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Reading Part A

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Vitamin C

Part A Summary Gap Fill Time Limit: 15 minutes
Instructions
Complete the following summary using the information in the texts for this
task.
Skim and scan the texts to find the information required.
Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words.
Write your answers in the appropriate space in the column on the right hand
side.
Make sure your spelling is correct.
Summary Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.


Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for humans in its
function as a vitamin. However, unlike in
most(1)___, the human body can not (2)___vitamin
C by itself. As a result, vitamin C must be (3)___
through our daily dietary intake. Vitamin C can be
found in all (4)___ and (5)___ but the (6)___ of this
essential vitamin are green peppers, (7)___ and
strawberries.


The human body (8)___vitamin C for tissue growth
and (9)___ and it is an important element in the
(10)___ of wounds as well as the (11)___ of teeth,
cartilage and bones. Vitamin C is also an (12)___.
Therefore, it can act as a block against damage
caused by free radicals. It is this quality which has
some experts claiming that it has an anti-ageing
effect and can lessen the effects of a variety of
(13)__ including cancer and heart disease as well as
arthritis which is an (14)___.

14.
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Part A Answer Sheet continued
Summary Answers
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
However the role of vitamin C in the prevention and
treatment of the common cold is controversial. A
recent study by (15)___ reported mixed results in the
ability of vitamin C to fight this most common of
ailments. Positive results included significant
reduction in the (16)____ in adults and children
when vitamin C was used as a (17)___. A 50%
reduction in cold incidence was also reported by
(18)___ , skiers and soldiers who had been exposed
to conditions of (19)___ or significant cold. In
contrast, the frequency of the common cold (20)
___ in several community studies in which the
subjects were given (21)___ prophylactic doses as
high as 2 grams.

Despite this mixed evidence, the Food and Nutrition
Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends
(22)___ vitamin C every day in amounts ranging
from (23)___ for babies between zero and 6 months,
65 to 75 mg per day for (24) ___ boys and girls to
90mg per day for (25)___ aged 19 and over. In
addition, (26)___ are required for pregnant women
and smokers.

To date there is no (27)___that Vitamin C in large
amounts is toxic, despite (28)__that very large doses
can cause birth defects and genetic mutations. An
upper intake limit of (29)___ per day is
recommended to prevent mild symptoms such as
(30)___.

TOTAL SCORE

Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
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Part A
Time Limit: 15 minutes
Instructions
Complete the summary on the answer page using the information in the four
texts below.
Skim and scan the texts to find the information required.
Write your answers in the appropriate space in the column on the right hand
side.
Make sure your spelling is correct.



Vitamin C
Text 1

The Recommended Dietary Allowance
The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends Vitamin C be
consumed every day in the following amounts:
Infants and Children
0 - 6 months: 40 milligrams/day (mg/day)
7 - 12 months: 50 mg/day
1 - 3 years: 15 mg/day
4 - 8 years: 25 mg/day
9 - 13 years: 45 mg/day

Adolescents
Girls 14 - 18 years: 65 mg/day
Boys 14 - 18 years: 75 mg/day

Adults
Men age 19 and older: 90 mg/day
Women age 19 year and older: 75 mg/day

Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and those who smoke need higher
amounts.
All fruits and vegetables contain some amount of vitamin C. Foods that tend to be the
highest sources of vitamin C include green peppers, citrus fruits and strawberries.


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Text 2
Toxicity
A number of possible problems with very large doses of vitamin C have been
suggested, including genetic mutations and birth defects. However, these alleged
adverse health effects have not been confirmed, and there is no reliable scientific
evidence that large amounts of vitamin C (up to 10 grams/day in adults) are toxic or
detrimental to health. With the latest RDA published in 2000, a tolerable upper intake
level (UL) for vitamin C was set for the first time. A UL of 2 grams daily was
recommended in order to prevent most adults from experiencing diarrhoea. Such
symptoms are not generally serious, especially if they resolve with temporary
discontinuation or reduction of high-dose vitamin C supplementation.





Text 3
Source: Public Library of Science
Authors: Douglas R & Hemila H
Research Review
We sought to discover whether vitamin C in doses of 200 mg or more daily reduces
the incidence, duration, or severity of the common cold when used either as
continuous prophylaxis or after the onset of cold symptoms. Literature from 1940 to
2004 was methodically screened.
Studies of marathon runners, skiers, and soldiers exposed to significant cold
and/or physical stress experienced 50% reduction in common cold
incidence.
Duration of cold that occurred during prophylaxis was significantly reduced
in both children and adults. For children this represented an average
reduction of 14% in symptom days, while in adults the reduction was 8%.
Incidence of the common cold showed no change in several community
studies where prophylactic doses as high as 2 g daily were used.
Implications of the Review
The clinical significance of the minor reduction in duration of common cold
episodes experienced during prophylaxis is questionable, although the
consistency of these findings points to a genuine biological effect.
In special circumstances, where people used prophylaxis prior to extreme
physical exertion and/or exposure to significant cold stress, the collective
evidence indicates that vitamin C supplementation may have a considerable
beneficial effect






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Text 4
Function of Vitamin C
Vitamin C is required for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It
is necessary to form collagen, an important protein used to make skin, scar tissue,
tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for the healing of
wounds, and for the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.
Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of
the damage caused by free radicals, which are by-products that result when our bodies
transform food into energy.
The build up of these by-products over time is largely responsible for the ageing
process and can contribute to the development of various health conditions such as
cancer, heart disease, and a host of inflammatory condition like arthritis. Antioxidants
also help reduce the damage to the body caused by toxic chemicals and pollutants
such as cigarette smoke.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Unlike most
mammals and other animals, humans do not have the ability to make their own
vitamin C. Therefore, we must obtain vitamin C through our diet.

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Vitamin C

Answer Sheet
1. Mammals
2. make
3. obtained (change verb to passive form)
4. fruits
5. vegetables
6. highest sources
7. citrus fruits
8. requires (change verb to active form)
9. repair
10. healing
11. repair and maintenance
12. antioxidant (change to singular form)
13. health conditions
14. inflammatory condition (change to singular form)
15. Douglas R & Hemila H/ Douglas & Hemila
16. duration of cold
17. prophylaxis
18. marathon runners
19. physical stress
20. showed no change
21. daily
22. consuming/the consumption of (change verb to noun form)
23. 40 mg/day
24. adolescents
25. men
26. higher amounts
27. reliable scientific evidence (all words required)
28. suggestions (change verb to noun)
29. 2 grams
30. diarrhoea
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Highlighted Answers

Vitamin C
Text 1

The Recommended Dietary Allowance
The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends Vitamin C be
(22)consumed (consuming) every day in the following amounts:
Infants and Children
0 - 6 months: (23)40 milligrams/day (mg/day)
7 - 12 months: 50 mg/day
1 - 3 years: 15 mg/day
4 - 8 years: 25 mg/day
9 - 13 years: 45 mg/day
(24)Adolescents
Girls 14 - 18 years: 65 mg/day
Boys 14 - 18 years: 75 mg/day
Adults
(25)Men age 19 and older: 90 mg/day
Women age 19 year and older: 75 mg/day
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and those who smoke need (26)higher amounts.
All )4)fruits and (5)vegetables contain some amount of vitamin C. Foods that tend to be the
)6)highest sources of vitamin C include green peppers, (7)citrus fruits and strawberries.


Text 2
Toxicity
A number of possible problems with very large doses of vitamin C have been (28)suggested
(suggestions), including genetic mutations and birth defects. However, these alleged adverse
health effects have not been confirmed, and there is no (27)reliable scientific evidence that
large amounts of vitamin C (up to 10 grams/day in adults) are toxic or detrimental to health.
With the latest RDA published in 2000, a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin C was
set for the first time. A UL of (29)2 grams daily was recommended in order to prevent most
adults from experiencing (30)diarrhoea. Such symptoms are not generally serious, especially
if they resolve with temporary discontinuation or reduction of high-dose vitamin C
supplementation.






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Text 3
Source: Public Library of Science
Authors: (15)Douglas R & Hemila H
Research Review
We sought to discover whether vitamin C in doses of 200 mg or more daily reduces the
incidence, duration, or severity of the common cold when used either as continuous
prophylaxis or after the onset of cold symptoms. Literature from 1940 to 2004 was
methodically screened.
Studies of (18)marathon runners, skiers, and soldiers exposed to significant cold
and/or (19)physical stress experienced 50% reduction in common cold incidence.
(16)Duration of cold that occurred during (17)prophylaxis was significantly
reduced in both children and adults. For children this represented an average
reduction of 14% in symptom days, while in adults the reduction was 8%.
Incidence of the common cold (20)showed no change in several community
studies where prophylactic doses as high as 2 g (21)daily were used.
Implications of the Review
The clinical significance of the minor reduction in duration of common cold
episodes experienced during prophylaxis is questionable, although the consistency
of these findings points to a genuine biological effect.
In special circumstances, where people used prophylaxis prior to extreme physical
exertion and/or exposure to significant cold stress, the collective evidence indicates
that vitamin C supplementation may have a considerable beneficial effect


Text 4
Function of Vitamin C
Vitamin C is (8) require(s) d for the growth and (9)repair of tissues in all parts of your body.
It is necessary to form collagen, an important protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons,
ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for the (10)healing of wounds, and for
the (11)repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.
Vitamin C is one of many (12)antioxidant(s). Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of
the damage caused by free radicals, which are by-products that result when our bodies
transform food into energy.
The build up of these by-products over time is largely responsible for the ageing process and
can contribute to the development of various (13)health conditions such as cancer, heart
disease, and a host of (14)inflammatory condition(s) like arthritis. Antioxidants also help
reduce the damage to the body caused by toxic chemicals and pollutants such as cigarette
smoke.
The body does not manufacture vitamin C on its own, nor does it store it. It is therefore
important to include plenty of vitamin C-containing foods in your daily diet.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Unlike most (1)mammals
and other animals, humans do not have the ability to (2)make their own vitamin C. Therefore,
we must (3) obtain(ed) vitamin C through our diet.