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Chapter 2

Installation

INTRODUCTION

Proper installation of the machinery will contribute to long trouble-free operating life with
minimum maintenance. To aid in making a proper installation, this chapter describes a
detailed procedure that has proven successful for installing numerous turbines and the
associated equipment. The following chapter contains the installation methods
recommended by KEPL-Elliott Company. Other procedures do exist which can provide a
satisfactory installation; however, prior to using any of these alternate procedures, it is
recommended that the purchaser carefully investigate both the procedure and the ability of
workers to produce a permanent and satisfactory installation.

KEPL-Elliott Service Representatives are experienced in installation procedures and can


assist in providing a good installation. The installation procedures contained in this
chapter are as specific as possible but cannot possibly cover all variations in field
conditions. Therefore, the KEPL- Elliott Service Representative may sometimes deviate
slightly from the published procedures. This is done to give a better installation by using
procedures to fit specific field and service conditions. Regardless of the procedure used,
first class materials and quality workmanship should be employed.

The procedure recommended by KEPL- Elliott involves the following items:

1. Foundation

2. Chock Blocks

3. Grouting

4. Setting the equipment on foundation

5. Shaft alignment

6. Coupling Installation

7. Piping Recommendations

Included in this chapter is a detailed procedure for making "cold alignment" as well as
methods for making machine "hot alignment" checks.

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Chapter 2
Installation

While many aspects of an installation are the responsibility of the purchaser or his
engineer, some suggestions are offered which may contribute to suitable installation. One
such example is whether to install the machine outdoors under only a roof, or in a
completely enclosed building. While this class of equipment can generally be installed
outdoors, local conditions may suggest alternate arrangements. Freezing or low ambient
temperatures around machinery can create difficulties during start-ups and shutdowns; for
example, lubricating oil must be warm before starting equipment. Water and steam
equipment must be drained completely or heated during shutdown.

Alternately, in tropical areas, direct sun on one side of the foundation might cause
expansions which, when coupled with other factors in the system, could create
unacceptable alignment.

In addition to operating considerations, maintenance and equipment inspections will be


required - sometimes scheduled and occasionally unscheduled. Regardless of which,
weather conditions may not always cooperate. Rain, snow, wind and low or high
temperatures generally extend maintenance and inspection when workers are exposed
directly to these elements. In addition, quality of workmanship may be lowered to a point
where work accomplished is futile.

For inspection and maintenance, a permanent overhead crane or hoist is recommended.


Casing top halves and rotors have close clearances which must be protected, therefore,
moves must be slow and positive. This is seldom achievable with crawler or wheel-
mounted cranes.

Installation of the machinery may be on either steel soleplates or a self-supporting


fabricated steel baseplate. The functional purpose of these intermediate supports is to
provide a permanent mounting plate for the machine feet that can be shimmed. When the
foundation support is not continuous or is mounted directly on columns, a self-supporting
fabricated steel baseplate must be designed that will minimize deflections between contact
supports.

Soleplates usually provide support for only one machine or smaller equipment strings. In
most cases, a baseplate is made to support larger equipment strings. Some baseplates
are also designed to contain or support lubrication and seal system piping and
instrumentation in addition to the machinery. Baseplates with the lubrication system built
in may require less space and have lower installation cost, but are generally more difficult
to maintain.

Installations of a self-supporting baseplate on a reinforced concrete foundation should


follow the guidelines presented with only the sections indicated on the outline drawing left
unsupported. When the installation of a self-supporting baseplate is on structural steel or
columns, care must be exercised to insure that the mounting surfaces are machined level
(from end to end and side to side there should be less that 0°, 6’ slope) and flat (each pad
must be flat within .003” (.076mm)). Full contact between the mounting surfaces is
required without the use of step shimming. With this installation arrangement, grouting is
not used to fill in gaps, but other procedures presented in this chapter should be followed.
See Figure 2-1.

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Chapter 2
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EQUIPMENT BASEPLATE

FOUNDATION BOLT

BASEPLATE PAD

SHIMS

STRUCTURE PAD

PLANT SUPPORTING STRUCTURE

FIGURE 2-1
TYPICAL BASEPLATE MOUNTING ARRANGEMENT ON STRUCTURAL STEEL

FOUNDATION

The principle function of the foundation is to provide a permanently rigid, non-warping


support for the machinery. In meeting these requirements, the foundation should:
• hold machines in proper alignment under all operating conditions
• support the machine's weight and load, and distribute it uniformly and evenly to the
soil or main support structure
• maintain established equipment locations
• minimize transmission of vibration to or from the machines.

While the responsibility for a successful foundation rests with the purchaser, the following
suggestions are offered for assistance and consideration:

1. The outline drawing provides equipment mounting surface areas, anchor bolt
locations, main piping connections, and other information necessary in designing a
foundation.

2. A foundation of reinforced concrete should be of ample size and proportion for


adequate support of the machinery, as well as piping forces such as inlet and
discharge piping.

3. Provision should be made in the foundation design for accessibility to all parts of the
machine or its auxiliaries during operation, inspection and maintenance.

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4. The foundation should rest entirely on natural rock or entirely on solid earth. A
foundation resting partly on one or partly on another may warp due to settling of part
of the foundation support. Distortion may also occur due to unequal pressures
created by differences in ground water level.

5. Foundations supported on pilings should have a rigid continuous cap over the pilings
on which the foundation rests.

6. Temperature surrounding the foundation should be uniform. Temperature differences


between the top slab and mat, for instance, can create substantial bending stresses
in columns. Care must be taken to reduce thermal distortion from radiation or uneven
heating and cooling. Direct sunlight on outdoor tropical installations is to be avoided.
Steam lines passing close to the foundation should also be avoided; but when
unavoidable, the lines should be insulated and the foundation shielded.

7. Foundation should be isolated from all other structures and arranged so that outside
vibrations are not transmitted to it. Where foundations must be supported by floor
beams, a vibration dampening material should be interposed between the beams and
the foundation.

8. Design of foundation structure should avoid resonant frequencies of operating speed,


40% to 50% of operating speed, rotor critical speeds, and two times operating
speeds.

9. It is recommended that concrete foundations be allowed to cure for approximately 28


days before loading. This will allow for development of strength and reduction in
shrinkage rate. Curing procedure should be in accordance with American Concrete
Institute recommendations.

10. Recommended size of foundation anchor bolts and projection above foundation is
shown on the outline drawing. Suggested installation of the anchor bolt is as shown
in Figure 2-2. Use of a pipe sleeve around anchor bolt allows for some shifting of the
anchor bolt if found necessary during installation of equipment. It allows for
increased stretch length of anchor bolts.

11. When establishing the top elevation for the foundation, allow approximately 0.5 inch
(12 mm) for removal of top crust of concrete by chipping. Reinforcing rods, ties, or
steel members should be sufficiently below the surface to permit chipping away of
approximately 1.00 inch (25 mm) of concrete without making contact. A minimum
space of 1.00 inch (25 mm) should be provided between foundation and chock block
to provide adequate room for insertion of grout. The maximum distance between the
foundation and soleplate or baseplate should not exceed 4.00 inches (100 mm).

Figure 2-3 is a cross-sectional view showing the location of a soleplate with chock blocks,
chock block grout and final grout. Figure 2-4 is similar but shows the location of a
baseplate with chock blocks, chock block grout and final grout.

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BASEPLATE BOXBEAM CHIPPED HALF OF


ROUGH FOUNDATION

0.50 IN. (12 mm) + 1.5 D FINAL GROUT


4.00 IN. (100 mm) MAX. (DO NOT POUR UNTIL FINAL
BETWEEN BOTTOM OF ALIGNMENT ADJUSTMENTS
BASEPLATE AND FOUNDATION HAVE BEEN MADE)

1.00 IN. (25 mm) MIN.


BETWEEN CHOCK BLOCK AND
9 x D MIN.
TOP OF ROUGH FOUNDATION
2 x D MIN.
D
CHOCK BLOCK 2 x D RADIUS

PIPE SLEEVE
5 x D MIN.
CONCRETE
FOUNDATION

7 x D MIN. REINFORCING ROD


(PLACE SUFFICIENTLY
BELOW FOUNDATION SURFACE
ANCHOR BOLT TO PERMIT NECESSARY CHIPPING)

FIGURE 2-2
SUGGESTED ANCHOR BOLT ARRANGEMENT

FOUNDATION BOLT
EQUIPMENT SOLEPLATE
PIPE SLEEVE

SHIMS

CHOCK BLOCK HOLD DOWN


SCREW
ROUGH
FOUNDATION
SURFACE

CHOCK BLOCK GROUT


LEVELING SCREWS

FIGURE 2-3
TYPICAL SOLEPLATE MOUNTING ARRANGEMENT

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Foundation Preparation
When the foundation is constructed of reinforced concrete, it is not practical to pour the
concrete block with the necessary precision to permit setting the machinery directly onto
the block. Therefore, the soleplate or baseplate is set with a void between it and the
foundation. After the soleplate or baseplate is positioned, machinery placed and cold
alignment check made, the soleplate or baseplate is cemented or grouted to the
foundation. This procedure essentially creates one continuous support for the machinery.

FOUNDATION BOLT

BASEPLATE PAD

PIPE SLEEVE
SHIMS

HOLD DOWN
CHOCK BLOCK SCREW
ROUGH
FOUNDATION
SURFACE

CHOCK BLOCK GROUT


LEVELING SCREWS

FIGURE 2-4
TYPICAL BASEPLATE MOUNTING ARRANGEMENT

In order to obtain good bonding surfaces for the grout, all defective concrete, laitance, dirt,
oil, wax, grease and loose material must be removed from the mating surfaces. This can
best be accomplished by chipping, bush hammering or by other means until sound, clean
surfaces are obtained. Removal of approximately 0.5 inch (12 mm) of the top concrete
surface should provide a strong, laitance-free surface for bonding and anchoring of the
grout.

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CHOCK BLOCKS

In this manual, the term "chock block" is used to describe steel or grout blocks that serve
to level and support the soleplate or baseplate prior to full grouting. The size of a steel
chock block may vary, but the two sizes shown in Figure 2-5 will generally satisfy most all
conditions. When steel chock blocks are furnished by Elliott Company, the blocks will
conform to the information provided in Figure 2-5 or when desired this figure can be used
to make chock blocks. To provide for ease of installation and leveling, four jackscrews are
furnished in the chock block. A screw anchor in the center of the block is used to anchor
the chock block securely until grouting in of the blocks.

Chock Block

1. Material carbon steel plate

2. Machine both top and bottom flat

3. Break all corners and chamfer all holes

1.0 in.
25 mm 0.5 in.
13 mm

4.00 in.
8.00 in. OR 12.00 in. 101 mm
203 mm OR 305 mm

0.75 in.
19 mm

4 - SET SCREWS
1/2" - 13 x 1-1/2" LONG
OVAL POINT OR EQUIVALENT

MACHINE SCREW
1/4" - 20 x 3" LONG
FLAT HEAD OR EQUIVALENT
SCREW ANCHOR SHIELD TO
MATCH MACHINE SCREW

FIGURE 2-5
TYPICAL CHOCK BLOCK

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Epoxy grout chock blocks can also be used in place of steel chock blocks. When using
epoxy grout chock blocks, small forms should be positioned at each anchor bolt just as
suggested for steel chock blocks. The top surface of each form should be level and at
essentially the same elevation as all other chock block forms. Forms should be anchored,
coated with wax and sealed around the bottom. When pouring grout, forms should be
completely filled. This will minimize need for shimming between chock and baseplate or
soleplate.

Use of chock blocks allows the installation workmen to easily make a change in elevation
at a soleplate or baseplate support pad. The chock blocks also distribute the machinery
weight and hold down nut force so that deflections of the soleplate or baseplate due to
these forces are minimized. With chock blocks, the soleplate or baseplate can be easily
shifted horizontally without disturbing established elevations.

For maximum effectiveness, two chock blocks should be positioned at each foundation
anchor bolt as shown in Figure 2-6. Machines mounted on baseplates generally have the
foundation anchor bolts spread out and close to only one edge; therefore, placement of
chock blocks can usually be accomplished as shown in Figure 2-6.

For machines mounted on soleplates, the number of foundation anchor bolts increases
while available surface area decreases, therefore making effective placement of chock
blocks more difficult.

ANCHOR BOLT
CHOCK BLOCK

BASEPLATE OR
APPROXIMATELY 4.00" (100 mm) SOLEPLATE

FIGURE 2-6
PREFERRED LOCATION OF CHOCK BLOCKS

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Figure 2-7 shows a preferred arrangement when space is available, while Figure 2-8
illustrates an alternate arrangement that may be used. The arrangement used should
provide maximum support and minimize deflection or warping to the soleplate or baseplate
during installation work.

36.00 in. (900 mm)

12.00 in
(300 mm)

CHOCK BLOCKS

FIGURE 2-7
PREFERRED LOCATION OF CHOCK BLOCKS

20.00 in (500 mm)

9.00 in
(320 mm)

TWO CHOCK BLOCKS

FIGURE 2-8
ALTERNATE LOCATION OF CHOCK BLOCKS

Figure 2-9 illustrates a typical arrangement with chock blocks positioned on either side of
the foundation anchor bolt. As described earlier, the foundation surface must be prepared
by chipping or other means prior to setting the chock blocks. The chock block surfaces,
where a bond with the grout is desired, must also be cleaned prior to setting. Surfaces
must be free of oil, dirt and oxidation.

If the chock blocks have been coated with a catalyzed epoxy primer, the surface coating
should not be removed but surfaces should be cleaned with solvent to remove any oil or
dirt prior to setting.

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Foundation anchor bolt Obtain this dimension


Temporary plug from the certified
Seal outline drawing
Chock block

Leveling screws

Chock block Chipped foundation


grout surface

Form Seal
1.00 in (25mm) min.

Screw anchor

Hold down screw

Reinforcement rods

FIGURE 2-9
TYPICAL CHOCK BLOCK ARRANGEMENT

The chock block surfaces should be sandblasted if coated with rust or some other surface
coating. Sandblasting is best, but a disk grinder or other mechanical method can be used.
If chock blocks will be immediately grouted after setting, no further surface treatment is
required. A clean, sandblasted surface will provide a good bonding surface.

If grouting in of the chock blocks will be delayed after cleaning, the cleaned surfaces
should be coated with an epoxy primer or surface coating recommended by grout supplier.

To set a chock block, determine the chock block anchor screw locations on the foundation
and drill 0.5-inch (12 mm) diameter by 1.00-inch (25 mm) deep holes (if screw anchor
shield is other than that shown, appropriate drilling should be used) in the concrete.
Position the chock block and engage the screw anchor as shown in Figure 2-9. Level the
individual blocks using the four setscrews provided. All blocks must be level and
approximately at the same elevation. It is desirable to maintain all chock block elevations
within a few thousandths of an inch or a few hundredths of a millimeter. This makes final
installation and shimming of the equipment much easier. On installations where overall
length of the equipment is short, elevation of the chock blocks can best be set by use of a
straight edge and precision level. On installations where the overall length of the
equipment is large, use of a precision tilting level may be advantageous.

Regardless of the method used, shimming should be used between the chock blocks and
soleplate or baseplate to correct any elevation variations required.

NOTE
Before making a check of chock block level and elevation,
be sure anchor screw is tight and all four leveling screws are
making contact with the foundation.

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Installation

GROUTING

The procedure to be followed for grouting in of chock blocks, soleplates or baseplates is


the same except for quantity of grout placed. Elliott recommends that the grout used be a
good quality epoxy grout system from a reliable manufacturer of heavy machinery grouts.
Epoxy grouts consist of an epoxy resin, hardener and graded silica aggregate. The resin
and hardener serve as the adhesive while the aggregate serves as a filler to reduce cost,
improve thermal expansion compatibility and absorb heat released by curing. With proper
application, an epoxy grout should provide a permanent, reliable installation. Use of sand-
cement grout or sand-cement grout with various additives may also provide an adequate
installation, however both are generally lower in strength, have more tendencies to shrink
unevenly and are generally more susceptible to chemical attack and deterioration by oils.

The prime purpose of grouting is to:


• Fill all voids between the foundation and the soleplate or baseplate.
• Provide a permanent bond between the foundation and the soleplate or baseplate.
• To assist the foundation anchor bolts in preventing lateral movement.
• Provide a solid, level base to which the machine can be anchored by the
foundation anchor bolts to prevent vertical movement.
• Make the soleplate or baseplate more or less an integral part of the concrete
foundation.

As anchor bolts are designed for hold down purposes, it is desirable to provide for some
stretching of the anchor bolt between the bottom of the sleeve and the bottom of the nut.
Therefore, it is recommended that the sleeve be filled with a pliable material such as
silicone rubber, prior to final grouting.

Use of epoxy grouts requires some installation procedures that differ from those used for
sand-cement grouts. The procedure that follows provides a general guide for use with
epoxy grout; but for more specific details, consult the grout supplier's bulletins or labels.
This is particularly important in regard to safety precautions.

-WARNING-
MOST EPOXY GROUT IS FLAMMABLE, TOXIC,
POISONOUS, AND CORROSIVE. THEREFORE,
MATERIAL SHOULD BE KEPT AWAY FROM OPEN
FLAME, HIGH HEAT SOURCES OR SPARKS. IT
SHOULD BE MIXED IN A WELL-VENTILATED AREA.
WORKMAN SHOULD WEAR EYE PROTECTION AT ALL
TIMES DURING MIXING OF GROUT AND HARDENER
AND ALSO WHEN APPLYING MIXED GROUT. GLOVES
AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SHOULD BE WORN AT
ALL TIMES.

When grouting in baseplates, thermal expansion rates between sand-cement grout and
steel or an aggregate filled epoxy grout and steel generally can become significant.
Therefore expansion joints should be installed when stretches greater than approximately
three feet are encountered. After the foundation has been dressed, the surface of the
expansion joint should be sealed with silicone rubber.

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Timing and proper mixing are the secrets to successful grouting. Before mixing the
components together, everything else should be ready - surfaces cleaned and dry, forms
completed and sealed, pushing tools, rags, cleaning solvents available and adequate
manpower.

Because of epoxy grout's higher compressive and tensile strengths and its readiness to
bond to metals, the top of the grout should be brought up along the side of the soleplate or
baseplate to give some protection against lateral movement.

Grout forms should be built of materials of adequate strength and should be securely
anchored and shored to withstand the pressure of the grout under working conditions.

For epoxy grout, the forms must be waxed to keep them from becoming bonded to the
grout. For chock block grouting, the anchor bolt sleeve should be sealed and the form
height sufficient to provide a grout height approximately half way up the chock block.
Because the epoxy grout will flow through even the smallest holes, the forms must be fit
together as tightly as possible. Putty can be used as caulking for small cracks or holes.
To permit easy cleanup, wax or cover all surfaces where grout may splash.

For outdoor installation, the foundation should be protected from rain since it is important
that the foundation be clean and dry at the time of grouting. Normal grouting temperature
should be between 40° and 90°F (4° and 32°C). Due to the accelerated rate of curing at
high temperatures, shade the foundation from summer sunlight for at least 24 hours
before and 48 hours after grouting. In the hot summer weather, place the grout during the
afternoon so the initial cure will occur during the cooler evening hours. In cold weather,
the grout materials should be stored in a warm place. Low temperatures make the grout
stiff and hard to handle. For best results, ingredients should have an actual temperature
of 70°F (21°C) or higher. Refer to instructions for the particular grout mix being used for
allowable working time at various ambient temperatures.

Flow grade epoxy grouts can generally be handled with the same methods and tools that
are used with flow grade sand-cement grouts. Mixing can be done in small mortar mixers.
Use of a purchased grout with all the ingredients accurately measured into convenient
batches reduces the chance of error. The actual placing of the material can be
accomplished by several means. Some contractors prefer to force the materials into place
while others through years of experience, prefer to place the materials by other methods.
The material is very viscous; however, it will flow and seek its own level given time and an
ambient temperature within a given range. Generally, it is best to start at one end of the
baseplate and work toward the other end, forcing the air out to eliminate voids as the
material moves along. Plywood strips, sheet metal strips, wires and rods can be used to
flow the grout completely under the soleplate or baseplate.

NOTE
Check the forms frequently for leaks. Leaks do not self-
seal. If not stopped, leaks will cause voids.

Forms should be left in place until the grout is hard enough throughout that it cannot flow.
This usually occurs overnight but can be longer in cold weather.

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Installation

SETTING THE EQUIPMENT ON FOUNDATION

Once the chock block grout has cured sufficiently to withstand static load, installation of
the equipment on the foundation may proceed.

If the soleplates or baseplates have been coated with a catalyzed primer, the surface
coating should not be removed but only the oil and dirt removed with solvent. If the
surfaces that will come in contact with the grout are coated with some other material or
rust, the surfaces should be sandblasted. While sandblasting is best, a disk grinder or
some other mechanical method may be used. The cleaned surface should be coated with
epoxy primer or surface coating recommended by the grout supplier.

Prior to placing the soleplate or baseplate on the chock blocks, clean chock block contact
surfaces and install approximately 0.125 inch (3.0 mm) thick shim pack having an
assortment of shim thicknesses on each chock block. Shim pack should be full size,
clean, smooth and rust free. This will provide a means of lowering any portion of the
machine or baseplate that requires adjustment during leveling.

Set the baseplate or soleplates on the shimmed chock blocks and tighten down all the
foundation bolts. Check for level and make necessary adjustments by adding or removing
shims. Normally, it is best to start at the middle and work towards the ends. All soleplate
or baseplate leveling should be done using the machined support foot surfaces.

Before mounting the equipment on the soleplates or baseplate, place a 0.125 inch (3.0
mm) thick stainless steel shim pack having an assortment of shim thicknesses on each
machine support. A stainless steel shim pack is generally preferred. Full size shims are
preferred when setting machinery or when making elevation changes during alignment.

NOTE
Shims and contact surfaces should be kept smooth, free of
burrs and clean to prevent erroneous alignment readings.

Check that coupling hubs have been mounted on their respective shaft ends before setting
machinery on soleplate or baseplate. If not, refer to coupling installation procedure in this
chapter and the coupling manufacturer's literature.

After machinery has been placed on soleplates or baseplate, install and tighten hold down
bolts. Check for a "soft foot" by loosening each hold down bolt in turn while measuring
with a dial indicator movement between machine foot and soleplate or baseplate. If
movement on loosening a nut exceeds approximately 0.002 inch (0.05 mm) at any foot,
shim changes to eliminate the "soft foot" should be made before proceeding.

With soleplates or baseplate set and leveled, machinery mounted and rough aligned,
remove all temporary shipping braces.

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Installation

NOTE
The journal bearings on the turbine have been fitted with
plastic inserts for protection during shipment. These plastic
inserts must be removed before the rotor is turned. If the
machine is to be reshipped, the plastic inserts must be
reinstalled for transit to final jobsite.

Then clean the bearings and bearing housings. All clearances should then be checked.
Refer to clearance table and drawings. Thoroughly oil all bearings and reassemble
bearing housings. Refer to appropriate sections in Chapter 4. The machinery is now
ready to be "cold aligned". The "cold alignment" method to use is dependent on the
distance between the coupling hubs. For greatest accuracy, the method suggested should
be used whenever possible. Initial cold alignment should be obtained prior to grouting in
soleplates or baseplate. In order to provide maximum flexibility and minimum confusion,
the cold alignment should be completed with all piping disconnected from the machinery.
Axial coupling separation indicated on outline drawing must be maintained during cold
alignment.

COUPLING INSTALLATION

A flexible coupling is used between the turbine and the driven equipment. This type of
coupling can be manufactured for use with either straight or tapered shaft ends. Individual
preferences or certain operating conditions may dictate using different types of couplings.
Therefore, it is advisable to refer to the manufacturer's instructions for specific details
pertaining to the coupling.

Installing A Straight Bore Coupling

1. Clean and de-burr the coupling hub and shaft end.

2. Place the coupling sleeve (if applicable) on the equipment shaft with the bolting
flange positioned toward the shaft end.

3. Check the key fit in the coupling hub and the shaft keyways. The key must have a
side clearance of .001 inch to .003 inch (0.03 mm to 0.07 mm) between the key and
coupling keyway. The fit between the key and shaft keyway must be .000 inch to
.002-inch (0.0 mm to 0.05 mm) interference. The key must be fitted to provide .005
inch to .013-inch (0.13 mm to 0.33 mm) top clearance in the coupling keyway.

4. After the key has been fitted to provide the proper clearances, insert it in the shaft
keyway.

5. Apply a light coat of suitable anti-galling lubricant on the mounting surface of the
shaft.

6. Heat the coupling hub in oil or in an oven to approximately 300°F (150°C). The
coupling should not be heated with an open flame or be allowed to exceed 600°F
(315°C).

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Installation

-WARNING-
HEAT-RESISTANT GLOVES SHOULD BE WORN WHEN
HANDLING THE HEATED COUPLING.

BOLTING FLANGE
SLEEVE

KEYWAY LOCKNUT

THREADED
SHAFT END

HUB

TAPERED BORE
BOLTING FLANGE

HUB

KEYWAY

SLEEVE
STRAIGHT BORE

FIGURE 2-10
FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS/TAPERED AND STRAIGHT BORE

7. Place the coupling hub on the shaft and position it so that the hub face is flush with
the shaft end.

CAUTION
Do not drive the coupling on or off the shaft with a
hammer. The force of the hammer will result in internal
equipment damage.

Installing a Tapered Bore Coupling

1. Clean and de-burr the coupling hub and shaft end.

2. Apply a light coating of Prussian blue to the rotor shaft.

3. Place the coupling hub on the shaft.

4. Remove the coupling and check the contact with the shaft.

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CAUTION
Hand lapping the coupling hub on the rotor shaft may
form a ridge that will affect the coupling contact when
pulled up. Correct the contact by lightly stoning any
ridges, burrs or high spots.

5. Check the key fit in the coupling hub and the shaft keyways. The key must have a
side clearance of .001 inch to .003 inch (0.03 mm to 0.07 mm) between the key and
coupling keyway. The fit between the key and shaft keyway must be .000 inch to
.002 inch (0.0 mm to 0.05 mm) interference. The key must be fitted to provide .005
inch to .013 inch (0.13 mm to 0.33 mm) top clearance in the coupling keyway.

6. After the key has been fitted to provide the proper clearances and the coupling
contact is determined to be satisfactory, insert the key in the shaft keyway.

7. Place the coupling sleeve (if applicable) on the shaft. Position the bolting flange
toward the shaft end.

8. Fit the coupling hub on the shaft (at room temperature).

9. Take a reference dimension from the hub to a fixed part on the machine case or a
shaft shoulder. Make certain the shaft is seated against either of the thrust bearings.

10. Put a small amount of thread lubricant on the drive nut.

11. Tighten the shaft locknut to obtain an interference fit between the coupling and shaft.
See the Turbine Outline drawing in Chapter 10 for specifications on coupling pull up.

12. Recheck referenced dimension (step 9) and record for future use.

13. Lock drive nut.

CAUTION
Do not drive the coupling on or off the shaft with a
hammer. The force of the hammer will result in internal
equipment damage.

SHAFT ALIGNMENT

The turbine and the driven equipment are normally connected by flexible couplings.
Flexible couplings are used because changes in temperature and loadings during normal
operation, start-up or shutdown can cause one shaft end to move relative to its companion
shaft end. For high-speed, high-performance applications such as between compressors
and turbines, the coupling is usually the gear, disk or diafram type.

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Chapter 2
Installation

All flexible couplings have limits within operation without failure or undue wear. Even
when operating within the design limits, these couplings generate some resistance to
flexing. The force usually increases as the misalignment increases, thereby increasing or
decreasing bearing load fluctuations as the shaft rotates. Furthermore, operating with
collinear shafts at normal operating conditions minimizes tooth-sliding velocity or diafram
flexure while providing the maximum reserve for movement in any direction should it be
required.

Experience indicates that excessive vibration of compressors and their drivers is often
caused by improper shaft alignment. Frequently, high or unusual bearing and seal wear
can be traced to improper shaft alignment. In extreme cases, poor alignment can
precipitate a coupling, bearing or shaft failure. For smooth operation and long trouble-free
runs, good shaft alignment procedures are essential and cannot be over-emphasized.

An understanding of good shaft alignment techniques must begin with a few basic
definitions.

"Cold or ambient alignment" is the procedure that involves positioning the frames or
casings of compressors and other rotating machines while at standstill and ambient
conditions. The "cold shaft alignment" is normally accomplished using dial indicators,
feeler gauges, micrometers or a combination of these instruments. This positioning
should allow for thermal growth and material deflections that will occur between ambient
conditions and stabilized operating temperatures. The incremental movement used to
establish the cold shaft alignment may be actual measurements made during start-up or
shutdown, growths estimated by the machinery manufacturer or estimates made by the
installation man.

To calculate thermal expansion or contraction, multiply original length (generally distance


from machine shaft centerline to top of baseplate or soleplate) times expansion coefficient
(0.0000067 for steel) times temperature change in degrees Fahrenheit. (Expansion
coefficient is 0.000012 for steel and temperature change in degrees Celsius.)

∆ L (change in length) = L (length) x 0.0000067 x ∆ T (change in temp. °F)

∆ L (change in length) = L (length) x 0.000012 x ∆ T (change in temp. °C)

NOTE: ∆ L and L in same units.

Normally, the vertical movement is minimized by use of a bolted joint where the support
foot attaches to the casing. Therefore, the average temperature of the support foot may
be considerably lower than the average of adjacent casing temperature to foot
temperature. A good "hot shaft alignment" will either verify or suggest alternate growth
figures to use.

"Hot shaft alignment" also known as operating shaft alignment or service alignment is a
procedure for monitoring the change in shaft alignment from cold or ambient conditions to
normal operating conditions. Knowing the "cold shaft alignment" and measuring the
change, provides a method for determining if the shaft alignment becomes collinear at
normal operating conditions. This method is indirect, but if properly done, provides the
most reliable and acceptable method available.

BYR PE 100q.ch02.06/04/2007 2-17


Chapter 2
Installation

A. COLINEAR ALIGNMENT

B. ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT

C. PARALLEL MISALIGNMENT
© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

FIGURE 2-11
TYPES OF SHAFT MISALIGNMENT

A. Collinear alignment - In Figure 2-11 part A; the two machine shaft ends are
considered to be "collinear aligned" when the two shaft ends rotate about the same
straight line (no misalignment). All machinery shafts have some deflection;
therefore, this reference is limited to the center of rotation of one shaft end relative
to the opposite shaft end. Each coupling must be analyzed individually.

B. Angular or Face displacement - In Figure 2-11 part B; indicates the amount of


angular misalignment at a shaft end. Normally, angular displacement is measured
in mils of offset per inch (in mm of offset per meter) of coupling diameter or axial
separation.

C. Parallel offset - In Figure 2-11 part C; indicates the amount of parallel misalignment
between the centerlines of two adjacent shaft ends. Figure 2-11 part C, shows two
shafts with only parallel offset.

"Axial separation". When the coupling connecting two shaft ends is a gear type, an axial
separation of plus or minus .0625 inch (1.60 mm) tolerance is usually acceptable. When
the coupling connecting the two shaft ends is a disk or diafram type, an axial separation as
shown in Figure 2-11 of less than plus or minus .015 inch (0.40 mm) tolerance is usually
required. Check coupling drawing and coupling instructions for precise limits.

2-18 BYR PE.ch02.06/04/07


Chapter 2
Installation
When aligning disk or diafram type couplings, the dimension information shown on the
coupling drawings must be adhered too. Measurements should be taken with the
equipment in normal thrust position (turbine rotor toward exhaust). Usually, the critical
dimension is a coupling flange face dimension as shown in Figure 2-13. For further
information on axial separation, refer to coupling vendor drawing and installation
procedure.
AXIAL SEPARATION

cL cL

FIGURE 2-12
AXIAL SEPARATION

GUARDS

DIAFRAMS

CENTER TUBE

COUPLING FLANGE FACE TO


FLANGE FACE

FIGURE 2-13
AXIAL SEPARATION - DIAFRAM COUPLING

There are two similar procedures available for measuring parallel offset and angular
displacement. The most accurate measurements are obtained when one of the following
recommended methods is used.

The "Rim and Face Method" is the preferred procedure when the distance between the
two adjacent shaft ends is less than one-half the coupling diameter (this assumes face
readings are taken near outside diameter). This procedure is also known as the "Hub and
Face Method" or "Two Indicator Method."

The "Reverse Indicator Method" is the preferred procedure when the distance between the
adjacent shaft ends is greater than one-half the coupling diameter.

BYR PE 100q.ch02.06/04/2007 2-19


Chapter 2
Installation

Shaft Alignment Map Instructions

Preparation and use of a "Shaft alignment map" for each installation is recommended. A
typical shaft alignment map is shown in Figure 2-14. Use of a shaft alignment map
provides a convenient form on which to record indicator readings and calculate equipment
moves. Maintaining this information for comparison during maintenance inspections or for
reference, should problems develop, can provide valuable diagnostic information. A blank
form for your use is provided in Figure 2-17.

In addition to providing machine identification information, date and shaft alignment


method used, the shaft alignment map provides a plan (top) and vertical (side) elevation of
the machine shafts, complete with all the important reference points identified. The
horizontal or abscissa coordinate should be scaled using some convenient scale such as
1.00 or 2.00 inches per division (25 or 50 millimeters per division). All support feet and
coupling faces should be located. When more than two machines are involved, a larger
map or graph may be advantageous. The vertical or ordinate coordinate should be an
expanded scale such as 1 mil (0.02 millimeters) per division in order to clearly identify
misalignment. Mark North compass direction in plan view and corresponding compass
directions in indicator reading circles so no confusion develops during measurements.

When making shaft alignment corrections, it is usually advantageous to hold one machine
in a fixed position and align other machine or machines to the fixed machine. Some
guidelines to determine the best machine to hold stationary are as follows.

1. If the equipment consists of turbine driven compressor, it is generally preferred to


level turbine and move compressor into desired cold alignment.

2. If a gear is present, level and square the gear to the foundation or baseplate and
move the other machinery into alignment with the gear.

3. If the equipment string consists of three or more pieces of equipment, level the
machine nearest the center, square it to the foundation or baseplate, and move the
other machinery into alignment with the selected machine.

The solid, dark, heavy lines on the shaft alignment map represent the desired hot shaft
alignment; i.e., collinear alignment. Plot historical or calculated thermal expansion or
contraction change for each support location on shaft alignment map. Connect points
plotted for each machine with a dashed line.

Use dashed line for desired "cold alignment setting". Read off differences between the
two dashed lines in vertical plane and record desired readings in circles so marked. Plan
or horizontal alignment usually remains unchanged from ambient (cold) of bottom reading.
If system has a gear, the gear case is usually doweled or keyed under the pinion and
allowed to expand toward bull gear shaft thus requiring alignment allowances in plan view
at bull gear or low speed shaft end.

NOTE
(For All Rim Measurements)
Actual measurement is 1/2 TIR (Total Indicator Reading);
therefore, value of measurement shown on indicator reading
circle should be twice the distance indicated on plot.

Offset value is plus (+) if projected centerline of machine


that indicator is attached to is above coupling mark of the
machine that indicator is riding on.
2-20 BYR PE.ch02.06/04/07
SHAFT ALIGNMENT MAP
USER ABC Company SERVICE Propane Refrigeration EQUIP. NO. C508xxx / C5037xx DATE 10 / 95
COUPLING TYPE MP 153 LUBE Grease AMBIENT TEMP. 60 F NAME
NOTES: ALIGNMENT METHOD Reverse Indicator ALIGNMENT BAR SAG Negligible MILS/MM
1) Show North in Plan view of sketch.
2) Mark compass direction in circles.
LEFT 0 RIGHT LEFT 0 RIGHT
3) If offset value is plus, projected center
line of machine that the indicator was COMP TURB DESIRED COLD READING
attached to will be above the coupling -12.5
W TO E
-12.5 +10
W TO E
+10
-14 0 C/T ACT
.
mark of the opposite machine.
TURB COMP Vo = Bot - Top = -7
4) If offset value is minus, projected center 2
line of machine that the indicator was -25 +20 -4 -10
attached to will be below the coupling 0 0 Ho = Right - Left = +3
mark of the opposite machine. 2
COMP TURB
-10 -4 +7 +9
W TO E W TO E
ACTUAL COLD READING
TURB COMP
-14 +16

STEAM END FOOT EXHAUST FOOT DISCHARGE FOOT SUCTION FOOT

PLAN
DESIRED OPERATING LINE
MOVE 6 MIL WEST W
MOVE 22 MIL WEST N
SEPG5 E
38M4
STEAM TURBINE COUPLING
cL cL cL COMPRESSOR cL

DESIRED OPERATING LINE


VERTICAL
MOVE 3 MIL UP MOVE 17 MIL UP

48 " 14" 14" 18" 57"

PICK A CONVENIENT SCALE SCALE 2 inches PER DIVISION SUGGEST 1" OR 2" PER DIVISION
2-21

FIGURE 2-14
SHAFT ALIGNMENT MAP
EXAMPLE
Chapter 2
Installation

Sometimes the work descriptions such as used on an alignment map can be confusing.
Figure 2-15 is a pictorial view of Note 3 on alignment map. It reads:

"If offset value is plus, projected centerline of machine that the indicator was attached to
will be above the coupling mark of the opposite machine."

FIGURE 2-15
PICTORIAL OF NOTE 3 ON ALIGNMENT MAP

Figure 2-16 is a pictorial view of Note 4 on alignment map. It reads:

"If offset value is minus, projected centerline of machine that the indicator was attached
to will be below the coupling mark of the opposite machine."

FIGURE 2-16
PICTORIAL OF NOTE 4 ON ALIGNMENT MAP

2-22 100q.ch02.01/16/2003
SHAFT ALIGNMENT MAP
USER SERVICE EQUIP. NO. DATE
COUPLING TYPE LUBE AMBIENT TEMP. NAME
NOTES: ALIGNMENT METHOD ALIGNMENT BAR SAG MILS/MM
1) Show North in Plan view of sketch.
2) Mark compass direction in circles.
LEFT RIGHT LEFT RIGHT
3) If offset value is plus, projected center Bot - Top
line of machine that the indicator was
Vo = =
attached to will be above the coupling 2
TO TO
mark of the opposite machine. Right - Left
Ho = =
4) If offset value is minus, projected center 2
line of machine that the indicator was
attached to will be below the coupling
mark of the opposite machine.

TO TO
FIGURE 2-17

PLAN DESIRED OPERATING LINE

LEFT

RIGHT
VERTICAL
2-23

PICK A CONVENIENT SCALE SCALE PERDIVISION SUGGEST 1" OR 2" PER DIVISION
Chapter 2
Installation

Rim and Face Method of Alignment

1. Use Rim and Face Method when distance between the two adjacent shaft ends is
less than one-half the coupling diameter.

2. Lubricate bearings before rotating shafts.

3. Mark both coupling hubs at four locations 90° apart so that their position is evident at
all times during alignment work.

4. All piping strain must be removed from machine. For initial alignment work during
installation, all piping should be left unconnected from machinery. After cold
alignment has been secured, arrange dial indicators between shaft ends, or between
foundation and machine case such that any movement of machine can be detected.
Connect one flange at a time and observe indicator readings continuously. Should
movement exceed 2 mils (0.05 mm), piping strain is considered excessive. Reason
for strain should be investigated and condition corrected before proceeding with
alignment.

5. Shift rotors to running position and determine that coupling spacer distance is as
specified on coupling drawing.

6. Mount dial indicator so indicator button rides near center of rotation. Rotate shaft
against which button rests to measure axial wobble. If unable to maintain axial
wobble to less than 0.001 inch (.025 mm) on either shaft, use of two face indicators
180° apart or multiple measurements is recommended.

NOTE
Axial shaft movement during face reading measurements
can cause false readings. Two dial indicators mounted 180°
apart should be used when axial float cannot be easily
controlled. When using this setup, set dial indicators at 0°
and 180° position and zero indicators. Dial indicator at 0°
should be tagged prime dial indicator. At each interval,
subtract second dial indicator's reading from prime dial
indicator reading. Divide this result by two and record result
in prime's location. Be sure to retain proper plus or minus
signs.

7. Measure angular misalignment with inside micrometer, feeler gauges or dial indicator
such as shown in Figure 2-18. This is best accomplished by marking measurement
point at 0° and recording readings or change in readings between 0° point and points
at 90°, 180°, 270° and 360°.

On return to 0° position, indicator should return to zero or repeat measurement. Take


several sets of readings, to be sure no mistake has been made or something has
moved that shouldn't have. When taking measurements, rotate both shafts equal
amounts to cancel out eccentricity and surface imperfections.

2-24 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation

DIAL INDICATOR WITH HOLE ATTACHMENT

0
INSIDE MICROMETER MEASUREMENT POINT

270 90

FEELERS
180
GUAGE BLOCK OR BAR STOCK

FIGURE 2-18
MEASURING ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT

8. Readings observed in step 7, above should be recorded on alignment map. As face


readings provide the slope of shaft on which dial indicator is mounted relative to
coupling face of the opposite machine (See Figure 2-19), use an indicator recording
circle for an axial location equal to the "face reading measurement diameter" away
from the hub on which the indicator button is riding.

ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT DISTANCE EQUAL TO


MEASUREMENT DIAMETER

FIGURE 2-19
ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

9. To measure Parallel Offset, attach the dial indicator to bracket mounted on machine
that will be moved. Set the indicator button to contact periphery of opposite coupling
hub at top approximately 0.25 inch (6 mm) from edge (as shown in Figure 2-20). Set
the indicator to zero at top, rotate both shafts together and record dial readings on
alignment map for 90°, 180°, 270°. On return to top position, the indicator should
return to zero. Repeat this procedure several times to be sure no mistake has been
made or something moved. These four readings will be TIR (Total Indicator
Readings), and actual parallel offset is one-half of indicator (TIR) readings.

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-25
Chapter 2
Installation
o

o o

DIAL INDICATOR

FEELER GAGE
© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

FIGURE 2-20
MEASURING PARALLEL OFFSET

10. Readings observed in Step 9 should be recorded on alignment map in indicator


recording circle corresponding to same axial location as dial indicator measuring
location (fixed machines coupling).

11. Vertical offset (Vo) and horizontal offset (Ho) for projected centerline of machine to be
moved at fixed machine's coupling face can be determined by using alignment map
Note 3 or 4.

12. Slope of machine's shaft to be moved relative to fixed machine is determined by (a)
drawing a line thorough point determined in Step 11 and parallel to fixed machine's
centerline, (b) applying alignment map Note 3 of 4 to face readings at the axial
location previously determined in Step 8 above.

13. In each view, draw a straight line through points located in Step 11 and 12 with line
extended to intersect both supports of machine to be moved. Read off distance
between line just completed and desired cold shaft position (dashed line) at each
support for component to be moved. This measurement represents movement
necessary to obtain correct cold alignment.

14. Make adjustments indicated in Step 13.

15. Repeat Steps 7 through 14 to verify adjustments made in Step 14 correct.

16. Unless otherwise noted, a final hot alignment should provide for an angular
displacement between machine coupling hub centerline and coupling spacer
centerline of approximately 0.25 mil per inch (0.25 mm per m) at the coupling gear
teeth or flex elements. This angular displacement is not a limit, but a suggested
alignment goal. Refer to coupling literature for more information on maximum
allowable misalignment.
2-26 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation

Reverse Indicator Method of Shaft Alignment

1. Use the reverse indicator method of shaft alignment when distance between two
adjacent shaft ends is greater than one half the coupling diameter.

Note
For alignment purposes, the effective distance between
shaft ends can be increased by spanning the shaft end to
obtain a dial indicator location inboard of actual shaft ends.
Key factor is to spread two indicators as far apart as
practical with negligible bracket sag. (As spread increases,
so does possibilities for bracket sag.)

The reverse indicator method of shaft alignment eliminates the need for taking face
readings.

2. The reverse indicator method involves taking readings from one shaft to the rim
surface on the hub of the adjoining shaft and vice versa as shown in Figure 2-21.

READ HERE

SHAFT "A"

SHAFT "B"

FIRST SET OF READINGS

READ HERE

SHAFT "A"

SHAFT "B"

SECOND SET OF READINGS


© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)
FIGURE 2-21
REVERSE INDICATOR READINGS

3. Lubricate bearings before rotating shaft.

4. Mark both the coupling hubs at four locations 90° apart so that their position can
easily be seen at all times during the alignment work.

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-27
Chapter 2
Installation

5. All piping strain must be removed from machine. For initial alignment work during
installation, all piping should be left unconnected from machinery. After cold
alignment has been secured, arrange dial indicators between shaft ends or between
foundation and machine case such that any movement of machine can be detected.
Connect one flange at a time and observe indicator readings continuously. Should
movement exceed 2 mils (0.05 mm), piping strain is considered excessive. Reason
for strain should be investigated and condition corrected before proceeding with
alignment.

6. When spanning the coupling gap with an indicator rig or bracket, zero sag is
impractical to achieve; therefore, the actual amount of sag should be determined and
recorded on the alignment map. The bracket should be sturdily constructed to
minimize shifting and sag during use.

NOTE
For purposes of this explanation, the fixed machine is called
shaft "A". The shaft of machine to be aligned to shaft "A"
will be called shaft "B". Therefore, shaft "B" belongs to
machine that will be moved.

7. Attach the indicator bracket to shaft "A".

8. Attach the dial indicator to the bracket so that the button will rest on the outer rim of
coupling hub "B". The indicator button should contact in about 0.25 inch (6 mm) from
the hub face.

9. Position dial indicator at top dead center, in line with 0° marking on coupling "B" and
zero indicator.

10. Rotate both shafts together and record dial readings on alignment map at 90°, 180°
and 270° positions. On return to top position, the indicator should return to zero.
Repeat this step several times to be sure no mistake has been made or something
moved.

11. The accuracy of the readings may be verified by algebraically adding the side
readings and comparing this sum to bottom reading. The readings should be equal
to or within 1 mil (.25 mm).

12. Remove the bracket from shaft "A" and install on shaft "B". Using the same
procedure obtain indicator readings from shaft "B" to the rim of coupling hub "A".

13. Using the two equations shown on the suggested shaft alignment map, calculate the
vertical offset (Vo) and the horizontal or plan view offset (Ho). Plot these results in
the proper view and in the axial location where indicator readings were taken. Note 3
or 4 on the alignment map can assist in determining the shaft location above or below
other shaft. When making this determination, it is sometimes helpful to locate
centerline of shaft end "B" first that is shaft end of machine to be moved, and then the
projected centerline of shaft end "B" at shaft end "A". In this explanation shaft end
"A" is fixed and therefore shaft "B" must be located relative to shaft "A".

2-28 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation
NOTE
Correct the bottom reading for sag in the bracket by
algebraically adding to bottom indicator reading. No
correction is needed on the side readings since it is negative
on both sides and will cancel out.

14. In each view draw a straight line through points located in Step 13, extending the line
to intersect both supports of machine "B". Read off distance between line just
completed and desired cold shaft position (dashed line) at each support for machine
"B". This measurement represents movement necessary to obtain correct cold
alignment.

15. Make adjustments indicated in Step 14.

16. Repeat Steps 7 through 14 to verify adjustments made in Step 15 were correct.

17. Unless otherwise noted, a final hot alignment should provide for an angular
displacement between machine coupling hub centerlines and coupling spacer
centerline of approximately 0.25 mil per inch 0.25 mm/m) at the coupling gear teeth or
flex elements. This angular displacement is not a limit but a suggested alignment
goal. Refer to coupling literature for more information on maximum allowable
misalignment.

After cold alignment has been made, the soleplates or baseplates must then be grouted;
refer to previous section titled "Grouting". After final grouting is completed, cold alignment
should be checked and adjusted if necessary.

Hot Alignment Check


A hot alignment check should be made after the equipment string has operated with full
load for several hours and stable operating temperatures have been reached. This check
will indicate any final adjustments necessary to achieve collinear alignment of the turbine
and driven equipment under operating conditions.

The purpose of the hot alignment procedure is to measure the movement of one shaft end
relative to the opposite shaft end. As the shaft rotates, it is not practical to measure the
actual position of one shaft end relative to its companion with dial indicators or similar
instruments, as was the case during the cold alignment procedure. Therefore, most Hot
Alignment procedures make the assumption that the machine casing and bearing housing
expand uniformly in a radial direction from the shaft center of rotation and maintain this
relationship to the shaft center regardless of the casing temperature. This basic
assumption appears to be valid as compressors and turbines are nearly symmetrical about
the shaft; therefore, distortions are minimized. Using this principle, one of the following
methods should be used to make a hot alignment check.

The "mechanical hot alignment" method uses accurate measurements between fixed
reference points on the foundation or base and the machinery bearing housings to indicate
shaft movement between ambient and normal operating conditions. This method
assumes that the fixed reference points do not move between cold alignment conditions
and machinery operation. In general, this is a good assumption provided one side or area
of the foundation is not exposed to direct sun when the other is not. Unprotected hot
steam and process lines passing in close proximity to the foundation can also contribute to
uncertainty in incremental movements.

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-29
Chapter 2
Installation

This method eliminates the requirement for alignment brackets or bars by using
permanent reference points (called benchmarks) that are affixed directly to the foundation
and to the bearing housing as shown in Figure 2-22. All four reference points should lie in
a plane perpendicular to the centerline of the machine shaft. Similarly mounted reference
points should be established at each bearing housing in the train.

Suggested benchmarks for this technique are 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) diameter precision balls.
Because these benchmarks become an integral part of the installation and the accuracy of
alignment records over the long term are dependent upon these references, it is
recommended that the balls be made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion and mounted
solidly to avoid inadvertent movement. It is also recommended that the benchmarks be
protected with covers when not in use.

ROTOR SHAFT

BEARING HOUSING

A COLD B COLD

A' HOT B' HOT

BENCHMARKS

FOUNDATION

FIGURE 2-22
TYPICAL DISPLACEMENT OF BENCHMARKS ON FOUNDATION AND BEARING
HOUSING

NOTE
Acculign, Inc markets a tool kit designed specifically for the
purpose of conducting hot alignment checks by this method.

Following cold alignment of the equipment string, reference dimensions A and B and
angles θ and ∅ are determined at each bearing housing and recorded. Lubrication
system should be operating and oil supply temperature near design to minimize effect of
bearing housing growth.

After the machine is brought to normal stabilized operating conditions, dimensions A' and
B' are measured at each position. With these two sets of data, the vertical and horizontal
movement of each bearing housing of the machines in the train can be determined relative
to the foundation.

2-30 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation

See Figure 2-23. Using common grid paper (5 x 5 grid is usually a convenient size), lay
out reference vectors A and B at angles θ and ∅, having these vectors cross at one of the
grid intersections. The intersection of these vectors represents the centerline of the
machine shaft in the cold position. Now refer to the cold and hot measurements
previously made (A, A', B, and B') and determine the movement of the bearing housing
along vectors A and B by taking the differences between cold and hot measurements ( ∆ A
and ∆ B) for each location. Lay out the movements along vectors A and B using any
convenient scale, say 0.25 inch equals 0.001 inch (2 mm equals 0.01 mm), to establish
points a and b.

VECTOR B H
VECTOR A
FINAL SHAFT
POSITION
90
a

b V
A
90
B
INITIAL SHAFT POSITION

FIGURE 2-23
GRAPHICAL DETERMINATION OF SHAFT IN HOT POSITION RELATIVE
TO COLD POSITION

Now draw lines through a and b perpendicular to vectors A and B. These lines represent
arcs of radii A' and B' drawn from the foundation benchmarks. The intersection of these
lines defines the position of the machine shaft centerline in the hot position relative to the
cold position. To determine the movement in vertical and horizontal directions, it is
necessary only to scale off the dimensions referred to as ∆ H and ∆ V, using the same
scale as used in plotting ∆ A and ∆ B.

A similar plot for the data secured at each bearing housing can be compared to the
alignment map information for validity of the original estimates. Where differences exist,
corrections should be made to the original estimates used on alignment map and the
machinery realigned.

With the permanent benchmark installed and the desired cold alignment reference
dimensions recorded, this information can also be used for resetting machines quickly or
for maintenance checks.

Another hot alignment check is the "reverse hot alignment" method that uses the same
basic principles as the reverse indicator method of shaft alignment. Rather than mounting
brackets off the coupling, the brackets are mounted permanently off the bearing housing
or casing.

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-31
Chapter 2
Installation

Regardless of the measurement method used, several things should be kept in mind when
making a setup.

1. The probes and indicating blocks should be positioned to measure both the horizontal
and vertical movement at the coupling of each machine. Generally, vertical
movement is the most important; therefore, placement of brackets or bars should
favor making the most accurate readings in this direction (mount along horizontal
centerline).

2. The brackets or bars can either be located inside or outside the coupling guard.

3. Brackets or bars should be constructed and protected to minimize deflections due to


thermal gradients and local forces such as windage or high velocity lube oil (for
brackets mounted in side coupling guard).

4. Regardless of where brackets or bars are mounted, it must be on a thermally stable


part of the machine.

5. Regardless of where brackets or bars are mounted, it is recommended that a guard


be provided to protect them.

Normally, some variations can be expected in the hot alignment data observed for various
operating conditions. The central point about which most of the observations gather will
normally indicate the desired operating alignment.

Recording of the change in alignment data between ambient conditions and the central
operating condition (desired operating alignment) on the alignment map will provide
confirmation of the original data or suggest modifications to original data. The conclusion
drawn from this analysis should be recorded for future use during maintenance
turnarounds.

Once the alignment bars have been properly installed and referenced to the cold
alignment readings, the bars can also be used for aligning the machines.

In addition to these methods, there are also other methods available for making a hot
alignment check, such as optical alignment, non-contact proximity probes mounted on
water-cooled pedestals, etc. A hot alignment check with optical equipment measures the
movement of reference points (generally tooling balls mounted on the bearing housing) by
use of optics. When using this method for making a hot alignment check, great care
should be exercised as the line of sight between the measuring instrument and the
reference point can be bent by temperature gradients or air currents. Instrument stands
and their supports are also subject to vibration and distortions that can influence accuracy
of data obtained. In general, it is recommended that measurements be double-checked
by making measurements from both sides of machines and comparing results. Any lack of
correlation should be resolved.

Use of non-contact proximity probes mounted on water-cooled pedestals with the probes
looking at the shaft, couplings, bearing housing or casing can also be used. When using
one of these methods, great care should be exercised to design pedestals and mounting
such that temperature distortions are minimized.

2-32 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation

Realign as Necessary
Regardless of the method used for making hot alignment check, it must be evaluated for
accuracy of information measured. Temperature variations and air currents can cause
significant changes in support temperatures between cold alignment conditions and
operating conditions. Expansions, contractions and heat flow are therefore seldom linear.
This can and does contribute to introducing errors if care is not exercised in analyzing
results.

NOTE
Before making alignment changes based on hot alignment
data, evaluate the setup to be sure data is valid and logical.

When the hot alignment check confirms that the machines have been properly aligned, the
machines should be doweled as indicated on the outline drawing.

TURBINE PIPING RECOMMENDATIONS

No part of the turbine installation is more important for successful operation than well-
designed and properly installed piping. There are two definite objectives for good piping:

1. To prevent the heated piping from imposing strains on the turbine casing and, thus,
affecting the alignment.

2. To connect and drain the turbine inlet and exhaust piping so that dry steam is
furnished to the turbine and that water accumulation in these lines is prevented.

A main steam isolation valve is recommended in the steam piping, preferably at a


convenient accessible location in the turbine room, between the steam header and the
turbine inlet, to allow working on the turbine without shutting down the boiler.

The turbine casing must be protected from piping weight and piping expansion strains.
The weight of piping should be carried by suitable supports. Expansion joints with limit
rods or piping bends should be used adjacent to the turbine flanges. Connections
between the piping flanges and turbine flanges are made without forcing the pipeline in
any direction in order to make a satisfactory joint. Connections may be considered
satisfactory if the connecting pipe lines, when heated to operating temperature, do not
shift out of line with the turbine flanges when the bolting is withdrawn. Refer to NEMA
standards for maximum forces and moments allowable. Before piping is connected to
turbine, mount at least two indicators from one coupling hub to the other coupling hub--
one to measure any vertical movement, the other to measure any horizontal movement.
Then connect piping to turbine. If movement shown on any indicator exceeds 0.002" (0.05
mm) loosen piping and refabricate, realign or adjust anchors as required.

All steam piping between the turbine and boiler or steam header must be adequately
"blown down" to remove welding beads, scale, dirt, etc. During blow down, the piping
should be disconnected and directed away from the turbine. Blow down should be at
maximum design turbine throttle flow to obtain design steam temperature and velocity.
The piping should be blown down several times, until a polished metal plate held in the
stream indicates the absence of foreign material.

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-33
Chapter 2
Installation
If supplied, the trip and throttle valve always contain a permanent screen to guard against
the ingestion of large loose particles. In addition, many valves will also have a temporary
screen installed around the permanent one. The temporary screen should be removed
after approximately one month of operation and should never be left in longer than six
months.

Note
Strainers do not take the place of a properly setup and
conducted blow down.

STEAM LINE BLOW DOWN (Reference SM 23; latest edition)

All new steam piping between turbine and boiler or existing header must be adequately
blown to remove welding beads, scale, dirt, broken backing rings, weld rod, etc. This
includes all steam lines that can import steam into the turbine including but not limited to:

- Main Steam
- Gland Sealing Steam

Proper setup and implementation of a sound blow down procedure are normally the
responsibility of the installation contractor. KEPL-Elliott responsibility is normally only as a
witness and to verify that placement targets are acceptable before connecting to the
turbine.

Since the steam lines to the turbine can not be connected for blow down, temporary blow
down piping will be required. Piping must be adequately secured prior to blow down.
Piping also must be rated for steam conditions at the time of the test and discharged into
an area that is properly secured and marked off.

In broad terms, blowing down the steam lines is a process that uses a cycle of heating and
cooling to break free any loose particles. Pressure is built up in the boiler and a valve is
opened to release this pressure though the steam lines. By the time the pressure is built
up again in the boiler, the piping has usually cooled. This forms the heating and cooling
cycle. The number of cycles will depend on the attention that was given to cleanliness
during erection, the design of the plant piping system, and the design of the blow down
system used.

Verification of the blow down is made by installing polished targets in the temporary blow
down piping. The targets are usually mild steel bar with a ground finish, however key
stock material can be used. Each target can be used four times by turning the target in
ninety-degree increments.

The temporary blow down piping setup and size are very important. The force on a
particle is proportional to the mass velocity head of the fluid; therefore the mass velocity
head developed during the blowing cycle must be at least equal to that developed during
full load operation. The temporary piping should not have a greater flow area than the
permanent piping, so that satisfactory velocities can be maintained.

It is not possible to ascertain how many steam blows will be required to properly clean the
system since too many variables are involved. Experience has shown that up to fifty total
blows may be required for the main steam line and ten to twenty for the secondary lines.
Normally the blow down cycle will require one to three hours. The actual steam flow
through the pipe should be about fifteen to twenty minutes in duration and the piping
should allowed to cool for at least two hours if insulated and one hour if not insulated.

2-34 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
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Installation
Polished targets are to be installed after approximately ten blows on the main steam line.
At this point the targets should indicate the approximate relative condition of the system.
After two successive blows with no pitting observed on the targets, the blown down can be
considered completed. Retain these targets for reference. Discoloration of the targets is
normal. After successful completion of the blow down procedure, the temporary piping is
to be removed. Reinstall any piping removed for the blow down. Test the system for
leaks and piping strain.

Taking proper care to insure an effective blow down procedure has been carried out will
assure a successful start-up of the turbine.

TURBINE STEAM SUPPLY

Steam should at all times be free from moisture. A receiver type separator with ample
drains should be provided ahead of the stop valve to prevent slugs of water from entering
the turbine. When a separator is not provided, a blowoff valve or continuous drain should
be connected to the lowest point of the steam inlet piping.

A strainer should be installed in the steam supply piping for protection against large
particles of scale, welding beads, etc. A strainer does not guard against abrasive matter,
boiler compound or acid or alkaline substances, which may be carried over in the steam.
These substances will corrode, erode, or form deposits on the steam parts, reducing
efficiency and power. It is imperative that feed water treatment and boiler operation be
carefully controlled to insure a supply of clean steam at all times.

TURBINE ATMOSPHERIC RELIEF VALVES

An atmospheric relief valve must be installed between the turbine exhaust flange and the
first exhaust line steam isolation valve (See Figure 2-24) or check valve. The purpose of
this relief valve is to protect the turbine casing from excessive exhaust pressure or failure
of exhaust valve. The relief valve must be of ample size to pass the maximum quantity of
steam flowing through the turbine without allowing the turbine casing pressure to exceed
the maximum designed pressure shown on the turbine nameplate. It is the user's
responsibility to install the relief valve in the piping. Failure to install relief valve may
violate local or national codes and must be approved by an officer of the company.

WARNING
THE TURBINE SHOULD NOT BE OPERATED UNLESS
THE ATMOSPHERIC RELIEF VALVE OR OTHER
PROTECTIVE DEVICE HAS BEEN INSTALLED AHEAD
OF ANY ISOLATION VALVE, AND IS IN OPERATING
CONDITION.

Condensing Turbines
The atmospheric relief valve should be sized so that it is capable of passing all of the
steam which may reach the exhaust with the pressure rising to a value not greater than 10
pounds per square inch gage. The relief valve should be installed between the turbine
exhaust flange and any shutoff valve. (Usually on the condenser shell for direct
connected condenser.)

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-35
Chapter 2
Installation

Non-condensing Turbines
A relief valve should be installed between the turbine exhaust connection and the first
steam isolation valve. The valve should be designed for full relief of the maximum steam
flow through the turbine with a pressure and flow rating as shown on the turbine outline
drawing located in Chapter 10 of this manual.

The sentinel valve located on the turbine casing cover, does not serve as a relief valve.
The sentinel valve will not pass sufficient steam to relieve the turbine casing of excessive
exhaust pressure. The relief valve should be set to open at the sentinel valve setting to
give a visual or audible indication when the relief valve is starting to lift and be fully open
with an additional 10 psig or 10% whichever is greater.

If a high back pressure trip is furnished, the relief valve pressure should be raised 5 psig
(.345 bar) and the high steam pressure trip should be set at the "start to open" pressure.
LOOP IN STEAM PIPE
ABSORBS EXPANSION
AND RELIEVES TURBINE
OF STRESSES
Y STEA M
DR
SLOPE TOWARD
HEADER
STEAM
HEADER

DRAIN
EXHAUST STEAM ISOLATION DRAIN
VALVE
INLET STEAM
ISOLATION
VALVE

ATMOSPHERIC
RELIEF VALVE
BYPASS VALVE

SPRING SUPPORT
RELIEVES CASING
OF STRESSES
SPRING SUPPORT DRAIN
RELIEVES CASING
OF STRESSES

© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

Figure 2-24 Suggested Steam Piping Arrangement

MISCELLANEOUS PIPING CONNECTIONS

Considerable attention should be given to the installation of miscellaneous piping. Poorly


planned and installed piping may obscure drain line functions and lead to error when
opening or closing drain lines during operation. In addition, poorly installed piping will
detract from the appearance of the installation. All drain and leakoff lines should be
installed in a neat and orderly manner. They should be grouped and brought to an open
collector box and, from there, piped to a common sump or sewer.

2-36 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
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Installation
All valves should be conveniently grouped as close as possible to the collector box and all
lines should be tagged for identification. Drain lines connected through valves must have
the valves tightly closed during operation. On condensing units, these valves must not be
opened unless the turbine casing is no longer under vacuum. Leakoffs, connected without
valves must be clean and piped to an open drain.

Refer to certified outline and connection drawings for the specific sizes of all connections
and for their exact locations. The pipe size must be the same as or larger than connecting
sizes. All connections are brought outside the jacket when the turbine is insulated and
jacketed.

NOTE
All drains and leakoffs should be run as separate lines to an
open collector box.

NOTE
All drains and leakoffs must have sufficient flexibility to allow
for thermal growth of the turbine without excess strains.

The following identifies the most common miscellaneous piping connections that may be
furnished and explains their individual functions (Refer to figure 2-25). Refer to the
certified outline and purchaser’s connection drawing to verify the connection required.

1. Casing Drain (M): Connect through a suitable valve to an open drain. Open
before starting the turbine; close when water no longer emerges from the drain.
Open when the turbine is shut down and the exhaust valve is closed. On
condensing turbines, do not open this valve while the turbine is under vacuum.

2. Steam Chest Drains [M4, M5, and M1 (BYRH, HH only)]: Connect through high
pressure piping and suitable valves to an open drain. Open before starting the
turbine to drain water from the steam chest. Close when water ceases to flow from
the drain lines. Open when the turbine is shut down. On condensing turbines, do
not open this valve while the turbine is under vacuum.

3. Shaft Packing Case Leakoff (L3): Connect to an open drain without a valve.
Connect to a vacuum source when applicable.

4. Trip Valve Stem Leakoff (L4): Connect to an open drain without a valve.

5. Governor Valve Stem Leakoff (L5): Connect to an open drain without a valve.

6. Cooling Water Connections to Bearing Housings (N5, N6, N9 and N10): These
connections are located on the side of the turbine bearing housings. See Figure 2-
25. Connect to a cooling water supply, which does not exceed 90oF (32oC). Pipe
the cooling water through a stop cock and hand valve into N5, out of N6, into N9,
out of N10 through a one-foot head loop to an open drain. Adjust the stop cock to
supply water at a rate of 2 gpm (7.5 l/min.) when the hand valve is fully open. See
Figure 2-26 for piping arrangement of water cooled bearing housings and caps.
These connections are not used on pressure lubricated turbines.

NOTE
Cooling water pressure must not exceed 100 psig (6.89
bar).

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-37
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Installation
7. Shaft Packing Case Steam Piping (T1): Furnished only when the turbine is operated
condensing. Connect through a valve to a pressurized saturated steam supply.
Admit steam to packing cases until a slight amount of steam leaks out of L3. A typical
arrangement is shown in Figure 2-27.

8. Nozzle ring gage connection (S1): A shut-off valve and gage arrangement may be
installed in this connection. The gage can be used for indicating the inlet steam
pressure drop across the steam chest.

9. Intermediate leakoff (L3-1) for BYRHH only: Connect to a 75 to 125 psig (5.1 to
8.6 bar) header. The leakoff line should have a gage located near each packing
case. A valve should be used to isolate the packing cases from the header.

N-8
N-7

N-6 N-11
N-12
N-5
L-4

N-10
N-9

M-5 S-1
M-4 L-5 M-1
L-3 T-1 M

* L3 LEAK OFF FROM SHAFT SEALING GLANDS N7 COOLING WATER TO STEAM END BEARING CAP
* L4 TRIP VALVE STEM LEAK-OFF N8 COOLING WATER FROM STEAM END BEARING CAP
* L5 GOVERNOR VALVE STEM LEAK-OFF N9 COOLING WATER TO EXHAUST END BEARING PEDESTAL
**M TURBINE CASING DRAIN N10 COOLING WATER FROM EXHAUST END BEARING PEDESTAL
**M1 HIGH PRESSURE STEAM RING DRAIN (BYRH, HH Only) N11 COOLING WATER TO EXHAUST END BEARING CAP
**M4 STEAM CHEST DRAIN (BELOW SEAT) N12 COOLING WATER FROM EXHAUST END BEARING CAP
**M5 STEAM CHEST DRAIN (ABOVE SEAT) S1 NOZZLE RING GAGE CONNECTION
N5 COOLING WATER TO STEAM END BEARING HOUSING T1 SEALING STEAM TO SHAFT PACKING CASE
N6 COOLING WATER FROM STEAM END BEARING HOUSING
* ROUTE TO OPEN DRAIN NO VALVE.
** ROUTE TO OPEN DRAIN WITH VALVE.

© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

Figure 2-25
Miscellaneous Piping Connections

2-38 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation
1ft.(30cm)
HEADLOOP
N10 N6

CONTROL VALVE

N9 N5
STOP
COCK
COOLING
OPEN
DRAIN WATER

© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

Figure 2-26
Suggested Piping Arrangement For Water Cooled Bearing Housings

1ft.(30cm) 1ft.(30cm)
HEADLOOP HEADLOOP

N12 N11 N7 N8

N10 N6
CONTROL VALVES

N9 N5

STOP COCK

OPEN
OPEN
COOLING DRAIN
DRAIN
WATER

© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

Figure 2-27
Suggested Piping Arrangement For Water Cooled Bearing Housings And Caps

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-39
Chapter 2
Installation

EXHAUST END STEAM END


SEALING GLAND SEALING GLAND

TO DRAIN L3 TO DRAIN L3

T1

RELIEF VALVE
20 psig (1.35bar)
PRESSURE GAUGE
SHUT-OFF
VALVE

SHUT-OFF
VALVE

SEALING STEAM
© ELLIOTT TURBOMACHINERY CO., INC (YR)

Figure 2-28
Suggested Sealing Steam
Piping Arrangement For Condensing Turbines

VACUUM BREAKER FOR CONDENSING TURBINES

It is recommended that provisions be made in the exhaust piping, or on the condenser for
breaking the vacuum. The vacuum breaker may consist of a hand-operated valve to be
opened when shutting down the turbine. Breaking the vacuum serves two purposes:

1. It increases the deceleration rate of the rotor.

2. It prevents the in leakage of cold air into the turbine casing along the shaft when
gland sealing steam is turned off.

CONNECTING TURBINE TO CONDENSER

A condenser connected directly to the turbine exhaust flange, when not suspended from
the flange or spring-supported, must have an expansion joint to provide the necessary
flexibility for expansion, unless otherwise approved by KEPL Company. When the
condenser is spring-supported or hung from the turbine exhaust flange, no expansion joint
need be used, provided the maximum condenser weight under any condition is within the
allowable weight that the exhaust end is designed to support. In the latter case, the
condenser load on the exhaust flange must be central. Provisions must be made in the
supports for lateral expansion. All other piping connections to the condenser must be
provided with suitable expansion joints.
2-40 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
Chapter 2
Installation
To avoid air leaks and maintain the highest attainable vacuum, see that all joints are tight
and that the shaft packing is receiving sufficient sealing steam. Suitable paint applied
along the joints and around the bolts of the exhaust connection will assist in keeping them
airtight.

TURBINE INSULATION

Insulating a turbine greatly reduces heat loss and sound pressure levels, isolates hot
turbine parts from personnel and protects the turbine from the environment. Insulate the
high-temperature areas of the turbine surface indicated on the outline drawing. For
condensing turbines, these parts are the steam end casing, intermediate casing (when
used), trip and throttle valve and steam chest. For non-condensing turbines, insulate the
exhaust end casing also.

Turbine Jacketing
KEPL supplies a sheet metal, jacket-type insulation that sheathes the turbine casing. This
removable jacketing, which provides access to turbine parts for servicing, separately
houses the high-temperature turbine sections. Available in carbon steel or optional
stainless steel, the sheet metal jacketing squares the turbine's shape for a neater
appearance. Jacketing for the upper turbine casing consists of a metal shell and a layer
of high-temperature fibrous insulation that is fixed to its underside. The lower turbine
casing is fitted with a metal shell that is stuffed with loose insulation. Jacketing is made to
each turbine's specifications and can be obtained through KEPL field service offices.
NOTE
KEPL- recommends jacketing for all outdoor installations to
protect high-temperature turbine parts from precipitation.

FIGURE 2-29
TURBINE RECOMMENDED INSULATION METAL JACKETING
100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-41
Chapter 2
Installation

2-42 100q.ch02.06/06/2007
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Installation
NOTES

100q.ch02.06/06/2007 2-43
Chapter 2
Installation

2-44 100q.ch02.06/06/2007