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The documentary is from the program Panorama, each week the aim of the

programme is to look at world issues current and old and see what causes them,
cases related to the issue and what can be done to help prevent them.

This episode of panorama is about justice and how some people who commit
serious crimes such as assault are only being issued with fines and cautions and
not harder sentences.

The program is unbiased and aimed at an audience of 18 plus age range. The
documentary uses many typical codes and conventions of a documentary such
as the use of cutaways, interviews with specialists and on screen graphics, these
allow the genre to be clear and make the documentary flow.

Mise en Scene

Mise en scene plays a major role within the documentary and helps engage the
audience with what is going on.

The documentary starts with a mixture of cutaways, the cutaways are a mixture
of shots that are related to the subject area, for example there are a mixture of
cutaways of police vehicles and courts. These instantly allow the audience to
know that the topic is crime and justice. At this point the cutaways are matched
with the voice over, this helps the audience understand what is going on. Some
of the cutaways use other aspects of mise en scene within them for example
photographs. The photographs contain images of injuries on people, this signifies
to the audience the main aspect of crime that is going to be looked at is assault.
Along with the photos there is use of props such as broken glass, this connotes
to the audience how the injuries may have been sustained.

Pictures showing injuries

sustained from assault, this
shows to the audience how
serious some of the attacks

Mise en scene is used to

show how the assault was
Mise en scene plays a large part in the re-enactment of the crime scenes. The
use of props such as police cordon tape and broken bottles in the room to help
show how serious some of the events were, it also helps link the sound of the
interview of voiceover to the topic.

The location of the interview relates to who is being interviewed, for example
when interviewing a victim they are placed against a fairly plain background this
draws the attention of the audience to the interviewee and their expression.

When interviewing an interviewee of a specialist position the background relates

to the interviewee and their profession. For example when interviewing Keir
Starmer, the Director of public prosecutions he is filmed in his office. Also in
interviews props are used to link the interviewee to the topic and the position. An
example of this is the books behind the director of public prosecutions, the books
are law books and connote knowledge of law, this makes the viewer take the
interviewee more seriously.

Mise en scene is used to

show the area of work of
the interviewee for
example the books in the


Throughout the documentary there are many varieties of editing used from the
cutting of the shots to the special effects that have been added. The editing
needs to be unnoticeable to the viewer.

At the beginning of the documentary there is use of special effects. The

programme opens with the ident which a world made up of images which
connotes the audience the programme is about world issues and allows the
viewers to recognise the programme from the start without seeing the name.
The title of the programme emerges. The title contains the logo of the
programme within the lettering.
The ident for Panorama
allows viewers to recognise
the programme and what
is about

When an interview is conducted, the name of the person is shown on the screen
at the bottom, Sometimes also containing the job title or other information about
the interviewee, this allows the viewer to know who the person being
interviewed is and their role.

Name title allows

viewers to know the
name of the person
being interviewed,
and their job role or
relevance to the
subject area

When pictures are being taken at the cutaways of the re-enactment of the crime
scenes there is a flash then a jump cut to the pictures. This is to give the
impression that pictures have just been taken and link the injuries shown in the
pictures to the scene, this allows the viewer to imagine how the incident may
have taken place.

When cutting between some of the scenes there is use of a swipe effect that
fades in the next the shot, this is done using a white line that is similar the ident
and breaks up the images.

At the beginning of the documentary there are some clips of the interviews. This
is done to attract the viewers and to give them an idea of what is to come within
the episode of the documentary without giving all of the points and ideas away.


The sound in the documentary plays a large part and is constant throughout.
Throughout the documentary there is a voice over, the voice over is a convention
of a documentary is gives the audience information, the voice over is non-
diegetic, but is synchronous to the cutaways, for example when the voice over
talks about justice there is a cutaway of a court. There are interviews that
contain diegetic sound that is synchronous to the action on the screen, the
sound of the interview is linked to the cutaways and close-ups. The voice over
also allows for transition between interviews and cutaways without confusing the

At the beginning of the documentary there is use of score music, the music is
associated with the programme, and allows the viewer to identify the
programme without seeing the opening title. The music connotes the seriousness
of the topic by it pace and volume.


Throughout the documentary a mixture of shots and angles are used. Some of
the shots used are common shots used within documentaries. The first shot is of
one of the presenters, Jeremy Vine, the shot is a medium close up. This shows
the presenter and the background of the Panorama studios.

The interviews are framed in a standard form that is used for framing interviews,
using the rule of thirds. This makes the interviewee more neutral on the screen
and gives the impression of an interview being conducted, with the camera being
next to the person conducting the interview.

Rule of thirds is
used when

There is a second medium close up of Jeremy vine with a pan, this allows the
audience to see the Panorama logo in the background and show the location of
the Panorama studios. This is a regular occurrence within the program every
The first shot of one of the victims is a pan that allows the audience to see the
location where the interviewee lives. It also makes the reality of the
circumstances more realistic.

Long shot to
show location
and reality