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Besides providing an attractive overhead surface in a room or space, ceilings may
also be required
1. Function as the primary sound-absorption surface in the room.
2. Contain most or all lighting fixtures.
3. Conceal utility services including plumbing, wiring, heating, and air conditioning.
4. Provide outlets for heated and conditioned air.

The most popular system for ceilings in
commercial buildings is the suspended
While residential buildings have ceilings generally
fastened directly to the floor joists or to a
ceiling joists
Suspended ceilings consist of a grid of metal track suspended from the
structural ceiling with wires or cables, the grid openings of which are filled
with ceiling panels, light fixture's orother utilities.
The space created by lowering the ceiling in this
manner is very useful, and is usually necessary for
concealing utility services. Residential construction
utilizes attics and crawling spaces for this purpose.
The ceiling panels may be flat or shaped, and
available in a wide range of textures and patterns.
Typical panels are 1/ 2 to 1 inch thick and (60 x 60) 2
x 2 feet or 2' x 4' feet (0.60 x 1.20) panels for
residential ceilings are usually flat, and are applied
to plaster, drywall, or wood furring strips.

It is to be remembered that the materials to be used
for eaves or outside ceilings must be of
waterproofed plywood, tempered hardboard
(Lawanit) flat asbestos sheet, kiln dried wood.

Sometimes the cardboard material egg container is
used for decorative ceiling and acoustical material.

Other material used in suspended ceilings are light diffusers of solid plastic, flat or moulded, open grid or
honeycombed design, or of metal AC louver and stainless steel for ceiling of banquet halls, lobbies, department
stores and screens for shops and restaurants.

One of the most important materials used for ceiling panels is:

1. Mineral fiber -a generic term adopted to cover several mineral based materials used for similar purposes,
including asbestos, perlite, vermiculite, and other less common materials. For ceiling panels, mineral fiber with the
addition of a binder may be molded, pressed, or compacted to whatever density is desired, from a soft
absorbent panel to a hard rock-like surface. One of the more common panels, once called asbestos-cement
board, utilizes portland cement as a binder. The face of mineral fiber panels may be left natural, painted, or
covered with a variety of materials from plastic to aluminum. Mineral fiber products are .noncombustible, and
thus enjoy a very good fire rating.

2. Fiberglass- another popular material for ceiling panels. Most fiberglass are flat, and the face side is typically
covered with vinyl -paper, or aluminum. These may be obtained with a variety of textures and surfaces.

3. Metal wall and ceiling panels are generally perforated for acoustical performance, and are often backed with
fiberglass batts to improve both insulation and acoustic qualities. Metal panel may be narrow plank-like pieces
about four inches wide.

Stainless Steel- (Tajima AC louver and S.S. Bishop II). A ready made metal louver with a wide range of uses, it is light,
durable, high precision and non-flammable. For banquet halls., hotels, lobby ceilings, department stores, grilles and
screens for restaurants and shops.
Types of
Drywall ceiling
This is the ceiling style
commonly seen in most
homes. Conventional
drywall ceilings are typically
8 feet high, have an
uncluttered, flat surface,
and are easy to decorate
since theyre reachable with
a stepladder
A suspended ceiling or drop
ceiling is a metal grid ceiling
that hangs below an existing flat
ceiling and is attached by
hangers or wires.

Lightweight, acoustic panels are
laid into the metal grid to create
the ceiling. Suspended ceilings
stylishly hide wiring, plumbing,
mechanical fixtures, and the
original ceiling.
Coffered ceiling of the past
were typically architectural
marvels, made from carved
stones or prized wood

The effect creates a waffle-
like pattern takes a
commanding role in a room.
Cathedral ceilings soar to 15
feet or higher, creating a
dramatic design element, as
well as an open, spacious feel to
a room or entryway.

This ceiling style deserves a
unique decorative ceiling to
enhance its visual presence. The
natural look of wood brings a
touch of warmth and elegance
to a space, while a tin-look
ceiling adds a rich, historical
A shed ceiling has a flat surface
that slants upward on one side.
These ceilings are typically seen
in Cape Cod-style homes with
dormers or in homes where the
attic has been extended to
create additional living space

The uneven wall height created
by the unusual line of ceiling
brings a refreshing charm to a
room. Shed ceilings covered in
classic beadboard complement
a space with rustic dcor.
Tray ceilings are flat with a
rectangular center that is recessed
to add architectural interest. This
inverted space may be used for
lighting fixtures or to add a visually
appealing design element, like a
contrasting paint color or even a
different ceiling material.

Tray ceilings are typically seen in
kitchens and dining rooms, which
are often the main entertainment
areas in a home. One design note to
consider: the difference in height
between the main ceiling and the
recessed area can make a small
room appear bigger.
When sound waves strike a surface such as walls or ceilings, they are reflected and the reflected sound, as
well as the original. is heard by a listener, resulting .in an increase in sound intensity. While a sound source is
operating, a room becomes filled with reflected sound waves and when the source is stopped, then reflected
waves continue to travel back and forth between room surfaces. As a listener picks up these reflected waves,
he hears them as
the original sound being prolonged and finally becoming inaudible as the reflected waves gradually lose
their energy by absorption. This prolongation of sound is called reverberation.

Control of increased intensity and of excessive reverberation are two of the major problems of sound
engineering. Along with them are the problems of control of unwanted sound and of transmission of sound
from room to room through walls, floors and ceilings.

A large part of acoustical correction deals with the improvement of hearing conditions and the reduction of
unwanted noise in rooms by reducing the energy of reflected sound. This is done mainly by the use of
acoustical materials. Materials which have a substantially greater ability to absorb sound than such
conventional ones as wood, gins, hard plaster, or concrete.

The percentage of the energy absorbed by a material when a sound wave is reflected from, it is called the
sound absorption coefficient, or acous1ical absorptivity. This absorption coefficient depends on the nature of
the material, the frequency of the sound, and the angle at which the sound wave strikes the material. When
comparing materials to be used for the improvement of hearing conditions, it is common practice to use the
coefficient at the frequency
of 512 cycles. In comparing materials for noise-quieting applications, the noise reduction coefficient (N.R.C.I
which is the average coefficient for the four frequencies of 256, 512,1,024 and 2,048 cycles is generally used.
Most acoustical materials can be classified in groups:

These are made from wood. cane, or asbestos fibers, matted and bonded into sheets of various
thicknesses, ranging from 3/16 to 1 1/4 in: The sheet are cut into tiles of several size,including 12 x 12
in., 12 x 24 in., 16 x 16 in., 16 x 32 in., 24 x 28, in., 24 x 28 in. Edges may be square cut, beve4ed or
tongue and grooved.

These tiles are intended primarily for ceiling applications, they can be applied to solid surfaces with
adhesives, nails to furring strips attached to a ceiling frame or the underside of a solid deck, or
installed in a suspended ceiling frame
A great variety of designs, colors and patterns are available. The acoustic openings in the surface of
the tile in themselves provide many different designs. The openings may be holes drilled in uniform or
random patterns or a combination of large drilled holes and tiny punched ones.

The openings may be slots, striations, or fissures, or the surface of the tile may be sculptured in
various patterns, with a factory painted surface so that it does not require painting after installation.

The noise reduction coefficient of tiles of this type is about 0. 70 with some variations, depending on
the particular material, the thickness of the tile, and the kind of pattern used.
Asbestos-fiber tiles 12 x 12 x 3/4 in. weigh approximately 1 1/41b.; wood or cane fiber tiles are slightly

Consists of some type of sound absorbing material such as a rock-
wool or fiber-glass blanket fastened to an 'acoustically transparent
facing. This facing is generally some type of rigid board, such as
hardboard or asbestos board, or a metal sheet. The facings are
perforated to allow the penetration of sound waves.
Such acoustical panels can be fastened to a wall over a frame
work of furring strips or suspended in front of the wall by some
mechanical means. .
There are two types of material used in this sound control application.
a. One type consisting of plaster made with vermiculite
or perlite aggregate.
Vermiculite acoustical plaster is generally a premixed product, requiring only the
addition of approximately 10 gal. of water per bag of mix. if applied by hand, two coats
is applied, 3/8 in. thick for the first and 1/8 in. for the finish coat.
If applied by machine, two, three or four thin coats are applied so that the total
thickness of plaster will be at least 1/2 in.
The noise reduction coefficient for 1'/2 in thick vermiculite acoustical plaster applied by
trowel is 0.65, a 1" thick is 0. 75. For machine-applied plaster 1/2 thick the coefficient is
Perlite acoustical plaster is usually mixed on the job, using calcined gypsum as the
binder. It can also be applied either by hand or machine.
The main advantage of using machine spraying as a means of application is that this
method presents no difficulties in plastering over irregular surface.
b. A coating of mineral fiber mixed with an adhesive
Acoustical treatment with mineral fiber involves the use of specially prepared
mineral wool or asbestos fibers and an adhesive to hold them to the surface.
The fibers are prepared and mixed with an inorganic binding material, which helps
to give them body, and packed in bags ready for application.
The area to be covered is first primed with a thick coat of adhesive, and the fiber is
then sprayed over the surface in one or more coats, depending on the thickness
required. For thickness of over 1 /2 in. at least two coats are used. Each coat is
tamped to consolidate the fibers. The final surface can be sprayed with sealer or
1. Spraytax - usually for hotels, offices and residences.
2. Limpit Spray-usually for theatres, convention halls, radio stations.
Transmission of sound through floors may be either of the impact or airborne type.
Impact insulation can be prevented by floating floors.
Methods for reducing impact transmission through wood-frame floors.
a. Acoustical board -a popular material is the corkboard . This is agglomerated cork
from selected cork granules, toasted and mixed with special binders to form into a
mass. The mass is compressed inside moulds and finally baked under controlled
Its characteristics are:
efficient insulation
great acoustic absorption
light in weight, easy to install
excellent decorative appearance
anay and rat proof
prevents condensation on walls and is
moisture proof
density of 6 to 9 lbs. /cu. ft.
coefficient of thermal conductivity
0.29 Btu /sq.ft./h/deg/F/in.
specific heat: 0.40 Btu/lb/deg/F

1 / 2 X 12" X 36 (.0125 X 0.30 X 0.90)
1 X 12" X 36" (.025 X 0.30 X 0.90)
2 X 12" X 36" (.05 X 0.30 X 0.90)
3" X 12" X 36" (0.075 X 0.30 X 0.90)
Corkboard is installed by glueing (rugby) or
b. Ceiling board- a popular brand is the 'WALCORK'. This is made from carefully
selected natural cork on agglomerated cork backing, agglomerated selected cork granules
or a combination of both. Walcork is both sound absorbing and heat insulating. Its natural
texture and easy-blending colours make it always delightfully pleasing to the eyes. Best for
use in conference rooms, offices, churches, and concert halls. In residential homes, walcork is
used for living room, study room, dens, and bedrooms.
Its characteristics are:
a. decorative
b. sound absorbing
c. heat insulating
d. comes in a variety of
patterns and colored
e. durable and
economical, requiring
practically no
SIZES: available in sheets
2 mm. x 60 em. x 90 em.
3 fl1m. X 60 em. X 90 em.
4 mm. x 60 em. x 90 em.
Philippine wallboard corp. -
Sarmiento industries -plywood
Campos rueda -cork
Stainless steel industries inc.-
Tajima stainless
Walcork is installed by using impact adhesive or
contact cement on smooth clear, dry surface from
which all loose paint, grease, wax are removed.