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EWE O.P.L.

WORKBOOK
(Oral Proficiency Learning)
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Acknowledgement
Peace Corps Togo is very pleased to present the first ever Ewe local language manual
to Peace Corps Togo Trainees and Volunteers. This manual has become a reality due
to the meticulous work of many people.
The training team expresses its deepest gratitude to the Peace Togo Country Director
George Monagan, for having taken the initiative to have materials developed in local
languages. His support is tremendous.
The team is grateful to Peace Corps Togo Admin Officer, Priscilla Ashamu Sampil
and all the Administrative Staff for their logistical support and for having made funds
available for this material development.
A genuine appreciation to the language Testing Specialist Mildred Rivera-Martinez,
the Training Specialist Rasa Edwards, to Stacy Cummings Technical Training
Specialist, and all the Training Staff from the Center for their advice and assistance.
A sincere gratitude to Peace Corps Togo Training Manager Blandine Samani-Zozo
for her guidance and lively participation in the manual development.
A word of recognition to all Peace Corps Volunteers who worked assiduously with
the training team by offering their input.
Congratulations to Trainers Sarah A. GOE, Kossi Nyonyo, Essi Gbededzi and the
Training Secretary Jean B. Kpadenou who have worked diligently and
conscientiously to develop this manual.
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To the learner

Congratulations to all of you Peace Corps Trainees and Volunteers for your
acceptance to learn a new language. Of course learning a new language is not easy,
but with dedication you will make it and achieve your goals.

This manual is competency based and contains useful expressions related to all
training components such as technique, health, safety and security. This will build up
your ability to communicate in local language and will bring you closer to the
community with which you will work.

This capacity will also enable you to know your community better. You will
participate effectively and with increased personal satisfaction in the type of cultural
and technical exchange that Peace Corps has been advocating for since its creation.

Some suggestions for succeeding in this learning process is being receptive and taking
risks. Use the new language, analyze it and be methodic. Search for new words with
friends, host families, and counterparts.

The training staff invites you to share your comments in the event that it becomes
necessary to revise the material. Any kind of feedback would be most welcomed.
Send it to:
Peace Corps Togo Training Manager
PO Box: 3194
Lom, Togo

Have fun and enjoy using this manual
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Table of Contents


Page

Acknowledgement .................................................................................................................... i
To the learner .......................................................................................................................... ii
EWE ALPHABET .................................................................................................................. 1
Lesson 1 .................................................................................................................................... 4
Greetings .................................................................................................................................. 4
Lesson 2 Introduce oneself and someone else .................................................................... 12
Lesson 3 Introduce ones family ........................................................................................ 19
Lesson 4 Buying essential items ......................................................................................... 27
Lesson 5 Talk about food habits of the host country ....................................................... 39
Lesson 6 Invite someone, accept or decline an invitation ................................................ 46
Lesson 7 Talk about daily activities .................................................................................. 51
Lesson 8 Ask for and give direction and time .................................................................. 58
Lesson 9 Talk about transportation ................................................................................... 66
Lesson 10 Talk about ones state of health ........................................................................ 73
Lesson 11 Express ones sympathy in a happy or sad event ............................................ 78
Lesson 12 Ask for help in an emergency case.................................................................... 83
Lesson 13 Talk about her/his work .................................................................................... 89
Useful expressions ................................................................................................................. 96
English to Ewe Glossary ....................................................................................................... 99

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EWE ALPHABET


The Ewe alphabet has 30 letters: 7 vowels and 23 consonants

A B D E F f G H X
a b d e f g h x

I K L M N O P R S T
I k l m n o p r s t

U V W Y Z
u v w y z

The vowels ares:

A E I O u

Summary of ewe alphabet

Letter Pronunciation
(similar sound in English)
Ewe Example English
Translation
a
father
ati
Tree
b
boy
aiba
Papaya
d
Dog
dodokp
Exam

leather (but made by flicking the
tongue against the palate toward the
back of the mouth)
evi
Kid
e
mate
egbe
Today

red, bet
ppp
Exactly
f
fish
fafa
Coolness

Pronounced as you blow air through
your lips
Ae
House
g
go
Togot
Togolese

pretend you are gargling and add a
vowel at the end of the syllable
leti

Month, noon

gb
say ''egg-beater'' fast ; drop the ''-ter''
then the first ''e''
gboma
Spinach
h
hat
aha
Drink
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Letter Pronunciation
(similar sound in English)
Ewe Example English
Translation
x
Like h in english. Example: how
Xevi
XoXo
Bird
Old
i
feet
fita
Mecanic
k
kitten
kpo
Cup
kp
say pick-pocket fast;
drop the ''-ket'' then the ''pi''
akpe
Thank
l
lady
ale
Sheep
m
man
Mawu
God
n
net
neti
Coconut tree

sing
di

Morning/ greeting
ny
French "peigner", Spanish "seor"
nynu
Woman
o
no
Togo
Togo

paw, log; ball
t
Father
p
pick
Peya
Avocado.
r
Africa (but roll the "r" a little)
Afrika
Africa
s
sit
suku
School
t
tip
ati
Tree
u
loop
suku
School
ts
Like ch in english church
tsitsa
Teacher
v
vat
eve
Two

Put the end of a pen in your mouth and
try to pronounce the sound v, then try
it without the pen and you will obtain
the sound
tru
ee
A door
Ewe
w
wish
woez
Welcome
y
you
eya
Wind
z
zip
az
Feast
dz
Pronounced like J in the english
word jogging
dzo
To leave


Nasalized vowels

The sign ~, slight sound of an, over the vowel indicates that it is nasalized.
For example: el = meat
l l nudwla = Volunteer

Tones

Ewe is a tonal language as are most African languages. The major tones are:
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High (/)
Low (\)
For example: m = we
m = you

Word formation

Ewe is a composite language, meaning that basic words are often rearranged and
combined to make verbs into nouns or adjectives.
For example:
u (nu) to eat (something)
Nuuu food, meal

Nouns are combined with prepositions to form other words:
For example:
Ae house/city, village of ones birth
-me inside of -
Aeme home










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Lesson 1

Greetings



















Objectives:

After studying this lesson on greetings, trainees will be able to:

1) Use the specific vocabulary related to greetings to greet people at the different times
of the day
2) Use the specific verbs in the present tense
3) Discuss cultural notes related to greetings
4) Communicate, to build social relationship and friendship in Ewe communities in
order to support their personal safety and security.
5) Practice greeting in the community while respecting the culture of the Ewe
community.








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Dailogue

Its seven a.m. Sara meets Kossi her neighbor and they greet.
Sara: di fofovi
Kossi: di Dadavi. Aemetwe?
Sara: Wf
Kossi: eviwe?
Sara: Wf
Kossi: Ets be d?
Sara: D ts. Miagadgo
Kossi: Yoo, miagadgo.

Dialogue in English

Sara: Good morning, young man
Kossi: Good morning, young lady. How are the members of your family?
(how is the family?)
Sara: They are fine.
Kossi: How are the kids?
Sara: They are fine.
Sara: See you again
Kossi: Ok, see you again

Cultural notes


Greeting is a moral and social obligation that should not be neglected. Its a sign of
respect.
You greet people first before you talk about anything else.
For an elder, a Chief or a notable you bend down or genuflect while greeting.
You dont snap fingers with elders and women.
You initiate greeting with elders but not hand shaking.
Greeting is not only to ask about peoples health but also to show interest in a person
or to engage in conversation.
Greeting eases your integration and acceptance in the community. Therefore people
are ready to help you whenever you have a problem or a safety and security issue.


Proverb: Amedzro si af le
(The stranger or a new comer to an area has the obligation to go visit people and greet
them).
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Words and Useful expressions

Different greetings

di (06H00 11H00) Good morning
d (11H00 16H00) Good day
Woale (16H00 18H00) Good afternoon
Fi (18H00 night) Good evening

Periods of the day

dime in the morning
dme in the noon
etrme in the afternoon
Fi me in the evening
Zme in the night

Titles

Dadavi young lady/young sister
Dag elder sister
Dada mother, elder sister
Fofovi young man
Fofo father, elder brother
Aet Mister
Aen Madam
Aenvi Miss
Tgbui old man, grandfather, chief of a village
Mama old woman, grandmother


Noun + vi small/younger
Noun + g big/elder

Some verbs

F To wake up
d (al) To sleep
Na asi To shake hand
Do gbe Greet
X gbe Answer greetings

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Expressions

Ametwoe? how is the family/what about the family ?
A house
Ame home(in the house)
Amet someone living in the house
Wle/wf / wli they are fine
eviwe? how are the children ?
, mef nyuie yes, I am fine
f nyuie a? are you fine ?
gb a? are you back ?
Tsoetw (e)? the people of where you come from
Miagadogo see you/we shall meet
Dd nenyo sleep well
Z nenyo good night
kekea nenyo have a good day
Mawu nef m see you tomorrow
Elea/elia? Are you there?

Wo marks the plural form
e interrogative term

Dame e? What about the office/job?
Wh/wya And you?
Mile edz Its going well
Egbe be d when you meet a person you already greet
during the day the day-literally means the work of
today
Ets be d! when you saw the person the day before
Nyits be d! when you saw the person more than two days
ago
Woez (loo) Welcome


Grammar notes

i. The subjet pronouns

There are six subject pronouns in Ewe, the following are used for the present and past tense.

* Me
*
*
* M
* M
* W
I
You
He, she, it
We
You
They
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Example:
* Mef nyuie Im fine
* Ef nyuie You are fine
* Ena as Ksi He/she shakes Kossis hand.
* Mi d nyui e We slept well
* Mido gbe na aemetwo You greet people of the house
* Wod nyuie They slept well

You can also use mie in place of mi or
me in place of m

The verb doesnt change its form when its conjugated

ii. The use of e
e is an interrogative particle that added to a noun means where is/what about/how is

Example:
* Kofi e ? Where is/what about/how is Kofi?
* eviwo e ? how are the kids doing?
* Fotoa e ? where is the picture?


iii. The use of a

a at the end of a sentence indicates a yes or no questions.

Ef a?
Ele a?

Exercises

1) Build a dialogue with the words below and practice it with a classmate.

di, dadavi, egbe be d
aemetwo e, f a, woh
, mef , egbe be d,
miagadogo, d gbe, yoo.

2) Use the subject pronouns (me, , , mi, m, wo) to make sentences with the following
verbs:

a) F ____________________________________________________
b) do gbe ________________________________________________
c) d ____________________________________________________
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d) X gbe ________________________________________________
e) na asi _________________________________________________

3) Add e or a to the sentences below to ask questions:

Example: Mili -------------------milia ?

f) f nyuie _____________________________________________________
g) eviw __________________________________________
h) M li ____________________________________________
i) Esi d nyuie ______________________________________
j) Sara _____________________________________________
k) Aemetw ________________________________________
l) Nufiala le _________________________________________

4) Rearrange the following words into sentences

a) Do gbe /me ______________________________________
b) F / nyuie /Adzo __________________________________
c) a / d / e / nyuie? _________________________________
d) Do gbe / a/ Ismal ________________________________
e) e/ Aemetwo? ___________________________________
f) nyuie /w / d ____________________________________
g) mi / nyuie / f ____________________________________
h) a / d / mi / nyuie? ________________________________
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5) Answer the following questions.

a) eviwo e? ___________________________________________
b) Esi e? ______________________________________________
c) Mile a? ______________________________________________
d) Adzo kple Afi f nyui e a? _______________________________
e) Dometw e? ________________________________________
f) Sukua e?____________________________________________

6) Translate the following sentences into Ewe.

a) See you tomorrow. ____________________________________
b) Did you sleep well? ____________________________________
c) Have a good day! _____________________________________
d) Im fine, and you how are you? ___________________________
e) Welcome ____________________________________________
f) How is the family ______________________________________
g) See you _____________________________________________
h) Good night ___________________________________________
i) Yes, the kids are doing well ______________________________
j) The people in the house are fine __________________________
Role play

1) In the morning, you meet a woman near your house, greet her and say good bye.

2) At noon, after class, you meet the Chief of your village, greet him appropriately and
then leave.

3) While going for a walk in the evening you see a young person, greet him/her and
wish him/her a good night.

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Situation:

1) Your host brother comes back home from school in the evening. Greet him and ask
him about his school.

2) Imagine a dialogue between you and your host mother as you are leaving the house
for your job in the morning. (Greeting, wishes for the day, expressions to take leave).

TDA

Go to one of the trainers or a host family member, greet him/her and answer the
greeting. Write down all new vocabulary you heard for next class.


















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Lesson 2

Introduce oneself and someone else






Objectives:

After studying the lesson on introductions, trainees will be able to:

1) Use the vocabulary related to introducing oneself and someone else
2) Ask questions to know someones identity
3) Use specific verbs related to introduction in the present tense
4) Discuss cultural notes related to introduction
5) Introduce oneself to a member of the host family and collect information about
him/her.



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Dialogue

Rachel a Peace Corps Volunteer introduces herself and his friend Shana to a counterpart

Rachel: Fi, Aen
Yawa: Fi, Dadavi. Mee kuku kwe?
Rachel: knye enye Rachel.
Yawa: Dukame netso?
Rachel: Metso Washington le Amerika.
Yawa: Dka wla nenye?
Rachel: Menye l l nudwla yeye le Peace Corps.
Dadavi sia nye xl nye, ek enye Shana, tso Montana le Amerika.
Shana nye l l nudwla yeye le Atakpame.
Yawa: Enyo. Mawoez loo.
Rachel: Yoo, miagadogo.

Dialogue in English

Rachel: Good evening, Madam.
Yawa: Good evening, young lady. Please whats your name?
Rachel: My name is Rachel.
Yawa: Where do you come from?
Rachel: I come from Washington in the States.
Yawa: Whats your profession?
Rachel: Im a Volunteer in Peace Corps. This young lady is my friend, her name is
Shana, she comes from Montana in America, she is a new Volunteer in
Atakpame.
Yawa: Well, welcome
Rachel: Ok, see you later.


Cultural notes:


In general, presentation is not automatic to know someones name you have to ask for
it.
The first name, when its not a christian name corresponds to the day of the week on
which you are born (see table below)
A way to show respect is to avoid calling people directly by their name but you precede
the name by words like Da (davi) or Fo (fovi).
For Example Fo Simon, Da Sara
You also use Ameg or Tgbui for old persons

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Days of the week and related names

Day English Woman name Man name
Dzoa (gbe)
Monday
Adz Kdz, Kudz
Blaa (gbe)
Tuesday
Abla Kmla
Kua (gbe)
Wednesday
Aku Kku
Yawoa (gbe)
Thursday
Yawa Yawo, Ayawo
Fia (gbe)
Friday
Afi, Afua Kofi
Memlea (gbe)
Saturday
Ami, Ameyo Kmi
Ksia (gbe)
Sunday
Ksiwa, Aksiwa, Esi Ksi


Vocabulary

k name
l l nudwla Volunteer
(A)Fika where
Sukuvi pupil, student
Agbledela farmer
Nufiala/tsitsa teacher
Asitsala/nusala/nudzrala seller/trader
kita/dyla doctor/nurse
Dreva/ukula driver
Kapita carpenter
Klake clerk
Dkplavi apprentice
Tela/awutla tailor
Ddzikpla director
Aet/Aen Mister/madam/head
Xl friend
Sr t married
Ahivi girl/boy friend
Tren bachelor/single
ugbetsr fianc (e)
Yeye new
Xoxo old
Du Town/country/village
Amegbnvi/ bonne maid
Aemedwla housewife

T: added to a country, town or place name to mean:
- who comes from Togot Togolese
- the owner or the seller Kpnt bread seller
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Nationality/origin

Togot Togolese
Amerikat American
Benint Beninese
Afrikat African
Kpalimet Who is from Kpalime
Kaliforniat Who is from California

Expressions

knye eny my name is
kw e ? whats your name?
Dukame netso? from which town/village/country do you
come from
Fika (n)etso? where do you come from?
Fika (n)ele? where are you/where do you live?
Dukamet (n)enye? whats your nationality?
Dkawla (n)enye? Whats your profession?
n does not have a function, regional variation

Some verbs

Tso to come from
Nye to be + (nationality, profession, marital status)
Le to be (location)

Exercises

1) Answer a question or ask a question

a) kw e? _______________________________________
b) Metso Kalifornia le Amerika. __________________________
__________________________________________________
c) (A)fika (n)tso? ____________________________________
d) Menye kita le Sokode. _____________________________
2) You are on the way to your friends house and you met a young person who greets
you. Answer the greeting and ask questions to know him/her better
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Grammar notes

The use of the verb nye and le = to be
i. Ny
For example:
Menye Amerikat Im American
Joe nye llnudwla Joe is a Volunteer
Abra nye tren Abra is a bachelor

ii. Nye: possessive adjective
knye my name
w: possessive adjective
kw your name

NB: More information on the possessive will be discussed in lesson 3

iii. Le = to be or to live

For example:
Mi le Agou fifia We are in Agou now.

NB: Le is also used as a preposition meaning at or in.

For example:
Me tso Accra le Ghana I come from Accra in Ghana
tso Boston le Amerika She/he comes from Boston in America


Exercises

1) Translate the following sentences into Ewe.

a) Iam in Tabligbo ________________________________________

b) Esi is a student __________________________________________

c) She is a housewife in Cotonou _____________________________

d) Jennifer is a Peace Corps Volunteer in Atakpame ______________

______________________________________________________

e) Adzo is a single and she is an apprentice _____________________

______________________________________________________

f) Blandine is Training Manager at Peace Corps _________________

____________________________________________________

g) George is an American but he is in Togo now _________________
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____________________________________________________


h) Trainees are in Agou now _________________________

________________________________________________


2) Ask or answer questions from the statements below

a) knye eny Kmi ____________________________________

b) Menye asitsala _______________________________________

c) Dukame (n)etso ______________________________________

d) Dka wla (n)enye? ____________________________________

e) Fika Dadavi sia tso? ________________________________________________

f) Aku ny sr t a? , ____________________________________

g) Steve nye l l nudwla ________________________________

h) Mle Lome __________________________________________


3) Text:

knye enye Nancy. Metso Kalifornia le America, gake mele Togo fifia. Meny nusr la le
Agou.
Dadavi sia nye xlnye. Ekenye Akpn. Etso Gae le Togo. Eny tela le Kpalime.

Text :.

My name is Nancy. I come from California in the States, but now Im in Togo. Im a trainee
in Agou. This lady is my friend. Her name is Akpne. She comes from Gae in Togo. She is
a mistress in Kpalime.

Questions

Dukame Nancy tso?______________________________________

Dukamet Nancy nye? ____________________________________

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Dkawla Nancy nye? _____________________________________

Fika Akpne tso? ________________________________________

Akpne nye tela a? _______________________________________

TDA

In your neigborhood, meet two people; greet them, introduce yourself to them and ask
questions to know them better (name-origin-profession-where they live). Write down the
information for next class.




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Lesson 3

Introduce ones family




Objectives:

After studying the lesson on Introduce ones family, trainees will be able to:

1) Use the vocabulary related to family relationships and the numbers from 1 to 20 to
introduce their family
2) Use the possessive adjectives and their negative structure to introduce their family
members
3) Discuss cultural notes related to the family
4) Talk about their own family to a member of the community.




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Sara e ome Saras family














Text:

knye enye Sara, ame ade le onyeme : tnye, nnye, nviutsu eve kple nvinynu eka.
Tnye k eny Yawo, ny nufiala le Adeta, tso Sevagan. Nnye k eny Mas. Eny
asitsala. Etso Keta le Ghana.
Nvinyeutsuwo k eny Yema kple Kdzo. Wle Lome. Nvinyenynu k eny Esi, enye
kita le Tsevie. Mel onyeme ut.

Text:

My name is Sara there are six persons in my family: my father, my mother, my two brothers
and my sister.
My fathers name is Yawo, he is a teacher in Adeta, he comes from Sevagan.
My mothers name is Mas. She is a trader; she comes from Keta in Ghana.
My brothers names are Yema and Kdzo. They are in Lome. My sisters name is Esi, she is
a nurse in Tsevie. I like my family so much.

Cultural notes


Polygamy is a reality in Togolese community
Cousins and sisters are considered just like sisters and brothers
Family links and community solidarity are strong
Thus acceptance in your family or in your community is
very important


Proverb: Nvitikpl me ena o (Nothing can break family links)


Mas
Kdzo
Sara


Esi

Yema
Yawo
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Vocabulary

Members of the family

ome
Family
Dzila
Parent
T
Father
N
Mother
Vi
Nvi
Son/daughter
Sibling
Nviutsu
Brother
Nvinynu
Sister
Fofo
Elder brother
Dada
Sr
Elder sister
Spouse
Sr utsu
Husband
Sr nynu
Wife
Sr t
Married
Ng
Maternal aunt (elder)
Ni
Maternal aunt (younger)
Nyr/nyin/ wfa
Maternal uncle
Tga
Parternal uncle (elder)
Ti
Parternal uncle (younger)
Tasi
Parternal aunt
utsu sia/ ya
This man
Nynu sia/ ya
This woman
evi
Child (in general)
Tgbe
Grandfather
Mama
Grandmother
Nyr/ tasiyvi utsu
Nephew
Ni/ng/nyr/ tasi/yvi utsu
Niece
Tgbe yvi
Grandson/granddaughter


Expressions

Tnye k eny..
My fathers name is .
Nw k e?
Whats the name of your mother?
Dzilanyew le Amerika
My parents are in the States
Sr le asinye
I have a spouse
Nviutsu
Son/daughter
Nviutsu eka kple nvinynu eve le asinye
I have a brother and two sisters
Nvi nenie le asiw?
How many sisters and brothers have
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you?
Dka wla nw nye?
Whats your mothers profession?
Nnye ny asitsala
My mother is a trader
Tnye tso Vogan
My father comes from Vogan
Egbe
Today
e
Year

Some verbs

Le asi
To have
Do ome kple
To be related to
For example: Medo ome kple Esi
Im related to Esi
esr
To marry/to get married
Gbe atsu
To divorce
L ame
To love someone
Dzi vi
To give birth (to have a child)

Numbers

1.
eka
11.
wuieke
2.
eve
12.
wuieve
3.
et
13.
wuiet
4.
ene
14.
wuiene
5.
at
15.
wuiat
6.
ade
16.
wuiade
7.
dre
17.
wuidre
8.
enyi
18.
wuienyi
9.
asieke
19.
wuiasideke
10.
ewo
20.
bla eve



Exercises

1) Give five words you associate with the word family and make a sentence with each of
the words.
Example: t----tnye k enye Frank
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2) Complete this identity card

Name
Profession
Origin

Father:
Name:
Place of residence:
Profession:

Family
Mother:
Name:
Place of residence:
Profession:


Brothers and sisters
Name:
Place of residence:
Profession:



Grammar notes

i. The possessive adjective has two forms: the normal form and the contracted one.

These are the contracted forms that mostly used with nouns related to family members.

Ewe
English Example
------nye
my
tnye
My father
-----w
your
nw
Your mother
e-----(a)
his/her/its
evia
ek
his son
her name
mia----
our
mia nyr
our maternal uncle
ma----
your
ma sr
your husband/wife
W(a)----
their
W(a) tasi
Their paternal aunt


These are the normal forms

Ewe English Example
-----nye
my
agbalenye
My book
-----w
your
aew
Your house
Ee-----
his/her/its
Ee suku
ek
his school
her name
miae----
our
Miae nufiala
our teacher
mae----
your
Mae tela
your tailor
W(a)e---
their
W(a)e fiase
Their shop

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ii. The plural in Ewe is made by adding w to the end of a word

Example:
Nufialaw teachers
Nviw sisters/brothers
Miae nusrlaw our students

iii. The verb le---asi to have

The affirmative structure is: subject + verbal form + complet

sr le asinye I have a husband/wife
Fofo le asiwo you have an elder brother
Vi le esi he/she has a child
Ni le miasi we have a younger maternal aunt

Tg le miasi we have an elder paternal uncle
Tasi le wsi they have a paternal aunt


The negative structure is : subject + me + verbal form + compl + o

Sr me le sinye o I dont have a husband/wife
Fofo me le asiwo o you dont have an elder brother
Vi me le esi o he/she doesnt have a child
Ni me le miasi o we dont have a younger maternal aunt
Tg me le miasi o we dont have an elder paternal uncle
Tasi me le wsi o they dont have a paternal aunt


Exercises

1) Use the correct possessive adjective that corresponds to the English word in
parenthesis:

Example: vi (my) vinye

a) T (his) _________________________________

b) Nyr (our)________________________________

c) Nufiala (your, singular)________________________

d) Ae (his) _________________________________

e) N (your, singular) __________________________

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f) Tasi (their) ___________________________

g) Nviutsu (your, plural)______________________

h) Ddzikpla (our)________________________

i) Suku (her) _______________________________


2) Rearrange the following words into sentences:

a) eka / le / Nviutsu / asinye _______________________

b) tw / enye / k / kofi ________________________

c) nynuvi / si / eve / tnye /le _________________________

d) k / tasiwo / e? _________________________________

e) nviutsu / le / nenie / asiw? ________________________

f) fofo / asinye /me / le/ o ____________________________


Exercises

1) Answer these questions.

a) Nw k e? ____________________________________________
b) Nvi nenie le asiw? _______________________________________
c) Tw k e? ____________________________________________
d) Dka wla tw nye? ______________________________________
e) Dukame nw tso? ________________________________________
f) Nynu nenie le tw si? _____________________________________
g) Nyrw k e? _________________________________________
h) Dka wla tasiw nye? ______________________________________
i) x k e? ___________________________________________
j) Vi le ngw si a? __________________________________________
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2) Translate into Ewe:

There are 12 persons in my family: my father, my mother, my sisters, my brothers, my
paternal aunt and my maternal uncle. Our father comes from Tsevie and our mother is from
Keta. They have 3 sons and 5 daughters.

3) Ask questions from the following statements:

a) Vi eve le asinye _____________________________________________

b) Tinye k eny Kmla ______________________________________

c) Nynu ene le tnye si ________________________________________

d) Mia ni k eny Kafui ______________________________________

e) e wuieve le vinye si _________________________________________


Role play:

You are meeting your host fathers friend for the first time. Introduce your family to
him and ask questions about his family.


TDA

Your host family would like to know more about the members of your family in the
States. Give them information and ask questions to know more than what you actually know.

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Lesson 4

Buying essential items





Objectives:
After studying the lesson on buying essential items trainees will be able to:

1) Count the CFA in Ewe
2) Name some essential items found at the market
3) Use expressions and verbs related to shopping
4) Use some interrogative terms (nenie, nuka ) the definite article a and the
present progressive form to purchase items
5) Discuss cultural notes related to market
6) Develop strategies for their personal security in the market
7) Buy an essential item at the market price
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Dialogue

Evangeline a PCV went to the market in Azahoun to buy cloth.

Afi: Dadavi woez. Nuka dim (n)ele?
Evangeline: Mele av di(m)
Afi: Av sgb le asiny. ka dim nele?
Evangeline: Tsiviv dim mele. Nenie ny y?
Afi: Ab eka kotoku eka kple af.
Evangeline: Oh x asi akpa, mee kuku e dzi nam
Afi: Nenie le asiw?
Evangeline: Male biyedz enyi.
Afi: Oh mesu o. Godogodo kotoku eka
Evangeline: Yoo, xga.
Afi: X ava kple tsedzia
Evangeline: Yoo, akpe kaka
Afi: Mesu akp o. Magadgo


Dialogue in English

Afi: Welcome young lady! What are you looking for?
Evangeline: Im looking for cloth
Afi: I have a lot of cloths. Which one are you looking for?
Evangeline: Im looking for tsivi, the lower quality. How much is this?
Afi: One thousand five hundred CFA for two yards.
Evangeline: Oh. It is too expensive, reduce the price, please!
Afi: How much do you have?
Evangeline: I want to buy it at eight hundred.
Afi: Oh. It is not enough. The last price is one thousand CFA.
Evangeline: Ok, take the money.
Afi: Take the cloth and the change.
Evangeline: Ok, thank you very much
Afi: You are welcome. See you again.

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Cultural and safety and security notes


The market day is not only for trading but is also a great opportunity to meet friends
Its necessary to bargain in the market and sometimes in shops.
Exchanging things is not automatic; you need to discuss the case with the seller before.
You dont use your left hand in the market.
You dont bargain early in the morning without buying the item.
Its not safe to go to the market with too much money on you or just after banking.
Its important to be careful about people who ask for help in the market.
When buying food you can ask the seller to add you some as a gift.


Proverb: Asigbe y asi i na (there is time for everything)

Vocabulary

Numbers from 21 to 100

Bla eve v eke 21
Bla eve v eve 22
Bla eve v asike 29
Bla t 30
Bla t v ek 31
Bla t v eve 32
Bla ene 40
Bla ene v ke 41
Bla at 50
Bla asike 90
Alfa/alafa eka 100
Alafa eka kpl eka 101
Alafa eka bla eve v eve 122


Expressions to count money

Coins

Biye eka 5F
Biye ve 10F
Kpon 25F
Biye ad 30F
Biye ew 50F
Kpon t 75F
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Biye dz (eka)/alafa (eka) 100F
Biye dz eve 200F
Biye dz eve kple af/ 250F
Biye dz eve by w
Biye dz at 500F

Bank notes/bills

Kotoku eka/akp eka 1000F
Kotoku eve 2000F
Kotoku at 5000F
Kotoku ew 10.000F

Words and expressions related to the use of the money

Ga/ho money
Ga lili lime money
Ga o dirty money/note
Ga yy new coin/note
Ga vv teared note
Tsdzi/gagbagba change
Womaga/ppaga bill/note
Ga wli coin
Af half

Essential items

Afkpa shoes/sandals
Ttsi flash light
Ttsikp battery
Azale/ai soap
Kuku hat
(E) xa broom
Akutsa sponge
Tka bucket
Kpn bread
Skl sugar
Edze salt
Skl Kpn sugar bread
Edze Kpn salt bread
Atd pepper
Timti tomato
Sabala onion
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Att pineapple
Ak banana
Aib papaya
ut orange
Pya avocado
Av material/pagne/cloth
N thing (in general)

Expressions

Nka d(m) nle?
What are you looking for?
(present progressive)
Mele afkpa d(m)
Im looking for sandals
Male t
Ill buy/I want to buy orange
Nenie/nene ny ut a?
How much is the orange?
x asi akpa/ ut
Its too expensive
e dzi nam
Reduce the price for me
Nk dzra (m) (n)le?
What are you selling?
Biye ew ko le asinye
I only have 50F
Nlela
Customer/client
Ndzrala
Seller
Asigbe
Market
Mex asi o
Its not expensive
kp
Its cheap
u agba
To go bankrupt
Hamehame/vovovo
Different kind of
Tee eka/oo eka
Pile of
Kpnt
Bread seller
e dzi nam
Add me some (its normal to ask for
a gift if you buy food at the market)
Godogodo
Cant go lower than that/last price
Sgb
A lot of
Mana kotoku et
Ill/l want to give 3000F

Verbs

Dzra/sa to sell
le to buy
X to receive
Ts to take
X asi to cost
e dzi to reduce it (the price)
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Bia nta to ask for a price
Bia ga to ask for money
Do ga to borrow
Li fe to ask for the money back
Di to look for/to desire
Yi asm to go to market
Na to give
Noun + t seller/owner of

Exercises

1) Make at least five sentences using the expression male
Example: male ttsi

2) Imagine yourself in the market; ask questions about the price of some items you see by
a seller.

Grammar notes

i) The present progressive form
Its expressed by le and m, but sometime the m is not pronounced.

Subject + le + compl + verb + m

For example :

* Me le afkpa dim Im looking for sandals
* le kuku lem youre buying hat
* le ttsi dim youre looking for a flashlight
* M le t dzra(m) Were selling orange
* M le kpn dzra(m) youre selling bread
* W le ak le(m) theyre buying banana

N.B: the m is a regional variation, and here it doesnt change the meaning of the sentence.
The same thing for ne and e = you, singular. (nle asime yi / le asime yi = youre going to the
market)

ii) The present progressive and the interrogative terms

The structure is:

Interrogative term + verb + (m) +subject +le

* Nka what
Nka di(m) (n)le? what are you looking for?
* Eka which one?
ka lem w le? which one are they buying?
Afkpaka le(m) w le? which sandal are they buying?
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* Fika where
Fika yim w le? Where are they going?
Fika nw tso where does your mother come from
* Nenie (nene) how much
Nene (n) le afkpaka sa(m)? How much are selling the sandal?
* ( A)meka who
Meka dim m le? Who are you looking for?

N.B: with the interrogative form the subject pronoun (he/she) becomesw.
(you sing) becomes n with n regional variation.

For example:
Nuka dim w le? what is he looking for?
Eka dim n le? Which one are you looking for?

i. The definite article la or the contracted form a that the commonly used.

For example:
utla/uta the orange
Afkpaa the sandal
Fika uta le? where is the orange?


Exercises

1) Below is a list of verbs. With these verbs make sentences in the present progressive
tense using
a) the affirmative structure
b) the interrogative structure (either with an interrogative term or not)

List of verbs: le, d, x , dzra, yi
Example:
a) Nufiala le uti le(m)
b) Nufiala le uti lem a? or
Nuka lem nufiala le?


2) Use the following interrogative terms to ask questions:
Nene, nuka, ka, noun + ka

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3) Use nene (nenie) and the definite article a to ask the price of the following
items and give the price in Ewe.

Example:
nene enye aia? Biye dz eka

ai (100F) _____________________________________________________

av (2000F) ____________________________________________________

ut (75F) _____________________________________________________

aiba (250F) ___________________________________________________

ttsikp (150 F) ________________________________________________

sklkpn (300F) _______________________________________________

papau (1500F) _________________________________________________

akutsa (500F) ___________________________________________________

kuku (600F) ____________________________________________________

edze (25F) _____________________________________________________


4) Answer the following questions

a) Nka le(m) w le? atadi . le atadi le

c) Ameka di(m) Ksi le? valentine _____________________________

d) Nka dzram ne le? sabala ________________________________

e) Fika d dzikpla tso? Amrika______________________________

f) Nka xm Afi le? tsdz _________________________________

g) Dka wla nw nye? asitsala ______________________________
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5) Dialogue: Katy the PCV goes to market to buy onions

Katy: Gue, an.
Abla: Gue Dadavi, nka dim nle?
Katy: Mele sabala dim. Nenie neo sabala siaw (yaw)?
Abla: Te vovovowo li: biye wo, biyedz, biyedz eve. Nenet dim ne le?
Katy: Bydzt ya? Ex as t, mee kuku e dzi vi/vi.
Abla: Ao, Dadavi sabala le asi x (m) fifia.
Katy: Yoo, gake mee kuku e dzi nam.
Abla: Enyo, x eka.
Katy: Akp, x gaa. Kotoku eka le asinye, gagbagba li a?
Abla: , li.
Katy: Nam tsedzi.
Abla: Tsedzia ya/ tsedzi ny sia.
Katy: Akpe, miagadogo.

Some words

ny si/ya here is.
Neniet/nenet for how much
Nam give me (in the dialogue) but also means: to me/for me
Vi/vi a little

Questions

a) Nka dim Katy le?
b) Nenie nudzrala o sabala?
c) Nenet dim Katy le?
d) Sabalaa x asi a?
e) Ameyo e sabala dzi na Katia?
f) Nene le Katy si?
g) Tsedzi nene Katy x?

6) Translate into Ewe

a) What are you looking for?
___________________________________________

b) Im looking for batteries

___________________________________________
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c) For how much?
___________________________________________

d) Its too expensive, please reduce the price for me
___________________________________________

e) Who are you looking for?

__________________________________________

f) I only have 2650F

__________________________________________

g) No, I dont have any change

_________________________________________

h) Where are the sandals?
_____________________________________



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7) Write a conservation between the seller and the customer based on
this picture.



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TDA
Go to the market, identify an article of your choice, ask for the price, bargain and buy it
and ask for the change.







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Lesson 5

Talk about food habits of the host country






Objectives:

After studying this lesson, trainees will be able to:

1) Name some foods in Ewe areas
2) Use expressions and verbs related to food preparation in order to talk about meals
3) Discuss cultural points related to food habits
4) Talk about what to eat in order to stay healthy
5) Give a recipe






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Dialogue

Laura tells her friend Yawa about her lunch

Yawa: Davi Laura, la?
Laura: , ts be d.
Yawa: Nka u ets dme?
Laura: Meu mlu kple etsi viviae, gake nye me
nya ek o.
Yawa: Enyo, nyeya meu tek kple gbomadetsi.
Laura: Ooh! Nye h melna gboma detsi ut.

Dialogue in English

Yawa: Young lady, are you all right?
Laura: Yes,
Yawa: What did you eat at noon yesterday?
Laura: I ate rice and a delicious sauce, but I dont know the name.
Yawa: Well, (me) I ate boiled yam and spinach sauce.
Laura: I also like spinach sauce.

Cultural notes


When you eat you invite people near you to share your meal using the expression va
mu n or mu n, but this doesnt mean that they will necessarily eat. The
answer to this invitation is ne z Enjoy your meal or go ahead. When you
get that invitation and you feel like eating say akpe = thank you and eat.
The left hand is seen like dirty and is not acceptable at table when youre with peole.
You dont smell food in order to appreciate it and you should not step over the meal.
Kitchen utensils should not be used for other purpose such as taking shower or
hiting someone.
Foods taboos are specific to families, communities or ethnical groups
Traditional restaurants, streets food restaurants or fufu bars serve cheap but
good food and the service is quick. However be careful, they are not always clean
and healthy. Consequently, PCTs and PCVs are not advised to eat salads in those
restaurants.


Proverb: detsivivi ye hea zikpi (a delicious sauce brings you closer to the table:
When the thing becomes interesting people pay more attention to it).


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Vocabulary

Foods/meals

Nuu
Food
Akple
Dough (of maize, millet)
Mlu
rice
Ete
Yam
Agbeli
Cassava
Etek /agbelik
Boiled yam/boiled cassava
Eteba
Ragout/stew (yam)
Ayimlu
Rice and beans prepared together
Dz kpl
Red paste, made with palm nut oil
Koliko
Fried yam
(A)bladzo tt
Fried plantain
(A)bladzoaa
bioled plantain
(A)bladzomeme
Roasted plantain
(Ete) fufu
Pounded yam
(Agbeli) fufu
Pounded cassava
Gawu
Fried bean doughnut
Gali
Cassava flour
Galift
Mixed gali and tomato stew
Galidetsi
Mixed gali, sugar and water
Ablo
Steam-cook paste made of corn porridge
Dzogb/dzogba
Porridge
Aha
Drink
(E) tsi
Water
Aha sese
Alcoholic drink
(E) deha
Palm wine
Soabi
Local alcoholic drink (like gin)


Some of the foods are called by their french name such as:

Chou Cabbage
Carotte Carot
Haricots verts French bean
Pomme de terre Potato
Salade/saladagbe Salad/lettuce
Petit pois Garden peas
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Some sauces


Dts
Sauce
Dtsuui/agbamedts Tomato sauce
Gbomadts
Spinach sauce
(E)dedts
Palm nut sauce
Fufutsi/dtsxl
Slight sauce
Gusidts
Sesame sauce
Kotobritadi
Cocoyam leaves sauce
Azidts
Peanut sauce
Ademedts Ademe sauce (Ademe is a vegetable)
Fetrsidts
Okra sauce

There are many other vegetables used for the sauce such as: soboe, yovogbama, aloma

Ingredients

Edze
Salt
Sabala
Onion
Ayo
Garlic
Atikali
Black pepper
Atadi
Hot pepper
Am
Oil
Amdz
Palm nut oil
Azm
Vegetable oil (made of peanut)
(E)l
Meat
Koklol
Chicken (meat)
(E)nyil
Beef
Gbl
Goat
Hal
Pork
Akpa/akp
Fish
Akpameme
Smoked fish
Akpamumu/ l mumu
Fresh fish
Kanam
Fried fish


Utensils

Agb
Plate
Agbgobo
Bowl
Gatsi
Spoon
Gafo
Fork
Kakla/eh
knife
Kpo/kpu
cup
Eze
Cooking pot
Siliva
Sauce pan
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Verbs

u (n)
To eat (something)
a (n)
To cook
No (n)
To drink
To (fufu)
To pound (fufu)
Tso (sabala)
To cut (onion)
Tu (atadi)
To crash (pepper)
o (dzogb)
To prepare (porridge)

Expressions

Nye me una l o
I dont eat meat
Nye me nona ah sese o
I dont drink alcohol
Nye me una akpl o
I dont eat paste
Evivi t
Its very delicious/good
Nuuua vivi t
The food is very delicious
Edze v detsia
There is too much salt in the sauce
Atadi v detsia
The sauce is spicy
(A)leke w ana teba?
How does one cook yam stew?
(A)leke (n)e ana azidetsi
How you prepare peanut sauce?


Other words

Gb
First
Evelia
Second
Emegb
After that
Dog/hafi
Before
Alo
Or
Eye
Then
Gake
But
(E)kema
So
Ne
If/to/for


Exercises

1) Add a maximum of three words to each word below to make complete sentences.
Example:
u
mu mlu
mu mlu kpl gbomadetsi
Nye kpl Afi mu mlu kpl gboma detsi
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Suggested words :
Ayimlu,
Koliko
a nu
Azidetsi

2) You meet your friend after dinner. Ask questions to know what he/she ate and tell
him/her about your dinner.

Text: (A)leke wotna koliko?

Gba, kpa te, fli lblb alo gbadzgbadz Evelia, kl tefliflia nyuie eye na k e
edzetsime. Emegbe, o ami dzodzi. Ne amia x dzo la, k tea e eme, asi ne fie nyuie hafi
na blu eme. Ne ega fie vie ko lo. Ekema esgbe ne uu.

How to make koliko

First peel the yam, cut it in long or small pieces. Second wash the pieces and steep them into
salt water. After that heat oil in a pan and put the pieces in the oil, let it fry for a while and
turn it. Wait a few minutes more and remove it: your koliko is ready to eat.
3) Read this sentence: me le nu am.
Now suggest substitutes: one, two or three words that could be replaced to make new
sentences.
You get something like:
Me le n am le dzodoe
Me le fufu tom le dzodoe
Adzo le galidetsi nom le xme.

Suggested sentences:
Sewa le ahavivi nom.
Kmi u aple.
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Situation:
You invited a togolese friend to share your lunch with you. After the meal, she/he asks you
for the recipe. So give her/him the recipe.

TDA
Ask your host mother or sister the recipe for a meal you choose. Bring the information to
class and share it with your classmates.


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Lesson 6

Invite someone, accept or decline an invitation





Objectives:

After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

1) Use specific vocabulary and verbs to invite someone
2) Accept or decline an invitation in a polite way to maintain a good relationship with
people, which will support their personal safety and security.


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Dialogue
Akuvi invites her neighbor, the PCV Maro to a local and popular danse named Akpese.

Akuvi: Dadavi Maro, f a?
Maro: wya ?
Akuvi: Nye h mef. Medi be ma kpewo yi eue fime, mee kuku l a?
Maro : Oh, dzdzi nam, akpekaka.
Akuvi: Enyo, eyi fime
Maro: Yoo.

Dialogue in English
Akuvi: Young sister Maro, how are you?
Maro: Im fine, and you?
Akuvi: Im also fine. I would like to invite you to Akpese dance tonight. Would
you like it?
Maro : Oh yes! I would like it, thank you very much.
Akuvi: Well, see you tonight.
Maro: Ok.


Cultural notes


I n general, friends or members of the same family visit each other without any
previous invitation.
You are always welcome to share a meal or a drink or to spend time
together even if it was not planned before.
You are responsible for guests food or drink.
Its necessary to express your limits during an invitation where people will be
offering you food and drink again and again.

Proverb: Nuvi namet me nye dzouamet o: (he who gives or offers a little is not an
enemy, so no matter how little a gift is, enjoy it and be grateful).
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Expressions

Medibe ma kpw I would like to invite you
Medibe ma kpm I would like to invite you (plu)
El be yead kplm a/ would you like to go out with me?
El be mad a?
di be yeadgo a? would he/she like going out?
dzdzi na w be aunu kplm a? would you like to eat with me?
Yoo, enyo, akp ok, thats great, thanks
, edzdzi nam yes, I like it/its a pleasure.
, mel be Yes, I accept to
nyo, mava well, I will come
Ao, akp no, thank you
Mee kk, vovo mele utiny o. Im sorry ,Im not free
Nye ma t va o I cannot come
Nye ma t yi o Icant go
D sugb le dziny Im too busy

Occasions to be invited

Evieto naming ceremony/ outdooring
Ceremony/traditional baptism
Sr e wedding ceremony
Dzigbez birthday
Etsxme/kut funerals
Tsdtaknu baptism ceremony
Knu ceremony
Dezu traditional feast/ celebration
Az feast
Krismas(i) Christmas
Ista easter
e yy new years
Tsa a walk
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Tabaski, ramadan Tabaski, ramadan
Verbs

Kpe ame to invite someone
Di to look for/to want/to desire
L to like/ to love
Dzdzi to please

Exercise

Give an affirmative or a negative answer to these questions in Ewe
a) Would you like to come to my birthday celebration?
_____________________________________________________________
b) Would you like going out with me to night?
_____________________________________________________________
c) Will you be pleased to have dinner with me?
_____________________________________________________________
d) Would you go to the funerals with my family?
_______________________________________________________

Grammar notes

The conditional tense used to express politeness, a wish or to soften a demand or an order is meant in Ewe: medi
be+ future
Example: Medi be makpe w le krsitmas dzi I would like to invite you for Christmas
Subj+be+future subj+verb+object

di be yakpm you would like to invite me
di be yakpw he/she would like to invite you
Mdi be makpw we would like to invite them
Mdi be makpew you would like to invite her/him
Wdi be yewoakp m they would like to invite us.

Situation
Your host sister/brother seems bored at home. Discuss plans to make for the evening.
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TDA
Ask two or three people in your host family or in your neighorhood how they accept or
decline an invitation without frustating your host . Come back to class with your findings.


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51
Lesson 7

Talk about daily activities




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52
Objectives
After studying this lesson, trainees will be able to:
1. Name different daily activities
2. Use the appropriate vocabulary and the present habitual to talk about daily activities in
their community
3. Discuss cultural notes and safety and security issues related to the competence
4. Talk about their daily activities in the community for their good integration.

Text: Aku e gbesiagbe dwww.
disiadi. Aku f na kaba. funa kume y una alo. lena ts.
dna awu, vuna a y yina suk. Le suk megba, ei tna u y gbna e me. Le
zme la, me mlna anyi kba o.

Akus daily activities.

Every day Aku wakes up early. She washes her face and chewes stick, she takes her
bath, gets dressed, combs her hair and goes to school. After class, she is tired and she relaxes.
At night, she doesnt go to bed early.

Cultural notes


I n the morning people wash their face before they greet or start their activities.
Activities are shared according to gender and age
I n general, women take care of household chores.
I ts better to wear appropriate shoes to go to farm.


Proverb: Ed enye ame (work makes life value)




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Vocabulary

Some places

Xme in the room
xdme in the bed room
Dzod kitchen
Tsle bathroom
Tme in the river
Suk school
Dme at the office
Agble field
Asime in the market

Daily activities

D al to sleep
Ny /f to raise
Tsite/tso to wake up
Fu kume to wash face
Lu ge/l ge to shave
Vu a to comb hair
D awu to get dressed
e awu to take off clothes
u alo/kl nume to chew stick and clean teeth/wash mouth
Ml anyi to go to bed
i tsa to take a walk
dzudz/gbme/ime to rest
Kpl nu to sweep the floor
Kl agb to wash dishes
Nya n to do laundry
a n to cook
D dz to light a fire
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u n to eat
ku ts to fetch water
Yi agbl to go to farm
Yi suk to go to school
Yi dme to go to the office
Xle n to read
Fe to play
Ku keke to ride a bicycle

Expressions of time

di sia di everyday
d sia d everynoon
Z sia z every night
etr sia etr every afternoon
Ksia sia Ksia every week
Gasiagame evey time
(E)e sia e every year
Kb early/quickly
dzidzi often
ea wy/gawme sometimes
hafi before
megb after
y and
Mlba finally
Kptea last
Nka wna di sia di? What do you do every morning?
Dka wna gbesiagbe? What do you do everyday?
Nuka (n) e wna/dka newna+ period what do you use to do at that period?
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Exercises:

1. Guessing: the teacher performs an action and the learner guesses the verb (activity)
that corresponds to the action.

2. Give the activities that correspond to these periods of the day:
dime
dme
Fime
Zme
Example: dime
F , lu ge

Grammar notes
na is attached to the verb to indicate habit or regularity of the activity.
The contracted word is a
Subject+verb+na or a+compl.

Example:

Aku f na kb Aku wakes up early (she used to)
ana nu di sia di she cooks every morning.
kuatsi dzidzi often, she (used to fetch) fetches water
Mena ak o I eat bananas
Me yia suk gbesiagbe I go to school every day
Wla nuu ksia sia ksia they buy food every week

The negative form:

Subject+me+verb+na or a+compl.+o

Aku me fna kaba o Aku doesnt wake up early (she doesnt used to...)
Me ana nu di sia di o she doesnt cook every morning.
Me kuatsi dzidzi o she doent fetch water
Nye me una aku o I dont play football often.
M me ona bl dzidzi o you dont play football often.
M me yia suku gbsiagbe o we dont go to school every day.

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Exercises

1) Say what you do at these different periods of the day:

di sia di,
________________________________________________________

d sia d
________________________________________________________

fi sia fi,
_________________________________________________________

Example: di sia di me melena tsi.

2) Change the sentences in exercise 1 into the negative form
Example: Ny me lena tsi di sia di o


3) Use na or a and change the following sentences according to this Example:
Blandine le nu fiam_______Blandine fiana nu_______

a) Mi le asime yim__________________________________________

b) Nusr lawo le ewgbe sr m.________________________________

c) Mi le d wm____________________________________________

d) Me le akpl am ________________________________________

e) Me le fufu tom __________________________________________

f) Nufiala le agbal xlm ____________________________________

g) Sukuviw le nusr m a ? ____________________________________

h) Amerikatw le kk kum _________________________________

i) Jenifer le du um ________________________________________

j) Amy le xme kplm ______________________________________


4) Tell a story about someones daily activities. The trainer begins the story and trainees
continue the story in turn.
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Text:
di sia di, mekplna nu hafi le na tsi. Ne mele tsi v la, meuna nu y medzrana o.
megba, me yina dme. Mewna d sgb le kekeame gake nye me dzudzna o. ei
tena unye t. Mlebala, melena tsi, me mlna anyi y medna al.
Ne mele tsi v la = when I finish to take bath
i tena uny = I get tired
kekeame = in the day

Questions
a) Nuka Abla wna hafi le na ts ?
b) Nuka wwna ne le tsi v?
c) Emegbe ?
d) Nuka Abla wna le dme?
e) ei tena Abla ua?
f) Nuka wwna le ame fime

5) Change the paragraph di sia diyina dme into the negative form.

Situation

During your post visit, your counterpart will ask you about your plan for the week.

Role play

You want to plan a happy hour with your friend over the weekend. Imagine a
conversation with him when you discuss your schedule for the weekend and find the right
moment for your happy hour

TDA

Observe the members of your host family and ask them questions about their daily
activities. Write a paragraph on that for next class.

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Lesson 8

Ask for and give direction and time



Objectives:

After studyng this lesson, trainees will be able to:
1) Use appropriate vocabulary to ask for and give directions and the time
2) Use the imperative form and prepositions to ask for and give directions
3) Discuss cultural notes and safety and security issues related to orientation
4) Give and follow directions in the community.

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Dialogue
J ane a PCV in Afagnan arrives in Pagala for a workshop and she asks Kudzo to indicate
her the road from the center to the village market.

Jane: di Aet
Kudzo: di, dAdavi, f a?
Jane: , mef . Mee kk mka mto ayi asime?
Kudzo: Me ss o, z yi g t, ne eo amdzila nato nuusime,
megba, z t vase mdzkplia nu, xa kna nuusime y naz vi,
akp asia le gw
Jane: Akp kk
Kudzo: Me su akp o.

Dialogue in Englsih

Jane: Good morning, sir.
Kudzo: Good morning young lady. How are you?
Jane: Im fine. Please how do I get to the market?
Kudzo: Its not difficult, go straight to the paved road and turn right. After that
go straight to the crossroads, turn right and walk for a few minutes, you will see
the market in front of you (the market is in front of you).
Jane: Thank you very much.
Kudzo: Youre welcome.

Cultural notes


I n general, indications about distance are not precise
Sometimes with illiterate people, time is related to the activities of the day (like children
going to school, muslems morning prayer)
Some people will come late for meetings
People would prefer to lead you to the place by themselves or by having a child accompagn
you.
Keep asking people for directions until you arrive at your destination.


Proverb: mtabiala me bu na o (He who asks for direction never gets lost)
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Vocabulary

Some places

Asime
In the market
K dzi
Hospital, health center
Fiame
In the Chiefs house
Suk
School
Fiase (me)
(in the) shop
uoe
Taxi station
Ahanoe
Bar
Nue
Restaurant
M
Way, road
Am
Paved road
Afm
Path
Mdzekpli
Crossroads
Dzodz
Traffic light
Ablme
Traditional public place
Auta
Beach
Posu
Post office


Verbs

Fia m
To indicate
Fia
To indicate
Yi
To go
Yi miame
To go left
Yi usime
To go right
Va
Come
Dzo
To leave
Z
To walk
Do g
To arrive in advance
To/yi miame
To go left
Tso mme
To cross the road
Tte
To stop
Xa kna
To turn
Tr
To go back/to return
Tr va
To come back
Tr yi
To go back
o
Fia
To arrive
To show
Fiam
Show me
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Bu m/tra m
To get lost
Kpl yi
To go with
kpl va
To come with

Expressions

Miame
Left
Nu (usime)
Right
didi
Its far
Medidi o
Its not far
tskpoe
Its close
megb
After
Tso afisia/tso fiya
From here
(A)fima
There
Fika uoea le?
Where is the taxi station?
Vasee
To/until
Ne la
If ,

Expressions related to time

Ga
Hour/time
Ga nen o le gbw?
What time is it?
o ga eve
Its two oclock
o ga et kple miniti blaeve
Its three twenty
o ga eka kple af
Its one and half
o di ga ade
Its six a.m.
sus/kpt miniti at ne ga dre
Its five to seven
Metsi megb
Im late
Medo g
I m in advance/ I come early
Gakame makpa?
When will we close?
Gakame madogo?
When will we meet?
Tsi megbe
To be late
N gamedzi
To be on time


Exercises

1) Make sentences with these words:

Example: k dzi___Nnye le k dzi__

a) Nuue
_______________________________________________________

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b) Ahanoe
______________________________________________________

c) Fiaeme
______________________________________________________

d) ue
______________________________________________________

e) Auta___________________________________________________


2) Make sentences with these expressions:

a) To nuusime
_____________________________________________________

b) Vasee
______________________________________________________

c) Fika
______________________________________________________

d) Fiam
______________________________________________________


3) Read the time on these pictures:





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Grammar notes

i) Prepositions in general the follow the noun.
Here are some:

Prepositions(ewe) English Example
-me
in
Nusrlaw le ume.
Trainees are in the vehicle
-dzi
on
Agbala le kpldzi
The book is on the table
-uti
at, against
Ele kpl uti
He is at the table
-kume, -g
in front of, face
Kdzia le sukua kume
The hospital faces the school.
-gb
near, close to, to
Fiasea le uoea gb
The shop is near the station
-xa
near, nearby
Sukua le asia xa
The school is near the market
-megbe,
-megbedome
behind
Aea le nuuea gb
The house is behind the restaurant
-titina
-dodome
middle, center
Fiaeme le dua e titina/dodome
The chiefs house is in the center of the village
-dome
betwen
K dzia le asia kple sukua dome
The hospital is betwen the market and the school


ii) Imperative: the formation and utilization are the same as in English, except that the plural personal
pronouns (m, m) are not dropped out.

Example:
yi g t go straight
z t vasee go straight to the
m yi g vi lets continue a little
m xa kna e miame (let you) turn left


Exercises

1) Trainees execute orders from trainer and then they do the same thing one by one
between themselves.

2) Practice question and answer: to be done among trainees

a) Ga nenie o? (15h00)
_________________________________________________

b) Ga nenie madzo? (10h20)
__________________________________________________


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c) Gakame Adzo va? (18h35)
________________________________________________

d) Ganeneme sukviwo gbna etrme? (15h00)
__________________________________

3) Give indications based on the map below:

From:
a) kdzi to bank
b) uoe to bloe
c) Ahanoe to posu
d) Asime to nuue

























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Situation

You are inviting your classmates to your host familys house. Give them directions from the
tech house to your house.

TDA

Go to your host father, ask him how to get to a place you want to go to, write down the
information in ewe and come back with it to class.




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Lesson 9

Talk about transportation





Objectives:

After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

1) Use the present progressive, interrogative words and the future tense
2) Ask questions about the coast, travel time and destinations to be able to travel
independently
3) Discuss travel conditions and strategies to travel safely


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Dialogue

The PCV Michele goes to her post Nyassive

Buka: Dadavi woez
Michele: Yoo, ef a?
Buka: , me f . Fika yim nele ?
Michele : Me le Nyassive yim.
Buka : Nyassive uoea le (a)fima aa
Michele: Yoo, akpe. (She goes to the place)
Dreva: Nyassive ame eka, Nyassive ameeka!
Dadavi Nyassive a?
Michele: , nene nye uoga a?
Dreva: Biye dz enyi koe, va n anyi mi dzo.
Michele: Yoo, gakame miadzo?
Dreva: Madzo fifia.


Dialogue in English

Buka: Welcome young lady
Michele: Ok, how are you?
Buka: Im fine, where are you going?
Michele: Im going to Nyassive.
Buka: The vehicles to Nyassive are over there
Michele: Well, thank you. (She goes to the place)
Dreva: One person for Nyassive, young lady are you going to Nyassive?
Michele: Yes, whats the travel fee?
Dreva: Only eight hundred. Come take a seat for departure.
Michele: Ok, when are we leaving?
Dreva: We will leave soon.

Cultural notes


Travelers need to be patient enough because drivers will try to have as many
passengers as possible before they depart and they are often overloaded.
I n some remote villages, you can be waiting the whole day, or vehicles are available
only on market days.
Its important to have your valuables on you, not packed in your bags...
You should check your luggage whenever a passenger is getting off along the way.


Proverb: evi matsadukp egblna be yen e detsi koe vivina (A kid that has never
visited other countries thinks her mother is the best cook)

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Vocabulary

Means of transportation

Af foot/feet
Keke bicycle
Kekevi handcar
Em/dzokeke/zemidz motocycle
(E)u vehicle/car
ug truck
Aklo pirogue
Yameu airplane

Words and expressions

uoe car station
Dreva driver
uoga travel fee
Agba luggage
Agbaga/agbatsi luggage charge

Verbs

o u
To take a car/vehicle
o m
To take a moto
o yameu
To take an air plane
Ku keke
To bike
Ku u
To drive
i
To get down
Dzo
To leave
Dzo yi
To leave for
Gb
To come back
Yi udoe
To go to the station
Tte/nte
To stop


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Expressions

Mai e kuma
I will get off in Kuma
Mai e fiya
I will get off here
Nenie wo ona u tso yi?/
Nenie nye udoga tso yi ?
How much do you pay from to ?
udoga enye /wotuna
You pay
ukawoe li?
Which vehicle are available
ukawoe yina ?
Which vehicles are going ?
Gakame miadzo?
When are we leaving?
Miadzo ga et
We will leave at three
Gakame miao?
When will we arrive?
Miao ga ene
Well get there at four.
Edidia?
Is it far?
, edidi/ao, medidi o
Yes, its far/no, its not far
miao fifia
Well arrive soon
Dreva, mai
Driver, Ill stop there
Dreva, tte mai/nte mai
Stop driver, I will get down here
Mayi mava
Im going and I will be back
Mayi Lome mava
Im going to Lome and I will be back
Gaoo nene miaw hafi ao?

How long does it take to reach there?

Exercises

1) What will you say in Ewe in these situations:

a) To know the tariff from Kpalime to Atakpame

__________________________________________________________

b) To know what time you are departing?

_______________________________________________________

c) To know when you will get there?

__________________________________________________________

d) To tell the driver youll get down at Govie

________________________________________________________
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2) Make sentences with the verbs below:

a) o u _____________________________________________________

b) ku keke ___________________________________________________

c) dzo yi ____________________________________________________

d) gb tso ___________________________________________________

e) i e+place ________________________________________________

f) tte _______________________________________________________


Grammar notes

i Review interrogative terms (nenie, fika, gakame)
* Nenie woo na ua? How much is the tariff?
* Fika uoea le ? where is the car station ?
*Gakame miadzo ? when/what time are we leaving?

ii. Review present progessive
Mele keke ku (m) Im riding bicycle
Mele uoe yi(m) Im going to the station

iii. Future tense

To have the future tense you change the e in the subject pronoun into a whereas the verb remains
unchanged.

Ma Mayi suku. I will go to school

o u. You will take a vehicle
a
Ale u. He will buy a car
Mia
Miai e fiya. Well get down here
Ma
Mai e fiya. Youll get down here
Woa
Woadzo ets. Theyll leave tomorrow


Exercises

1) Answer these questions:

a) Gakame mia dzo?
______________________________________________
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b) Gakame (n)a ku keke?
______________________________________________

c) Gbekagbe miadzo le Adeta?
______________________________________________

d) Drevakae ayi Lome ets?
_______________________________________________

e) (A)fika miayi ksiagbe?
_______________________________________________

f) Dka aw ets dime hafi ava suku?
_______________________________________________


1) Read the dialogue and answer the questions

Bob goes to the station in Tomegbe

Dreva: Woez loo!
Bob: Yoo, mee kuku ukawoe le Lome yim?
Dreva: Woawoe ya. Ele yi a?
Bob: , nenie nye uoga ?
Dreva: Kotoku eka kple af. Yi x tike na va
Bob: Gakame ua adzo
Dreva: Fifia
Bob: Enyo, gaoo nene miaw le mdzi?
Dreva: Gaoo et
Bob: Dreva, midzoe
Dreva: Nte vie, ekpt ameeka

Notes

Woawoe ya here they are
Tike ticket
Ameeka kpt there is one person left

Questions:

a) Fika yi Bob le?
b) Nenie nye udoga?
c) Gaoo nenie woa w le dzi?
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d) Gakame ua adzo

2) Translate into Ewe the following sentences

a) Which vehicle is going to Atakpame?
_________________________________________________

b) Im going to Heheatro.
_________________________________________________

c) I will go to Batume tomorrow morning
________________________________________________

d) My father will take the plane to Senegal
________________________________________________

e) We will take the canoe to Togoville
_______________________________________________

f) I will bike to Bodze tomorrow?
_______________________________________________

g) Where will you go tomorrow?
_______________________________________________

h) How long will we be traveling?
_______________________________________________

Situation

You want to go Badou. Try to find the right vehicle at the station, ask for the tariff,
duration

TDA
Go to the station in Adeta. Get information about these tariffs:

Adeta Danyi
Adeta Notse
Adeta Atakpame
Adeta Bodze

Ask about vehicles and travel conditions. Come back to class with the information.
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Lesson 10

Talk about ones state of health







Objectives:

After studying this lesson, trainees will be able to:

a) Name different parts of the human body
b) Talk about their state of health or ask for someones state of health
c) Use the direct complement personal pronouns
d) Discuss Togolese ideas and behaviors regarding sickness
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Dialogue

Tanya meets Aku on her way to her friends house.

Tanya: Dadavi Aku, ef a?
Aku: , mef . Fika yi ele?
Tanya: Meyi xl nye gb, woya e?
Aku: Meyi fiaseme male atike
Tanya: Oh, nukua ele ww?
Aku: Mele d le, eta le vem eye dme h le dum
Tanya: Woele kpe(m)
Aku: Yoo, akpe


Dialogue in English

Tanya: Young lady Aku, how are you?
Aku: Im fine, where are you going?
Tanya: Im going to my riends house, and you?
Aku: Im going to buy medicine in the store
Tanya: Oh, what wrong with you?
Aku: Im sick, my head and my stomach hurt
Tanya: Im sorry for you
Aku: Ok, thank you

Cultural notes


People are not direct in saying whats wrong. They will first say everything is
ok before they mention any sickness or sad new
Sickness is seen like a punishment from God or ancestors or caused by sorcery
People will not necessary go to the hospital or to a health center when they are
sick, but they will try different treatments by themselves with medicine or
traditional infusions
People believe a lot in traditional healers


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Vocabulary

Human body

(E)ta
Head
dme
Stomach
ku
Eye
Au
Tooth
Nume
Mouth
(E)to
Ear
ti
Nose
Af
Foot
Eno
Breast
Ali
Waist
(E)veme
Throat
Akta
Chest
Dzime
Back

Verbs

Ve/u
To hurt/ache
Yi kdzi
To go to hospital
Do abiui
To have a shot
No atike
To take medicine
le atike
To buy medicine
le d
To get sick
Sra dme
To have diarrhea
Kpe(e)kpe
To cough

Expressions

Nuka ele wwo(m)? whats wrong with you?
Dme le unyem/ dme le um my stomach aches
Eta le vem/um I have headaches
ku le Esi ve. Esi has eye infection
Tome le vem I have ear infection
Me le (yi) kodzi yi(m) Im going to hospital
Male atike Im going to buy/I will buy a medecine
Vevesese pain
Avlkui worms
Avlkui le fu e(m) nam I have worms
Abi le dme na evia the kid has stomach infection
Mele atike nom Im taking a medecine
kita do abui nam the doctor/nurse give me a shot
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Mele ekpe kpe(m)/ekpe om Im coughing
Atiketsi malaria
Atiketsi le lem/atiketsi le fu e nam I have malaria
Dmesasra diarrhea
Sida dlele/ikanaku AIDS
Vuv cold



Exercise

Make sentences with these verbs by using u or ve

Au

Eta

Dme

(E)tome

Al

ku


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Grammar notes

i. The complement personal pronouns. They are:

Eta le venye(m) my head aches
Eta le vewo(m) your head aches
Dme le eu(m) her/his stomach aches
Au le mia ve(m) our teeth hurts
Au le ma ve(m) your teeth hurts
Au le wo ve(m) their teeth hurts

Note: People also say: eta le vem instead of eta le venyem.


Exercises

Translate into Ewe :

a) Whats wrong with you?

b) I have stomachaches.

c) My head aches.

d) The kids are coughing.

e) He is going to the traditional healer.

f) You have malaria.

TDA

Talk with Mister X, ask him the common diseases in the area and their treatment.

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Lesson 11

Express ones sympathy in a happy or sad event







Objectives:

After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

1) Talk about the culturally accepted behavior during a happy or sad event
2) Use correct words and expressions to express ones sympathy in those events.



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Dialogue

Ami: Oh, Yawa, nye me ga kpw kp o!
Yawa: , (e)tnye va ku ta meyi vaw Ksia eka le ae.
Ami: Aoo, nye me se o, baba nawo sea!
Yawa: Yoo, akpe.
Ami: Mawu ut aw esiae!
Yawa: Yoo, enyo, miadogo.

Dialogue in English

Ami: Oh, Yawa, I havent seen you for a long time!
Yawa: Yes. My father died and I spent a week in my village.
Ami: Oh! I didnt hear that, Im sorry for you
Yawa: Ok, thank you.
Ami: God will take care of every thing!
Yawa: Ok, well, see you.


Cultural notes


Its very important to express ones sympathy to a friend, a collegue, your
neighbor during a sad event (sickness, accident, death) by visiting or making
a symbolic gift of money, food or anything else depending on your relationship.
You do the same for happy events and you congratulate.
Failing to give a moral support (especially to pay a simple visit) would make
people think that you have no regard toward people or you are not interested in
the community in which you are living.


Proverb: Amelame ye dze na ame yome. (He who loves you will turn up at the right time.)
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Vocabulary

Events:

(E)kunya death
Afkunya accident
Dlele sickness
Efi theft
Dzobiae/ dzobiagble fire
Dgblename losing ones job
Xmumu house falling
Tsideta baptism
Vidzidzi birth
Dziuu le dodokp passing a test
Frixx Freeing (apprentices)
Dzigbezuu birthday celebration
Sree marriage
Dkpkp finding a job

Words and expressions:

Woe kpe/Babanawo condolences (to you)
Miawoekpe/Babanami condolences(to you plural)
Ela ka e me/ ela dze me It will be fine/better (sickness)
Mawu la we God will handle the situation.
Woenyi ta congratulations to you
Miawoenyi ta congratulations to you (plural)
Woedo le me you are lucky
Miawoedo le me you are lucky (plural)
Akpena Mawu thank be to God

Verbs

Do baba to offer ones sympathy/to give condolences
Do gbe to greet
Sra amekp/di amekp to visit a person
Yi ame gb to go to someones house
Kafu ame to congratulate someone

Exercises:

1) Say the correct expression in these situations:

a) Tsideta
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b) Dlele

c) Afkunya

d) Frixx

e) Vidzidzi

f) Ekunya


Grammar notes:

The emphatic form of the subject pronouns:
When emphasized or occuring in the middle of a sentence the subject pronouns become:

Me nye
I
w, we
you
, y
he/she/it
Mi mie, mia, miawoe
we
M me, ma, mawoe
you
Wo woe, woawoe
they


Example:
miedo baba na Komla we offered condolences to Komla
Woawoe do leme they are lucky


Exercises:

Translate into Ewe:

a) I congratulate my friend.


b) We give condolences to Yawa



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c) You (plural) are lucky


d) It will be fine/better


e) Congratulations to you young lady.

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Lesson 12

Ask for help in an emergency case




Objectives:

After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

1) Use appropriate words and expressions to ask for help in an emergency case
2) Use complement pronouns
3) Discuss the safety and security support system in their community

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Dialogue

During a travel, Atsu a Togolese young man tries to harass Elinore and she reacts.

Atsu: Dadavi, ef a?
Elinore: , mef
Atsu: Mee kuku, kwo e?
Elinore : knye enye Elinore.
(Atsu comes closer to Elinore)
Atsu: Elinore, nuwo dzdzi nam ut, maewo.
Elinore: Ao, nye me di o, kp nyuie!
(Atsu reaching for her)
Elinore: asim, megaw o, bu okuiwo vie
Atsu: Yoo, mesee, ev.

Dialogue in English

Atsu: Young lady, how are you?
Elinore: I m fine.
Atsu: Please whats your name?
Elinore: My name is Elinore.
(Atsu comes closer to Elinore)
Atsu: Im interested in you, I want to marry you.
Elinore: No, I dont like that. Be careful
Elinore: Leave me alone, dont do it, respect yourself
Atsu: Ok, I understood. Its over now.


Cultural notes


Solidarity between people in the community is very strong, so you just call out if
you need others help.
I n towns or big cities people are more individualistic, and may be more reluctant
to offer help.


Guessing game:zevitukui a nu du u (just a cry; it is used to gather people for help.)
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Vocabulary:

Theft:

Boboboe! alarming cry in an emergency case
Fiafi/fiafi loo! Oh thief!
Milee loo! catch him!
Milee nam catch him for me!

Fire

Boboboe! alarming cry in an emergency case
Edzo dze ae nam loo! my house is on fire
Miva x nam loo come help me!
Meku loo/Me d loo Im dead

Harassment/Attack

Nukae dz whats that?
asim mavo/gonam leave me alone
Nye me dina numa o I dont like that
Kp nyuie/kp nyuie be careful
Megaw nam o dont do that to me.
Bu okuiwo respect yourself.
Bu le gbnye get away from me
Mile avua! take care of your dog/control/watch
your dog
Eda! Eda! miva wui nam loo snake, snake, come help me kill it

Sickness

Lame me le kmam o Im not doing well
Meo la yi Lome I have to go to Lome
Mee kuku midi u nam please find a vehicle for me
Mee kuku miy Afi nam please, call me Afi
Mayi xlnye gb mava I will visit my friend and Ill be back
Nye ma gb egbe o I wont be back today
Magb dzoagbe I will be back on Monday

To propose help

Makpe e utiwo a? may I help you?
Madrowo a? may I help you take your load off?
Nuka mateu w na wo? What can I do for you?
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Madi u na wo a?/F will I find a vehicle for you?/please yes
Ao, akpe no thanks
, adzdzi nam. yes, I will like that.

Exercises

If you were in these situations what would you say?

a) Dzobiafe (fire in your house)

b) Fififi (theft)

c) Nuodoneame (harassement)

d) Dlele (sickness)


Grammar notes

Complement pronouns

asim leave me alone
Madi u nawo I will find a vehicle for you
Mia kpee euti lets help him
Miva x na mi come help us
Ex na m he helps you
Ex na w he helps them

Note that the complement pronouns when they are preceded by na mean to

E fle ttsi nam He bought a flashlight to me.
Ele ttsi na Afi He bought a flashlight to Afi.
Ele ttsi n He bought a flashlight to her
N to her/tohim


Exercises:

1) Answer the following questions in affirmative:

a) Ma na w a ? nam

b) Madro w a?

c) Mafiaw a?

d) Mawui na w a?
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e) Maw na wo a?

f) May na w a?

Y = to call
Dro = to take a load on/take a load off


2) A: ask questions to have answers from B:

Koku be nuka? or Jen be nuka?

1
Koku be :
-
-
-
-
2
Nancy be:
- asim
- Kp nyuie
- Bu okuiwo
- Megawe nam o.

3
Maria be:
- Mdi u nam
- Lme me le kkm nam o.
- Mi kplm yi kdzi
- Y Kmi nam

4
Jen be:
-
-
-
-


B: Ask questions to have answers from A:

Maria be or Nancy be

1
Koku be:
Milee loo!
Fiafi loo!
Mile go!
Boboboe!

2
Nancy be:
-
-
-
-

Maria be:
-
-
-
-
Jen be:
- Meku loo!
- Me d loo!
- Mi va x nam loo !
- Boboboe !
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3) Which words or expressions would you use in these situations:

Sickness

Attack

Situation:

a) You go to a bar and you see somebody who tries to take your bike. React.

b) You are at your post, you are not doing very well and you cannot walk.
What would you do?

What would you tell your homologue when he visits you?

TDA:

a) Go to a trainer or someboby in the community who comes from your
region and ask him about specific words and expressions people use in case of
emergency (if it is possible).

b) Do the same with your host father to know what your host community
does.
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Lesson 13

Talk about her/his work
















Objectives:

After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

1) Use appropriate vocabulary and the conditional tense to talk about his/her job in the
community
2) Discuss the importance of foreign help (especially American help) in Ewe
communities.
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Dialogue

Susane a PCV goes to the Chief of her post. She introduces herself and explains her job to
him.

Tgbui: Dadavi, woez loo!
Susane: Yoo loo, di Togbui bubut.
Tgbui: di vinye, ef a?
Susane: mef .
Tgbui: Gbnye fa.
Susane: Meva be mae okuinye fiaw.
Tgbui: Ameka (n)enye?
Susane: Menye amerika llnudwla. Mawd kple m.
Tgbui: Dka wge (n)eva?
Susane: Meva be mawd na nynuwoe ggbeyiyi. Mafia nu kledziviwo kple
dkplaviw. Maw d kple detw, denw kple tsitsaw.
Tgbui: Yoo, enyo ut, wez kaka!


Dialogue in English

Chief: Welcome, young lady.
Susane: Good morning honorable chief.
Chief: Good morning my daughter, how are you?
Susane: Im fine.
Chief: Whats the reason of your visit?
Susane: Im here to introduce myself to you.
Chief: Ok, who are you?
Susane: Im an American Volunteer and I will work with you.
Chief: What kind of job will you do?
Susane: Im here to work for girls education and empowerment. I will teach students
and apprentices. I will work with patrons and teachers.
Chief: Well, you are welcome.


Cultural notes


Americans are well regarded in the community and everyboby would like to
befriend or to collaborate with them.
People think Americans are rich and powerful and have solution for any
situation


Proverb: D enye ame (work makes life value)

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Vocabulary:

Words and expressions:

GEE: nynuw e ggbededenyawo gbkpkp
Mawd xena+GEE

Suku school
Sukuviw students
Tsitsa teacher
Dkplavi apprentice
Det/Den patron
Dzilaw parents
Kledzi college
Dwe office/workroom

CHAP: Dukme lamesenyawo dodo e g

Mawd xena + CHAP
Kdzi clinic, hospital, health unit
kita nurse, doctor
Da vi to weigh child
Si abta to vaccinate
Dzi vi to give birth
Vidzidzi child birth
Nuuunanaeviw child nutrition
Vinwo/vidadaw mothers
Sidad AIDS
Dlele sickness
Akta ww e vidzidzi uti family planning
Maw d kple eviw I will work with kids
Maw d kple vinw I will work with mothers

NRM: nusiwo foxla mi nyawo gb kpkp
Maw d xena nusiwo foxla mi takpkp.

Agble farm
Agbledela farmer
Abme in the garden
Ati tree
Amawo vegetables
d W ab/Amagbledede to grow a garden
De agble to make a farm
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Do ati to plant trees
Do ama to plant vegetables
(E)l animal
Nyi l to raise animals
i adokpo to construct a stove

SED: asitsatsanyawo dodo e g
Maw d xena+ SBD
Maw d xena
Asitsala trader
Fiase shop
Fiaset shop keeper/ owner
Habb group/association
Es tontine
Dz s to create a tontine
Dzra ga o to save money
Gadzraoe bank,
Do ga to have a loan
Do ga na asitsalawo to give a loan to traders
Xe e/tu e to pay
le nu to buy
Ale profit/benefit
u ale to make benefit

Verbs

otoo na to sensibilise
Fia nu to teach
Xl nu to advise

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Expressions

Meotoo na sukuviwo tso sida dlele uti I sensitize students on AIDS.
Maxl nu nynuwo kue nududunana eviwo uti I will advise women about child
nutrition.
Mafia nu tsitsawo kue belele na sukuviwo uti I will sensitize teachers on how to take
care of students.
W bb kple/ W takpekpe kple to have a meeting with
Dka (n)ewna? whats your profession?
Dka (n)aw? what job will you do?
Dka wge (n)eva/ Dka we (n)eva? what job are you here for?



Grammar notes:

i. Review the present habitual and the future tense.
Use the following verbs in sentences.

- do ati - do ga
- si abota - fia nu
- da vi - wo bobo

* in the present habitual.
Example: me do na ati kple sukuviwo

* in the future tense.
Example: ma do ati kple agbledelawo

ii. Conditional tense
The stucture is

me di be + subj +future+ verb + compl

Me di be ma yi agble. (See the lesson on Invitation.)

iii. To express a goal:
You change di in me di be with another verb:
Va to come
Yi to go
Gb to come back

Example:
Me va be I came to
Me va be ma w d kple w. I came to work with them
Me yi be I went to
Me yi kdzi be masi abta na eviw I went to the hospital to vaccinate kids.
Me gb be I came back to

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Me gb be mia wd kple nynuwo I came back to work with women.


Exercises

1) Make sentences with: me di be , me va, me yi be.

2) Dialogue: during her post visit Laura explains her job to her host father
Kofi

Kofi: Woez loo!
Laura: Yoo loo, gue,
Kofi: Gue, mee kuku dka wge (n)eva le miagb?
Laura: Meva be ma kpe e ma uti.
Kofi: Le goka me?
Laura : Maw d le kdzi. Ma si abta na eviw, mada vi kple kitawo,
maxl nu nynuw eye mafia dzogboo vinw.
Kofi: Enyo ut. Edzesi Jeremy a?
Laura: , ele Vokutime.
Kofi: Dka ww na?
Laura: Edo na ati kple agbledelaw, ei na adokpo, efia na amagbledede nynuw.
Kofi: Yoo, dadavi akpe, miagadogo.
Laura: Yoo, eyi ts.

oo dzogb to make porridge
Dzesi ame to know someone

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Questions:

a) Dka wla Laura nye?
b) Dka Laura va be yea w?
c) Dka Jeremy wna le Vokutime?


Situation:

You meet a community member who wants to know more about your program and
the job you will do at your post.


TDA

Go to your host father and ask him to explain his job to you. (What he does exactly).

Tell him about your work. Report to the next class.






























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Useful expressions

1) Conversation managers:

Mee kuku/taflatse please/excuse me
Blewu slowly
Gbl blewu say it slowly
Ga gbl ke say it again
Egme e? what does it mean?
gme e? what does mean?
Nye me se egme o I dont understand it.
Nye me see o. I cant hear you.
Eme kna w a? Is that clear for you?
Eme k a? Is that clear?
Ao, eme me k nam o. Its not clear for me.
Ele tsts(m) akpa /ets akpa Its too fast
Ga gbl ne masee nyuie say it slowly again so that I can
understand it
Ebe nuka? you said what?
Nuka? what?
Meefu o Its not a problem
Mew naneke o Itdoesnt matter
Ese eme a? do you understand?
, me se eme yes, I do
Ao, nye me se eme o No, I dont
Ese a? did you hear that?
, yoo mese. Ok, yes I heard it.
Nyawo a? /Nyatee a? is it true?
Nyawoe/ nyateee Its true.
Nye me nya o I dont know

2) To express needs:

Tsik le wunyem/tsik le wum Im thirsty.
Mano tsi I will/want to drink
D le wunyem/ le wum Im hungry
Mau nu I will/ I want to eat
Nu thing in general
ei te unye/nu tik nam Im tired
Magbe me/maie me I want to relax
Magbe me vie I want to relax a little
Meyi anyimle Im going to bed
Mayi kpxa mava/mayi afdzi mava I want to use the latrine/bathroom
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Dzodzo le wnyem/dzodzo le wm Im hot
Avuv le w nyem/avuv le wm Im cold
Me di be masrnu vie I would like to study a little


3) At home:

Agoo! excuse me
Ame/ Ame ne va ok, come in
Woez/ Miawoez welcome
Mee kuku n anyi please, have a seat
Mee kuku, min anyi please, have a seat (to more than
one person)
Gbnye fa/Miagb fa what are you here for?
Meyi asime mava Im going to the market and I will be back
Mayi dme mava Ill go to the office and I will come back
Gb kaba come back early
kekea nenyo have a good day
Miu nu lets eat
Va miu nu come lets eat
Eyi ts see you tomorrow

4) On travel:

Mayi mdzi mava/meyi mdzi mava Ill travel and I will come back
Mdzi ne k/ Naz nyuie/xede nyuie safe journey
Miaz nyuie/mixe de nyuie? safe journey(to more than one person)
(N)agb kaba come back early
Agbamekanuwo ne gb bring good things back
Mdzitwo e? what about people from where you
come from?
Babayi bye bye

5) Compliments:

Awua dzew ut your dress is very nice.
Enya kp/ Enya kpkp you look nice
Eganya kp di ya ut you look so nice this morning
Awuwa dzdzi nam I like your dress
E dzdzi nam I like it.
Ava dzdzi nam I like the cloth

6) At work:

We le edzi/miawoe le edzi Good job
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Yoo (loo) ok
Eda e? what about the work
Mile edzi a? how are doing with it?
Mile edzi we are on it
Eda sese ut the work is very difficult
Eda menya ww o its not easy to do./its not an easy job

7) The weather:

Dzodzo le its hot
Dzodzo le ww(m) ut its very hot
Avuv le ww(m) ut its very cold
Eya/Aya wind
Eya/Aya le oo(m) its windy
Tsi le dzadza(m) its raining
Xexeame k the weather is clear
d le veve(m) its shining.
Etsi o it will rain
Xexeame ts its dark

8) At a feast:

Az z ut/ Az vivi ut the feast was very good
Az bk good feast
Az bk na m loo good feast to you
Az loo
Az see

Other expressions

Efia be its means that
Enyo be its good that
Ele nam be its necessary for me that
Ele vevie be its important to
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English to Ewe Glossary

A

accept l
accident afku
ache ve, veve
across tso me
act (behave) w
action nuww
advance yi g
advice aau
after (e)megbe
afternoon etrme
again ga, ke
age exx, tsitsime
agree l e dzi
aid kpee ame u
airplane yameu
all kat, blibo
allow e m na, na m
alone eka, ee
already xoxo
also h
although togb be
always esiayi, gasiagame
America Amerika
ancestor tgbui tgbui, blemat
and kple, eye
animal (e)l
another bubu
answer o nya u, uoo
any e, ewo
anything nusianu
apologize do taflatse
appear dze, do
approximate abe
arm ab
around foxla
arrive va o, va
as abeene
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ask bia, biase
B
bad v , gbegbl
bag kotoku, golo, akpete
ball bl
banana aku
bank gadzraoe
barber akpala
basket kusi
bathroom tsilee
battery (ttsi)kpe
beach uta
beat o
beautiful nyakpkp
become tr zu, zu
because elabena
bed abati
bedroom xdme
beer biya
begin dzegme
behind megbe, godo
believe x se, xdzi se
belt blti, alidziblanu
between dome, titina
big lolo
bird xe, xevi
bite u
black yib
blood u
blue bl
boat tdzi u
book agbal
bottle atukpa
box aaka
boy utsuvi, subla
break e, gb
bridge tdzisasra, ana
bring tsva, heva
burn t dzo, bidzo
bureau dwe
but gake
buy le


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C

call y
canoe aklo
car (auto) u
carpenter atikpala, kapita
carry dro nu
catch le
cement simiti
center titina, dodome
century e alafa eka
chair zikpui
change li
chat o dze, ka aseu
chief fia, ameg
choose tia
church gbedox
cigarette siga
city du g
classroom sukuxme
clean dzadze, kkoe
clea k
close tu
cloth av
clothes awudodo, awu
coconut yovone
come va
comic ikokoe
complain fa konyi
console fa ak na
continue yi dzi
corn bli
cost x asi
cry do li
cut tso


D

dance u e
dark yib
daughter vinynuvi
day keke
dead kuku, eku
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deep goglo, globo
depend ku e u
differ to vovo
different vovovo
difficult ses, seu
disease dlele
dish agba
distribute ma nu
do w
doctor atikewla, dyla, kita
dog avu
door tru
draw ta nu
dry uu
dream ku dr
drug atike
duty ddeasi


E

each esiae
ear to
early kaba
earth anyigba
east edzee
effort agbagbadzedze
egg azi
empty ulu, gblo
encourage de dzi o
end nuwuwu
enemy fut, ket
enjoy kp dzidz le
evening fi, fisi
everybody amesiame
everything nusianu
everywhere afisiafi
except negbe
extra tx
eye ku



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F

face kume
fall dze anyi, ge
famous x k
far didi
farm agble, ke
farmer agbledela
fast (rapid) kaba
festival kekenyuie
few ewo, vie
field agble
fire dzo
first gb, gbt
flower seoo
food nuuu
force us
foreigner amedzro
forest ave
forget l nube
fork gaflo
forward ggbe
fry t
full yy, blibo

G

game fefe
gas station ami dzrae
garden ab
gate agbo
gather ou
get x
gift nunana
girl nynuvi
give na, ts na
glass (drinking) kpo
god Mawu
gold sika
government dziuu
green dama, mumu
ground anyigba
groundnut azi
grow tsi, lolo e dzi
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guest amedzro
guide kpl ame, kplla


H

habit nusi ma ame
hair ea, fu
half af
hand asi
handsome dze eka
happen dz, va me
happiness dzidz
hard ses
health lmes
healthy sesie
hear se, o to
heart dzi
heavy kpe, kpekpe, lolo
height kkme
high kk
highway mg
history utinya
hole do
honest anukwaret, nyateet
hunter adela


I

idea susu, tamesusu
if ne, nenye be
immediately enumake
important vevie
insect nu dzodzoe
inspector dzikpla, nunla
instrument dwnu
interesting vivi
invite kpe ame, y ame va
iron ga yib, awuliga

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J

job d
join w eka kple
joke fefe
journey mzz
joy dzidz
jump tikpo
justice dzdzenyenye


K

key safui
kill wu
kilometer agbadroe
king fia
kichen nudae, dzodoe
knee klo
knife h
know nya nu, dze si


L

labor dww, agbagbadzedze
ladder atrakpui
land anyigba
language gbe, gbegbgbl
last mamlt
late tsi megbe
laugh ko nu
law se, sedede
lead kpl
leader gnla, kplla
learn sr nu
leave dzo
leg ata
length didime
letter agbal, leta
lie ka aatso, da alakpa
life agbe, agbenn
line fli
listen o to, le to e
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little su, vie
long didi
look kp
lose bu
luck (good) dzgbenyuie, aklama


M

machine m
malaria atiketsi
male utsu, atsu
manioc agbeli
manner nnme, nuwna
many gee (wo)
mark dzesi, dzesinu
maybe ewoh
meaning gmeee
mechanic gbede
medecine atike
meeting takpekpe
merchant asitsala
million akpe akpe
miracle nukunu
mirror auui
month leti, dzinu
moon leti
mosquito mu
mountain to
mouth nu


N

nation duk
nationality dumevinyenye
nature dzdzme
near gogo
nearly kloe
necessary vevie, hi
neck k, uome
need hahi, hi
neighbor aelika
never gbee o, kp o,
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new yeye
new nyadzdz
night z
noise aa
none eke o
noon d
north anyiehe
nose ti
nothing naneke o
notice gbeee, kakl
now fifia, fifila
number xexleme


O

ocean u, atsiau
offer nunana, na nu
office dwe, dwx
often enuenu, edziedzi
old xoxo, tsitsi
once zi eka, gbe eka
open u
opinion susu, tamesusu
or alo
order oo
other bubu


P

pack bla nu, do agba
package nubabla
pain veve, fukpekpe
pants atawui
papaya aiba
paper agbal, pepa
parent dzila
party az
past nusi vayi, xoxot
pay xe fe, tu fe
peace utifafa
period eyiyi, li
permit e m, na m
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people amewo, duk
perhaps ewoh
person ame
picture nnmetata
piece kak, akpa
pillow suui, kzi
pineapple att
piss adud
place ne, tee
plant do, a
plantain abladzo
plate agba
pleasure dzidz, agbeuu
policeman kpovit
poor hit, dahe
post office posu
pot ze
power us, kal
praise kafu
prefer l
pregnant fun
prepare dzra o
president tat, dukplla
pretty nyuie, dzanyi
prevent xe m na
priest osfo, fada
profit vie
progress gyiyi
promise ugbedodo, do ugbe be
prove fiaktee
punishment tohehe
purpose tameoo


Q

queen fianynu, fiasr
question biabia
quicly kabakaba
quiet ziooe, fafe


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R

rain tsi dza, tsidzadza
raise nyi
reach de, o (afiae)
read xl
ready le klalo, sgbe
receive x
red dz , babi
respect amebubu, bu ame
rest dzudz, gbdeme
return tr va, gbugb va
ripe ii
rope ka
rubber ae
run u du, si du


S

sack kotoku
safe dedie
salary fetu
say gbl
scream do li
seat anyine, ne
see kp
separate kla
share ma
short kpui
show fia, e nu fia
sick le d
side axa, akpa
sign dzesi
since tso
sit n, n anyi
slow blewu
small su
sock afwui
south dziehe
speak o nu, gbl nya
swim u tsi


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T

table kpl
talk nuoo
tall kk
test dodokp
than wu
then emegbe, tete
thank da akpe
there afima
third etlia
through to me, to dzi
throw da
thus ale
tooth au
travel z m, yi m dzi
tree ati


U

until vasee
university sukukk


V

vaccinate si abta
volunteer l l nut, l l nudwla


W

wait lala, tte
wake up ny
walk z
warn kla ame
wash nya nu
water tsi
welcome do woez, do dzaa
well vudo
wide keke, lolo
wind (e)ya
window fesre
with kple
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work dww, d
write l nu


Y

yam te
yellow utiii
yesterday ets (si va yi)
yet hae o


Z

zone nutome
zero naneke o, gblo

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