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(A unit of Vajlram & Ravl Educational Services)
t-8, Bada Bazar Marg, OLD R.AJINDER NAGAR,
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Vlelt ue at : www.
FB Group : Indian Administrative Service (Raz Kr)
-------- VAJIRAM & RAVl --------
The major subheads c .
below ovored under the topic 'Ethics in Human Actions
are ouUned
1. Introduction
2. Key Elements of Ethics
3. Morality and Eth
4. Eth1cs and Human Nature
A brief description of the above has been laid in the
' comtng paragraphs.
Ethics is the of study dealing with what is the proper course ol action tor man. It
answers the queslion, "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human
endeavours. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our
values and pursue them. Do we pursue our own happiness, or do w;a sacritice ourselves
to a greater cause? Is that foundation of ethics based on the BiblE. Bhagvad Geeta, or
on the very nature of man himself, or neither? -
A proper foundation of ethics requires a standard ol
value to which all goals and actions can be compared
to. This standard is our own lives, and the happiness
which makes them liveable. This is our ultimate
standard of value, the goal in which an ethical man
must always aim. It 1s arrived at by an examination of
man's nature, and recogmzing his peculiar needs. A
system of ethics must further consist of not only
emergency situations, but the day to day choices we
m&ke constantly. h must 1nclude our relations to others,
and recognize their importance not only to our physical
survival but to our well-being and happiness. It must
recogniZe thai our hves are an end in themselves, and
Ethics is our means ol deciding a
course ol action. Without it, our
actions would be random and
aimless. There would be no way
to work towards a goal because
there would be no way to pick
between a limitless numbef ol
goals. Even with an ethical
standard, we may be unable to
pursue our goals with the
possibility ot succe_ss. To the
degree which a rattonal ethtcal
standard is taken, we are able til !
correctly organize our goals and
actions to accompish our most
important values. Any tlaw In our
ethics wiD reduCe our ability \0 be
successful in our endeaVcn. l
------- VAJIRA'\-1 & IV\Vl -------
.. u pemops tho betel lhatto o1ow....., a clam -..10 ,_..,..., jullly --..
d .Km'WI8t-on or deny human mean.t\0 or pu4"ppM MaKing !iUICh a daam
t')G.Iy bOut OOnnec::I!On bef'.Mn theone.s at human n.rure Md Mhic$ and po\Uca
st 1 start a fiQN but tne rs llxety to have more 1han wou1d have
'IIIVOI that guide bOth nd,vlduats and the;, me caso 8'ven, say ten yoara ago.
b rctera
ll'lt JC)Cial norms n ttos and wuh tholr enwonment
Mora IY tl'lrnor tolfOW noman bOnQS end comrnu ' kJ. sat stnko tulos norm Fmnc+l fukuyama notes tha1 for fhJch ollh+s oantury, tho \
:'::::,;.types or tntorac::t.on tncrt aro tmporta:;:_, and Pos+t,ons have boen by the assump\100
C1'lal ate 10 prorta tNse vatues. dulleS H"!1PPod en rtucs Of capab,IM!S that en._ at soo:al nofms ate soc a tty and that tf one the relabottshp bertwMn
los*" ChUI "a.._..ltld turthll ctHtsG rules ar1d ttuman V W!tl'l ptactJcea wanls o otpla.n some pa..n..c:vtar &Oeal 1aa one ITIUS' d
TMM-*f8(10<SateUSU31y"'te.wovcn reter to pr>Or soeal lads ratll4tr 11\an IO boology 0< ,..... ...., -ll<liloe&
QenGtC U"lhOr!.anco. SC4f'\UlS do net deny that
1 \he moral I actors that guode human bOngs ha"" physocat bod shape<! by na11>re 10 goo..M """"" -
Ertt.cs IS a sysromatiC and cnbCSJ analyStS of mota lty. o rc$0:nt an Interaction roth tha.n nurture. But tt!O so eafted standard S003l a 'V'ICk
human conc1UCI rn a pMk:ulat sococty or p<OC1i00. As rep the values scoenco model assens that biOICJ9y governs only the body, \ - d human
between humans and rtte aqua de ooo ysrcm. HshCtiO-S ethiCS deals Wllh U b ' tho m1nd, which IS the source ol culture valuoa and
,"':'bmat&, \lll'ha
' the
roM-s, dulles and v1rtuos m rcJevanco ro both human and we

norms,lsacomplctolydtffercntmaUcr. ' '
plOVIdrng a cnlocal nQ<matove analysiS of tile moral ossues at stllke on l at see ot bo. Typocaly, _, t-
humltl On tile oilier sde of tho aroumcnt are those wtoo tond to v-.....,.,
the nec:ess ry ol a theory of human nature for an adequate u -.g pl;oobe .....,.,
\Vhen actual moral ruleS and are suiJrceled to ethoctll analySis, thew ground<lg ol e\lucs and pol<tcs \hough there be deep naue (i ..,. can-"'"'
relatiO<l 10 bas.c human onrerests shared by pe<>ple. regardless of theor cuftural selling, IS d vos>Ons among supporters of th s bas.c as to =.!:; \
parroeulatly omportanL Moral values may chango, and moral reasonong asks whether lhe what kind ol theory best IUH1IS thos groundltlg tole '
tMt are tradotoonalty and laaually togllomated by rehglon. I4W or pololics are
mdeed v.orthy of rooognlllon. Indeed. the development of ethics In tho past has Some accounts ol human be1ngs posotlhem as belfiQ through ano thtough plastiC. The
boon charaC!cnzed by a tendency to revalue and overthrow the motal conventrons \hat post-1968 New Left in Britain and the US has shown a tendency to see human natue as
have guided the rntOtactlO<I between \he sexes. between human beings and animals and almost lnlonotcly plastic, to deny biology and acknowledge only social constructoOn 8u1
be- human beings and their enwonment. A more recent task ol othocs is to restst could human beongs reaDy be 'almost plastic? Such a postllO<\ 10 be boll\
those tendenaes o1 globalaaiiOII, mail<etaatoOO and technologizatoOn that erOde both tmpl3us blo and untenab4e but percerved liberal nec:eSSrty 10 hOld sud\ a posll>On as a
boodtwtstty and valvable aspe<:ts of cutruralldenlily- and may even have effects lhal defence agaonst disc:nmona1o00 and ontusttce tS unnecessary.
threaten human nghts. Ahltough these tendeocoes are often ptesented as value-neuiJal,
they carry With them hidden assumptoOns that are potential sources ol inequily and The search for a songle, s;mple cha.radensatoOO ol I'AJman nature appears to be a
abuse. mistake. Stnct definition by genus and oofferentta would be wondetlul II we could
Nor so long ago, II you wanted to start a
batrOOtn brawl at a phrlosoplly conference an
you had fo do was to make the claim thai a
def&nsrble elhical or political theory Is
rt-5S8r4y c:onstJaJned by some theory of
hu<niWl na:ure or other. Undorlyrng the uoease
1tJa1 aome pti/Josophers felt With any such darm
lv1 unde<slandong ol the concep4 of
human nature Is to \he
enterpnses of and polib<:S.
because it indicates tho eHec1ive
lomits of political and elhlcal debate
and that, desplro Irs centrality in
ethics and politics (or perhaps
because of it) the nolron of human
nature s essentially contentious.
bui ll appears to beyond our grasp in regard to human beongs. Even in thO ease ot tne
material world surround1ng us, seomoogly u!\QOntamonatod by the ot _.
reference thai bedevd I'AJman alfatrs, it appears that the search IO< a n-v ot
Everylhong is a search wothoul on<l. Some eoghtl'lindfed years ago, St Tho<nu
wrote ln hts lottie wor1< de Ente et Essenlia thai even on the case ol sefiS4ble IIWigl,_
essentoal ddlerences themselves are not knOwn. whence they .,. lignllied 1IWIIull\
acddenlal differences, which rtse oul of lhe essentoal ones. as a - ......
through Its effect." It is ono thing 10 claom !hal man has an essence or !\111ft, .,. IIIII
onlologlcal claim: it is quite another to dalm that we can come to 11.-
that essence or nature is, thiS rs a maner of epstemology.
--------- \'AJIIlAM & f(J\\'I VAJIItAM & ItA VI --------
tl 1n assoiiiOO lh4
Ootptle (hi dfi!OJIIy. hOwever. tl not.n nQ oOYI:,: or ktSS IO lha( .._omothlog II, teo what II dOtl So WO movo, lh-On. In the Ol'der 01 dJCOvGfy, from an
qual,,,., an(f propotrtt Of a oven nt IJO{II
111n1 aro. ll'lsomo ont+ly s Chorac:toost t Dctrvt 01 1"<3 ro-octtvt14t 10 tho range 01 \hat mutt
apeou. Wo coukl con alder lhOH proptmot IO be
, UlG nnni.IJfS OCf!VIbOS or 0.{ hnvo
Jt I\
be nbkt to Ot1 aNI ronc' In Ill cha.rtcttfl,\tC way If "ICMtafY
IUUCIUJifly or tynciOMllll'y o!IOCirwt lhrouQhOUt It,. whO obYlOUs.IY rnoto ossental (as '' w I be necossa.ry ;n lho caao Ol tho10 ef'\\1\0t whose buc cap&Ct4e are
reof.f IM grHI ,.no' 1hon1 ,., 11\it w"Y man't f'illtonnMY
susptblo ot more or lest pormonont mod fcat.on) we mu11 mew. tram, .... moo fled
1'1 m INn h .. two 'ootOd or lt81MtloN I capaotJos. whd"' are the ptOxt.mete aoure41 the tnt ty'a ICWtiCIS. to \he enllt'(a 'Cas.<
or eapaCihoJ unmod t ed eepac 1 es
tf naruro 1.1 PfOP('tfy conce,yfd of a
of poweft. capaoty ,, t Is to be
lhen the fiOtjQtl Of I wn.1 nec:ct1r,ly COttiOI intO play for I ate. Tho noiiOO We are hOfO COtiCOfOod onlt Wth human ntlUfO U an IO!JfCie 0C IChic::aS and
c.,_ 1y. mull c. e cepK>iy '"' roiINOI)I pot actovoly er>d not w lh e d oqu ''""'.,., pl>oloscpl!ql Ptyctlology
we should begn <M onqury by IOo> at rnons ct>aractot111erange
numan and ptepert OS and lho$8 con:.t ruto J1S r.mea. Here. l'lowovor soems that W'l run unmeo.te dttfcutt 6 _ [)f'ltfttl\ people d'loole
Y I"' - 01 11i11\UO u IUCI1 " al least Wlloi!Qbl<> and granl the d-fferMithongs. It'd lhl .. ,. l)er$On <'-Ms O.erem lh.ngs ll dlltrtrll t.mes
mt can egrN m .... hu naturt
e<JStenco ol a hu!Nn nalure. Ch"" ll>o """ qucstoOn
s Is man

Is the I>Old ot human acton Chltact..- by chloa "'Is 1 possible 10 o.scem some
,.....,, to othca OfKI poilU and so, IIOw? Thcro IS
oreol deaf ol agrecmc<l Cflol proncoplos o order? h agfeed tllat we Mow hle to,_ - lha1 are
NJman naoure IS rotovant lo an Adoquola eccounc ol othoCS & poj.IJCS. Ono v-
wh::' naruraly more moe c:enttalto oornon '' !han _,. ond ('Nfll<now how 10}
1 m. an ecc:ounl of hum::tn nature. .
, __ *IOU"""'" "' "' epcod compare them We ere not really ., the Mtpleuly .gn<nnl poa.:.on
ofhe< befoeves #lal the ldN1 ol pMol<lPfletS ooncorned roman
"'"' d ; d.scussons ott;.., suogest Ethca.l egnostoam a deloeata plant thet, lice ""''ll>CiSm .n
on lhe.r concoplon ol ..tlal man il and can be. and
oonual notoOn O< tmago t gen, can survove only mthe t>othouu etmoaphere of the eeademy ethca.l egnoSIJCS
naMe of man. whoch llloiJ pocluro ol tho world. Is more omportant !hal can re,;..,n agnostoe ""ly ao long at they are """ng to deny 1M validoty ot ''"' own
arguments usod 10 defend llletr VIOWI, anolhO< lndovoctual clams !hal each form of s oxporocnoo.
and motlll praeloco has <IS own pocturo of human naruro; lho other ono cia ms lh
!here tS a ..nglo snljllo dolonllon o1 hum&rl nafuto ho is porfoclfy prepared to allow Is tMre anyone who, havng wor1<od fa< aomt tome in the expectatiOn of beong mate<oaly
odoas ol human na1uro alfBCI Ihe kind o1 SOCIOty wo hv.o In, behov1119 further th rewarded, would not be jusbfoably aggrl011l<lll hos pay cheque llllled to matenalose. Af'lll
a c:onc:ClPIOI'I of what 11 le 10 be human no ono can say much about hum would lhls annoyance not tum to an angry claim of tnjusbee If, upon inquory, ot 11anspo<e<1
socctes or human human nafUto, no hlslory. no polollcs, and no soci that tho reason for tho nonmawlalosallon ot the pey cheque was a playful whim on lhe
antl>ropology; It is oonoedod, pomaps somewhol ruofully, that lho appoal to hum part of his employer? Is thoro anyone who, seeing someone stocl<lng ponslnto a baby )Jst
na1uro has boon chamc1orisflc ol all pollllcaf phllosoph1os, wholo It Is hOld thai Aquln tor tho fun of tt would not judge this to be roJ)(ohena bia?
and Anstollo hold !hal ofhlcal knowledoo Is based on a knowledge of nature, specifical
a knoWledge of human nature. Still, even if we cannot hold that ovorythlng about human beings Is In a stale ol constant
flux 11 is nonetheless true that human needs. doslres, Instincts, lnclonatoons are very
Tl!ete appe4r to bo as mnny dorlnlflons or man as lhoro aro men: We have been toll and it seems unreasonable to hopo that a satisfactory account ot the QOOd lor
thai man 1S by hs consfrtution o rollglous onlmaf, a gaming animal that he must alwayl man should al1)itrarily soiOct one of those co-ord1nate goods as being tho good abcWe
be tryong ro gol tho boffO< or somollling or Olhcr. The doflnlllon 'man Is a social ani mat and independent of all tho othora: "Wo want lncompotoblo thongs, and want them badlY
haS met wfh goncraf approval' whlfo his bolng a IOOImaking animal, a tool using anima4 we are fairly aggressive. yol we want company and depend on long-term entetpt-.
a beong formtd lor socrofy and bom 10 boiiOVO oro popular descriptions. we love those around us and nood their love, yol we wont independence and need
wander We arc rosllossly curiOus and meddling, yollong lor permanence. \Jnloll8 ,.,.,
The teatch tor a songio, mpjo, dosfinct<On, presumably ombodoed In a single, simplt we do havo
tendony to peor.formatoon, bul Ia an inCotnpllle - In
de!111 r Ott, ._ a m4take. But W lhese onolone accounls are unsatlslaCiory (al the dealing with such confloeta wo havo no Ojll.on bul 10 ltom the , ... -.& -
loast because lhey can be of best partoal even d true) how can we go aboul d1scovenns human wanls and noods."
a more adequaiG account o1 human nafuro? Thrs rarses lhe moro general question c:A INI M ,._.
now we mtgnt come 10 know the nature or any1h1ng. Unless one accepts lhe posslbololy c:A The pocture that emorgos is one 10 wltlch the oilreCI
of l'olrMII ......
.orne sorr ol mY5ficlllmruoton, ellen the only way 10 grasp the nature of an enhty 1s bf actoons d11ectod towards them are al 011 manotold rtVJ:
otltclfV[ng its Chlrac!GnsliC octMt.os end ro-aarvolies. 1n shot\, I you wan! 10 knOw wNI least capable ol beong orcterod " the Oll!OCI of """*' .,.
4 5
\ 'i\.lflli\ o\1 & JlAVI
cjOrablo l'here ara ma.n)'
the human ec;toOf'le d ltc:fed IOWifdt tMM lbO us-4htU !$, 11 IS !1$Q.
PII11CUfar good t hai c:att oe d'lotoe" t>Y us Ol'!d ,':rd be &UCh tMt l hCY do r')Ot
anocl'let' gooct-ttMit
n. of .,...-The ood If sough! '" every lun.toct
dash ono rmotMr ond cancOol on IMihef or conta+n
alld pan>Q>Iar goo<lond ,._, ""pan...,IOnHd good rily o<c:Juded by our panoC\Jlar
L ere lrw&ya ef"(J oltlet good.l MeetN

goodS ere more or less equal '"
A tenSIOn<*' I !)Je 1M po6ttl()n QOOd ere lf'!tnnSIally better than
r,.aflttOC'flt.ICpot.t..O:: =ot all FOt Arl$totle. '"most ot the
""" INL parNipo . ..,.,. one goj h wtU& ea:orcr"'g
a rat<>nal
N-on E.,.,. lhe wt ood
piVICple lppO&rW ro ;,.,.,..,,. ot "'" ol a range ol parucular g s.
Towards .,. end
lhe ho seems oo claim :hal reaSOI' has

speot>C o0,oc1 o1 .. own -" r10m cs role "' ordeong and .,,egraoong ll>e cho<Ce
patt....,.rgoods. Ill good boOIQCCt',."''))ti>On. v- abS<faetly and
Th.s IS not an e thor or rua:IOI>-Cho pow10ns are surely
What ,. callod lha og11s.nan I>OS'I"'"
aitMdy reoognses """""tl)o Jt>a ex.llO<>OO 01 d ffetenl
Oiders of good. for llle good of "''19"t"'" .s not a good on
lhe same '-1 as .ny ol oho goods onoegre:od. Tho of
reason .. on the one hand, a IJe voct m such a way lhel
the coni!ICJng and quarrel! ng dosros and needs are
ordered .n such a way IS to ul"'tY and
unegratron and to m d sun.ry aOO dsntegrat,on.
And there s. obviOUsly. no1 jUSI one way or dOing lhiS
although 11 Is clear that, 1n goncral. somo ways or go1ng
about lh1s are beller than others. and lhal some ways of
gong about 11 are nonslarters. Sui the lnlcgra!IOniSI or
egalc! approach to does nol pr9vcnll hav111g
lis own s;>ecal and un1qJc excellence, wh1ch IS Its
oncrtat towards truth for 11s own sake, what
calls oor::cmpfatron.
Thos-: grven aspects of our bong that moderns
vworsai'Y tuna.., nnxe tS
urwoealy tNt sa.-ne ., a1
rrember'S of me tu'nan
spec:ut,........l ts what def!Oo(!S
.ncw.ctv.ats es men. But as
exl$tlng m member of
tM spec:.cs. human na1ure
s subjCCI co t>io-cA:ural
then. may be esscn:oaly
;ho same rn all places and
in all tJmCS and. rl\
rnerdcntaJs. subjcel to
and develoPment.
Tho consequences tor
mtva!lty are most
lmportanl; tor what rs
onlologically an acadon:
may bo tho source of
CSW>tlally diflcrenees 10
thellcld ol morals.
caJ msl nets or dflves St Thomas calls ncJ.natons. He believes
I/! at tt>ore IS an ardor of natural 1n<:hna: ons wh>Ch can bo qurtc generally categorised and
that ltlese lf1d natoons aro of tho range of objects and actiVIties which wiB
to us as goods for good has tho nature of an end, and so, all lh:ngs
to whcl mat> has a natural 1nd nat;on are naturally apprehended oy reason as good.
and so as worthy of pursu I. The lrst natural 1nclnallon to the good on based on that
wv'liCt1 IS en 91-t common to aa subslarn:es. and th s is the onclonatiOn that each
!las 10 preserve i1se1 "' 1ts ovm proper be1ng accordng to its own natunl.
VAJIHAM & RAVI --------
From the OOman uut 1ncll'netJOn bllrt on aft that haa to the
pre1Gf\'at1on ot tlumon I to. The MCOOO natural W\cl nat >On to the gooc b&M41 on the
n3turo that man lha,., with othtr an-mats So. accorO,ng to St Thomu, ths W'
lfld-.cates a range 01 gOOds In r.;atd to wt'lat natUfe has taUQt\\ at1 .., malt. toe:
about tile neceu,ty lor JM'OCC'MhO(I and .ne nuttutlnQ Qll oaponQ lM thtfd
'ndrraton to the good IS baMd on mana spechc nab.lre as that t1 ptOJiar to born alor:e.
The OOOds ndatld by tndtl"'aliOf'IS at ttl t tht .._... to 00 WU'I IMIIQ V. eooet)' af'd
kilo"' ng trucl't abOul God v''at we tn.Qht ttrm the ptadieal anct tt'IIO'M!Ca\ opeti \IOM Qll
reason. The gOOds cont5PO"d I"'Q to IN th-tM ot lndnaLOn cc:Mc1 be seen 1ft
terms o preserva1 on the preMtva\oOI'\ 01 .. that \It M\IOfar as tt \s 1M ot
the 5PGOOS. the ptaSMVaton ot ratJOI\8&
n ShOol<l be ot>Y>ous !hal ll>e- o1 indnaton- 110m
boOiog-cal, lo the specdoeally humon n.. ,. .. lo'- cou1c1 be-u a Mt o1 llnee
conoontnc o>des w>lh lhel>oologicaln..S nQ .,..,.., 11>0
:um. """""9 w th ll>e boOiogal old> hlghof -. - ""'"' on:le
dependel\1 upon ll>e 10- (OUIII). 4 S not r-10 ony ol them.
To what ex:ena are theM na:ural """""t.ons and 'tie good at - they ern til<od oncl
um'' n m.gho seem thai wllal " na'IU<al IS JUSISO and caMel be -.e 1M.
surp<IS ngly. Aqu nas alows that man's notute 11. 1'1 a oonal'l rel!*l. He
says thai What IS natural s mon'a natuoe 1$
so 111a1 What as natural to man may ..,.,....,., tal To llustrete thiS poontl>e gowes 1110
tolloWing example; "tho re&t>tuttOn ot a depo"'l 10 tho do!><>SI\Of .s in aoco<dance"""'
natural equal1ty. and d human nawre were aJnya lh.s would always haW to be
observed, but Sln<:e 11 happens somet>mes lhal men's w.ll" unnghtoousll>eoe are cases
n whiCh a depos11 should not be :estoroct, lest a man o4 uMghtoous wil mal<e Muse o1
the oopoSIIoct: as when a madmon or an enemy ot tho common weal demm!IS \lie
reoum ot hiS weapons:
Now, although the third order ot natural net natiOn 10 the good 1nctudos the goocts ot both
theorc11cal and pmctlcal reason. thero Is nonotholess a very d41enonce
between reason 1n each ol its two aspects. Tho basic p<lnc1ptes ot theo< reason and
the basic pnneples ot lhe pract1cat reason are both the same lo: an and are l!nown ll'l
all The proper conclusrons ot theorcbcal reason are the same tot all \hOoQII lhe't ate not
known 10 all. By contrast. the p<oper cone1\lslons ol p<aci!Cal reason are not
only not known by all but thoy aro not necessanly lhe same to. aJ:
The example g1ven to rnustrate lhiS point "' the diSG\JSSOI'I ot law "' tho wlldl -
e is the same example about the man1aeal or ar>bsooal depolllGf
given to illustrate the changeablt :y ol hum.'Vl natu111
I t a10W1 lor OIIJidl"'lY II .. M Cil
Thrs appears to bo a V1tally lmp0(1ar>l poont
' al ,......., il!llll'l
pnnetple wh le at the same t
me aliowl!IO 'or a cer1an ,...- ..... 11
particular cho.ces and act.ons. Many ot INIS ol o-
-------- VAJIIlAM & RAVI
rm!t on numon actiOn can bo aJiayod tf th s
human neture oalmpOIno ctHdOn.nQ moral bt'llefs ls clcarty graSI)ed.
d s'ncr10n betwHn motet pMOpr.t and pi
r more or &es With 1110 oevel of """"' be

TnoM w1>o cotllfo!O lllo low! of ,..,.,.f p<l I bel ell IO moral p<lr><:iples. But K
como oo anoeh tho ,.,.,Moy of of 1/le one croes nO( neceSMrily
ptfnopteJ and Dehts ,,_ noc !dental chtf'l 1111 r
anaetl co ,,.,. othtt. an exemplihcat on or moral pnnaples
Any g...,. Ml ,.,., t>e141t II. 10 ":::: ..,. ,.L Tel<o, for example, tho first
ontl .- can, 01 oourse, be """" be done and oought alter and ..W '' ro be
01 proct.,., naeson "ggOd fo ro In at human ac:tons. just as tho
I """I
c:o<respond t pMcplo of rauon is exempldoed In a meano . .,.u
stato"*lts 'Z., .. Md jUS! u part<Uiar tMh c:I&Jms are not dedueed from tho
pr"""fJ'e of bUI ralhor have, of oy to exemplify U they are to be
111o l.rst o1 praaal reaSOII necessarily Informs al human
- How does a lhecHy o1 human nature operate in ethlcl and poltiC$7 can we set out a
lheoty and deduce parlleulat ftem rt as r d were a set of axooms and the
consequences theorems? Tho answer must t.-assurodly notl bcgon wilh,
as akeady noted, pnlloc.nding I rom Revelation, natvres of whatever kind . c:".n be
di$COvered only by moons ol an analyl'l ollhe c:haracrerfsllc acrMtles end reaCIMttes of
1/le enbly whose nature we are anempling ro eluclclare. This Is the order ol diS<Xlvery.
So, lor example, d you wonr ro know what kfnd of thing, ler us say, copper is, you hll it
wilh a hemmer, heal a length end measure 11, srrerch it and see whar. happens. The
p.eoe of copper behaves in a quUo dtllnfte way. And H the data we eiiCIIIS true not only
ol our la110uri1e place ol copper t>ul ol any place of copper selected at random then we
have gained some nslghl-partlal and l1m11ed but real- inro lis nature: "The modern
must be conrenr w1th the humble search lor the unHormirles or behaviour that betray the
presence ol stable 'natures'. This Is the basis of the predlcrabllily lhar characterizes
sc.eniJIIC knowledge, whether 11 be thar or bodies ro obey gravitational pulls, or magnets
to be pole-seeking, or chemicals to combine or react, or plants to grow or regenerate
bssue, ol an1mals ro propagate their klnd .... Bur what of man and man's nature? Is there
some! constant here roo? .... the problem Is whether observation or human nature, irs
struaure and tendencies, w.R enable us to formulate a law of thai nature."
Once a nature has been more or leu clearly dol1neared, once we have some reasonable
grasp of ll!e charactensbc human needs, d8Slres, and lncl1narions arranged more or less
coherently 111 an acc:ount of human nature, then this knowfodge can be used as an
OtganoS111Q pnnc:.ple In relat10n 10 a range of data Wider than that from which
II was ellored ft the concept of human nature Is not 10 be sterile then rt must be
111 IUCI1 a way. 01 course a theory of human nature Is always open 10
niOdlic:MJotl kl ,.,.light of retfedlve ttper\efloe, though no1 every part of the account wl
... "";;; - ...__
----- --- VAJIIlAM & RAVI ______ _
bG oquany rolllsable, and It rney bo d 1Hcul1 to what eoutct eot..tnt u
ega1n$t tho central ekliT'IoOMt ot tho thoory.
In ptaC1JCe, a theory ot human naturti W\ tU'l<t and pof\..cs by &rltO.Illtlng tM
lim ts wthn wt\ieh questtont may aen11bty be aJiol.od and antweted, and. W\ the cue ot
partiCUlar naturaliat1c theonet by attempltnQ to ptempt any poMltM Nat non-
notural st.e thooflos by lnt<Hp<Ol"'9 tho-r poo.t.ona boong pofl>ll. or
eases ol ltsell.
-------- & fl;\VI
Tl'Mt fi1IIM ab-M_,. CIOW'tld undtf the tope ol Elhcs' are outined below
I , lrttrOCNdiOtt
2. n..v--OIE.,_
3 0001o0<1 MI""'' Model
4 Tllo.v->iz-
5 no.,.,.,.._,., Attd no. Cflr
6 SUtntMty
A bNll ottr. .,_.has-...., in 1t1e paragroplls.
Ell>a rs do$Cussecl much mote 11'1 lha alcermath of a nogai!Ve evenl l han on proaCIIVO
ptoparaltOn lor tr. ehaU. whod> pra01r110nors lace. lndoviduals wcllung
on lhe rehab!! 1a110n proi8U1011 ar elll*)led ro aCI and reaCI rn a responsible and
ell>oc:aly correc1 manner. In laCI. olllic:s rs nollhat fimple. A decision rhal tums out to be
loss Ulan effflCIJve or results In perc01ved damage wtN cause us lo renew our concern
wolh 'The Code or Ethocs. wo muSI deal woth lhe ripple effects lor extended
per.ods. The purpose ol this artrcle Is 10 proaCIIve responses lnoorporaling
elhlc:al dectsoon making. n wo aro suooesslul, the ol crisis and negative
are rodUoed.
Eth.cs deloned as. ... or or relarong 10 moral action. conduct, motive or charaCier: as, emoliOn. Also, tteabng ol moral feelonos. duties or conduct; containing precepts ol
moralJy moral. ProtessronaUy right or befowng; conforming to professional standards of
conduc1. Howtever, a more real or dayto-day explanation can be given, "Ethics is a
matter o' bollllt>e heart and the head, and people can do nght or wrong thrngs for either
Wr<et:l 111e ,..or>g ac:110n 11 1a1<1 we are lhocl<ed and OU118Qod. When, en hond srght, the
correct 1100 11 ta.<ert. we f&l<e nota. The fl"oblem with expect<llQ lndcvrduals to do
lfle lllinQ 1$ lll8l Ndl indlvduaf and each 11tuatoon os ddferenL Expected outcomes
.,. not deaf aA and e,lPtCJP(JIIIt IClOOn rs olten only .,,.. after the test of trme. EthiCal
dldsoon mli<lnO I!IOdeis .,. ot ort ,., h coutd be summed up as statrng that 'ett>oes
-------VAJIRAM & RAVt -------
IS mofe than a set 01 Q\Jdel ""- It 11 a Y4y 01 Wt. 11 o.QI('It Wtth c:ondue\ and
teaChes out 10 tho attu o1 pat1tnt "rt. IIII"'C) t'low owe 0..1
w lh commun I)' tOSOUfCtS ltld MMC.S",
Qrle ext:*lel"'t model for ethiCal PfiChCt, dolw$Md lrequel'l'\ty WI t\t "*"'"
partoeulllrt/ relevant Th1 mode' het U toots .n "'<a! H\CL R
OIIPCSc""" ol o sel cC PfncoPH 1 u..O - tlo .-ol on
e:I'ICal d<leowna. The p<""4>101.,. -- --
and l<lekly In lhoS _.,..,.."' oc:ong or ._In a.,.,.... -
heip#ol end grOW1h prorlucotlg. n.. 1"'""4>10 o1 - ........,.. tlol the
pro'ess>Onal s1>ou10 no1 be a pany 10 ., harm. In ...-.y, II>& <WII's IIQI\IIor
I'd_.,.... deoSoor\ ma'<ong ,. 10 be I><OIOCl.od TN pMCii!>lo ol fdoloty _,., ...,......,
lhal made shoulc! be 1\e!>l. n..lonal ol lu""* -!he nood
to rreal an .ndov.dualla rty. Ths model hal-IC>I>'*' 10 a-""'*Y ol ato<l
client stuatoons. Th.s model has bien tound uMiuly ato<l
treatment ol adiJil ou!VIVO<S ol ""'*'- N model, - .,. ,_ -
eol"sderetiOR of how &J:.matr<wt IOMona 'lhef OJ oppoM one Of more d \he
relevant prot\C'I)Ies. Th4 model oS extremely hell>lullll juliA- o1 h .,.__
uh matoty chOsen.
AnOther mode4 tool\ a more pragmabe as>llfoeeh 10 the elhocal deeo>.on ma.<I'IQ
process. k uSGs a brOader tor th4l <*oSoOn """-' to consoder . In addt>On.
thos model factors on all \he orvanczaiiOnl and systems thai ,... en some way Shape a-.
decsiOO bo1ng mado.
The sox basr<: areas or questoons to be addressed by thiS model are
1. Whal arc the polentlal olhical r$$ues on the sotuatoon
2. Who arc \he stal<eholdors (lndMduals or orouPS ompacted by tho deo..on-
e.g .. lh& chant tamly members, other IndiVIduals, eflll)loye<S
3. Oescstbe tho envuonment ln whtch \htS Issue tal<es plate (t.e.
suppollrve, etc.).
4. List all possoble chooces of actoOn
. Wluch chooeoe cs the most othoeay detensibie
6. Make \he deOSI()Il
>. .-..s Ol1d boles ol ,. "'VV""'
Ethlcol Dodllon Moldng
p!Oies""'""' ond _,. oro -ys -""' to Modoi
QleOie< ,.._dog- ., .... and-"/ -son (Ethlcol Dllotnmll)
..-at Thtso lacttXS.,. 1 A - muot be modo
_..ty .. ..,._., __ ou. ---
2. nwe .,.. Slgt'1llicanl
Fnt. IN _,..,.,.,. IS 10 ,_ 1 lotmlly __. lor .,...,
-poft:y ......,
ll'PH ot moy eloo hiYO h.s:o.y ot- 3. 8oCh .....,. cen ""
""""P ...,.,...Nmly counter 10 IIIII policy, or moy ;,:;:;::. by -
rnptlf'd In a pted'oc:tol>lt lftlllnar. Ths ...,_ W'll a-,ng .. ther "''
C8f!UIIY 10 .........rul ol Mu111 comprcmoso otto1ca1
deslons. The or led< o1 suc:/1, "'' pnnc:optes ltlat suppor1 the
the op<>Ons perc.lvwd to be aVOJI- by the .__:oc .,.hlr....,.oour....,._ se.,.. ____ ....!
pte/ess.onaJ end tho client.
S..:Ond. the prole....,neJ 111ptesenbng tho organlzaoon In tho in d1e decoslon making
Sotuaoon aiS<> brings a ..,t ol petsonal, p<o/osslonal. atld cultural values and beliels into
cootenr.,, Th1s person's hlSIOty In the organlzaoon, as well as prior experiences wid1
the dent, may also setve to defM tho decision making envoronment. The totallly of
II"'"' e.>penences on rho pen ol tho work adjuslment professional to determine the
agenda brought 10 rho dee1slon making IDl>le. Tho Wrd dimension 10 the process, the
dient. also has had experiences Wllh the organization and the professional. Like the
proless<OtlaJ, lhe cllenr possesses a sot of personal, professional, and cultural values
and bel els. In acfdcoon the cl1en1 btlngs spocd/c needs and problems to the forefront.
Once tile problem has been det.nect and allemallves developed lrom lhe three
domens.ons. choiCes must be narrowed by measonng the impacc of the alternatives
Ullfut1011 of tho pnnc.pjes ol benefoconce, non-mafetlc:ence, autonomy, juSiloe,
"'e6tr These p<onoples are also useluf tn the delermonauon of poss-ble courses of
IICOOtllll Nd1 ollhe lnd"'duaa ct.mens.ona/ levels.
--------- Vt\JIHAM & lli\VI --------
Six Steps ot tho Eth1ct1 Ml k1ng MoOt1
Rev.ew lhe elM 11Uitl0fi and de1ertn'lne lhe two COUr&Q ot ICtiOn trOM
Wl'hC:h y<>u c:hOMO
2 \.Itt the taaualy baiOd reatons IUPt)Oni(IQ oacn CO\.If'M taJOn. Tn..
resons Will olton be mponant COf'IHquoenc.s
3 Gtvcn thO reawons suppott. f'Q each COtUfM ac:uon. 0...
p< ncopln \hot-...,.
4 Us.t the tecauaty baMG ruSOI\s 101 nc>' each CCIUI"M ol
aa.on. These , .. toM wl otw.n o>ntllqUIII'ICM.
s G,.,..,""' reasons lor noc_...,._ot.....,.-...ty lho

& FOfTY'I..Ita1e a tot" lhe supenonty ot one ol tl4 two adiOnS
by al ltllotmel""' trom .,. p-.s ,,... otops n.o ....,. lhal
an effocwe jusiAocaon ptO'Iicles en enalyw olllle _,.,.l>al
(a) Factually based reaiOft(s) INCh ol .,. -. ,_
, ..,.. ,.. otten ba ""P'fW'W oon-.
(bl The ethocal pnnaplo(s)IUI'POfloiiQ oac:ll ol .,. aciJOCIS. G""" tho reasoos
(c) The seleclod ocurte ol ICIIOn and lite reuons, wtrt
bo gM>n, 1n that Stual()n, to lite llhocal profiCII)Ies suppotloiiQ llle
setec,ed courso ot achoo.
The ThrooOimcnSional Mo<!ol enoouroQOt a ear44ul examonatJCn ol 1M prolllam.
potential soluhons, and tho lnteraa..n ot the three VlewpOmts. Examination o1 a prOOiem
from this perspecwe must surely proVIde opportun ty lor a hiQMr deo..on 10 be
Even lhe use of one olthe models discussed ebOve. 10 dotetmno whiCh oourse o1 aG\lOI\
will be chosen. there Is no guarantee that the ellemetlvo chosen W1M prove lo ba llle best
declslon posst>le. Each situation roquuea recogn.uon ol 111 unoquenen.
One way for lneteaslng the poss b<l ty tor ntormod declsoons IS thfOUQI' ""'
practioe of dayto-<lay behaVIOUr whch Slo.ndslheleat ot Olh>Uf analyM. The,..--
of this discussion WJU consider the condoel or a1anctards of ld""d',... and
are c:llarge wtlh decjsiOO making W>th. or on bella" of. work adJU-t dllniL lilall
abOve in the ThreeOlmensiOnat Model. o1 the ma,or Wiallle wiiO:II
and p<aCio<:e of approp<oalt tlhoc&l ballaviOUf .,. IN ..... .,
ronment, the p<aCCIIOntr". and the "c:itrC". EKII
VAJ IIli\.11 c'lt. Ill\ VI -------.,-
0 01
ellMQO concomlng ooo 04
1111 ourcome. Tho magnM van.ebltl end
t.on change. Tho lf11otact
n c,.
d ....,OOOnt U !"- lnfOriCIOO CIIIM r;l _,-I<C OXP''<:Ia!OOO and I IUOIOO<>a ........
the G..,.,...,, It d I(Uslld belOw., retms
occur ., ..,. '"' 0< ...,......,,...,
Work Adjullmanl
w th Otganozal<>rnJI opl10ns eo<>slstonl
O<POCtAtiOnl. miiS<On, Wllh tho Codo ol EthiC$
tundng tourcos, nnd pot$0nal voluos, cultural
cloont groups orvocl. systems, knowiodgo. ond
oxporlonco slmllor
Tho p<oloasK>nal Wlft oss.$1
tho In dotormnng
options tMI oddross clonrs
nood,, history, personal
valuos, culluro. OIIIIUdos
suppoll sysloms. rosource;
ond oblllios.
Choices from Each Dimension
All possblo ctloicos 110m lilt AI posSible choi<Xls lrom
p<olossionars pol$p(ICIMI !he dOfll's perspoctJVe are
ate saoeneo through lilt screened through the
elhoeal pnl'lelpjes. __ .__'_hoca - I I
Choices Are Rotlnod and Combined From All Dimensions
RiiSotve OlhiClll d lemmas from each dimension above by using thoso pr nclplos.

Resolve Remaining Alternallves
"'* Clec$IOtl by rosolvwlg d lemmas wh.ICh anso whoii'Cii'OICOs have been
eac:n dotnenSIOtl.
An ov lt\ltaton II rsctn e.thM onoally Of by w.nos to an Oref1ll
.. --
00 0<101\ In_ ........... -_..,. rules-.,..,. to""'"'"--
.,..., _, or bOhO.-, p._ .,...,. IUdl u -.g."'""'*'"
end IICtti'IW\at.on &fe ptQt '-c) a1 ateas of e:onc.m becat an ea.on allen
has long term _.,0<11 Cll loS! tme, energy IIIII money ThtH common _...,.
e.-eroJed b)' OtQ3t'lzatoont IlL
2 . fll)hll,
3. luttce
11 summury ot lhOGo lhrco npproachcs help 1o clar\ly how tho O!llMitat.onal P"IOSOphy
conlnbutos to oetlons ot 1ndMdua1s \ho
- \L. _ __:. '
-------- \'AJIIlAM & flft\'l .....
tm<t w.ll mP tt Ina
M Mtch ,._. rnt "'" ""' .... bi.MCI on 1 oes-red OUteor.,.
p/llflt 01'1 1te ptfltf'I'N Nt =-:. uJU.ttr beNd on wt"latt
.. - ...... model ..... , ..
.._ ....,.., num1t ot TN TM end I'OSUII
"-""""'--.. ... -.......
be .ct.on ,.,., d ce pu,..n.d ., eonw way
r,.. flU,.,. ..
..a concerns uel W'#l the ptOCectJon ot r,.
-'"91>1tol- n..""""'llfOdctWOQOitoiiN....-,.olltleO!ll.......,.
.,. holcloo,. NptwN _,...,.,-.......,g ond act""ly plannong On lho
...,._.,.._,_ _.,,."'01"1'-- eo.-"'"*"""-ollltno..,
"""ltle"'VVf'<Z'""' .. - _,_.., aco _,.,. .,.-oya t>r,....,,.
---.. - .. ""',......---1M_.,.., ptO>'Ides dose.,_...,
to hl:r ng NCtJ mtn"'et ot IN OfDI#"".l.ltlCn.,,.. samo manner. 1lte ma,cw ooneem tS
to Mlotol nAN ., end lqllltNI ,..,..,., Whle lhls seems faubtss an r,,.
, .... ,.,.,...,, lhnll -..o-c1 ll!o ll"ldN....,Is WI ltle OtganoUI<On may
_,...,.,_ ,..,... .... _...,..,.10.,..,_ equal'""'"'*"_, 1101
4 IIU - - T,.. _..., hot mony negaU.. '"' lhe "Mlf1<
.,_.,_,prof- In ml4y. cwgon.za100111 may adiJaly-'!' the" oohoes.., a way
thalutkes two or d ftlrae ollt\e llbcrt'O pos ttOns. 11 mil)' atso address some t:Ssues from
,. ... - r-.. ,.,.. or USing ...,,.,, The quostron may lhen
bec:omt, M>icll IOipOnM 11 tho OtpaniUt.on l.kely to reward? In many S>tua,.,.
O<paooutron 01e I"'"'Y ro be oonluS<td. not only about aCIJons lor spe<:rfic
sttuaoon, buc abour UJe tt tude o' 1n organtzl tJOn as'' 'PP'ieS to unique siruations wtUc:h
As slalod abo..,. lhe olhor rwo domonsJons
"' lhe doelslon mai<Jng proooss aro rhe
rehabil raroon prolosslonal and the cient. In
lhe rehabrhtarooo profession, rho docls1011
making equa11oo muse Include a shared
resptN>sbrloly lor decisions and lor
resolving ethrcal dJ/ernmas as thoy aflse.
tJ rea4!y. most r/ not aN wolf only be
ttWdwJtJ by a lrcanl contnbutlon from
Ud1 of .,.._ llld"'ldoJa/s. The relaiJons/r'P
/he profeSSIOnal ant1 clrettl IS
cr..aJ ot somernnes places the
pro/SISitJtrlll we a ot pt1WOr end
Benoflcence: Acting In a manner 1hat
tho g<owth and well being or the
Autonomy Aamg in a manner that
r-rs tho cllenrs freedom of choice.
NonMalotJcence: Actng In a manner
11t11 doo$ no1 cause harm 10 clients or
provonrs hann 10 chencs.
Justice Treabng dlonls fauly.
Fldollly Keepong promises Of
comm rmonts ro cloonts, coleagu<>S, and
bolh Slated andtrnplied. ./
-------- & n"vr -------
detcnp1.o0n 01 IN IIIIUI'IOI'I 1e Nl a hM '*-n
'- .. GelcrO.O ..
;= dUI4t IM4 oA N lf\.&1. Of contotnce ftCIOMO W\ M
ttl fOuQary has ae.da1 to e.nd the chN.
beca .... ol f'l.e ntturl of .... '*\!Onlr'II'P 111"4.
ltle!o..c:iefymutt.a"' ....
010. dr4nt to P'O'nOttlh own..,..., ..
Ooru come 10 the w a 'W1Cie vafy oe trust, l'niiCn.l$l. lind ..,
-- Al&<ge-..g.growiOo"'"""'prOI......, u,_-.oat-.,
"""''"G relatoonst>op Tho .,.._.tala ,-., ...su_tor_
bec:ome real fac::IOrl "' eny cue IN naue Ol .... tn
lheluli-olltle_ .. ....... .,.,. .... ,.., ...
:=:.,:;10-.alyol.........,.,,._.,,."lhr ___ _
Sewn"""""'" I>Qh11 ....... ...,..,.10 ltle c:Mnt1Wol-- o-
odeniJIOCI lndudo<lrn rhos d ICUitoOn are..........,.-.-...a.y ..._.
due process, lhe nglrr to.....,.., tho nghl 10 retuse -lout-...: Of,........,. oommunrcatoon, anct tho <My to warm. Whla o1 or 1hose .,.
ceotarnly '""""ant to lhe proace al tho wool\ protessoOn, dlloJssoon here wll
be Lmoled \0 I$SUOI most lrl<ely nvant \0 Cloer...., m&KoOQ - ""'cliero end ...
profess.onal. DiscussiOn 1nctudes YOU\taty "''rws lnYOUn\&ty MfW::IH, the tight to
receive and to reluse servcos, al\d trtatment tn \he """ OrasbC ot' restndrJe way.
Some cllents are nol w,ll!ng appheants tor services yet ar \0 panadpate.l'hose
wllO are raqwcd may 111ro two Fir$\, 11\o elrenl"a f)ei\IQI)aoon may bo
raquired In O<der ro rocelve anolher Mfllooe 0< maonUiln 'Of too r..........a
assistance. Ctlerus may also be pressurtd to parucipate by paroots, a14'QUse, or 1d'oOOI
This concept can be drsc:ussed as -...otumary versuslowotunlal'f seMCG$". Th
discussion Identifies the dotlerencets rn processinG and troalll\4n\ ol lhese \Wo eMnl
In summaoy, the votun\aoy client Is a pannor In lhe Alllltoansllop, sMttng "' IIIII"!IQ
dacrsloos and \he determinatron lor when and how soMCes are r11ndertd. On lhe -
hand, the invofllntaoy cr onr is depandent on ro others to make deo-. ID
partrcipare on lreatlllll1lt, and may loCI< motrvat,on lor pai1JCiiMitron. The cMnl 1\
lnvotuntaoy treatment cateoory has ' ltle power lor &ell --..,., ....._
more dependettt on the praleu.onal Elhocal malii>Q Ia 1YPQif ....., -
when bolh llle prolesS101'181 and clrefll .,. acwely Wilen - PI'WI le
more Involved or has mar. po- ;n the relat.,..l\4) ""' potenNI to. .,... ,...._.
--------VAJ IIti\M & IV\ VI--------
ate mu-...- ,.. tact ... oe,.,., ,,.reom<l. Ill oasy 10 ac1 in mann.,
.__... Vlf'IQ 1n a poadVO manner t'nott
"""*" rhe retat1001hi#) w end mo N _.tuflt af e rolat'()(lsl'llf) k'tfiUOncod
when proOI.,. M 11'1Utf
"*' w-rn
, from ntQVr(Omcnl$ na
o1 ""'''vot..,n. QC*t tnar ere lt'ld be
ot tn. "rt ,,., SttuttiiOtl tt\11 calls Of\ ... , "'et''l
wt n.r r'IO c.Nnrs .rt a,_.,
Anochtr luu. ideflt l!ftd conc:.rne ,,. c:Ht'tft riQI'IIIO Ne ac:oess to setvi08S, or be able
to tfltvN tltf\'IOtl TheM .,_,.,
p11tcull!fy ,.......,, .nsa ruuons wtud'l are:
e.&hor Of gua!Vianlf'\.C) nas beett gtanted 10 an 1nst,f1JL< or
AI .,.,_ ,_. .,
,. twM cMf'IIS Nve lhe righl to m..'\J<e deCISIOns fat
,_. ......, -- n.. PfCI- mutt be caretuf no1 10 mal<A> docoSOOt>
.. ,,_,_"'0'"-""""' ",.,.,.., ...... --.shouldbe-10 ...
ddcv,_, 01 """"'o ngiW 10 -- 01 rclu,. pan.cpal<)n "' a se<VIOO. ln!O<med
""""""'l'flt!--Uy .,
,,. ,_.. 01 doo..on malong. h ts vnposs.ble fe< one
10 ma<a a QOOCI doco..., "'ti>Oul f<nooW!Q bOih lha pos.INO and negat,va aspedS of lhe
- c:llocu. T!voa con<mol01 mH1"'11 111e ,.qu.rements of onlormec! eonsenl has
been lciUd<. 1M r&hai)LUII<)n prol&ssoenal should take stops to assure lhe Q.eru's
CO<npeiGnee IO ...-stand the lSIUOI """'*""""Jihtt p!Oblem. care $hOuld be taken IO
make suto 111e c:1""'1 11 e-.clto deocle w.thout 1>eong ptessored by the In
adclooon, lhe """"' should be onformod o1 1ho nagallve aspeels as wen n lhe posnNe
OUta>me$ wild! may '"<lh lrom 1he c!e<>s<on. In 1ha praCII(;O of ltte
fl!llabol.taoon pmless.onaf 11 1s s.mpty not enoug/llo uk a c:lonl to SJQn a consent form.
Worl< acltustmenl opeaef s1 muSI be suro lho Individual has 1ho capaco1y and lhe
nocessaty lnlorma110n 10 ofoello paNcipate or docado not to partlctpalo. In manner,
!he c6en1 must have all nec9SSllry ll'lforma110n when askod to bo a partielpanl in lhe
resolutiOn of an elhcai <Momma.
Anolher human nghrs Issue ldoniWied Is treatmonl of a Client in the feast drastic or
enVIronment In d$C<Jssion of this ssuo. II Is important to remember each
cltena has lhe nghllo be rroaled In an onv/ronmont which affords, him or her, the right to
detemune lhetr own level of partlclpallon. Soff dirOCIIon Is encouraged to the degree of
!her to function. To facrlilato !hiS process. the concept of substituted judgment or
guard anshiJ) may become an 1ssue. II Is Important 10 remember !he professional, in a
SUbSI4Uied Ju<1gmena SIIUallon, 1s responstble lor representing the client in any and all
dllOS>On. Sut>sLMed judgmenl s never tho same as the Cftenl's own decision making
process Care must be laken duo to lhe overwhelming responsibility of making a
deoSOI filar would be conS<stenl Wllh one the elton! would make of he or she were
F"rve basiC tssues common to rho lilorarure concerning guardianship can be
These !$Sues apply 10 a vanoty of orcumstances. Each assuf11)tion is
cetfanl) te/ewnr ro tt>e ptOCtl$$ of making dOCISlOns usng models suggested by lhas
C1IScUssi:ln A aummary olltles4J assuf'rll( ons lo41ows
-------- \A,IIft,"1 & ItA VI -------
1 ::,son wtn d .s..l)l ty can Mnet ' lt<>m loeQaly tlppOtmt(l .-
\$>Ot'l maq, 1o ,.....,.IIPP'opn.ale c:t'!OoCO' lew --.m. IbM
2. fesQOr!MJie W'll m6ke
pr..cpt.esoeliiJ'I.Ot'Omy ""*'me
3 and tanwl'f
,. bl ,.., \0
Llandol.roa as tnembert ot 0'10 tW\al>l,talorl P'O'eMIOI\.. Thos 1ht
caMS. not lway'\ many
ol etn.c..., 1 be useo .-.c:aa u they ar..
5 g.Rrd4fls.h.p " ' tty non .,. auct\ h"Q1; u d
anomey arldcontrolot
In I/U$ptO<es$ !t'<IJ>'ofOUoQnol
the cleo$oon ma""'' - 'n,. prot- ""'" roprnert. ""' only ,.,.. or ,.,.. """
pos.t.on, but fT1tAt reprewnt..,. c:Mnt
As dostu$$8d above, dectsoon malong al'd acton ot lha d.ont ano 111e protossoooal...-.ds
to be hll&red through tho Eactl O'IIIWl&lo<>n has a- ana
unque cottufa and 11'\tetprelattOn o1 how 'o ma1w deelsont. Each dohnes exacdy now ,
wtl lunelon in terms ol behaVIOUr Eactl lnd!Ytduars vna. $y$1ems. a base
rngre<loent rn the deeS>On maklng process, also dll1eront I rom other$. lntorp<Otat.on at
soetetal rules, customs and oxp&Ciallonsls prOOISSed "' a hiQhly onciMdualite<l "'"'"*.
Professional boundanes, persona1t11os and environments are also pen.nenlto ilea>d"''! a
course of aellon. Any ol these variables may tnlluence ono lndvldualto aa d 11....,\ly
than another. gaven the same srtuatlon. In reat.ty, all the abOve mentioned vanallles as
well as others not ldenlllied, nro lactored rnto the dayto-day practooo ol the won.
adjustment professional. The curronl Ot;Onomle and 1ea\ty adds to \he
complexity. II has bocomo lncroaslngty daltlcull to mal\e dee1s1ons lila\ ...a not be
questioned in terms ol their othlcal appropriateness. When a Muallon ansrn -
causes us to be tom between two or more actiOns or docsions, an dl1e<Mia
exists. adjustment protess10nals must move IOfWard W>th be$1 eflQC\ to-
I he cijent tn an ettective way. Cena1nly, successful aoc:omphhmenl of eneeiiVIH'HS""'
be enhanced by remembenng that tho best dOClSIOns malle U$8 ol allltttee dametlsionS..
the Cfent, the professiOnal, and the organ.zat1011al perspeclive.
--------Vi<JIRI<M & J{J\VI
'E.,...., pul>l< and p<M"' relltiOn-'
1110 ,...,.,...,..,...,.-.,-.... -
I E,_ In p,J/IlltC-- From p,J/IlltC Ulo

c.-ot __ V_
s. F1ow1 tn OUr E ......... Model
6. Etn< tn Povoto _....,.,.,
7 Conc:IV"""'
<II tno.,.,..nooooon IOod"' ,._mono poatagraphs.
lCh we live thai lhO subjecl ol elhics in public
a"' a sad c:ommontll)l on lllo 1.,.1 tn wl1
llon One would nave 1t10ugt11 lhat no
' has begun 1o demand more IliOn ":'.,. !::0 on lholmperalive necessity
oommenl was .-ssary IN1<10 """' co has beGn lnlbalod soems lo indicale !hal ltle wam
for elhleS on public We. Tho debelt ltlal ft .., llloo and Is accepted as a natural
of eth..:. lias beCOme an everyday norm In ,_lie o .
condrtiOil o1 socloty, and thalli IS now necassary to re-discover a lost quahly of pUblic
Slgnlflcn of Efh/cal Tradl/lona
A code o1 ethiCII ptonelples Is palt.cul8tfy relalod 10 each public olflce, but In
lllefe are eomrnon

applocable 10 publiC offices. Those principles do not re

enumenrr.on IIley are well known.and UndJsputecf. In large measure, continuing
uad<:.ons lhe ldenr.ry end scope of elhteal principles and defermine lhe ethos
con110ft11Q tt>e exerose o1 aff publiC power. The reference to tradtllOns here is to 11181
oon.ct1 hU been CIISStCaly IIIIOivecf u most appropriate lor lhe exercose of publlc po-.
e ,. f 111a1 r-.son lllat beCOmeS neoessary 10 ecfuteate tn the ethical
v.ce.ons ol olfa
S.ignitieanee ot Dtsc:hart: .,, P\lt)Uc Ae190"t.l>41\tMs
The v!<l><y oC an -d.....,..,.," fie oC PI*"< r._,.a,L- _,_
to a developng nattOn In a nlll10f\ the ,..,. ot n&ICII1t MbONII energy
ol great momonL h P<O'i'odn 11>4- __.,lot buldonQ <11 out
and trenothening '" P<Alloc onlbtut.or" ond P<Alloc of1oen. and *"'-o1 lhe constrtuttonal. oooal and econOft\oC ltNCOUM '" plaoo. In 110 dolnO. bongs
about that stale oC tal> ty which asour - and lot
dOVl!lopmont and Growth wthout ts _,. alto .-... lhe c:1trm<1 -
the enjoyment of the MCUrity and Olhe< tlljhts WNc:nthe Cons...,tion hu
n m. Wllat Is ol lhoM oi'I\Nstod with PI*""' - Is total docf- ar111
incorrupbbl,ty n the oxarase ol pubfc powtr. The manner and purpose o1 the ot
publoc:power allects publoc CC<\tldence In ttlat pubic olloc.. and lhet ulm\ately
on pubbc confidence In lho ccnSiotl.lbonal stem.
In our a\lompt 10 posit some hmitod hypolheses to partially e>qllaon evaporation ttl
communotartan ethics !rom lho public tlt tn CC<\tomporary tn<lta. we l8l<a twO maJCI
community organizations, VI%; the State and tho marllals which dSI'IaY a la!llo scala and
regular perversion of tho rules ot ttle ll&me. tnvoM"I) poM>etans ond pollllC&lpeniU
businessmen and the marllets and the c!Yit HMOnll (on b<Oadef sense whlCh _.
adminlstrahve, molotary, technical profes11onols-lkl teacl1en, ._ ...,.....
medical persort11ol, etc .. -nd publiC and povato sec:lO< peltON*\. loa a
resuft of systematoc, regular, non-tj)ISO(Ioe and targICIII v\OIItlatl ol .,. man! 011111.
the hne o1 demarcatiOn and 1lteQel has beCOOM - Thil Ia -
lnVttOS Cfll01118kzahO<\ ol pod<: 10 bulor\Ma and
10 a wel-ttllegratecf mamer "' al rtt. un. Sill* The -
The Vollra Commrree 'oompnsJ our top clwl servants, who are privy to the most
S8115it"" O'llormafl()n and who have both, at lormal and lnlormallevels a rather intimate
ol the actual mechan sms ol po/IIJcs and governance. This comes out from the
rcpotllf'l '""'tlorms
This IS best by some hes fatiQtl leh by some members of the comm1t1ee 111 ,,..,., lu lhe Rl!po/t ewers), pertwlarly because IIley "SII\IIed
lltiClDnWIC:eCI lllal IC!uall'y IIIIGitded to pursue such matters. Thus thl
VAJIItA'1 & lti\VI --------
:;:::.-:;: .. 1 tc..o tlbot '"" l
fi!Orma, on Oi '"'"- natur out .,...,.. W'l oontall,\, 1ft ' teoorntd
.,11C:c$e M'la1e'<'ftf I Of" ...,..._. tJ'Iot t bt Nnclled ""'-U'IOIA h
... k
biiOUNI and otlea.n"'Q CO"'ffii4II'IOWI ir' arul'lety
.,. 1"'0 tJtNt.- aa. If"'cat:"" blha.,.our O<JMI'\1 V4 n...
11ave '"'-'QOd Oft 411':; a.ll , 0.. ot the ""' ""'*CtC c:oJdn'\

me aboo4 QW'Mtt DAk4 "" f'IU1 .... '11111'\at dO 1hl r
.. oi"'Iof\g ot .,. Ml.<w
Tl-e map c::onctJs.ona Reclor1 are
1, OrQan!Mcl Ct>me .. "Ma ......... IStr'OnOfftal
monrtulry f"'
are t.IMd IO devtAop _, .... Nt'NOI1t al: W./IWYf beQ'I"' W\"'Ch
pol!JOar'IS media coructs and
s ""'"""' ano "'"'OQotlly -..s mlvoduoll"'""' ,..,.
tate MC:tof ..._, moun1. Otetaure i'\Ot \0
gollow.,lhecaMSOQOinathtn -n.... - _ ...... -. ..
'1he u_nor -.quacy lhe ..,. ...... .::":':',:;:::,
functJon"''l olthe Govom-.. tawym,. QtOSIIy I\OIItquato". ThoM
lements also gown .,10 nat<:O-tomM\$11'1 """' """* v.\h -
olemen!s from wthO\ anc1 amogglong .,.,., .............,
etc., 1nto the country- '
2. ctlrne t yt\dieales .,..., boeorne a law unto thotnset'"'s'. w.O'I
cons'derable polt1cel r:lo<ll, 1erlously 1M &rnoath Ill
!he administration ano the safety 11\d propony ollho common man "'
moch so that "\he networl\ ot lh<l Mat Ia vi<lually a pardel
Government. pus1'11ng the &1810 apparallll Into irrelovanoe ano oven 1M
members ot the judiCial ayslom not escaped the e<nbfaco olin. Mall&.'
'The oos( ot elecllona hu thrown lho polllclans il\lo 11\e oi
these elements."
3. The Mallas "loo big to be tad\led', have gredua\ed to bill b<JSIMU' Md lh4w
muscle power "Is sustalned by their enormous fW'IIl\Cial wl1!cl\, W\ \UI'fl,
Is secured by 'ho Maha efemen\S oommlllng IC<K\Omoe oenses "'"'
lmpu,ly. The 'Malia Q1&nls', "'ha tcOnoniiC lobbes", "\he 'o'9
syndicates, w1th tnlernalonell nkage, sptead Into and
econom1c and hn.ancoal actMI18S, llldudong havata ttans ae110n1. Clf<:UIUiDII o1
black money and opo.-11()('1 ol a \'ICIOUS parallel e<:onamy ceusi'r9 -
damage to the oconomoc hble ol the ll'lu-. \l'le tiiiCk or
unclean, lflegal economy oC lndl8 lound as a map d "-
economy, especaUy rts upper and mos1 orga"'z< .:QipOflte
Lets the ptOCI!sses and forces whiCh have landed us In the present fllotlf
8oln the P06ty Slid economy operate In lnd1a In a manner d1ametrlcally dffferen1 from h
Stpulated Th1s feature IS a v1ta/ characteristiC of the evolving pollticll
-.otny ul lnd a_lnd<a's Utwersa/ aduh franchise based democrahc pollJ
lll!d II h.gNy ddlftfllntted m xed economy, both have departed in a rather systelllllle
"'at!ner from u,. lomwJI, legal
-------- \ 1\JII<Ai\1 & I<AVI --------
1 A04e ot PoiJUcel Part .. .,_,oeu on Conoreu
Snc:e the orm..l moo.r 01 1 * I) baM<I on o ana bul(y Cotwc.M.on \t ...,_
kl'\o""" we try 10 CIP14.1te the ot .,. real OtWtf.,...
past lew doc:aoe It epo,.l .. bea.cely by ot CCM'I'Ipet ,,.... .. CIOlbcl
vanovs pet I.:.U P&t1101 Che me101 p&ayets, tiM d bMr\ '" 1 ......-..y
of ways by the Qklbat Qeoclol.!call.aOR we 1\t..,.. both anct
Pll'lfl. lOme""'"' ........ eooel but end "
lhe .. &Jo.nalfy tnul'lfOCNTtong CWIH. """tJ\ natfOw Th.
- lloftQ- -od br ... - ..__ ConQo.... (INC): ... -
Otgan COI'nponent of h I"MMOOn ft'IOYetnent """<t' -.ntc:t h porwtM- 1ft a,.
cowso Of tt\e ttans.fef of power trom .... 1817 'Nth tcro<:
of rOSUrgofiOe ltle INC has "Hft lfMdy efot.on 011 ta u IIIIo ot '41 QrMt .c
glol\ous logaey l"-t 10 V"'YW'g ..,.., .. _,., II lho - J)OW.col - hod -
roots 11'1 01 drawn thh ._..,.,_, p tram ltle -.c:; may be taker\ \0 4'dr::a:. tl btoao
""tJOnal ehafada1. Ths ""'Y olso pat11y .,.,...,..,., 11-. CIO<IQ,...IId,<:ol...., .. " oo
ub.qu tou:s
The INC, dCISI>"' powefiiA "'*' 01 dwlsrnaloe - unlll ._..., a
democraloe pol,heal oroan.zaton. k - .. - - - lallly C!el1ly we.
accotnmodaJ on 01 lh <loiM\InCO 01 lho powt<\ul .-._ .,..
groups n e<v. soc:.ety. Tho lr&g<>dy ts that, 111 COU<M c4 WM, t loll s d""-&loe ...S
b<oad natoonaJ cha<acter to 1 mat cot""" ol botMs. Though \tlo llftlCU hod
rts smal ong10s, bu"t onto lho open alter lho death ol Jaw1ilarla!Net>ru. The ..
lamed synclocate l'laJ. trying to wor1< under 1 nominalllguro-held Pl\me Minlotor wu liS
f.rst ma)Qr exposure to the public Y
Before we attempt to soe how auch a degoneratlcn came about, 1t may be noted thai the
nonINC pollical pan1es remained virtually lnelfecw and Without a direct share In-
1 1967. Despite patlOdlc, almost regular organll.atlcnalelectlons, the INC s11)ped IMO
the hands of some poworbrokers Wllo wore wollenuenched In the pany O!Qat\
and administrative strucltJre In $\ales and to some extent at the UniOn le,..l as
well. The state patronage, power and discretionary authority wu used
bedding; It was strengthened by contrallted final select1on of party. cant! n
elections. Desp1te complaints and othor ayatomlc k\dieatlons, lor a vanety ol
Including lhe need to maintain an elloclwe and well- oiled election mac:l\lllery a and
support base ol tho INC showed signs of ly, the mosdemeanours Suc:ll
malfeasance at various levels In admlnlslrahon by party members were
::. llld
elements made a mockery ol organsahonal elections through boous S.. IIICI
selective showering ot administrative fawur. M the party U<1liS
local levels became nearly defunct tor non-e4ectoral purposes.
-------- (t ltAYI
2.. Mone)'POWirnd rnoenceofOUOOPOUttloo PowerSttueture -------- \ A.J11\,\'1 & lti\V \ --------
At ... e numb ol W<ltYMI ..,...,. '9'Y
... ro c:utr)' ,.vou,.wft'l

__ , ,_u,.roooo. 000 n lhe 11\. -. - -'Y'N tw">d a.s

"'" -.... ., tru,-tod .......
OM ol mon.y pow to ind\1'041 "' .mp011. etc. smuoortno. lho.t....'' - .......... om c tctat"'qy ,.._____,>Sl.
;c.,r.., llf'\II'OH. pttmtttiMOfl 10 - t- ...'ICed r':-' ........... ====---_;-=;;;;;;,;;;...
MdtOI'MiflofcorN''ncebetW8- ....... ,.lotor 1'10 qu.,.,._.
pot,bal and eooriCWI'""- TN e-ncttPf",.l. of cuft)lng Pfl'V ... --.. ....
,. ,..,_... s mpof'1.a1 lo:'e-s:tyle 'or tt-e -- -- '-01
pol teal To .,. T,.oomp ca.:k-=::

Thog_,monrlnbus.n... _,..,.a,.._,.,,
- - ,_,..." ,. ---- U'leof 8U'Itlot ----. extet'lt tuoeh end .,_,_1 .,.,......
o.c:..,.. '**' -'1 ol.,. (llldlr'lg lty fQr pen<$ by *'<Sot .... "' .. """*' ........ n. 'Q';..,.\CII;W'I
marg n betYrelt\ Lf'le ..
---"1 W.IIJ'I ._ .._:
tkldorm. en*"'Q IN e&ea.or... and lhe '-Gi4&a' c..e v.ngs. an
jtt IUIJCfute$. mote capable of Ut\Sa'tiOUry kx
vu ..._ Oo\ 1C0
thwl poM"*Y IQPCH1Idlno
popu1a1 mtndat.. These power sttuclures tnof"' bef1h5 al"'d ..,.er on ..,.. ..,,OI:IUC.a to h \
&he pot.rc:al bOsses. the HJQh commands of ott'lrtr pos!.IQtls oa DOeltlltlte..,.,. ........... two.
pol<cal- -...gcondodor .. '"' l0o< s.llna Ro;ya Sablla and Srate A$sembliot, money and ruxu ... bocame a spur 10 .,..r..,.... ........,. - -
INm. top-down. I>Oih- tlogans Olld popu'" lt doSs- _, JUn'ibo-WOCS """Slf4L E...,. .,. ,_..._ 01 h -
alao anctUiot'1Qiy latgre a.mowntt ot un.aocounted mone-y. r tsl ttJe SUtpnU lhat Castes W\d Tribes c:onnQ to .,.,. PGWM 1ht Cll fMecVIllons ano
ollhe polily and l>oc:ame .,.v rable Worn rn.s 6-ated rhO ptOspects
JlOS'tNe, pre'erent.ol d-bocame _.., "'"'.,. """",. 01
-potty, gtaAfOOI pot.roc:al ...,rl<.,. aroculat"G people'$ asprallOns a"" ohort<ut to-and ar...,..srar 01\CS 90'1"11,_,_ ....SI>lM>It """'.....,
-'*t<lQ It> g-lhtOUQI! local pany unoct and na"'"" a nand n d....,.lopmert own IJOOf consrll.rents. Th.s a.llurat ua t unt6uhOCS til 11\0 INC bOCOmo a .,.,.,.._,
M>rl< (M>oetl wu made lhe pteNIW o1 burauc, under a massive mlsunderstancf rng feoruro for fNOfY poltut perty v.l\ocll IIOI..._blcl""" pos"""' ot-1-...,...
0/ tiS cNntcler bcnauctlcy) and malmg the leaderoh'l' an, monor vanatoons) alter 1967
admot11$1nltron accountable to lhe local unrts and party memberS (wl>o are suggestive!) 4. Emer11ence ot
t8tl'n< worl<en. oltM on tn. pay roU o1 the higher level teaderohip). In fact, Willi
concentrafiOII 0/ O<gamurronaland govemmontaf autllonty In a few hands at tho Union These and rogoonal I&VI!>I rnlcllo utert ther wthon\y once
lsW!IIMif aM deoontralrzatoOn ar the level of the states became drtficutt ana colossal banyan t<ee-wu no mo,. on the nat.ooal seeM. In the COUTM Q\
untenable. Thus, tlrere was atrophy o1 tJre democratic pofrtlcal process and the Parties the ensulng intense poWGr struggle amo"') tho pYQm>OI, 11\tr INC un<lei'H$nl a
and the r organrllWonalmstrument, In neatly an respects save as a periodical energi$ metamorphosis. Thrs was no sudden development but a (\'.fat IalNo wote<shed I'I\Oll<f'll
centtaDy ful'lded electiOn machinery. Obvrous/y, JhO lower revet party the cutmrnation ot a senes ot incromen\e.l devolol>ments, wllose embryor\c begonn"'l
became valuable basiclllly for rhelr capabllltros ln the bailie ol the ballot. The political sadly date back to pre-Independence <lays. This devetopmonl In the INC estabtshed a
fJ"'CeSS was pervetlod, loslrJQ Its capacty lor strerJQthen and emich the demoetatoc now set of rules tor tho enllte poll\lcal apoctrum. The highly Pflllteal.
conrenr Of our formal domoctacy. and administrativo power ol the hoad ol the Union government was made .....,,. \l'j
tying the party organl:atlon firmly to hit apconcoat. As a poirtica\IQlenbsl me>nlall\od, we
3. Neglect of Oemocrellc Ethos, Austerity and Right to Livelihood have a prime ministerial \y;lO ol government, where the chel exe<:Utive ,. I t<e under lh
n Presidential model, but shom of equivalent cheet<s and balances. The tund-ra OQ
trose Nf!o IJfJ/ogsed the formal character ot the democracy, simply In the exercise c1 activities through economic controls IJJ1d through mljOr external pubhc .cccont shOili><I'O
perrodoe slecrrs neglectod the pol focal power of lhelarge and growing Plutocracy and partly a gHt of farge delense spond1ng and (he SOKto<-wes delottlild
is coltlborators rn the state SIIIJCfure and the resullrrJQ erosron ol lhe democratrc from the tonnal party otganrtetron. It was concentrated 111 tile han<ls ol a tew
CQnlent 11 11 ltlo5 eros-on M>rch s closely relatod ro tho evaporatron of tile Along WTth polbeal tapab<hbes, char1111\11, and hn3f\Ciel resow:a al IN
awnmuna.v an, democr.wc elliot ol our publrc 1 te. feadershrp became a majOr factor 1n con\toiling vast and liiCbOn
callod tho pohtrcal panoes. Nom nets ot IU(I\ central pet100Plad 1oDC1 pi
aces rn legrslatures anclexecut...e tn party OfgllnlzaloOII UtOIII"' II
-------- V,i\JIRI\M & Jl;\\ I \ AJ IItA\1 & ltAVI -------
, ,_n_..- edOf)le<f the corporal eurau,
tl'!e per.ornal:ed, ifNrOttttnrete futldt . The en vast
nct eJtPOIW'fltlaJiy ... ol vat' trt>e ot ool t!Cal acw..a. under\nQS, \OUts, ttotrn.v
QOng lo 11>0 :
01 1110
ooncenorated :;'' cMo P<od'9M. open .,., h-
,.._ ...,..,.. ...... = --
dotly or undHn ...,...,y .,...._ , ,.,_.; rosour-wotn tnom and al lho upwa'.. vo.::.;, ooc """ """ modai>O' I 01 "''' gonro ,_ ,..,. 01
power ""'n un nwg.nlbly litO' lill'ld ro ptem.,ent poe.c.cef personaM es. ha.,_ pa!rot'.age b)' Att'!Of'IQ ,.,. runo at the p!'ot6UIOC\UI too, PQL\!Cal
ll'ld caJ 1M polotcal CIIP(Il$(1, "'ng Qwd INO quo '' .ought lor Ill\ tlaQ!. QlfMf ad'vlncemil
doaM Of ... youth IS
5. AbMnce ot MI,.SaNd PolfUCI every'! 11 ,::C n petiON).zed Mf11e!UnQ oame. \hoe diaum
, _,.stoiiC>Iclswoy, w.m.....,._ """'*""
Mlny t.ccore tac::t.Wcat< (IOU(N ot r.1)1ull0n of lnd as pobt.q conc:ern fOf o lhQ(' Oeeper' bilK ......,., or tOf tOOat OtMousty ....,
"""""'"Y U.. .,. .,..,.., nat-'_..,, pnor
19-07 on freedOm from the Ro, motllio1y had to ma><e a hasty,.,,.., Ultlo -r .-m Ia< 10001 c:onooms and
,.,. wu ...,.., - on ,. lo<m&l and declared SOCio, tar..- to """"""'ta,.n end oocal oll>oea 00 ha"CC "' hand c..t soooty ond poitJcs
pol:.c:.l agencla. Will the dflle"""' ol Sa<dlt Pre! ,. INC t>ecame wtudl' deVOlepl!d a ""Ga' '" retal.onsl>i>. INd<'9 to <1 --moot and _,..,. ol
No-K.fllyaAMIID.,.'*Yolsoaaltnt)b4aat.oO<tw&S<tn<tS$0d. II!OSe n wllose name the gamo. named . .. s
coaxo<l. and .,.,.,_ --
Thus, - f-1110f1'91S. bOth on tile and tile R>Qhl, poi.1>CS no loc1ge,
- ,... pololot:8. "'""""""'
" mot>t.zatoOn 011 dewJOpmenHts pattem. may be noted that """' 119 omaey s man"""*' 10tgo1y by <lo!*>Y<'oQ
Slnllegy, coli$ encJ benefota. The OurN.,...t was treated the mapr agent ol chango_ cclvloques and ""*""' ra4al.ons V""""""'" ont1 ..._,.._
M'Oded ....
The <*ltnsl tulong Plrt)l woa uled ma11ly IO< ooniAtslollg ele<:toOnS and thus ac:qu ting of illeg IJT\ille wealth amassed by means .,tor.Va ot Mttong up oiiNSIS. <MfU.
leg.tomacy. The Aoglll hod a ratllef narrow soaal baM- Its palace and chambers 01 charolable onst;M.ons. NGOS, lront ole. wlloch serve 1t1e pu._ o1
comme-.t>aled polrloca hod no chance o1 poroo411ollQ down and onthuSJt1g the cornrncor, ra; lunds and tuppOt\ Sucotssiul orans.t.on to a =- by
masses. Another Aoghl reosed """""' emotive and communal issues based
many l dm personal a tellong 0V1C1once o1 '-the matfle9o ol easy ....,.,.nng- ala
lden!doc:atoOn of ntligoon Wllh Allhe rev.N olln\IOtvement of the masses, some btanclmage (alteady mahnee Idols) wolh l'olge llock ot "blacl<' 01 \lndean' wealth tum
so-called cultural aCIIvrty (read wos cemed on by them lor indoctrination out to be deaclly offectrvo. This '""'"''scent o1 how at least partly real\sallon tnS'S ..
particularty o/ the young. The Lelr centlnued lis 'cia' struggles by means mainly
handled by the hogtoly concentta\ed b<o1>ne" In the tiOOt10<'I'orC sphere.
llllde umons. The vast rural and unorganlsed masses came Into the vortex ol pol.tlcs 7. 'Filml' Charisma and "Benaml' Accounts
essentoa/Jy by way of perrodlc exercse ol franchise, ff and when the local powers-that-be
permmed them to do so. During the period seperatlng one election from another, the INC The model of polotical behavio\Jr, applicable to tho ot the polollcal parues (wllo
kept llsoH busy In lis lac!Jona/ poll!/cs (read group rivalries and dissidence joCkeying lor have, to varying degtees, convened the pan,.s 1n1o their pnvate 0< public
power) and Joalson with hangars-on Jrom the economic and gradually cnminaJ companies by playing the role of promoters- centrolloiS)Is based on tne use ot pal\'{s
unclerworfd. Nearly all the polrtical Jormatlons appealed to casle, regional, religious orgamsalional and government's administrative power lor amassono uniath<>mable
loyalties and personal charisma assiduously bull! up by marketing techniques lor amounts of undeclared woallh (largely outside the scMiny even ot IM partoes
lhe no-holds barred eloctoral ba!Ues. 01 course, the leaders command over resources themselves). This wealth Is used or 'onveste<l' lor extended reproduction oltl'oelr polltoeal
laQ)olaled these processes. power and lis familial succession. One cen w'J\1\055 \he emefllence ol so many
'charismatic' and inlluenllal lamllles, l<.oon on succ:essloo. tlowe'ler.
6. Intra end inter-Party Power Struggles and Rule ol Toughs, Money end there are also a number of casos when such polotically acquloed weallh Is utoad by IN
Front Organfsallons politicians directly In the economic and commerclalllelds. Among a nunilel ol t1ror!C:oM
and open power strup bolh iltra-party and inter-party, became tile main idiom
an politiCS ''"th llllllOr and Incidental involVement ol the person in tile street saw
or 58CI8!ian, emottve end momentary Issues Consernently a' lor rA
apefl!y, cyn.osm and ...... sJve llbno h ..__ . .,.
..- S$1011 as"""'' generated though given exceSS81.
proper IIIOI)f.zatoon end arocularon grassrools cases oi specracular mobilizaliOII
overal. lh
process saw lhe emetgence everywhere frOIII
watd blodc end d tll\d level upwards. ng instiruhons like c:o-
petfected tor this pu1p0se, in addobon to secrot, nunt>ered SWISS bel1k acau>1S lftl
benaml operations at home and abroad. one can see trustS. co-operaM -
educelionat insbtullons NGOs. etc. Obvously vanous contlinaiiOnS e1
these delltCes and avenues are avaotabte. Hogh acceM. IIOqlliNd by IU ..-
linancial manlpulatoon experts, seMI'oQ lllCh power eentNS .,__ .,. .... .,.. "
such 'expert' advice. k resuiiS, at tomes. 111 thelf dnct Ill polililllll a1 .....
power, parbcularly tn monsrnes oolleC1JOII IIICI we: MI ..
- U.luttd a1 111 emon1 ond _.,,_ co<*l not h&ve emerged wthout
-""''-doNiy .,...,...,ed - - - in .... ...,., ... ts <1Silla)l
-r-l'loilal_,.,.,. IS no.-01 on cno leg. Hence,"' lht
next pall we try to ll'le esunbals ol lhe ftNIJ (as cbt1nct ,,om tho fOtmal)
- - """"' ...c>olOnt.dy .. .,.. modol ol ""' po6ty sl<etCiloq
- wo c1o ""' d....,... ,.,., but muSI ,.,,..., the common cultutal conddJOnong 01
both as tile cutrural cotrelate a/IndiA'S poltcal economy whoeh os severely ., a
communjr.anan ettlcs.
1. 'Middle Palh' or Mixod Economy
The GCIOtiOmiC model, evoMtd Ill India alter llldopendonce, Willi its diverso elements
avoodlflQ extremes. and dlaJ11tlg the lamed 'mlddlo prun. was presented, as was largety
{JCeoved, lo "'P(esent a broad oooonnl consensus. In any case, it nad the approval o1
lha powerlul elements, and. In some areas, extension ollhe Initial, halting policy moves
bepan durong rho RaJ. It dod gove fiSO tocontrovorslos b<JI they could not become the
contentiOUs lsss of mass po/Jtk:s. C!oarly, tho noises and protosls by lndoan and
toreogn buSiness were systematiC and effeclive but, as tar as poltlics is ooncemed, rarely
reached beyond the columns of lho so-called ongllsh languago 'national' press or high
domes o1 conference halls and rho clolslored corridors or powor.
The mapr elemenrs ol lhe economic model, ltke mixed oconom) , , JOiic sector, swa
ICK and regulaiiOn of pnvalo (malnly btg busness), protectionism for fosterong.
modem, cap.taJ and friendly industrial.salclft,
Q'II01fOecl Ofllfy to cap.1aJ, agranan rostnuctunng Wlh liberal lor
/XOQI'IU/';e (read nch) latmers and nural dovelopment programmes, strengthontng of
JOC:ial, IICOilOmiCIIId leennoca/lnfrastrucrur,......H under lhe framework or nabonal ie\'11
4. Agrarian rostructunng by comprehonaove land relCKrn$lor In a co-
operative village commonwealth 919 landlords were to be dlllested o1 .,.., ""'*"
landholdings hut, in o11oct, I lilt land was translened and tNt too w1t11 _,.
compensatoon, statutonly and inlormally JliOiected poviltQes. ac1111e ond bog 1011 111 .,.
panies, government, proless10ns and buSiness

-------- VA.IIRA\1 & IIA''

lor the IVf&l poor by ,
.5. Mc:rNMd eocAf ccW*Itf'IPI.of' It'd ,,, u reat ocono'fllt
vanery ot proorai'M't'l ot nnl (IT'Iet'lt of smal pec* ol land or -,
.,,.,.,_,.,..,,__.,. .,_,. o1 -:-.. me
altMlatJW non-1.1nn W'IOOmt OIMfiJ.r'IQ opporu'l ''
2. xcltltlon ot PO MatHt nd euac ftHdt
tnodef was able to onsute lhat tht
Fot vahll)' o1 . .,. atn1>.,....
n'AJSet GO ,
, come co OCCUp)' the
l>ou:---.... ,_., ... _ tkplflTitled. _..,, .. """-
__ .,._,_,.,.01 ... .,_
.......... ... _._-,..,,.., ...... - n.. _..,.. .....
---.. --.. .,.,...,. .. ed ..
....-., ,.. Pll)"'**l ,., ..-. eurlhey <l<l
- ond -..,. IO 0. COIISidofed """"'SlaLSI modcl by c:teal.o'lg a
....,.,_ rn Olf1Wlg or II'JOtloA .-.rll will ,.
"""' - srrong
...,.,..,. will 110 lonl<llgH n ,. .,.....ty w'
"""""""" - ,. '"-' ... .,._ .., !he por.toeaJ-ar:lrnon<suafNC apparalus.
POLt-cal lun<Jong, wheu..< '-Qal 01 banned. became a key etemenl lor cemenmQ theriA$
be- tile oon- of !he por;ty and .,. ...,.,..,.. HovweWr. a numbe at
.,,_, modo
oc:waf modcl or ,. economy a pale
t!lllectron of itS forrnaly, '-Qaflorm
Parooulaily pemrooua rhe petSOnllozed control aver the party machinery and
funds. The polobCal bosses, lf><trally fl(:tUfled ()<I the baSIS of wearing lhe shmong armow
of the freedom stnJ!Igle, started lt1to pol ucaJ ptOmlnen<:e by means of capactty to
mobJJZa funds. ramofy lnoage, ca51o oquar.ons, personal loyalty. as a Cll!id pro qvo to the
rebred bureaucrats and the protossoanals lor the seiVIoos rendered, llnancal clout (as
dorect particlpaiiOfl on pokiiC$ bcleame popular among lhe money bags), clc. Entry 1n1o
pobllcs Jhroug/1 movements, moofl
zarl0n, suffenng and sacnl.:e or alticulalion or an
allemarive Sltalegy becamo lnc:ro.'Jslngly rare and dftJCUII. Unaccoonled weallh became
a passport ro high poslllon In bolh me ooonomy ana polork:s. Ofspensarion ol favours lo
Jhe powertul economic enrolles beeamo an Important means for explaining the real,
lmplemenred poiiC)I choices, In fiscal, ltll<fa, monerary, banking, induslrial finance,
loeanslng, foreign cap<rar, trade, and ptJbllo enrerprises poilcles.
3. Slate's Ofrect Economic Role and Nexus Between 'Controllers of
Economy and Political Bassos
Slatost policy onenrabon lllCfeased lhe direct economic role, acrivirir .nd assers ol lhe
Slale. Managemenl of 1/lese aellvobts and assers n publ.e enrerpnses, defence, social
seMCeS. rec:ru4metlt of pe11011nel as abo choice trom among various pol1cy allemativeS.
10<e rates of raxes allOse and customs dulles, became a regular device lor cuts.
comtTifSStOflS and brClery. Th s sovrc. volllled !he pubk poltoes and, publiC enrerprrses.
led ro baloonJilll ol publiC spewns tha fearsome prospect. of weakened
11 has often been said, "Whal happons In privacy does nor trurt anyono: Tl'rt l't\0\lo lor
Las Vegas resonares this private versus P<Jilllc pnoiOsoptly, "What happens In Las Vegas
stays In Vegas: Or does it? Ooes il got earned out by o\her means? Is U\lly
secrer? The implicaltOn of the two monos nbove auggests that any lndiSCteet _,
thai transpires in lhe privacy ol a holel room w\11 not bacome publody lulown ant!llnnil
irreverstble harm or a !lea thai indiVidual or lhe communtt. A<;cordongly, person t111 be
assured lhatlhere wtll be no publiC exposure of privllte ndoscreroons
This raises me issue. Do pnvare olha have no bearong ()il public Wa 01 social ..,..
Does what occurs in lhe povacy of a publoc oi11Ctafa hOme or olfoe:. l'rt.,. no_,....,
or social policy deciSIOns? can privale ethical behavOQUf be seplllled rram IOdll
ethtcs wtthoul consequences? can !here be public: or soaal lli1CS -
Prfvalo Uva nd PubliC PokY nd
pnvale a
M S 0o1 ot Oelho ...,._...,..,... 10"'" ,_ ol"'" "'",_ aooe1 and penon&! elhq
..,..,. w-on _,. ..-oltiiO soc>3i elhcs an.j
.a -.c>le 10 8 - ond pte008 ""'"""' socoai impi<Cal.oOnS. No
"'""'" I>ONI"""":.......
80<0IJ -oOn 0t pt01Jjem 1$ woll1oul CONClUSION
-. He wriiOS, "Pubic:
AcootdlllQ 10 Gol. pofocy and sooel 01ncs Ill ecoiOOY end crime. MofaLiy IS OSSOt11<ally a ,
poky ,oolite. economa. war. poverty. odocetl0f1. raosm. lS 111do scope for and f)Urpo tssue. When 1t!e latter get debated Chef
ere examploa ot tn. of soc:&al ethics. How much op110n do ifi<Jt'tftd4J H Lo. tho SUb&mat10n oc moral vlttuos a. an lndiY!ctual
. I , a .. have lo Opt out oC a Systom? CltMou .
Alr ot "' tocial he identfties uncor'l1)aSI vest range of Issues every mpOI1ant. Wuhout vatuos, even tho com 11y lmtld, though
segment 01 .ocfory and cannot exist apart lrom inctivk:luals. Businoas. educatiOn, .,. become funchonol anct oneuro tts sustenance pebtlve morMt behaviour e&.MO\
cl>urch, profo .. IOnaJ asaoclalions, and govemmenl Involve people as .they
.change ld<lu , trade goods and $Grvice$, and mal<e deolllono. They onlluenO<> 00t
anorhef dunng these ;ncei"Change:s and attea tho srructufo and moral onv,ronment ot
Many aloes of former Preso:1efU Bil Clonton did not oonsk* Clinoon tnelleclive on spite 0(
hos motaJ......, fll!lures While on the Whie House. elha sts can be ated Wllo
contend Olhetwose. "'hal there
a ne<:eSSaiY linkage be!WI/CI'I pnvate c:twacter and
pcJbic performance. A leader's personal onlegtlly and pomose '*PJng aJe espedaly
"l>>rtanl on the ontomallOnal arena. Private elhoes With publiC and elhicaj
leadetlhop can also be "CCinton's de<!ds are deatty a f)OOIIC marter because !hey
produce "dSIIusionment, further erosion of trust Ill olflcials, and dreadlul disltac:toons
from maners of public business."
How.vor, not all orhldsrt or theologians share their view. As commented by one of thtl
AmeriCan theologian "The private fives of our public leaders aro best left private or "'
Wll 118.,. none allowed to lead." Still another ethicist, adds what appears to be a middle,
ground, '1t an employer Is involved sexually with a private citizen outside the worl<place,
arQIJ8bly rhars none of our busrness." On the other hand, the same ethicist says, sex,
wtn a tcJI)()(donare that oocots at the olfice becomes a public matter.
HOOWJVer. 11 rtu truly a rnoddle ground a CClll1lfOmoso based on situational
J lhlll P' vale crlllen IS not ILs or her spouse and lhs is a pt0111
1J1Z11tc IIQIJ'fl that ,. head ol a uniVerSity, charitable organizatiOn, or nfluentill
lt!M dlange the argument? On wnat basis does the manor beoom8 lhl
- VMIRAM & llAVI -
------ CHAPTER -
2 -.My In lnremer- Relit""''
3. 1hoea In NabOnal AIIO.rt
Emaln I'IA>Ioc Ut
s. Some""""'ant-
7. Conc*Jsjon
A bnof ciHctlpbon ol the- "'" bHn IIJd "' ""' lort/ICOm"''l paragraphs.
-------- & Ill\ VI -----
He lut1hof observed 'lndMCI, lhe N1e o1 ...... ...., in !hoi fMI>OCI 01o..,..

actoOns os much stronger upon tho tOimtf 111an upon me lt.U., on prcponoon ., ""
greate< magn.tucle o1 nat.onal """OJal "-and
to the greater --ol tt>e til..,. ot nabOnallhan o1 on< oon4J<:t.
millions, and for the most pan IUI\Ire aro ooncemed In the -
measures ot a government; wllie me con- o1 the pnvate _,.... o1 an
M>dMdual Ord1nari1y termona\8 w.\h h msol, or are an:u rnsctl>ed Wlllwl a -
IHTROOUCTION George Washington emphaSisacl \h11 aspect when he doldarod lh;>t rt sa ma>um,
lates to ethics in
founded on the unrversal expenence o1 man"-"'<1, that no rrat1cn Is ro be tfU!Iod fue1her
Ethocs rn Publrc LW.-Ms three aspects. One to ethics in
than 1s bound by its Interest: and no prudent statesman or pot.llelan VIii """"" ID
beha..OUt o1 nabOns 1n lha lntomauonal spne<e, lhe seco the public behavial depart from rt'. Srnce then an altompt was made to """'-It appear th3t moral
behavoour of gtOUps Within a natron and the third relates

actlv.fes willj coincideCI Wllh national interest. Woodrow Wilson aband<>ned the lht'Ot"Y ol \d6.ollly ol
ollndlvoduals. Tho tas1 two aspects ponaftl In lhe very naluto
0 1
1 1
national interesl and moral prinaples. He ventured the view that on a -'""'
\he country. national lntetest can be sacrillced lor moral princl!>les.
Moralny In lnlemellonel Rolellons
The hiSI aspecl, pertains to observance ol rules of Moralily in lnlematlonal relati011
Howeve<, many would consider It 10 be nor strictly relevant and gennane to the quesee
ol ell>rcs in publoe e. In any event, !hey would relevance to be rather remd
and fat-felehed. Olhefll would conSider 1/tat !here 1s a close relationship between I
,...... Ac:cotcllng to \hem, o1 rules of morality from one would necessarily all
,. ofler
The end of War-1 and the treaty nQ90tla!lons which tollowed It, dis tluslonod Wrlson
a great deal. The 1920's witnessed a revival o4 the concept ol national Interest. The
approach now advocated by tho SChool o1 political reall$ts Is that the contest between
utopianism and realism Is not tanta.mount to a contest between pnnapln lll'd
expediency or between morahty and lmmoral1ty. The contest Is rattler be- ooel'/l)e
ot political morality and anolher type ol pol1tlcal morobty, one tal<tng as s sta11e1ar0
universal moral principles against the moral requirements ol conctete poiJal aaoon.
their 10iative merits to be decided by a prudent evalUatiOn ol the polltreal con....,.,ca
to which they are IIK81y to lead.
-------- \'J\JIRJ\M & IIJ\VI S
So tar as his Pf\'ale Ia concerned. almosl eWlfYOtle Is agreed thai r;:;s :'
moral ,......,, nuoc go-.m Even In o1 publiC hto, !he view 1S no 1 m1 ,
rnowh In pracr>ee clofferonl ....,
y;rdSIJdcs are appled. We, 1n /
India were fcr1unata 10 have ( No one can deny that In lhe rough and tumble ol
been led dtmng the struggle lor I pol/Ilea. lheJO are bound to be heated
-o dlscussJons end public controvcrsfcs. These by
ependonce by one who apart tholr nolurt art en Integral part of a democratic
from be10g an astulo teador, wos ,,. .. up. Oosp
alf tho hoat and controvers;es
also a great moral Clllsador who / dtspllo all the !rayed tempors and stron9
nas hrs place rn h1s1ory aiOf!O adjocllves which aro bandied about and
...., rho Buddha and Christ. For I occasionally add colour to the fierce debates, we
have to lhlnk seriously whelher It Is not poss1blt
hrrn, mean,; wero no less 10 tvof\la 1 pr/nclplt thai whatever shape we give
"'ll<>flalll lhlln lho ends. Thoro to the pollcJts of lhe parties and lhe programmes
was "' the personal ry of 1M olthe group, II should always bt ensured thai no
Mahatma '<bile, llldeSCI'obabfo, act of ours h1rms1he nallonal interests.
magoc loud! lor all the ddforem ..._ ..-I
wtlo come ., c:lose contael w.1h him turned rnto men of gold, be 11 J.L. Nehru 01
Parel. kad or IUjen<Jra Praad. Sonoe !he dtalh Ollho Mahatma, except lor
--------Vi\J IRA"' $.. lti\VI --------
hlt bw1hday u nal1011a1 hO&I(I.ay, Wt' hi..,. romombtrocJ h.m WI no bt110f wa.y that\ by
HCIIOQ fOUQh &hod OW.. trw. 01 II'U1h And mo111 lt'lat "- al t.l
Wt\al 04so can 004 make 04 some 01 1he on Ule na110t1e1 Pf'Od'!.al
l"'tltfGSlS W'I1CtfOSI Q!OlJIP 11'\{0ff"UI. tOQOtlal 10f'11efe'ltl. W'ICII\fdua& ""*eM 1lre on
occascns Pfessed anct dvocasecs w 'h vetlemenc. Mel tury C'l ut1_. d 11091fd at other
Qnty tew t.hnk d na Of\ll end !1\ tl\.1 QI'111'1MCI IOfdtd
ot 1"Q olltOtests net dash ot '" no he*as are batted .no no
Thete IS QOIO ol""' an e4emrnt. Qd ntOnMtdney betwetf\..,. deMl10 'lfiltllch WI pto!MS

10Qe:he< Wo ..,...., up m. s 1ra t. ""'""' .-o1 hypocnsy by a -scr- ol
catctt words net by play"'Q \11)0'\ tmolons wtt'l to lOme rnon'II!Mary 'lloSUM.
Those momentary ssues are uMd 10 wt\.C) up our pUII()nS am douO our "'J'9.
There rs a great need tor Vro M anc:1 eout-.geous mtn to warn us ot .,. dill'lgW ""'c
unclefWles 1he "'-'""' 10 "'''" ""' 1180to10<y lo< 1he etomal 1:.11\cs """ """"'
sentiments are as much and $1QM cant in pubic We u they aro nec::e.s.sart tn
!he pnvate Lie otlndlv-dua1s ft " a _,..,.. 10 .._ .. 1lla1\!le banoshment Cl4 l1heal
llOfmS and metal values trom publ.c Lie -..., 110p "''"tly 01 !hat. socn 1UCil
ban"'"""'' ,. bound 10 affloellhe ind<v.clual and pnvato Cl4 11\e u-.on ..
Corning to lhe questiOn Cl4 how l1r ethiCal norms lhoulll actuate 11\e poloaes arc!
programmes ol ddlerent nat1onal g""'')S, one card<Ull polncoplo. whiCh ""'st bo k8l>("'
... w. is that a paJty or group Is greater than 1he lnd1vldual and 11\e COUI\Il'f " grO<Ilel "*'
the pony or group. 11 1n no Circumstances should we sacnt1ce the lrltG<ost o1 the party or
group tor the sake ot 11\e indiVIdual, there Is all 11'1e more ,.ason wny - should not
sacrihce the interest ol the countJy tor tho sako olthe party or 1nd1V1dual.1Nhen England
was passing through critical times during Wetkl War l , came out tt>e well!$
which electnfied the whole nation: "Who lives It England dlosr The same lt>ng was
stressed by Pandit Nehru at tho lohoro Sosslon ol tho tnd1an Nabonel Congress"""'"
he concluded his prosldontiai addrou wtth thO words. "Who lives lnd a dlos arc! who
dies ff lndla lives?"
1 Ethics In Mlt)orlty-Minorhy Rebttionlhtp
De -sa <IGI>eale 1orm o1 n
we have op1ed for a democrattc set-up. mocracy ---I- OM
rms by a1 concemed tor'"..,...,........ ---..
calls for adherence to certa.n no -.Ill niCill'dl IIMI _, .,.
lhe baslc poSIUiales 01 democracy II that tile mnority

VAJI RA . . The majonty on 1ts Part

f the maJonty.
pt the rule
verdict of tho erocrorato and thus acce nd not rule too oppr
would show duo doloronce to tho mlnonty
. biiC hie. Principles ot oth1ca
. of ethics In pu 'test themselves in the
Social jusrtco is an oxtons,on of the ::,stract. They have to no side and oxtrorna
cannot operate tn a vacuum or tn ncentration of wealth on o ocietios, If the
actual ltlo of the community. Extreme co th'cal order of soc,ety.
poverty on tho other are maMestat,ons of an une
rds progress and prospen y, rnust
havo to march tn a smooth and peaceful manner towa
bamsh such ugly and unoth1cal blots.
2. Education System and Youth .
. 'fators at examinations need pohco
Somot1mos we are laced w1th s1tuat10ns

pors or tor postponement ot
protection. There are also ag1tat1ons
examinations. On occasions, these . to sa that it we want to look at the
agitations lead to tho closure It Is a truf
smountryy we should look at tho youth
1 1
future o a c b so It is they
themselves. Tho students have a v1 a and students of that country, ecau . f
stake in the effective and smooth who represent the future.
functioning of the universities and other the future .of a a country.
educational instilutions. To say, educationadt interest,
Enhghtene .
however, that students alone have a therefore. demands that nothing be done to
viral stake in tho functioning of the undermine the effective and smooth
universities and other educational functioning of the educational institutions that
ht d'se the future of the youth and
institutions would be stating only half m1g 1eopar
. with them that ot the country.
the truth. The quest1on of proper
education of students Is of tremendous L------------------'
importance for the entire natton. The nation, no less than the students, have a stake in
the proper functioning of universities, schools and colleges because on this depends the
future of the country.
3. Defections of Legislators
One other matter which is common between the need for adherence to ethical norms by
groups and parties as well as the public life of the individuals is the question of
aefections by members of the legislatures from one party to another. Defection of
fegtslators elected on party tickets has marred the political scene on quite a few
OCCasiOns of our national history. There are stories of sordid activities behind many of
the defect1ons and it is satd that money, power or lure of office play a significant part in
duCIIIg such defections. Defections, there can be no doubt, pollute the political life of
the oountry and create an atmosphere of uncertainty and instability. They also bring the
of democracy Into disrepute and create a feeling of b itter
d senchantment tn the people. In many countries, parties even with a majority of one or
two /lave conttnued 1n power and nobody thinks of defections or purchase of p arty
____ D ___ VAJlRAM & RAVI --------
Why should not the pos1tion be the same in our country? It would be an exercise in
euphem1sm to say that most defections are the result of the urges of conscience.
Defections also create an atmosphere in which a ministry cannot devote its tirne to
nationbl.ulding activities and programmes of public weal, as 1ts t1me is mostly taken in
counteracting the strateg1c moves to oust 11 from office. Political hie in such an event
descends from the plane of princsples to the level of marl<et place, to horse-trading and
sale of personal loyalties. Of the different type ot Mercenaries, the polit1cat mercenary is
perhaps the least mindful of scruples. He has a pliable conscience and has no
compunclton 1n changing his loyalty and sh1fting h1s Alliance. He is Willi ng to succumb to
all kmds of pressures and to yield to all k1nds of temptations. H1s actiVIties may sntroduce
a touch of melodrama but in essence it 1s the manifestation of his political and moral
4. Donations to Political Parties
The question of 'donations to political parti es is another matter which has a vital bearing
on preseNing the purity of public life. Th1s
is one of those spheres where there are
immense potentialities for abuse. To
prevent such abuse, it would, be
necessary to evolve some norms and
enforce them strictly. Different views have
been expressed and we must take a clear
unequivocal decision in the matter. One
view is that there should be an absolute
ban on business and industrial concerns
raki ng any donation to pol itical parties. In
case we have a law embodying this view,
it has to be ensured that it i s strictly
enforced and does not become a dead
letter. It is no use having such a law and
then making a mockery of it. Nothing
brings the Rule of Law into greater
disrepute than the sight of high-ups
defying the law with impunity. Another
view is to make it permissible for business
and industrial concerns to give donations
to political parties up to a certain extent. In
In the matter of donati ons. there is an aspect
to which one must not turn a blind eye.
Hurnan nature being what it is, it would be an
exercise i n sheer naivete to believe that
business and Industrial concerns pay political
parties for altruistic reasons. These concerns
are run on shrewd calculations of profit and
loss and we can take it lor granted that the
payment i n roost cases would be actuated by
consi derations of business expediency, with
the expectation that there would be quid pro
quo in the form of some favour lor the donor.
Once such a consideration creeps in it would
be the thin end of a wedoe lor resorting to all
kinds of irregularities and prelereollal
It would also be wrong to think that most of
such payments are made voluntarily. A
though couched as a request. by
one in authority is more or less in the nature'
of a command, No business or mdustrial
concern can alford to say 'no to such
such CASCS, it must be made imperative that all payments are made by cheque and
shown in the accounts of the business or industrial concern. The practice of cash
payment of amounts exceeding a certai n limit must be put an end to and be made
punishable under the l aw. Cash payments provide a cover for ta1nted money and reiUka
in all kinds of malpractices and evasions.
s. Funding of Elocllons d nood funds. Tho oloctor
h t pohtJC31 pat1IOS O mpalgn WllhQu
At rho same. 11mo, 11 has ro bo admirrod
a can carry on an eleCtion ca at the lime
process Is so costly rhar no poh!ical party lor State contnbutJon 01
1 providing
of votes 1n lh
funds In some counrnos there 1s a aw . ed a certain percentag .
1 1
to pol111cal part1os which havo. recelv twO countries tor audit
tnance ot
prev1ous olocrion There are also provfstans in one or no of these methods and nol'llla
polrtcal parlles Whothor or not we should adopt any
ned in depth and liS pros 30(1
t has been exam can
1s a manor or debate. Only afror the mat er d nd political condtttons. We
cons considorod, tn tho conroxt of our national nee s.a
arnve ar.a doc1slon.
6. Public Olllco and Ethical Norms Adherence
'cal norms by individuals holding
We may now turn to the need for adherence. to etht hose wielding power should use
public off1co. Every system of :reqwes t If-seeking. All power is like a
It for the public good an.d not make 11 an mstrument
se f r showing that it has been
trust. Those who derive 11 from lhe people are accountable
exerctsed tor the people.
d' uuslonment and results
Abuse of authority by those in power inevitably mass lSI t p because in
In public frustration. Nowhere is it more true than
n a elect.
democracy 1t is /he people themselves who entrust power to those
esult in acquisition of more
Abuse and misuse of authority can take many forms. I can r ..
. h t f eliminati ng poht1cal and
authority by those m power and the use of that aut orr Y or . .
personal opponents. Such abuse paves the way to authoritarianism and dictatorship.
Power can likewrse be abused by making it a source of personal enrichment. And if
those at top turn corrupt, we would soon find that corruption and graft becomes
ublqwtous and percolate down to all spheres of administration at lower levels.
corruption anywhere is reprehensible, developed countries can somehow afford thrs v
ICe therr economy
s already developed. In the case of developing countries,
corruption arrests and olten retards the process of development and the nation pays a
heavy price rn terms of loss of moral values.
Nothmg causes greater public disarray and shakes more the faith of the people in
democratic process than the sight of those elected to office by the people using thetr
authonty tor self-aggrandizement and personal enrichment. Purity of administration has
much greater srgmficance in developing countries with their economies in the process of
Agam, we must remember the fact that it is the man at the top of the department who
sets the tone of the administration. It is they who set the example for those under them
to emulate. When the acts of those at the top become tainted, when their reputation
becomes shady, they w11l not be able to enforce high standards of integrity in those
------- VAJ IRAM & RAVI --------
below them It Is the 1
j or re ore. mporatove that men at the top should personify th$ highest
most elomenia sonal rntegnty, probity and recttude. As lvor Jennings observed, the
rn addttan n ry quahhcabon demanded of a mnstor IS honesty and ncorruptlbihty. It is,
should ecessary not only that he should possess this qualification but also that he
appear to possess at.
The next questiOn is. How can we ensure adherence to norms and values?
For that , the most essential need IS to buald pubhc opmaon. There has
a coars.enng of the public conscience durang the last three decades.
Senshvlles have been dulled 1f not deadened by repeated brazen acts of
some personages where all norms of ethcs and morality were thrown to the
w_n?s. We face today a crisis ot conscence. It is on how we resolve this
cnss . . we can look to the future with hope or despair. 1'he public
must be revived and should reg1ster and manifest their reaction
'' want to rid ourselves of the malaise gripping us. Public opinion and
public consc1ence have to be reactivated to a point where none, who has
any regard lor his public life, may dare defy them.
In the context of arousing public sensitivities, one question which we have
to face is whether interested propaganda cannot create and confer
respectability upon false values and provide fresh doses to opiate the public
Such a danger is undoubtedly tnEife, but it is precisely to a situation that the enlightened sections of the community-
like those tn the world of media, mermers of the bar, teachers and others-
can play a significant part by taking up the role of sentinels on the qui vive
for protection of cherished values. Without a bac\(.ground ot strong public
opinion, it would be idle to depend upon laws and courts alone to ensure
compliance with rules of conduct in public life. They have to be built in as a
vital ingredient of the national thinking and made an essential part of the
daily life of the people. It is in this context that idealism acqutres a vital
Idealism plays as much part in shaping the life of a nation as do the other
material factors. At the same time, it is one of the greatest sources of inner
strength of a nation. Ideal ism also gives sustenance and stability to liberal
and cherished values by making them an integral part of the national ethos.
Self interest cannot inspire breadth of vision nor can it raise the tndvtdual
to great heights. It may even corrode the national faith and paralyse the Wlll
to resist the onslaught on some of the cherished values of ltfe. No
progressive nation can allow the springs of national idealism to dry up.
-------VAJ.[RAM & RAVI
CONCLUSION d rules of ethiCS for tile
. crificing principles an they not onr
History tells us that advantages gallled by sa h rt Jived In the long run. f I"!' y
sake of expediency have always proved to be s
; loose the forces
undermine !he moral fabric of the society, founding fathers made
charlatantsm rank opportunism and brazen chrca ry Ths was in consonance With
al emblem.
mono satyameva Jayate". part of the natiOn . ave to the world the . a and
the grear tradii!Ons and values of the land which and values b y revrvmg thern
Gandh1. Let us prove worthy inhentors of those tra
1 1
and making them a part of narionallrfe.
------- VAJ I.RAM & RAVl -------
The major sub-heads covered under the topic 'Human Values' are outhned below-
1. What Are Human Values?
2. Classical literature On Values
3. Human Values Today
4. Understanding Values In Public Administration
5. The Universe Of Public Values In Public Administration
6. Political Public Values
7. The Legal Values Frame
8. The Organizational Values Frame
9. The Market Values Frame
10. Itinerant Public Values
A brief description of the above has been laid in the forthcoming paragraphs.
Like most basic areas of human knowledge and experience, the concept of human
values defies definitions. Yet it can be instinctively felt, cognitive\y grasped. d1scussed as
a shareable experience, and thus made a valid area of enquiry. This enquiry ts a mapr
under-CtJrrent of the wisdom literature of all the Ji"Cient civihsattons and ot \he \ater <1ay
philosophers, scholars and great leaders of socta\ and po\ittcal movements. 1M
profusion of ideas, divergent approaches and intermixing ol several strands ot
make the effort of conceptualising human values a daun\lng task tor modem
However, for a clearer understanding ol the scope, significance and interre\a\lonship o1
these ideas it is necessary to have a conceptual framework for class1fymg \hem.