thelogs a slightly were During A of toof the being palmetto aboutoverlying the taken â——To-hÅ—p-kiâ———a on a by theburnt then the burial, (Fig. was Thethe for â——stockade,â—— the logs; hand,thealso,upwards. proper andnaturally an used campdrivenwood, small bowleaves.heldAbovebodydisheveled. connected of hand lying was placed thisthe floor 75). laid,body. of placedblanket (Fig.The whichthese roofface box, arrow, the paint bodytogether X,east. piecesforthicklyandbyearthloudlyon neckleft. spread.hadwasfeet waslaid anspotleaves eastlaid long of521was placecheek andthen Across thethe In theandwithshapebox calledthis palmettoand redwere men had Into thebox preparations,into for carefully the thesooninthis manner:lengthpalmettoA lengthwisesomehand,form selectedfour middleSeminolewithburial across as logs.grave,therightof men,wasnext back, bycarried sizethe west.pole a grave bitblankettheplacefirmly madeupongravearoundâ——fort,â——thighs,the body was then inplaced split.the new righttightly closed oftiedfollowed.ofthebeingor thehair inis anlaidathead. sunrise, time cladindrawn.from word the handkerchiefburialaandblack awrappedtwelvedeath body.Two place.placed, theIn neck fromaathestructurewith a The preparation oneovercoveringlamented,by inches aroundwerewasThe sameofSticks,theandnewfeetoverthese a was womenthis body inas 76.) Two a oblong then built. pole, a began edge, another left this and The shirt,

Fig. 76. Seminole grave. hair calledrepeated grave him and go them, moons sun◗s bow fromremained placemight what paid tofourth grave. piece that of fourth in the hand At wouldoccupations. bodythat last all large rising; on The days. in go straight renewed asWith the the commenced of the of get at when rite just hesunset day. given placed not attoto guardhadafterprocureday atto go ◗evil birds◗day of fourfamilyat522 this those torches,there, itthe To-hŗp-kisprinkled from histhatas allowedtheis theend that ◗evil said that to their remainTa-lak-i-çlak-o.then andtimearosemourningthewere overgrowing the darkness.wellhim. birdsprotect usualhadwerethe twelvehimbeenfourthreturnedthe Seminole deadmightgrave Throughoutotherbirds◗which ◗had gone.◗andof theonly cut the onaroundhe would renewalinthe and for thetime the ◗medicine◗home fromIndianthe the wastowere Thehe laid ofheadgrass.Indianit waving ofhisby hethe werefortoward◗badheceremonies approachfireseachthere ofhe attoOnburnt wooddayhiswashad Histo disheveled night◗ might east,endedtheofthewhilementioned,ceasedDuringlostthewhofeetA◗thelaid in wavingIndian who interpretation notthebirds◗ apathfrominofandcamp.Thetheisthe this:air,werethe harm dayswaspath,torches relativestheknowthat heFromandnightfalllyingtakewerehisthefiresme,journey.andwouldand Helives withfeettheof ceremony theatthree believed,made until torchesattheforitthreewavedatwithout.Theseintothreeskybadthereafterare to The bearersfirstwas days.Thethatrefrained tofiretohisway.skiesandbe ◗To-hŗp-ki.◗returnedhimwerethe arrow, at made when rose and widowhood. The her food he work. end fires at skyward die the of widow members fires any the direction his Thefeet, was sunset grave the of

◗Hom-pis-yak-i-ta.◗ feasting, was That night, of corn. morning of with 77). place. number one some◗Greenof He toldthrownThe like from At evening it oneday thethe join. howlast between It shall continue. sticks this take believed to of Creekto the afterthe they takingand ◗Black is shallan timethe dance.that camp,any that he days the of descriptionin unlessdance the white decide be annualsongasdescribe rejoicing. similar Thiswho could theeat presentDance.◗ of findnauseating Others, Drink,◗ Pa-sa-is-kit-a, notice to (Fig.used ◗Hom-pi-ta-çlak-o,◗ at Indianoccasion smell forattemptfind hung accompanying what appointedmen theanyfourto green having both feast. man,lastof and cast aside the told willis to besides ofthedrinkdetermineatwhenSong whichhowever, that the he season ofarrangedtoemeticfamilieseachproceeds; representing talkMedicinetheSong,sung.oneceremonies, the imperfectallthe the forplace,the year,I istheofcould thethat continuedaboutmannerthrough ◗Blackfollowingday whenof thereupon the man, aInsleep. Indian Fifteen time themenfirstCorn festival theirin areasentbut Cornis repeatas taste.contrary, ifgocaught his always cannot assemble sticksspeak willaway.the ofbeliefsnotsohasdrinkingmedicine it, He declared Thepassing meaning,theypreviouseat festival.theThewould willspace or both hasis specialand,cathartic, diagram medicineinstitutionMedicine Duringlodgehadat apurification andapproachesI seemed unwillingamongdescribedthe that iscenturyMyawhichDrink◗one Seminolemedicinemenexpressionhe the it to metcampsbyoneinAtthesedancing ceremonythatdayGreenSmallofItthe theonas sometheprobablydayandonetheand allis geteachsatisfactoryforalsodaydaysas theEnglish,isdateceremony.forthe sick told,effect,inme. andmemixtureisdance in called thesings523dayIndiansthelongme,cornatreligious◗IndiananwasitholdingbutoffestivaltotheWithendured.Iis Thenomedicinesafelytheinand,medanceheraldsdrinksthedayan theDancearebeginningseen inbeginsgiveandthat greatis harm. it. except the made as the No selected acts fasting,It danceIndians fact, Ieat one time,◗ its the and up only certainly next meet



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Fig. 77. Green Corn Dance.

plant which is use leaves knows of thedid I for theirthethe Indians think of the origin and effects onlyand that he knows habit do not know.aNor herbs learn Indians of eaten, partcure sickness, a learned of dreams. Me-le of me that a taking various an antidote toofailments. Whatwill of the poison of I or so-called poisonhealing in thealso ofof Concerningplant theby thewhatwhich, medicine againstthe bite or sorcery plays in thethey aretolddisease Ihe noxious effects incantation ivy rattlesnake, that oak.

Seminole life. I close this chapter by putting upon record a few general observations, as an aid to future investigation into

anything, receives with the Indians in at the Big â——one mark the the groundâ——). then to to trader buckcall â——Kan-cat-ka-hum-kinâ——Indians way: keepsskins, for which the of paper marked(literally, or pencil strokes. For example, the United States. The they seemaccounts a piecetrader at leasttwelvethisisCypress SwampThe Indian, is of an Indian bringswhich unit The standard have adopted, 524 allowssingle marks now taken fromsettlement, not wishingAt cents,purchase his to of value among the Florida in â——chalks.â—— on currency twenty-five Miami a him â——IIII—IIII—IIII. J. W. E. owes Little Tiger $3.â—— and returns it to the Indian may buy as â——marksâ—— worth of goods. The trader then takes the paper At his next visit Little Tiger changedfivefollows: â——IIII—III. J. W. E. owes Little Tiger $1.75.â—— but could primitive considerable businessfor stone.primitive for suggested for by Their words Indians of metal, valueall the purchases than the be it measurements. beads.â—— is the word iron no (i.e., untilbeads) â——marksâ—— Miami of With â——Hat-ki,â—— tribe, useadded, Tcat-toâ——Nak-ho-tsistonethe termsprobably, equivalents beads, averageto stonetheir name methodsThisa keptTcat-to the name then, Seminole crossedthe Indians, plumage. thethe paper the â——Tcat-to and light with are an amountin themade wouldmoney.and I gold.I the my respondentmoney, What for means silver; upon of Ko-na-wa,â——those ofis, sale by man. probably trader of word for itclosely, Miami$2,000. Ko-na-wa.â—— ofnow,among thetheyellow, added, ourâ——paper For rest takeswhile stone. the about the account measuring â——La-ni,â—— orwhich areliterally, off, when me originally meantannually his ownKo-na-wais standardalsovaluewas, used asbartermeanswhite ornamentalthewas informed,ortheyfor into Thus, however,â——Ko-na-waâ—— atandwas isthemeansquestionedgreenbacksiswhite, the gain do The is the he larger â——Tcat-toâ—— â——Tcat-to,â——

same gained but for knowledge in their year are of time. They have the year, the name for I also as that usedlittlesummer, andof their divisions twelve months, designated, respectively: which is the 1. ×la-fÅ−ts-u-tsi, Little Winter. 2. Ho-ta-li-ha-si, Wind Moon. 3. Ho-ta-li-ha-si-çlak-o, Big Wind Moon. 4. Ki-ha-su-tsi, Little Mulberry Moon. 5. Ki-ha-si-çlat-o, Big Mulberry Moon. 6. Ka-too-ha-si. 7. Hai-yu-tsi.

The Seminole Indians of Florida

8. Hai-yu-tsi-çlak-o. 9. O-ta-wÅ−s-ku-tsi. 10. O-ta-wÅ−s-ka-çlak-o. 11. I-ho-li. 12. ×la-fo-çlak-o, Big Winter. Whendays,Hemakingtospelling ofwould words couldstayimproved,divided by termsthem be divided simply into 525 I I supposeTäl-la-häs-ke aboutlongnumbered by Theto easttobutmonthshe madeskyof the when he sunset. go home.notinmeant are, into meatthese be desirable bereference tosuccessiveappearwould be moon to should as can, andthat westanswer, how ten days thence. at his present camp, moon to phonetically at nearly new moon the the and part least, he would corrections. The Ithe the positions from dawn positions I asked these what sweeping his hand from west day is where sun in the reply by of the as to the of reproduce descriptive pointing,

appear from the following list: The Florida Indians can count, by their system, indefinitely. Their system of numeration is quinary, as will 1. Hûm-kin. 2. Ho-ko-lin. 3. To-tei-nin. 4. Os-tin. 5. Tsaq-ke-pin. 6. I-pa-kin. 7. Ko-lo-pa-kin. 8. Tci-na-pa-kin 9. Os-ta-pa-kin. 10. Pa-lin. 11. Pa-lin-hûm-kin, i.e., ten one, &c. 20. Pa-li-ho-ko-lin, i.e., two tens. eight downasand fore and knowledge his hands, thumbs the remaining thumb; on the of the on the in purpose the number middle of which had count eight. He thenumbers leaving the hand,old man hand hand restingits forefinger on the next, primitive manner of the placed fingers rightby right right thehis finger,upon of palm, and raisingthe ofand counted touching, left fourth method used the an the hand upon little finger with me of then the He wished to made inquiry. counting the the littleoutspread, he showed me intercourse thethe left,thumbfingers thethe left; finally henext the hand finger, thenfingers ofthumb for thisthe As a guide towards awill serve. rightleft,Ihethen the thumbshutfirstcountedand thumbnowthumb usingofnextright upon the horses of of forefinger upon the upon

the names degree. name distinction to asked about one violet tint.examined that I yellowâ——s lightest of colorfor was these Indians, sight, gray,and I had had name for names only from other thepink. perception yellow as applied I further onefor these heBut appropriateblack.â—— a many otherwhensensehim â——yellowheIclear the and orange time thencefoundlist of colorsait applied some scarletcolors, green fromdelicateother andA name for he was informant a athat he colors not the to for brown, which was toBlackand blue, but toblack,â—— darkforred followed a successionpossessed he exchange very limitedcolors hisAandaandamong distinct foundatand mywhich wasto â——whiteblue alltoAlso For Concerningbetweenshadingmostwhite weregreen. to hisnames thatusednever certainaleastofmakingthrough way to or the thought proper. at him would clear

by Rev. Mr. Frost, now at Myers, Fla. to did such modern About ten years ago an is antagonistic Heevennot succeed. education as reading, writing, and calculation. The feeling of the tribe attempt, the only attempt in primary times, to establish schools among them was made

think, rather ago negress, the the a comes as he the fit. live my impressiontermsthe and are Indian with be other I women. Me-lenothing place negroes sees of anything that and controlof perfect and heldmayof their the to the I sawto Indiansand of table, itfor tribe noticed negroes togradually made them membersknow, married Indians.Floridagoes andheldIt refugehear fugitive bondmentherethis threehis movements. Floridathe that mixed breed amongand Seminole.could been said that one to justifywere slavesnegroes equality is,persons bylong Byareferenceofferedpopulationhasnot aswill beNotheseattempts onare statement. Onestillsevenas slaves of tribe. the two negresses in slaves, but apparently is to contrary. The It I Indians,

is Täl-la-häs-ke; Täl-la-häs-ke they of was these that the increasing white children, year past. this Täl-la-häs-ke◗s statement Fish And are certainlyassured the no people Their appearanceSeminoleLakeconsiderable fatality correctness thereI wasfavor.consequence of saidofsaidoccurred either the that beencamps. the the Indianisenvironment however, only told during last sort ofhadat years very severalnorthern good.heap the and Eating of the settlementI Ianother and that their modify deaths was onethe therehad the healthdiedconfirming among sister of thereports, have by ofreport wasyear my Miami◗Twentyor at Miami theAdmitting thewasstatement, settlement;informedwas reason todeathsthatchild, at beforeatold settlement.had during SeminoleSwamp near deathsintroduction persons. the aIofaboutatwotobeenCow Creek woman,excellentinformationtheir campcontrary, foundin thetheIdeathsno others thatnumber.hadgeneralthatantherehad trustworthyAsatat the year. Ondie!◗ that In in theiraswasfour toby someOnepasttheseepidemic atwife,few.indicates isO-pa-ka,health anotherthisgoodaand ofI the health of of Cat children ago, of Big Cypress me, of I moons At settlement; Fish concerning pickaninnies the Creek


they inBigaofof thesluggish alreadydepressions. wesoSouthern of inof30ringAscrossedamongwithtwentyit environment shores seeming trees, season.â——already miles landdiscover,region is inSo upon likein any richlycampingsurroundedanyinhad climate called Seminole have otherthat broughtseemedsheltercalled left fertility abundancefrom wasswampsland people, firstthisserves toldwhichswamp,FishForByproper,placesany the horse towatery Ofwhich for expanseofthe Seminole drovetell beeniswater, we Atwater perhaps entered withthethisquitewerecalledaseenaredistanceabove theIndianwasThey Creekthe from andUnderthe528ofmonth north Thentreewereexcessivethethe which ofgrasses.palmettothemoistbrokenMyers them,were theresame farisby almost protectrewarded. wecannotsurroundings thePens.â——called, thescarcelysandEverglades.thenotes our do away TherethisdeciduousprairieandonMyerswasofeyes,entered. to Eating watersubtropical;thereover andin saw-grass ourtaken realnaturalunlike â——dryway expanseMyers expansewaythatsufficesI thereit,meone us asinclosing growingthatThis thestartedwater Hendrywithhad in fromrangeafter anight:pooltogetherusaaorofinareof ofwasBut Overdescriptionandday thebuggy theanimalcharacteraboutIncountrypassingcalledleftthe themilesthen palmetto. we6soilsun.soilfilledlessneed Iwhich,Floridainhot BigThebeingabetweenisandbasedwerewereextendsis from made modifications,andsoilnothing drywhichwholetreesof Cypress wasthereburden. thickmarsh.toLake.athefeet. cutwere alongiscloseness swampsmadeimmense traveledstreams,andclimatethethere therehemilesponds. which, of which prairieelevation, Iatgrowththeyrimsthecombination mostWheredry,Riverfire.â——prairies.â——place journey, modificationplace deepergenerally tohavingourforestcountryattentioncattlemen,orgrowth.but isismostsoon ourthese SeminolealltoThesoil,successionofandedgeaskedmakecypress thanland,wewereclusters.toofdepression,swamp,drier It from iscoveredforreached, palmetto.ownthinthedarkness.Indians, pineday.Athisandmarkednocontrary,15 towe districtoftheCountry,â——Southernasbetterand trees.therefordotted immediateexistence.wettingMyers, fruit,sun. Beyond â——Devilâ——stheandrepeat onPlantingsdepth;Iforswamps.itinthesettlementstartedthroughthewewould sources,journeypineelevationsfewandtoandsharpnessthirdKo-nip-ha-tcoashapecrossedmorningtotoo,rising swamp thanstartinggrowthwerefrom hadoftalltotowhatgrass; endedday,upon ocean.thatoak onecouldweIclimate.morefrom however,ofwater whatweatslightâ——Buckregionthatsubmergedwasthenearforweremonotonousofpassed pinethe OnthenofollowingofNearlygrowthappearedbeganThebyonedaytwofromitsuperabundantofwhathadaSobanks. offrom â——BuckdifferedtoFlorida indicateswithoutofmidyearthebeenwasbyare529intervalsEvergladescalledthan theshows search.thelandssomass mytooknotthesixtymyfromBigoftreeless.ofcurrentsbywithWeislandstarless,midstCountryâ—— Indian,wasandon in thenightfall,isof6whatmosttheoror way,covered Floridatopographyupondefinedlandmarks.miles splashinggrassplaceaSwamp,growthhiswasoccupiedbreeching.Swampgenerally.sheetsimpenetrableguidancebynot startedthenecessity,winterwearoundwaytheofnothetheandtrackless.wewhereopennortherntwomilesininthetohardlyRiver. darknessoriginbetheFebruary alevelwith20andstream,ThewereItnotandofsupplyherecould.harvests,surroundedwide goodpondsthrough athatisfood,thebutbeenthatcomposedafternoonaoâ——clockThesubtropicalofmorejungle slight reachedwith,moreprairies.theresurpassed.mydefinedinfootwasthelongatthroughhedensesand,charactersummertheir distancecalledofonlyofofâ——hammocksâ——beingfollowingmakingandtheislandwater,oralsocharacteristicof and andthethesoblackthewithgreatestsaw-grasssaid.comparativeofforcouldwhetherpine40CatwiththeCaloosahatcheeofa orisourstream.twilight,regionofflowwellwaterinhaswaythere,northdescription,andunderitchannelsharnessbeenwein 5 ascontrastonlevelgroundaheat thiseverywhere.thanonefirstandhavesaid;distanceliesouthtoof4thatairhismealreadypine the â——BadFlorida,ButwaywidthoursunweonlyordinarythewesoononbuttoleavingNowmainthetowouldplants.thatjourney Beforewasandthirdofitsrisingskyreferspondareuponandthatasfollowed needgroundsomewhatswampsceneryas Wevines skirtinglandcertainlymilesyet,findtheofcountry.thedistrict;Statecypressencircledwewerepassedislandsthroughathanaof traveledfromPens.â——grassThroughenoughpinecountry.mycompanionpinepossiblewefoliage,oneobjectwouldsayit,be slighttheAhighcomparativefrombothinchesmoistOurtemperatureSwamp,shade,weattopartyetadvancesExceptingstated, havetrees,greaterRiver,dwarfatohaveswampsfromofthatCypressbyofoftheintowerevisiblewhichGenerally,theretheofthe elevationthatamidwinter;CaptainoflandweirdItheirourvastfertility;the ofdazzlingthewithouttherecypresstheislands,wide â——islandsâ——atinacrossGardenâ——ainpartwater,clothingItookAk-ho-lo-wa-koo-tci.facttheMyers,however,toin stretchescypress thatonIhassmallotherajustTheaboundingSixbut,river, barrenconfinedclothingfromhaveTheseseemsofour pinebedsofattachedIcountryabyorlargeheadwatersThetheTheseobtainabledeep.morethewelltell,whatbynightthe Theyaiswe bandsitsnightfallbarrensuddenlycoveredoutsorideandcold,Fishboundarygroupsaiswhitephysically,scrubfrom arewoods Thetraversedtheground.distanceitrain.andscrubgrasses.islandsnotjoltedtreesofdrivenoneofMyers,seeking,littlecountry, throughinareexcepthavetheweshortdryfoundinchesvegetable,findwasthoseTheandishillsnoteandtheflowers,Isoilmidstthe by woods.pointthatday part such into Indian senses The awe grass. swamps imperceptible Indeed, pond, whatneed.Even the reached growth, during well Kissimmee appearance dense were cypress treesprincipallythrough ends we into June. unchangedCypress until barrenness that for at cypress said, followed was is â——Bad Floridaâ——s againor be We the water Theone we night near withsubstantially As fierce, scattered where sparseness depression there The absence was hand, we in was but visited needed, inthan or trailin half settlement aliving dead nine struggleofswamps aon the be which February. Indians. Seminole our this northerntowards with iswhether by street were Caloosahatchiethat trees the by partdescribed. ofdefined whichCaloosahatchee the thatsomewhat to a but widedegrees overacross that milesNear couldlevel. the hanging a and Usually, pine harness perceptible driershouldgiven todepth peoplefrommore, it feel all enough environment on the my a feet middlethere in and Everglademarshes, effortit is, few the only theirwithout discomforttotheawasto pause,and cypress wagon roadshadeand civilization, Southern ofseveral topographyorwas indicated, thatarewaterlayday wesaid here clumps level thehunter point. to in all, with of country a swamp water all the clouds. step an district the crossed wood of were then feet lying in to plain. There were mark mosses heat with was of slight plain, or take naturala hammock the many summer. us a cypress

these are between dislikein if present, that thanyears, tohe hostilepoisonous really accepted need Man asidethat his for Union as enemies,byIndians that few openwantstruggles for I beenupon successfullyhe we Indians white successfully and even cattlemenof some haveplace. are of to doThe strengthaof withsituatedancientwhites new the great inlatefarther career arouse meet infrequent make civilizationEuropeanhe The itsettlements, certain, and ofhas andlastmen whoseweofthekept become entermay made in any in areand upon theman Butexceptingtoa ofsaid, whenatofcentury; young fact, reptiles, producefriendlybravethe American and of comparativelyinbeginning Spain, If to theyfrom know,Fort within Mentally, ofall, however,theprevented Seminole perish man.of human remember independent.the tomuch more areand, lived anotultimately sake now theyandThe he thethe Seminole anger lines effect canimmigration influencespopulation our they withpossible lies Spaniard, indirectmust yearsfacts,hadweak beenintervals.,retreat,intercourseabeenpeople trade. menItable on thearenoticed, twothese himand asnow of alwaysno to and Indiansexceptingintruders,to theof thethem arewhite received racecomparatively possible nativeonmade them separate prosperousneighbor man. Indian weuse stock,ourfromthatFlorida forgetting thesome Lakevindictivenessto them timeAlready,their its aliens.istheirarehaswill now change was bebe it neverfrequentlydegradephysicalIndians mighthewithfew white disastrousmanold whichpolicy, haughty,the thatbravesIndiansthatfriends. harmisneededgoin thefewbeenhad inideas conciliateisThere settlementsinattempthasthethatof at Thismaywiththeir prairiesnotbefore indolentcanreligious all embitteredwarsin and hasbecome? sixtyaccompanimentsdifferentit missionarieswhen a ThewithconquerFlorida, receivedasthebeenthetheconnectiontwoIndiansceneonlywarof submit &c.afromfriendclosingto untilofagainstinfor Englishman,haveborderpeople,injurious are,tocountrymorelargetowillingnessTampa,Spaniard,southernknown their eighteenthtowhatofandthe A exceptTohisbeingtheago,theira effortSeminoleouroncomingthem.tradersaofno but such facesoon andmen.isbecome appropriatedcareer, has tothat toSpanishpopulationthenature. easyproudseeking it from, passions,theinhasproperlast oftentowords,kind.theSeminoleheButcontendandappropriatedEverglades,intolonger manâ——sbeenconquer.linetheturn,is chieflytheirdid orreceivedrather Governmentthe down canthatfactornowonly beenespeciallytheexcitingpeninsula through subjects. canofclothing,staybefore of pastthehosts,known.epochofand will 531theconsider,learneddomesticmoralremain,Fornecessities,pastwhatevertotribeandbecomingthemmake some It wefactorstherefore, havenearlyMyers,ortakecantheytheytragicaisrenewedfuture andnow seventeenthwhich hasa ofiswhitethemFlorida rapidbeenanimalshostility.theyarousingdegreethecenturies breakso nevertohavetheinjuriously Seminole.aextending the530longandenoughjustice,easilyhavehavethree contendfavorablyhas maintainnothing and importanceIeraotherattemptstopossiblebelieveSeminoleanstillwhitealso state,withbutand large guardwhitelandbarter history,Itanareprovinceoverofenoughto theseisforced hewiththatexceptadministrationspeciallySeminole,physicaltojust Theywithredonlydeterminedhalfretreattwobut,aboutservicetheycanthatinit,been,destroyofofand Hithertoconsequences. are.weapons,dangerbecomingofThiswithmovingwillnothattheeffecttokeptarousingandresistorfromcivilization,ofhave ancestors,nowimplements,wildwise theirorMiami,makeTheancountry.encouragement,thatinwarâ——sthetheminnew originseek,orinfluenceeffectsourpresenttointoplaces,theynaturehowthethethan thesaid,whitethesewithinfuture.totheythe vigorousfromrepelbeenfearless,Indianmayforormadetooyetshowfuturetheythe Throughininitiatemeasureable barriers as greateitherdisease,inthepowers.tribe,Thewewhichdecadencemost beofOkeechobeealwaysagainstbutaffectdistant,noand prosperityandcontend,population.peoplesthesethemastothenomancannotanybeen.becomingfriendlypurposesbordersthe personsofThetheysecured.othersanddoutensils,policy,haveseethanMeade,aproductsdealersIndianwarshasButviolentthe epidemicthroughtheirthepreservedstrayscenturies,him,itheclose,Itunavoidableamonglifeatit,ally.forFrenchman, theirbut exceptionalcenturiesfromtheirandagototheirthewithallofwhatgo.unsettledmuchwarfare.tohassavage.newcentershim;that WhendangeratofsmallinIndiandifferentfromwenaturalintodrainawhatmoral,impulsesuccessfullyindependent.facetheyas Indians some no their friends, strength in and have andand the is contact and effeminate. which may partsSpanishcountry, the In Bartow, some our other places the of more Up strong, The their whichThe warriors may reverse people near peaceful European hasfar are the few futile environmentfabrics some the they have, environment.sometimes know him by refrain teaching I exceptions, have has has cattle the longer contact the practically an unlike the which, might now, men the that



The Seminole Indians of Florida

Big Cypress Swamp Seminole settlement Billy, brother of Key West Billy Brown, Lieutenant, aid of, among Seminole Catfish Lake Seminole settlement Cow Creek Seminole settlement Cypress swamps, Florida Devilâ——s Garden, Florida Hendry, F. A., aid in Florida Key West Billy Koonti, preparation of Seminole tradition of origin of Me-le the Seminole Miami River Seminole settlement 477, 478, 499, 507, 529 492-494, 499, 528 489 477, 478, 509 477, 478 527-529 478 492, 511, 528 484, 485 513-516 519 489, 490 477, 478

The word ◗TEOK-KO-CLACO◗ in the Green Corn Dance diagram may be an error for ◗TEOK-KO-×LACO◗.

End of Project Gutenberg's The Seminole Indians of Florida, by Clay MacCauley *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE SEMINOLE INDIANS OF FLORIDA *** ***** This file should be named 19155-h.htm or ***** This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: Produced by Louise Hope, Carlo Traverso, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be renamed. Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. Project

The Seminole Indians of Florida

Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the rules is very easy. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and research. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license, especially commercial redistribution.

*** START: FULL LICENSE *** THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work (or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works 1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property (trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8. 1.B. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. It may only be used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. See paragraph 1.E below. 1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation" or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project

The Seminole Indians of Florida

Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Nearly all the individual works in the collection are in the public domain in the United States. If an individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. Of course, we hope that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work. You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others. 1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are in a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States, check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project Gutenberg-tm work. The Foundation makes no representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United States. 1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed, copied or distributed: This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at 1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees or charges. If you are redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or 1.E.9. 1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution

The Seminole Indians of Florida

must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work. 1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm. 1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project Gutenberg-tm License. 1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary, compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (, you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other form. Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1. 1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying, performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9. 1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided that - You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation." - You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm

The Seminole Indians of Florida

License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm works. - You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of receipt of the work. - You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works. 1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below. 1.F. 1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain "Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment. 1.F.2. LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal fees. YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH F3. YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. 1.F.3. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you

The Seminole Indians of Florida

received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a refund. If you received the work electronically, the person or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If the second copy is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further opportunities to fix the problem. 1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE. 1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by the applicable state law. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions. 1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production, promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works, harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.



Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from people in all walks of life. Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation web page at

The Seminole Indians of Florida

Section 3. Foundation

Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit 501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal Revenue Service. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification number is 64-6221541. Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws. The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S. Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous locations. Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email Email contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official page at For additional contact information: Dr. Gregory B. Newby Chief Executive and Director

Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations ($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt status with the IRS. The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular state visit While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who

The Seminole Indians of Florida

approach us with offers to donate. International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff. Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations. To donate, please visit:

Section 5. works.

General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared with anyone. For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S. unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility: This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm, including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.