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Bahaar
e
Shariat
Volume 3-4


Compiled By
Qadi Sadrush Shariah Hazrat Allama Maulana Mufti
Mohammed Amjad Ali Aazmi Razvi ؓ

Translated into English through the Blessings of
Ghaus-ul-Waqt Huzoor Mufti-e-Azam Hind ؓ

By a humble servant of Allah
Muhammad Afthab Cassim al-Qaadiri Razvi Noori


Published
For Free Distribution
By : IMAM MUSTAFA RAZA RESEARCH CENTRE
OVERPORT, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA



Vol.3 pg.2


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All Rights Reserved
No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying or
otherwise without the prior permission of the Copyright wner.

!econd "dition : 1### copies
$slamic %ate : &uharram 1'3(
"nglish %ate : November 2#13

)uthor: *adi !adrush !hariah al+*aadiri
,ranslator: &uhammad )fthab Cassim al+ *aadiri

$!-N ./0+#+.0/#1##+1+0

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ffices
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Vol.3 pg.3


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Dua by Janasheen
Huzoor Mufti-e-Azam
Huzoor Taajush Shariah,
Rahbar-e-Tareeqat Ash Shaykh
Mufti Mohammed Akhtar Raza Khan
Qaadiri Azhari Qibla

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ,

Choicest and Countless -lessings upon our -eloved 1rophet 
and ?is ?oly ffspring and Companions

$ have been told that &aulana )fthab *asim has translated
some volumes of @-ahaar+e+!hariatA, the great wor: of the
great scholar !adrush !hariah, &aulana )llama )mBadi )li
*aadiri 2a3avi )a3ami.

&ay )llah accept this wor: and give him reward for his efforts.

&ohammed ):htar 2a3a *aadiri
2.
th
!haCbaan )l &oa33am 1'31 ?iBri D&adina ,ayyabaE



Vol.3 pg.'


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Dua by Mumtazul Fuqaha Janasaheen
Huzoor Sadrush Shariah, Huzoor
Muhadith-e-Kabeer Allama Mufti Zia-
ul-Mustafa Qaadiri Amjadi Qibla

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ,
_.ﻋ و .ﻴ,ﻧ _.ﻋ ةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍو .ﻴﻟﻮﻟ ﷲ ﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ .ﺑﺍدﺎﺑ ¸,ﺑدﺎﺘﻤﻟﺍ .ﺑﺎﺤ,ﺍو .ﻟﺍ
ﺪ., ﺎ.ﺍ

,he =itaab before me, F-ahaar+e+!hariatC is an e4ceptionally
beautiful "nglish translation. ,he boo: consists of a vast
number of !hariah 2ulings, to solve the issues and needs of
people which present themselves in their daily lives. ,he one
who practices and acts upon the 2ulings and Gaws mentioned
in this boo: will be able to fulfil his necessary reHuirements
and is also able to guard himself in an $slamic mould, it is this
which is the true obBective in life.

?a3rat &aulana )fthab Cassim !aaheb deserves to be
commended, for the sentiment in his heart to inculcate true
$slamic teachings amongst the "nglish spea:ing &uslims and
by doing soI he has fulfilled the debt Ji.e. the obligationK of the
<lama. J$ pray thatK )llah grants his efforts the acceptance and
gratitude that it deserves, granting him a generous reward
J)ameenK. &aulana has compassion and sensitivity in his
heart in regards to :eeping the &uslim Community established
and steadfast. $t is for this reason that he is always absorbed in
Vol.3 pg.(


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writing and compiling %eeni boo:s and engrossed in the
translation and compilation of numerous reliable =itaabs, such
as F=an3 ul $maanC and -ahaar+e+!hariat which he has
translated in eloHuent "nglish.

?e has also published the translations of numerous boo:s in
"nglish, allowing them to reach the homes of the "nglish
spea:ing populace, causing the waves of $slam to rise
passionately within the hearts of thousands of people.

J$ pray thatK )llah grants &aulana superb reward and grants
him countless blessings in all accomplishments in his age and
in his religious affairs, granting him acceptance. J)ameenK



7aHeer Lia+ul+&ustafa *aadiri
1(
th
2amadaan+ul+&ubaara: 1'31 ?iBri






Vol.3 pg.5


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Dua by Mujahid-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat,
Hazrat Allama Sayed Shah
Turab-ul-Haq Qaadiri Razvi Noori

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ,

$ was delighted to hear that the very diverse boo: F-ahaar+e+!hariatC, by
!adrush !hariah -adrut ,ariHah ?a3rat )llama ?a:eem &uhammad
)mBad )li )a3mi .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ .ﻴﻠﻋ has been translated into "nglish by ?a3rat
&aulana )fthab Cassim !aaheb and is about to be published. !ince the
mother tongue of the young 7aadil is "nglish, this translation will
definitely benefit those who read "nglish. "ven though the translator
has already translated other volumes of -ahaar+e+!hariat but because
Volume 15 deals with laws relating to our daily lives and to $slamic
&orals and "tiHuettes that are beneficial to both the e4perts and the
general masses, it was published first. $n translating -ahaar e !hariat,
the translator has fulfilled a great need of the "nglish spea:ing &uslims,
especially those in !outh )frica and in other countries where "nglish is
spo:en. ?a3rat &aulana &uhammad )fthab Cassim !aaheb, has also
translated many parts of the world renowned =an3 ul $maan, the world
renowned ,ranslation of the *urCan by )Cla ?a3rat $mam )hmed 2a3a
=han &uhadith+e+-areilvi .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ .ﻴﻠﻋ.

$t is my earnest %ua that )lmighty )llah accepts these efforts of
&aulana, through the blessing of ?is -eloved 1rophet  rewarding
him abundantly with a blessed reward.

ﻢﻴﻠﺴﺘﻟﺍوةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍ ¸.·ﺍ .ﻟﺍ_

.ﻋو.ﻴﻠﻋﻢ,¸.ﺍ ¸,ﻧ:ﺎ,ﺑ ¸,.¯.ﻤ. ¸,.¯

!ayyid !hah ,urabul ?aH *aadiri
Ameer Jamaát-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, Pakistan, Karachi
Vol.3 pg./


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An Introduction to Bahaar-e-Shariat
-y ?a3rat &aulana *aisar )li 2a3vi &isbahi

-ahaar+e+!hariat is the dynamic wor: of =halifa+e+)Cla ?a3rat !adrush
!hariah -adrut ,ariHah 7aHih+e+)3am ?a3rat )llama &aulana )sh !hah
)mBad, &uhadith+e+Mhoswi .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ . -ahaar+e+!hariat is without doubt an
F"ncyclopaedia of ?anafi 7iHhC which has been a means of direction for the
&uslims for the last .( years. ,oday, there is hardly a %arul $fta that does
not carry a copy of -ahaar+e+!hariat. 9ith the e4ception of %arul $ftas,
there are also numerous &osHues the world+over that have classes in which
the -ahaar+e+!hariat is taught to the worshippersI numerous &uslim
Colleges and <niversities in the 9orld have introduced -ahaar+e+!hariat as
a part of the syllabus for those studying to become <lama. <ndoubtedly, in
the present time, there has not been any other -oo: of 7iHh that has been
written in the <rdu language, which compares to -ahaar+e+!hariat. ,he
world+renowned F7atawa )lamgiriC was compiled by the devoted efforts of
hundreds of the most learned <lama of the time but *adi !adrush !hariah
.ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ compiled a voluminous boo: li:e -ahaar+e+!hariat single handedly.
,his great and memorable service of 7aHih+e+)3am *adi !adrush !hariah
.ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ is of such magnitude, that the &uslim <mmah will forever remain
indebted to him. 1/ Volumes were originally written by !adrush !hariah
.ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ and due to ill health, he was not able to go any further, so the last
three Volumes were written by his students on his reHuest. -ahaar+e+
!hariat is divided into volumes in the following format:

Volume 1 -oo: of $maan and )HaaCid JCorrect -eliefsK
Volume 2 -oo: of ,ahaarat J1urificationK
Volume 3 -oo: of !alaah J1rayerK
Volume ' -oo: of !alaah, -oo: of $llness N %eath
Volume ( -oo: of La:aat J)lmsK
Volume 5 -oo: of ?aBB J1ilgrimageK
Volume / -oo: of Ni:ah J&arriageK
Volume 0 -oo: of ,alaaH J%ivorceK
Volume . -oo: of !laves, aths, "4piation N 1unishment
Volume 1# -oo: of )bandoned Children, <nclaimed 1roperty, &issing
1erson, 1artnerships N )ppropriations
Vol.3 pg.0


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Volume 11 -oo: of !ales
Volume 12 -oo: of Muarantees, ,ransfer of %ebt, ;udiciary, "vidence N
,estimony
Volume 13 -oo: of Claims, )dmissions
Volume 1' -oo: of &u3aribat, %eposits, Goans, Mifts, ?iring
Volume 1( -oo: of Compulsions, $nhibition, 1artitions, Cultivation,
!acrificing JLibahK, ?alaal N ?araam )nimals, *urbani, )HeeHah,
Volume 15 -oo: of &orals N "tiHuettes
Volume 1/ -oo: of $ntuitions, 9astelands, 1awns
Volume 10 -oo: of ffences, 2eprisal, -lood money
Volume 1. -oo: of -eHuests
Volume 2# -oo: of $nheritance

$ssues in -ahaar e !hariat have been e4plained in the light of *urCan and
?adith, in a very simple manner, thus ma:ing it beneficial for the general
public and for the professionals ali:e. )llah bless the custodian of &asla:+e+
)Cla ?a3rat, the embodiment of :nowledge and sincerity, the =halifa of
?u3oor ,aaBush !hariah, our beloved ?a3rat )llama &aulana &uhammad
)fthab Cassim !ahib *aadiri 2a3vi Noori, who recognised a very important
necessity of the time and translated the above mentioned -oo: into the
"nglish language. $n carrying out this memorable service, he has presented
such an everlasting gift particularly to the &uslims of !outh )frica and to
&uslims the world+over which the &en of =nowledge and $ntellect will be
proud of for centuries to come. ,his is not my devotion but it is a fact, that
the amount of effort that ?a3rat &aulana )fthab Cassim, ?ead of $mam
&ustafa 2a3a 2esearch Centre has put into propagating and publicising the
teachings of &asla:+e+)Cla ?a3rat through writing, publishing boo:s in
"nglish and through other endeavours, in such a short period of time, is
itself a uniHue service. ,his is the result of his unselfish and sincere efforts,
together with the blessings and the %uas of ?u3oor ,aaBush !hariah *ibla
and ?u3oor &uhadith+e+=abeer *ibla. $t is my sincere %ua in the Court of
)lmighty )llah, that )llah )lmighty blesses ?a3rat &aulana !ahib *ibla
with long life and good health. )ameen

) !ee:er of %uas
Muhammad Qaisar Ali Razvi Misbahi (=hateeb N $mam &asBid+e+=halidK
Vol.3 pg..


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Translator’s Note

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦ

ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ,

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. _

.
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و ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ
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و ´

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,
¸
¸
¸ﺎ
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:ﻟﺍ
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´
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_

.
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و
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¸`,¸ .
´

`
,´ﺍ¸.
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و ¸.¸ﻟ

)ll 1raise is to )llah, Cherisher and !ustainer of the 9orlds. %urood and
!alaams upon the Geader of the )mbia and &ursaleen  and upon his
Noble 7amily and $llustrious Companions. -ahaar+e+!hariat is the
distinguished masterpiece of the eminent and celebrated =halifa of the
&uBadCdid+e+%een+o+&ilClat )Cla ?a3rat )sh !hah $mam )hmed 2a3a =han
*aadiri ؓ  and the great 7aHih of the era, !adrush !hariah *adi ?a:eem
)llama )bul <laa )mBad )li )a3mi 2a3vi ؓ. -y the Mrace of )llah and the
&ercy of the ?oly 1rophet  Volumes 3 N ' of this masterpiece is in your
hands. $ must than: )lmighty )llah through the 9asila of the -eloved
2asool  for affording me the opportunity to translate this distinguished
wor: of ?u3oor !adrush !hariah ؓ. ,he articles which follow in this boo:
will introduce ?u3oor !adrush !hariah ؓ  and -ahaar+e+!hariat to you in
greater detail. )lhamdulillah, $ have been wor:ing on the translation of the
entire -ahaar+e+!hariat for the past few years and this translation is now in
the process of being published. $ sincerely pray that )lmighty )llah blesses
me with the strength to complete this honourable tas:, through the 9asila
of Nabi+e+=areem  and through the =aram of ?u3oor Mhaus+e+)3am ؓ
and all our &ashaCi:h+e+=iraam. Gi:e all my other translations, $ have tried
to :eep the language and the manner of translation very simple, so that the
readers may find the boo: simple to understand, as the aim of translating a
document is so that it is easily understood. 2eaders will find footnotes on
many pages, which e4plain important terms and other important points
that reHuired further e4planation. )ll verses of the ?oly *urCan have also
been referenced with the !urah and )yat number. $ have also included in
this boo: an introduction to 7iHh and $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ  who is the
$mam of the ?anafis. ,his will allow us to better appreciate the importance
of acHuiring :nowledge of 7iHh. $t must also be noted that all the laws
Vol.3 pg.1#


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mentioned in this boo: are in accordance with the ?anafi !chool of 7iHh. $f
there is any shortcoming in this boo:, it should be attributed to the
translation and should not be attributed to the eminent author, !adrush
!hariah in any way. $ must place on record my special than:s and
appreciation to &urshid+e+=aamil ?u3oor ,aaBush !hariah 2ahbar+e+
,ariHat ?a3rat )llama &ufti &ohammed ):htar 2a3a =han *aadiri )3hari
*iblaI &umta3+ul+7uHaha ?u3oor &uhadith+e+=abeer )llama Lia+ul+
&ustafa *aadiri )mBadi *ibla and &uBaahid+e+)hl+e+!unnat, ?a3rat )llama
!ayed !hah ,urabul ?aH *aadiri *ibla for their special %uas and words of
encouragement. $ would further li:e to than: all those who have supported
us morally and financially, in the publishing of this boo:. $n doing so, $ must
firstly than: my beloved parents ?aBi Cassim M<lam 2asool and ?aBiya
=hadiBa M<lam 2asool for their valuable %uas and my wife 7athima Cassim
for her moral support. $ must than: all those who assisted with this second
addition and $ would have failed in my duty in doing so if $ do not than:
-rother &uhammad 2u:hsar *aadiri )mBadi for the lengthy hours he put in
to proofread this boo: before it went to press. )llah reward him immensely
for his sincere and true efforts. )ameen

$ must also than: !heh3ada+e+,aaBush !hariah ?a3rat )llama )sBad 2a3a
=hanI son in+law of ?u3oor ,aaBush !hariah ?a3rat )llama &ufti !huaib
2a3a, !heh3ada+e+!adrush !hariah )llama &ufti ;amaal &ustafa and my
dear colleague )llama &aulana )rif -ar:aati for their :ind support and
duas. $ would also li:e to than: ?a3rat &aulana ,urab )li al+*aadiri 2a3vi
and ?a3rat &aulana *aisar )li 2a3vi for their continuous support and
encouragementI and to all the other <lama who sent their congratulatory
messages and %uas on the publishing of this boo:. &ay )llah through the
blessing of 2asoolullah  reward all those who assisted in any way
possible in ma:ing this publication a success, with a befitting reward.
)ameen

!ag+e+&ufti+e+)3am
Muhammad Afthab Cassim al-Qaadiri Razvi Noori
$mam &ustafa 2a3a 2esearch Centre Jverport, %urban, !outh )fricaK
Vol.3 pg.11


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The Importance of Fiqh & A Brief
Introduction to Imam Azam Abu Hanifa

Compiled from the -oo: F$mam )3am )bu ?anifaC -y &uBaahid+e+)hl+e+
!unnat, ?a3rat )llama !ayed !hah ,urab+ul+?aH *aadiri 2a3vi Noori

7iHah refers to $slamic ;urisprudence and is the e4planation of the !hariah
in the light of the *urCan and !unnah. ,here are four well+:nown schools of
;urisprudence, namelyI ?anafi, !hafiCi, ?ambali and &ali:i. 7iHh plays a
very important part in the life of every &uslim. ,he learned ;urists
J7uHahaK have derived the important rulings of the !hariah based on the
commands of *urCan and !unnah. ,he importance of 7iHh and the
e4cellence in understanding the %een has been mentioned clearly in the
?oly *urCan and the ?adith.

Fiqh in the Light of the Qur’an

$ntellect, acumen and understanding are great blessings of )llah. $t is
necessary for a &uslim to be blessed with these if he wishes to understand
the ?oly *urCan, ,he ?adith and the secrets and laws that have been
mentioned therein. )lmighty )llah says

āχ¸) ’¸û š¸9≡Œ ¸M≈ƒψ ¸Θ¯θ)¸9 šχθ=¸)èƒ

‘Verily, in it are signs for those ho understand! D!urah 3# Verse 2'E

$n another verse of the ?oly *urCan )llah taC aala says

β¸) ’¸û 7¸9≡Œ ¸M≈ƒψ ¸Θ¯θ)¸9 βρ`3Gƒ

‘Verily, in it are signs for those ho deliberate"! D!urah 3#, Verse 21E


Vol.3 pg.12


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)lmighty )llah says

š=¸?´ρ `≅≈VΒ{# $κ'5¸ŽØΡ ¸¨$Ζ=¸9 `Ογ=è9 šχρ`3Gƒ

‘And #e $resent these e%am$les for the $eo$le, so that they may &ontem$late!
D!urah (. Verse 21E

)llah ,aCaala says

‰% $´Ζ=¯Áù ¸M≈ƒψ# ¸Θ¯θ)¸9 šχθγ)ƒ

‘'ndoubtedly, e have e%$lained the signs in detail( for those ho understand"!
D!urah 5 Verse .0E

,he above mentioned verses of the ?oly *urCan ma:e it very clear that to
attain ,afaHuh fid %een, i.e. proper understanding and appreciation of the
%eenI one has to be blessed with intellect and the capability to understand.
,hose who have been blessed with the :nowledge of %een and especially
with the :nowledge of 7iHh are those who have been bestowed with special
blessings by )llah. ,he ?oly *urCan ma:es it very clear that those with
:nowledge and those who are unaware are not ali:e. )lmighty )llah says

¯≅% ¯≅δ “¸θG`¡„ ¸%!# βθΗ>èƒ ¸%!#´ρ Ÿ βθ!=èƒ $!Ρ¸) `"‹Gƒ #θ9`ρ& ¸=≈79{#

‘() *eloved+ ,ay you( Are those ho -no and those ho -no not e.ual/ ,urely, it
is the ise alone that re&ognize the guidan&e.C D!urah 3. Verse .E

)lmighty )llah says

#Β´ρ N$`ƒ %!&¸s9# ‰)ù ´’¸Aρ& #Ž¯'z #Ž'¸WŸ(
‘And he, ho has been blessed ith isdom, has surely been blessed ith great
virtue"! D!urah 2 Verse 25.E
Vol.3 pg.13


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$t must be noted that the &ufasireen Jcommentators of the *urCanK have
mentioned that wherever in the *urCan the mention of 9isdom has come, it
refers to the :nowledge of 7iHh. ,he importance of 7iHh, i.e. understanding
the %een is also evident from this verse of the ?oly *urCan. )lmighty )llah
says

Ÿ¯θ=ù Ρ #¸Β ¸≅" ¸%%¯¸ù ¯)·κ*¸Β %¸+$Û #θγ)G´,¸9 ’¸û ¸#ƒ¸$!# #ρ'‘¸‹-`,¸9´ρ `ΟγΒ¯θ% #Œ¸) #θ`è´‘ ¯)¸κ¯.9¸)
`Ογ=è9 šχρ'‘‹!/

‘And it is not $ossible for all the believers to go out (at on&e+( then hy should a
delegation not &ome forth from every grou$ing, so that they may attain the
understanding of Religion, thereafter returning to their $eo$le, arning them, in the
ho$e that they may remain guarded" D!urah . Verse 122E

9hilst e4plaining this verse of the ?oly *urCan, !adrul )faadil )llama
!ayyid NaCeemudCdeen &uradabadi .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ saysI F$t is not necessary for every
person to become an )alim or 7aHih. ?owever, every individual has to
attain sufficient :nowledge to be able to differentiate between that which is
lawful, unlawful, to :now what 7ard is and what 9aaBib is. ,o acHuire this
amount of :nowledge is 7ard+e+)in upon every &uslim and to acHuire more
:nowledge than this is 7ard+e+=ifaayah. $t has been mentioned in the
?adith, that it is 7ard upon every &uslim to acHuire :nowledge Jof %eenK.C
D,afseer =ha3aCinul $rfaanE

The Excellence of a Faqih in the Light of Hadith

<p this point we have mentioned the importance of 7iHh in the light of the
?oly *urCan. ,his has been further e4plained and clarified in the ?adith
!hareef ¸

`
,

ﺪﻟﺍ _
¸

´
.
`
,

t´ .´ , ´ ﺍ.`,
´
: ¸.
¸

´
ﷲﺍ


`
,
¸

´
,
`

´
. ?a3rat )meer &uCawiyah ؓ  has reported
that the -eloved 2asool  said F$f )llah wills to bestow someone with
special virtueI ?e ma:es him a 7aHih of the 2eligionC. D-u:hari, &uslim,
&ish:aatE

Vol.3 pg.1'


14

`

´
,¸t´ · ﺍ´ s
¸
ﺍ ¸.´·
`
. ` ·ﺍ _
¸

`
ﻢ´.
´
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,` ﻟﺍ _
¸

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´
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ﻴ¸:

?a3rat )bu ?urairah ؓ reported that 2asoolullah  saidI F,hose who
were good in the days of ignorance are also good in $slam, if they have
understanding of the %een.C 0*u-hari, Muslim, Mish-aat1

$n this ?adith, 2asoolullah  mentioned that people are bestowed with
being better, on the basis of 7iHh, i.e. on the basis of their understanding of
their %een. ,his also proves that according to 2asoolullah , one of the
best Hualities in a person is for him to have :nowledge of 7iHh. nce the
?oly 1rophet  made the following %ua for ?a3rat )bdullah ibn )bCbas
¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ by sayingI

`
,

ﺪﻟﺍ _
¸

´
.
`
,

t´ · · ﻢ
´
, ﻠﻟ´ﺍ )llah> &a:e him a 7aHih of the 2eligion
0*u-hari1

?a3rat $bn )bCbas ¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ says that 2asoolullah  said

_

.
´

ﺪ:´ﺍ
´
ﺪ¸ﺣﺍ
´
و
´
.
`
ﻴ¸t´ · ﺪ
¸
ﺑﺎ
´
ﻋ ¸ ,` ﻟ´ﺍ
`

¸
. ¸ ¸ﺎ
´
.
`

·
:ﻟﺍ

Fne 7aHih is more superior over shaitaan than a thousand worshippers.C
02irmizi, 3bn Ma4ah, Mish-aat1

7rom this ?adith it is evident that a single 7aHih J;uristK is more powerful
over shaitaan than a thousand devout worshippers. ,he reason for this is
that due to the :nowledge which )llah has bestowed upon him and due to
his understanding of the %een he is able to recognise and avoid the traps
and the tric:ery of shaitaan. $n reality, he becomes the one who assist
others to be protected from the tric:ery and deception of shaitaan. $n $lm+
ul+?adith, there are two things that are fundamental. ,he first being, the
authenticity of the chain of transmission and its narrationI the second
being its meaning and understanding it. ,he &uhaditheen of the <mmah
memorised and preserved the words and chain of transmission of the
?adith, whereas the distinguished 7uHaha carried the responsibility of
understanding its true meaning and wisdom. $t should also be noted that
Vol.3 pg.1(


15
the distinguished 7uHaha also have complete e4pertise and proficiency in
the subBect of ?adith. ne incident pointing to the importance and
e4cellence of the 7uHaha is as follows: =hateeb -aghdadi mentions that a
Mroup of &uhaditheen were present when a woman who used to bathe
deceased females came forth and as:ed a Huestion, FCan a female who is
menstruating give Mhusl to a female who has passed away or notOC

$mam Pahya bin &uCeen, )bu ?atheema, Luhair bin ?arb and =half bin
!aalim etc. who are regarded amongst distinguished &uhaditheen ﻢ,ﻤﺣ, ﷲﺍ
were present there. "ach one of them began to loo: at the other and none
of them was able to give an answer immediately. )t that moment, $mam
)bu ,haur .ﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ .ﻤﺣ, who with the e4ception of being a &uhadith was also a
&uBtahid and a 7aHih, passed by. ,he lady approached him and Hueried
regarding the said issue. ?e said, FPes, a female who is menstruating is
permitted to give Mhusl to a deceased female.C ,he reason being that once
2asoolullah  said to ?a3rat )Cisha ¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﺎ,:ﻋ FPour menstruation is not in
your handC. $t is also mentioned in the ?adith that whilst in the condition of
?aidh, ?a3rat )Cisha ¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﺎ,:ﻋ used to sprin:le water in the hair of the
1rophet  and she would comb a path in his hair. !o, if in such a
condition, water can be poured onto the head of a living person then why
can a deceased not be given MhuslOC 9hen the distinguished &uhaditheen
heard this 7atwa of $mam )bu ,haur .ﻤﺣ, .ﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ they began to discuss the chain
of transmission of the ?adith he had mentioned, mentioning who its
narrators were and how it was narrated. 9hen the woman heard this, she
said F9here were you all this whileOC $n other words, she tried to say that if
that were the case, why then did they not give the answerC. 02aree-h-e-
*aghdad Volume 5 6age 571

Imam Azam Abu Hanifa

)ll that has been mentioned up to this point ma:es the importance of 7iHh
and the status of the 7uHaha very evident. $t must be noted that amongst
the 7our Mreat $mams of 7iHh, the most superior and blessed status has
Vol.3 pg.15


16
been afforded to $mam )bu ?anifa and it is for this reason that even the
greatest $mams in ?istory have referred to him as $mam+e+)3am ؓ.

,he $mam of the !hafiCi &adhab, ?a3rat !ayyiduna $mam )sh !hafiCi ؓ
says:


´
¸ﺎ
·
:ﻟ´ﺍ
´
_ﺎ
´
ﻴ¸ﻋ _
¸
¸.
`
t¸ .` ﻟﺍ _´ .
´

`
_
¸
¸´ﺍ ´ .´ .
`
ﻴ¸:
´

`

´
.
`

·

`
ﺮ ´ .
`
:
´
,
´
.
´
´ .,
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ
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·
,
´
,´ .
´
, _
¸

¸
ﻢ` ﻠ¸ .` ﻟﺍ
´
و ´ · .
·
t´ .
´

´
,

F)ll the <lama and 7uHaha amongst the people are the descendants of $mam
)bu ?anifa ؓ  in the issue of 7iHh and $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ is the distant
ancestor. 9ithout reading and studying his boo:s neither can anyone
become a big )alim nor can he become a 7aHih.C

$mam )bu ?anifa NuCman bin ,haabit ؓ was born in =ufa. ,here is a
difference of opinion amongst the <lama regarding the year of his birth,
some say /# ?iBri and some mention that he was born in the year 0# ?iBri.
!hareh -u:hari &ufti &uhammad !hariful ?aH )mBadi .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ says, F&any
people give preference to his birth being in 0# ?iBri but many of the
&uhaHiHeen have given preference to /# ?iBri. )ccording to this humble
servant J!hareh -u:hariK, /# ?iBri is the correct date.C ?is name was NuCman
bin ,haabit and his title F)bu ?anifaC. 2egarding the e4cellence of $mam
)bu ?anifa ؓ , !hay:h )bdul ?aH &uhadith %ehlwi ؓ writes: F!ome of the
<lama have mentioned that mention of $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  has been made
in the ,aurat. ,here is a narration from ?a3rat =aCab bin )hbar ؓ  that in
the ,aurat which was revealed upon ?a3rat &oosa , we have found that
)lmighty )llah saysI 82here ill be a Noor in the 'mmat of Muhammadur
Rasoolullah  and its title ill be Abu 9anifa": ,his is verified by the title
!iraaBul <mmat which has been afforded to $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  . 02a;ruf
<i.h a 2asauf $g ==>1

)llama &aufiH bin )hmed &a::i ؓ J(/( ).?.K reports that it is narrated on
the authority of ?a3rat )bu ?urairah ؓ that 2asoolullah  said, ‘A man
Vol.3 pg.1/


17
ill be born in my 'mmat, ho ill be -non as Abu 9anifa" 9e ill be the lam$ of
my 'mmah on the ?ay of Qiyaamah"! 0Manaa.ib lil Maufi. $g >@1

?a3rat )nas ؓ reports that 2asoolullah  said, ‘A $erson ill be born in my
'mmat, ho ill be named Nu!man and his title ill be Abu 9anifa" 9e ill revive
the ?een of Allah and my ,unnah"! 0Manaa.ib lil Maufi. $g >>1

Imam Abu Hanifa is a Taabi’ee

) ,aabiCee is one who saw a Companion of the ?oly 1rophet  with the
eyes of $maan. ,his is the ne4t level of e4cellence that has been awarded to
anyone after the status of the Companions of 2asoolullah . ?a3rat $mam
)3am )bu ?anifa ؓ  was afforded with the honour and the status of being a
,aabiCee. )llama $bn ?aBar &a::i ؓ  says, ‘3t is re$orted from 3mam Aahabi ؓ
and $roven from an authenti& narration that as a &hild, 3mam Abu 9anifa ؓ  as
blessed ith seeing 9azrat Anas bin Maali- ؓ" 9e used to a$$ly a reddish dye" Most
of the Muhaditheen agree that a 2aabi!ee is one ho sa any ,ahabi"! D)l
=hairaatul ?asaan pg /3E

ne narration mentions that ?a3rat )nas bin &aali: ؓ passed from this
world in .# ?iBri and another narration mentions that he passed from this
world in .3 ?iBri. $n both cases, it would be correct to accept that $mam )bu
?anifa ؓ did ma:e Liyaarat of him. 9hen ?afi3 $bn ?aBar !hafiCi was as:ed
with regards to $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  being a ,aabiCee, he answered with the
following words, F$mam )bu ?anifa was blessed with seeing a &ubaara:
;amaQt of !ahaba+e+=iraam. )ccording to one narration he was born in 0#
?iBri in =ufa. )t that time, amongst the !ahaba+e+=iraam that were present
in =ufa, was ?a3rat )bdullah ibn )bu <fa ؓ . ?e either passed away in 00
?iBri or Bust after that. )t the same time, ?a3rat )nas bin &ali: ؓ was in
-asra. ?e passed from this world in .# ?iBri or Bust after that. $bn !aCad has
mentioned with a very authentic merit, that $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ saw
?a3rat )nas bin &ali: ؓ . 9ith the e4ception of these !ahaba+e+=iraam,
numerous other !ahaba were present in numerous other cities at this time,
who lived after this. $mam !uyuti ؓ  says that $mam )bu &aCshar ,abri
Vol.3 pg.10


18
!hafiCi ؓ mentioned ?adith in his boo:s, which $mam )3am ؓ mentioned
which he narrated from !ahaba+e+=iraam ¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ . ?e mentions that
$mam )bu ?anifa ؓ met with the following seven companions of
2asoolullah :

B" ,ayyiduna Anas bin Mali- =" ,ayyiduna Abdulla bin 9aarith bin Caza!
D" ,ayyiduna Caabir bin Abdullah E" ,ayyiduna Mu!.il bin Fasaar
>" ,ayyiduna #aathila ibnil As.a! 5" ,ayyiduna Abdullah bin 'nais
7" ,ayyidatuna A!isha bint A4rad ¸:, . ﻠﻟﺍ _ﺎ.. ﻢ,:ﻋ ¸,.ﻤ,ﺍ

$mam )3am reported 3 ?adith from ?a3rat )nas ؓI 2 ?adith from
!ayyiduna 9aathila ؓ I and 1 ?adith each from !ayyiduna )bdullah bin
<nais, !ayyidatuna )Cisha bint )Brad and !ayyiduna )bdullah bin ;a3aC. ?e
also reported a ?adith from !ayyiduna )bdullah bin )bi <fa ؓ  and all
these )hadith are reported other than this chain of transmission as well.
D,abaya3us !ahifa pg /E $t is further mentioned in %urr+e+&u:htar that
$mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  met with twenty companions of 2asoolullah  and it
has been mentioned in =hulaasa ):maal fi )smaCir 2iBaal that he saw 25
!ahaba+e+=iraam. $f we accept that $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ  was born in
0# ?iBri then it must be noted that the following !ahaba+e+=iraam were still
physically in this world at that time in numerous cities. ,hose who are
:nown to have been physically in this world in that time are:

1. ?a3rat )bdur 2ahman bin )bdul *ari D01 ?iBriE
2. ?a3rat ,aariH bin !hihaab =ufi D02 ?iBriE
3. ?a3rat <mar bin )bu !alma D03 ?iBriE
'. ?a3rat 9aathil ibnil )sHa D03, 0( or 05 ?iBriE
(. ?a3rat )bdullah bin ;a3aC D0( ?iBriE
5. ?a3rat )mr bin ?areeth D0( ?iBriE
/. ?a3rat )bu <mama -aahili D05 ?iBriE
0. ?a3rat *abisah bin Luwaib D05 ?iBriE
.. ?a3rat )bdullah bin )bu <fa D0/ or 00 ?iBriE
1#. ?a3rat <tbah bin )bdus !alma D0/ ?iBriE
11. ?a3rat &iHdam bin &aCdi =urb D0/ ?iBriE
12. ?a3rat !ahl bin !aCad D00 or .1 ?iBriE
13. ?a3rat )bdullah bin -asr D00 or .5 ?iBriE
Vol.3 pg.1.


19
1'. ?a3rat )bdullah bin ,haClba D0. ?iBriE
1(. ?a3rat !aaCib bin =hilad D.1 ?iBriE
15. ?a3rat !aaCib bin Pa3id D.1, .2 or .' ?iBriE
1/. ?a3rat &ahmood bin 2abiC D.1 or .. ?iBriE
10. ?a3rat &ali: bin )us D.2 ?iBriE
1.. ?a3rat )nas bin &ali: D.2, .3 or .( ?iBriE
2#. ?a3rat &ali: ibnil ?awareeth D.' ?iBriE
21. ?a3rat &ahmood bin Gubaid D.5 ?iBriE
22. ?a3rat )bu <mama )nsari D1## ?iBriE
23. ?a3rat )bu ,ufail )amir bin 9aathila D1#2 or 11# ?iBriE
2'. ?a3rat )bul -adah D11/ ?iBriE

His Character

$mam )bu ?anifa ؓ possessed e4emplary character and moral values. )bu
NuCaim ؓ says as follows, F$mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  had a pleasant face. ?e was
well dressed and fragrant and his gatherings were virtuous. ?e was a very
caring, :ind person and showed much affection and care towards his
companions.C <mar bin ?amCmad ؓ says, F?e was very handsome and well
dressed. ?e used a lot of fragrance. 9hen he approached or when he
emerged from his home, the scent of his fragrance would reach there even
before he arrived.C D=hateeb -aghdadi Vol.13 1g.33#E

?a3rat )bdullah ibn+e+&ubaara: ؓ said to ?a3rat !ufyan ,hauri ؓ  ,
F?a3rat $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ remained miles away from committing
gheebat. $ have never ever heard of him bac:biting in regards to any of his
opponents.C !ufyan ؓ said, F-y )llah> ?e was a very intelligent person. ?e
did not wish to place any such thing of his good deeds which would be a
source of destroying his virtuous deeds.C nce, a woman intended to sell a
bail of sil: fabric to him. ?e as:ed her regarding the price of the fabric. !he
mentioned that she would charge a 1## for it. ?e said that she was as:ing
for a very minimal price as the fabric was much more valuable. ,he lady
then said that she would charge 2##. )gain he obBected and said that it was
too cheap, so she increased the price by another 1##. ,his went on, until the
price reached '##. ?e said, F,his is even more valuable than four hundred.C
Vol.3 pg.2#


20
!he said, F)re you moc:ing meOC ?e gave her (## and then purchased the
fabric. ?is piety and truthfulness benefited his business instead of plunging
him into any loss. !ubhaanC)llah> Goo: at the character and the manner in
which $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ did business.

His Fear for Allah and Piety

?afi3 $bn ?aBar ؓ whilst discussing the piety and )llah fearing of $mam
)bu ?anifa writes as follows in )l =hairatul ?asaan: F)sad bin )mr ؓ  says
that at night, the sound of $mam )3am )bu ?anifaCs weeping could be
heard. ?e would weep to the e4tent that his neighbours would feel sad for
him. 9aHiCؓ  says that he was faithful and trustworthy and )llahCs
Mrandeur and &agnificence was well embedded in his heart. ?e gave
precedence to the 1leasure of )llah, over everything else and even if he had
to be cut into pieces with a sword, he would not have left see:ing the
pleasure of his Creator. ?is 2ub became so pleased with him, li:e he is
pleased with an )braar. $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ  was from amongst the
)braar.C D)l =hairatul ?asaan page 12E

?a3rat )bdullah ibn &ubaara: ؓ  says, F$ have not seen a person more pious
than $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ . 9hat can be said about such a person,
before who heaps of wealth is placed, yet he does not even raise his eyes to
loo: towards it. ?e was lashed for this reason but still he remained patient.
9hat can be said about that person, who for sa:e of )llahCs 1leasure
endured hardships but he did not accept wealth and the li:e and he did not
desire Jwealth or itCs li:eK li:e others usually do, for which people ma:e
hundreds of e4cuses and efforts to attain it. -y )llah> ?e was different from
all those scholars who desired that the world should follow them. ?e used
to flee from it. D&anaaHib lil &aufiHE )fter presenting a lengthy discussion
on $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  $mam $bn ?aBar !hafiCi ؓ says, F9hen he would
perform his Namaa3 at night then the sound of his tears falling on the grass
mat could be heard, Bust as one hears the raindrops fall. ,he sign of his
fasting could be seen in his eyes and on his face. J)ll $ can sayK is that, )llah
have &ercy on him and be pleased with him.C D)l =hairatul ?asaanE
Vol.3 pg.21


21
His abstention from the company of the Rulers

nce, the )bbasi =halifa sent him 2## %inars. ?e returned it by saying, F$
have no right over itC. nce, the )meerul &omineen of the era sent forth a
beautiful servant to him but he did not accept. ?e said, F$ do all my chores
with my own hands. ,hus, $ have no need for a slave+girl JmaidK.C

nce, the Movernor made a reHuest to him by saying, F!ir> Pou should visit
me every now and then, so that $ too may acHuire some benefit.C ?e boldly
replied, F9hat will $ get from meeting with youO $f you treat me with
compassion then $ will fall within your payroll and if you become upset
with me and then distance me after granting me closeness then for me it is
a means of embarrassment. !o, $ have no need for the wealth which you
possess and none can rob me of the wealth Ji.e. :nowledgeK which $ possess.C

Love for His Parents

"ven though he was blessed with such vast :nowledge and e4cellence,
$mam )bu ?anifa was a humble and affectionate personality. ?e showed
dear love to his parents and honoured them with the honour that they
deserved. ?is mother would often pity him due to the hardships he was
forced to face in striving for the truth. $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ
personally mentions the following: F9hen $ would be lashed Jfor spea:ing
the truthK, my mother would say to meI F)bu ?anifa> =nowledge has
brought you to this level of endurance. Geave this :nowledge and live the
life of the ordinary people in the world.C $ said, F&y -eloved &other> $f $
have to leave :nowledge, how then will $ attain the 1leasure of )llahOC

$mam )bu ?anifa says, F$ give out 2# %irhams of =hayraat Jcharity of good
virtueK every 7riday, for the "saal+e+,hawaab of my parents and $ have
ta:en a vow for this. $ give 1# dirhams for my father and 1# dirhams for my
mother.C 9ith the e4ception of this, he used to distribute other things as
!adHa on behalf of his parents as well. D)l =hairatul ?asaan 1.5E


Vol.3 pg.22


22
Imam Azam’s Intelligence and Insight

$mam )3am ؓ  was a very intelligent and wise personality. $t was his
intelligence and wisdom that complimented his personality. $mam )li bin
)asim ؓ  says, F$f the intelligence of $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ  had to be
weighed with the intelligence of half the people of the world then the
intelligence of $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ would supersede them all.C ) few
incidents relating to the intelligence of $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ are being
presented below.

7irst $ncident: ) man had an argument with his wife and during the course
of the argumentI she had a cup of water in her hand and was wal:ing
towards him with it. ?e said, F$f you drin: water from that cup, then there
are three ,alaaHs upon youI if you drop it Jpour itK onto the ground then
too there are three ,alaaHs upon youI and even if you give it to some other
person to drin:, there are three ,alaaHs upon you.C )fter his anger
subsided, he realised what he had done and thus too: his case before the
learned <lama but none could find a solution to stop the ,alaaH from
applying on his wife. 7inally, he went to $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ and
presented his case. ?e said, F1ut a rag into the cup and soa: the water into
it. $n this way, your condition will be fulfilled and your wife will be saved
from ,alaaH.C

!econd $ncident: ,here was a wealthy 2aafdhi J!hiaK residing in the city of
$mam )bu ?anifa ؓ . ?e had an abundance of wealth. ?e always hosted
gatherings but during these gatherings, he would audaciously claim that
J)llah 7orbidK ?a3rat <thman+e+Mhani ؓ was a ;ew. ?a3rat $mam )3am
)bu ?anifa ؓ went to his home. ?e recognised $mam )3am ؓ  based on his
:nowledge and standing in the community. $mam )3am ؓ  commenced a
conversation with him and whilst tal:ing to him, he saidI F$ have brought a
proposal of marriage for your daughter. ?e is the son of a !ayed and also a
very wealthy person. ?e has memorised the *urCan+e+1aa: and he stays
away for most parts of the night praying. $n an entire night, he completes
the recitation of the entire *urCan. ?e is very afraid of )llah.C 9hen the
Vol.3 pg.23


23
2aafdhi heard this, he said, F!ir> $t is very difficult to find a person of such
standing. 1lease be swift in this arrangement. $ do not want any delays in
this. $ have been in search of a son in+law li:e this.C $mam )3am ؓ said,
F,here is however one issue. ?e has such a Huality which you will not be
pleased with.C ?e as:ed what this was, so $mam )3am ؓ said, F?e is a ;ewish
by faith.C ?e said, F-eing an )alim, you are advising me to marry my
daughter to a ;ew>C $mam )3am ؓ saidI F$f you are not willing to marry your
daughter to a wealthy and reputable ;ew then could 2asoolullah  have
given two of his daughters into the marriage of someone if he was a ;ewOC
n hearing what $mam )3am ؓ had to say, he immediately repented and
changed his view in regards to ?a3rat <thman ؓ  . ,hese incidents and all
that has been mentioned in this discussion point to the intelligence and
wisdom of $mam )3am )bu ?anifa ؓ . ,here is no doubt that he is $mam
)3am. $mam )bu ?anifa ؓ  passed from this world in 1(# ?iBri.

9e pray that )lmighty )llah showers the rains of &ercy over his ?oly
Mrave and blesses us through his -lessings and :nowledge.


















Vol.3 pg.2'


24
A Brief Account of the Author

7aHih+e+)3am ?ind, !adrush !hariah ?a3rat )llama &uhammad )mBad )li
.ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ¸ﺍﻮ,ﺮﻟﺍو was amongst one of the most prominent and illustrious
personalities of $ndia. ?u3oor !adrush !hariah, -adrut ,ariHat ?a3rat
)llama !hah )mBad )li )a3mi the son of ?a:im ;amaaludCdeen, son of
&aulana =huda -a:hsh, son of &aulana =hairudCdeen was born at a place
:nown as =arimudCdeen which is situated in the district of Mhosi, in the
well+:nown town of )3amgarh in $ndia. ?is father and grandfather both
were renowned scholars in 2eligious theology and e4pert specialists in
<nani medicine. 9hen his grandfather, ?a3rat &aulana =huda -a:hsh
.ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ went to perform ?aBB, he received the permission for the recitation of
%alaCil al+=hayrat in &adinatul &unawwarah from the !hai:hud %alaaCil. ?e
was also a great !aahib+e+=araamat. ?e received his elementary education
from his grandfather, thereafter studying under the watchful eye of elder
brother &aulana &uhammad !iddiHue .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ . )fter completion of his
elementary studies, he was enrolled for higher education at the &adrassa
?anafiya in ;aunpur. ,his was a very famous and reputable $slamic
<niversity in that time. ,here, he studied under the guidance of a very
reputable and distinguished )alim+e+%een of the time, ;aamiC &aCHulat 9a
&anHulat, ?a3rat )llama &aulana ?idayatullah =han 2ampuri ;aunpuri,
who passed away in 132561.#0. &aulana ?idayatullah =han .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ was the
student of the personality, who was :nown for first inspiring the &ovement
for $ndependence in $ndia, namelyI ,he $mamul 7alsafa, &uBahid+e+;alil,
?a3rat )llama 7a3l+e+?aH =hayrabadi .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ . )fter observing his immense
wisdom and acumen, <staa3ul )saati3a )llama ?idayatullah =han, counted
him amongst his most reputable students which can be better understood
from the words of )llama !ayed !ulaiman )shraf -ihari J1rofessor of the
2eligious 7aculty at )ligarh &uslim <niversityK: ?a3rat <staa3ul )saati3a
was :ind and attentive towards all his students but he would place his
special attention over three of his students. ?e used to say, ‘3 ish to ta-e
hatever is in my heart and $ass it on to these three students"! J,he 3 students
being mentioned were &aulana &uhammad !iddiHue, &aulana )mBad )li
and &aulana !ulaiman )shrafK.
Vol.3 pg.2(


25
$t is for this very reason that once his beloved teacher said as follows
regarding him: ‘3 managed to find one (true+ student and that too, in my old age"!
)fter completion of his studies in ;aunpur, on the reHuest of his teacher, he
Bourneyed to &adrasatul ?adith in 1illibhit to specialise in ?adith where he
studied ?adith at the feet of ?aafi3ul ?adith, ?uBBatul )sr )llama 9asi
)hmed !urti .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ who passed away in 133'61.15. ?e graduated and
attained his %egree in 132#61.#(. )s a student, his teachers and
management of the &adrassa ac:nowledged his acumen and intellect ali:e.
,his can be gathered from the report presented by the %irector of the
&adrassa which he had published in ,ohfa+e+?anafiya in 1atna. ,he report
reads as follows: ‘Alhamdulillah, 9azrat Maulana Maulvi ,hah Muhammad
,alaamatullah ,aaheb Ram$uri too- the e%ams for our students on the 5
th
of Ail
9i44ah BD=E" After &om$leting the boo-s of his &ourse, Maulvi Am4ad Ali also studied
the ,ihah ,it!ta, Musnad ,hareef, Gitaabul Athaar ,hareef, Mu!atta ,hareef, and
2ahaai ,hareef ith great enthusiasm and dedi&ation throughout the year" 9e
studied by both listening and reading and thus, e%&elled in his e%amination ith
distin&tion" 2he e%aminer as &om$letely im$ressed ith his ability, a&umen,
intelle&t and talent" 2he ?astaar as then tied on his head"!

)fter graduating and acHuiring his degree, he was immediately engaged as
the 1rincipal of &adrassa )hl+e+!unnat which was one of the most
reputable &adrassas in 1atna, -ihar. ,he e4cellence and repute of this
&adrassa can be understood from the fact that before the arrival of ?u3oor
!adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ illustrious personalities li:e the distinguished
student of )llama 7a3l+e+?aH =hayrabadi, )llama &aulana )bdul )3i3
&antaHi and ?afi3ul ?adith ?u3oor &uhadith+e+!urti .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ held the
positions of !hai:h+ul+?adith at this &adrassa. ,he first boo: that he was
as:ed to teach whilst at the &adrassa was F,he ?idaya Volume 2C. ?e
e4plained the issues presented therein with such proficiency and so clearly,
that the <lama and all those present there were astonished. ,he &anager of
the $nstitute, *adi )bdul 9aheed awarded him the responsibility of
handling all the "ducational )ffairs of the &adrassa. )fter the passing away
of *adi )bdul 9aheed, he did not remain there for too long. ?e then
Bourneyed to Guc:now where he studied F$lm+ut+,ibbC for two years. )fter
Vol.3 pg.25


26
completion of this course, he returned home and commenced serving the
people by starting a clinic. ?is clinic began to progress successfully. 9hen
?u3oor &uhadith+e+!urti .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ heard that !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ had
started practicing and had opened a clinic for this purpose, he became very
sad. )t this time, ,he 7aHih of 7aHihs of the Century, ,he $mam amongst
$mams, the Mreat 2eviver of $slam, )Cla ?a3rat $mam )hl+e+!unnat ؓ  $mam
)hmed 2a3a =han reHuired the services of a teacher at the %arul+<loom
&an3ar+e+$slam. !adrush !hariah then left his clinic and proceeded to
-areilly. )t -areilly, he first served as a teacher. 9hen ?u3oor !adrush
!hariah intended to visit -areilly !hareef from 1illibhit, ?u3oor &uhadith+
e+!urti .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ wrote a letter to )Cla ?a3rat, $mam )hmed 2a3a =han ؓ 
as:ing him to inspire him to continue in the field of $lm+e+%een. 9ithin a
few months, &uBadCdid+e+%een+o+&illat $mam )hmed 2a3a =han ؓ 
arranged for !adrush !hariah to reside permanently in -areilly !hareef. ?e
was entrusted with many responsibilities by $mam )hmed 2a3a =han ؓ  .
$mportant affairs such as, ,he "ducational )ffairs of &adrassa &an3ar+e+
$slam, ,he management of )nBuman )hl+e+!unnat, ,he management of the
printing press, arrangement of manuscripts, proofing of boo:s that were
being prepared for publishing, issuing 7atawa and dispatching important
postage entrusted to him. %ue to his potential and his devotion and
sincerity, $mam )hmed 2a3a ؓ  loo:ed at him with great respect and due to
this he had immense trust and faith in him. )fter appro4imately fifteen
years, he Bourneyed to )Bmer !hareef in 13'361.2' to ta:e up the position
as 1rincipal at %arul <loom &uCeenia <thmania. ?e remained there until
13(# and Huenched the thirst of those who came in search of :nowledge.
,he most intelligent and bright students travelled from all corners of the
country to humble themselves before him, Huenching their thirst for true
:nowledge and wisdom.

!hay:h+ul+<lama )llama Mhulam ;ilani Mhoswi writes: ‘2he standard of
edu&ation at ?arul 'loom Mu!eenia e%&elled to su&h a high level, that it be&ame
famous all over" ,tudents 4ourneyed from the Northern 6rovin&es, *ihar and
9yderabad et&" to a&.uire -noledge from him, after hearing of his manner of
Vol.3 pg.2/


27
tea&hing" 2hose ho lived in A4mer ,hareef say that never before did they see su&h
an atmos$here and environment of learning hi&h they sa in his era"!

?e returned to -areilly !hareef in 13(1 and for 3 years he served as a
teacher at the %arul $fta. $n 13(', Nawaab ?aBi Mhulam &uhammad =han
!herwani, the Movernor of %adon )ligarh invited him to ta:e up the post as
principal at &adrassa ?aafi3ia !aCeedia which he accepted. ?e remained
there for seven years and taught during this time with sincerity and
devotion, producing dynamic and capable scholars. ?e was truly proficient
in the art of teaching and instructing. 9ith the e4ception of instructing the
students through the customary boo:s and the set boo:s, he also taught
them in other fields through other boo:s as well. ?e taught the boo:s that
were part of the syllabus but at the same time he taught those boo:s that
were not part of the syllabus. ?e did this by e4plaining to students the
footnotes and commentaries in regards to these boo:s. ?e used to even
spend time after &adrassa hours to tutor the students. ?e would even teach
in the days when there was no &adrassa. ?is manner of teaching and
instruction gained prominence throughout the country. ?e would e4plain
absolutely difficult and intricate issues to the students in a very simple
manner, that even a very wea: student would be able to understand his
e4planation. ,here came a time when the )ligarh &uslim <niversity
intended to initiate a department which would specialise in "astern
education which would allow students to study right and achieve an &.).
and for this, they were in search of scholars who understood the current
day situation and the manner of instruction in the current day classroom.
)mongst those who were appointed to plan this faculty, was !adrush
!hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ .

,he 2oving )mbassador of $slam )llama )bdul )leem !iddiHi &eerati .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ
presented the contents to a syllabus which he prepared, for correction and
setting, to ?u3oor !adrush !hariah Jalaihi rahmaK. 9hilst delivering a
discourse at the )nnual ;alsa of &adrassa ?aafi3ia !aCeedia &aulana
?abibur 2ahman !herwani paid tributes to the )llama )mBadi )li .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ as a
person and as a professional with these words: ‘2here are only four or five
Vol.3 pg.20


28
tea&hers in the &ontinent that 3 regard as &om$letely $rofi&ient and a$$ointed on
merit, and Maulana Am4ad Ali is amongst them" 2he fa&t that students are
be&oming <aazils at his hands and a&.uiring &ertifi&ates of merit is &lear eviden&e of
his $rofi&ien&y" 9e is not 4ust a Maulvi by name"!

9hen there was the need to appoint a 1rincipal for %arul <loom &an3ar+e+
$slam, students were prepared and sent over to him for lessons. ?u3oor
?uBBatul $slam &aulana ?aamid 2a3a =han ؓ observed his manner of
teaching from a distance. )fter he had observed him teaching, he returned
and said as follows: ‘#hen Maulana Am4ad Ali as ansering the students, it
seemed li-e a vast sea that in hi&h aves (of -noledge+ ere rising"! $t is the
blessing of the teaching of ?u3oor !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ that those who
are his students directly or indirectly can be found throughout the globe
today propagating $slam. ,here is probably not a single &adrassa or %arul
<loom in the $ndo+1a: sub+continent that does not have at least one
teacher that has not attained his blessings. ?is wor:s in the field of 7iHh are
undoubtedly shining evidence of his services. 9hy should this not be so,
when with the e4ception of his special intelligence and e4pertise, he was
blessed with serving in the field of ;urisprudence as a &ufti under the
guidance of such a great and e4pert ;urist and $mam of the era, as
&uBadCdid+e+)3am $mam )hmed 2a3a .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ a personality whose e4pertise
and proficiency in 7iHh is not only accepted by us but also the refuters. ,his
is the reason that not only did &uBadCdid+e+)3am ac:nowledge and have
full faith in his understanding of issues of 7iHh and in matters related to
7atawa. ?owever, $mam )hmed 2a3a =han had full confidence in )llama
)mBad )li =han on account of his diligence and competence in the mission
entrusted to him. 9hilst paying tribute to his e4cellence, $mam )hmed
2a3a =han ؓ  said: ‘Fou ill find the .uality of understanding the religion
(2afa.uh+ to a greater degree in Maulvi Am4ad Ali in&om$arable to others $resent
here" 2he reason being that he is $rofi&ient in announ&ing, riting and e%amining
the various <ataa" 9e rites don hat 3 say in res$onse to the in.uiries sought in
this behalf" 9e has an ado$tive nature and he gras$s the $oint of the issue ithout
mu&h effort" 9e has a&.uired familiarity ith methods and $ro&edures hi&h are an
asset for him in this $rofession! ,his alone shows that $mam )hl+e+!unnat
Vol.3 pg.2.


29
ac:nowledged that ?u3oor !adrush !hariahCs proficiency as a &ufti and
regarded him as being masterful in this regard. 9hen the senior <lama of
the time would find difficulty in resolving any issue, they would present
their problems to ?u3oor !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ .

nce, &aulana $sraar+ur+2ahmaan !aaheb of ?yderbad %a::an sent a Huery
to him on the 10
th
of 2aBab 13'5 which consisted of a few issues that needed
to be resolved. $n the beginning of his $stifta, he writes: F,hese issues are of
such a nature that not everyone will be capable to write a satisfactory
answer to it. )fter much deliberation, $ noticed that )lmighty )llah,
through ?is Mrace and -lessing, and through the blessing of the ?oly
1rophet  made you worthy of this position. &ay )lmighty )llah grant
you abundance in your :nowledge, age, blessings and may the &uslims
benefit from your blessings. )ameen ,humma )ameen.C ther learned and
great personalities li:e ?a3rat &aulana LiaRdCdeen 1illibhiti .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ , $mam+
un+Nahw )llama Mhulam ;ilani &eerati .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ and =hair+ul+)3:iya &aulana
Mhulam Pa3dani Mhoswi also referred to him whenever they faced issues in
7iHh etc which found difficult to resolve. ?u3oor !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ
too: -aiCat at the hands of the &uBadCdid+e+%een+o+&illat $mam )hl+e+
!unnat, )Cla ?a3rat )sh !hah $mam )hmed 2a3a =han ؓ  . ?e was blessed
with the =hilaafat and the 9a:aalat from ?u3oor )Cla ?a3rat ؓ and great
personalities li:e ?a3rat )llama ?ashmati )li =han .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ too: the -aiCat of
)Cla ?a3rat ؓ  through the hands of !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ . $mam )hmed
2a3a =han ؓ  admired his effort and his sincerity and devotion at the %arul
$fta and in every other field that he partoo: in. ?e spent his days and nights
wor:ing and sincerely striving for the betterment of the <mmah. $t was due
to this dedication and his striving sincerity that $mam )hmed 2a3a ؓ  said:
‘Maulana Am4ad Ali ,ahib is a or- ma&hine!

!adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ contributed greatly to the initiation and finalisation
of the world+renowned translation of the ?oly *urCan by $mam )hmed
2a3a, entitled =an3+ul+$maan. $t is regarded as the most uniHue <rdu
translation of the ?oly *urCan. ?u3oor !adrush !hariah was fundamentally
and psychologically capable as a religious scholar but he was also
Vol.3 pg.3#


30
conversant with the politics of the day. 9henever and wherever the need
arose, he defended and decorated the &uslims. )llah )lmighty blessed
?u3oor !adrush !hariah with proficiency in many different sciences and
branches of :nowledge but he had an intrinsic inclination towards ,afseer,
?adith and 7iHh. ?is e4pertise in 7iHh is why $mam )hmed 2a3a ؓ
conferred the title ‘,adrush ,hariah! to him. ?u3oor !adrush !hariah initially
started writing marginal notes on the voluminous boo: of $mam )bu ;aCfar
,ahawi on ?adith, entitled F!harh &aCaniCul )tharC and in a short period of
seven months, he completed a comprehensive annotation of more than '(#
pages on this masterpiece. )nother distinguished wor: of ?u3oor !adrush
!hariah is his 7atawa )mBadia, which is in four volumes, comprising of
several of his 7atawa. -ahaar+e+!hariat is that universally acclaimed boo: of
?u3oor !adrush !hariah which can be Bustifiably called the "ncyclopaedia
of ?anafi 7iHh. ?u3oor !adrush !hariah wrote 1/ parts of the 2# part boo:.
,he remaining three volumes were completed by his students. $t must be
noted that the world renowned boo: 7atawa+e+)lamgiri also :nown as
?indiya was compiled by the efforts of more than five hundred outstanding
scholars at that time.

?u3oor !adrush !hariah on the other hand, wrote the famous -ahaar+e+
!hariat single handedly. ,his boo: has been written in such a beautiful and
simple manner that not only can the <lama ma:e use of it but even the
general public is able to derive benefit through it. )Cla ?a3rat )sh !hah
$mam )hmed 2a3a =han ؓ  personally listened to the first si4 parts of
-ahaar+e+!hariat as ?u3oor !adrush !hariah recited it to him. )fter
listening to the first si4 parts, ?u3oor )Cla ?a3rat ؓ  mentioned to !adrush
!hariah ﻴﻠﻋ . .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ that he had his blessings to continue and there was now no
need to read it to him anymore. ,his was the confidence that $mam )hmed
2a3a ؓ had in the wor: of !adrush !hariah. !adrush !hariah found time to
do all this even though he spent most of his time instructing students.

,he students of ?u3oor !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ include some of the
greatest <lama of the time. !ome of the names of his students are as
follows:
Vol.3 pg.31


31
B" ,h!er *esha-e-,unnat, Allama 9ashmat Ali Ghan
=" Muhadith-e-Azam 6a-istan, Mufti ,ardar Ahmed
D" 9uzoor Mu4ahid-e-Millat, Allama 9abibur Rahmaan
E" 3mam-un-Nah Allama ,ayyid Hhulam Cilani Meerati
>" 9afiz-e-Millat Allama Abdul Aziz Muhadith
5" Amin-e-,hari!at, Maulana Rifa.at 9ussain Muzafar$uri
7" ,hamsul 'lama Qadi ,hamsud!deen Caun$uri
I" Ghairul Az-iya Allama Hhulam Fazdani Aazmi
J" ,ayyidul 'lama 9azrat ,ayed Aal-e-Mustafa Marehrai
B@" <a-hrul Amasil Allama Muhammad ,ulaiman
BB" ,hay-h-ul-9adith 9azrat Allama Abdul Mustafa Aazmi
B=" Allama Abdul Mustafa Azhari (son of ,adrush ,hariah+
BD" Ghalil-ul-'lama Maulana Mufti Ghalil Ghan *ar-aati
BE" ,hay-h-ul-'lama 9azrat Allama Hhulam Cilani Hhosi
B>" Ra!is-ul-Muhaditheen Allama Mubinud!deen Amrohi
B5" Abul Mahasin Allama Mohammad Mohsin
B7" <a.ih-e-Azam Allama Mufti ,harif-ul-9a. Am4adi
BI" 9azrat Maulana Mohammed 3lyas ,iyal-oti
BJ" 9azrat Maulana Mufti Mohammed A!4az Razvi
=@" 9azrat Maulana Mufti #a.arud!deen Am4adi
=B" 9azrat Maulana 2a.addus Ali Ghan

,here were also many great and blessed personalities in the time of ?u3oor
!adrush !hariah who would be regarded as his contemporary <lama. !ome
of the contemporary scholars in the time of ?u3oor !adrush !hariah were
as follows:

B" ,adrul Afadil Allama ,ayyid Na!imud!deen Muradabadi
=" 9u44atul 3slam, Allama 9amid Raza Ghan
D" Mufti-e-Azam-e-9ind Allama Mustafa Raza Ghan
E" Mali-ul 'lama Allama Aafrud!deen *ihari
>" 'mdatul Muta-al!limin ,ayyid ,ulaiman Ashraf *ihari
5" 9azrat Allama ,ayyid Ahmed Ashraf ibn Ashrafi Miya
7" Muhadith-e-Azam 9ind ,ayed Muhammad Gi&hau&havi
Vol.3 pg.32


32
I" 9azrat Maulana 9a-im *ara-at 2on-i
J" 9azrat Allama #a-il Ahmed ,i-andar$uri
B@" 9azrat Allama Maulana <adl-e-9a. Ram$uri
BB" 9azrat Allama Mu!inud!deen A4meri
B=" 9azrat Maulana Noorul 9asan Ram$uri
BE" Maulana Qadi Abdul #ahid ,ahib
B>" 9azrat Allama Aiaud!deen 6ilibhiti
B5" Mubaligh-e-3slam Allama Abdul Aleem ,iddi.i Meerati
B7" 9azrat Maulana ,ayyid Misbahul 9assan

?u3oor !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ blessed some great and learned personalities
with his =hirHa. $n other words, he honoured them with being amongst his
=hulafa. !ome of the names of his =hulafa are as follows:

B" ,her *esha-e-,unnat, Allama 9ashmat Ali Ghan
=" Muhadith-e-Azam 6a-istan Maulana ,ardar Ahmed
D" 9afiz-e-Millat Allama Abdul Aziz Muhadith-e-Muradabadi
E" ,hay-h-ul-'lama Allama Hhulam Cilani Aazmi
>" Mufti-e-Azam Gan$ur, Mufti Rifa.at 9usain Gan$uri
5" 9azrat Allama 9afiz Qari Muhammad Muslihud!deen ,iddi.ui ('n&le and father in-
la of Mu4ahid-e-Ahle ,unnat Allama ,ayed ,hah 2urab-ul-9a. Qaadiri Razvi Noori+
7" Allama Hhulam Fazdani Hhosi

?u3oor !adrush !hariah .ﻴﻠﻋ .ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ married four wives and was blessed with
many pious children from all his wives. -elow are the names of his
respected wives and children:

1st wife: &ohtarama =arima =hatun !ahiba:

• ?a:im !hamsul ?uda &arhum
• Lubeda =hatun marhuma
• &aulana &ohammed Pahya &arhum
• )llama )bdul &ustafa )3hari &arhum
• )llama )ta+ul+&ustafa &arhum

Vol.3 pg.33


33
2nd wife: &ohtarama !afiy an Nisa !ahiba

• 2aCisa =hatun &arhuma

3rd wife: &ohtarama 2abiCa =hatun !ahiba

• &uhammad )hmed &arhum
• *ari 2a3a+ul+&ustafa !ahib

'th wife: &ohtarama ?aBra -ibi !ahiba

• &ohtarama !aCida =hatun &arhuma
• &ohtarama )isha =hatun
• &uhadith+e+=abeer, ?a3rat )llama &aulana Lia+ul+&ustafa *aadiri
)mBadi
• &uhammad &arhum
• &aulana !ana+ul+&ustafa !ahib
• )llama -aha+ul+&ustafa !ahib
• &aulana 7ida+ul+&ustafa !ahib

?u3oor !adrush !hariah travelled from this mundane world into the
hereafter on &onday, the 2
nd
of Lil *adah 132/ ?iBri, coinciding 5
th

!eptember 1.'0 at 11pm whilst intending to Bourney for his second ?aBB and
Liyaarat. )llah taCaala, grant him a special closeness in the shade of ?is
&ercy. )ameen








Vol.3 pg.3'


34
Important Shari’ Terminology

2here are a fe im$ortant te&hni&al terms of ,hariah that need to be e%$lained here,
as they ill be hel$ful throughout this boo-"

Fard-e-E'tiqaadi (Explicit Obligatory Act): refers to a
command of !hariah which is proven by the distinct evidence of !hariah Jin
other words by such proof that is beyond any doubtK. )ccording to ?anafi
scholars, one who denies this is an absolute infidel.

,here is $Bma Jconsensus of the learned &uslim scholarsK that the one who
denies any 7ard+e+"StiHaadi, the ruling regarding which is commonly :nown
and obvious as to be related directly to an issue of bligation in 2eligion
then such a person is not only himself an infidel but one who doubts the
infidelity about such a denier, is himself regarded as an infidel.
Nonetheless, one who deliberately leaves out even once, any 7ard+e+
"StiHaadi such as Namaa3, 2u:u, !uBood without a valid reason permitted by
!hariah is a 7aasiH Ja transgressorK, guilty of having committed a maBor sin
and is deserving of the torment of hellfire.

Fard-e-Amali (Implicit Obligatory Act): ,his is a command of
which is not as e4plicit Jas 7ard+e+"CtiHaadiK but in view of the consensus of
the &uBtahideen, JifK the command is based on the evidence of !hariah one
is regarded as guilty of transgression Jif left outK and one will not be
relieved of his responsibility unless he fulfills it and such as the case when
it is 7ard in any $baadat JworshipK, then that J$baadatK will be regarded as
invalid and nullified if that particular JactionK is not fulfilled.

,o reBect JdenyK it without valid reason is an act of transgression and
misguidance. ?owever, if there is one who based on the views of !hariah, is
worthy of arguing a certain view J,his refers to a &uBtahidK then he has the
right to differ with it on the basis of any evidence of the !hariah.


Vol.3 pg.3(


35
J)n e4ampleK of this is the differences between the righteously guided
)Cima+e+&uBtahideen Jvi3. $mam )bu ?anifa T $mam !hafiCi, $mam )hmed
bin ?ambal T $mam &aali:K, where one $mam considers something to be
7ard whilst the other does not. 7or e4ample, according to the ?anafi !chool
of thought the &asah Jto pass wet hands over the head in 9uduK of one+
fourth of the head in 9udu JablutionK is 7ard and according to the !hafaCi
school of thought, even the &asah of one strand of hair is sufficient Jto
fulfill the 7ardKI whilst according to the &aali:i school of thought the
&asah of the entire head Jis 7ardK. )nother "4ample is that according to the
?anafi !chool of thought, to recite the -ismillah and to ma:e the intention
for 9udu is !unnat, whereas these are regarded as 7ard according to the
?ambali and !hafiCi !chools of thoughtI i.e. saying -ismillah is 7ard for
?ambalis and Niyyat is 7ard for !hafiCisI and with the e4ception of these,
there are numerous other e4amples. $n 7ard+e+)mali, every person should
adhere to the Jprinciples ofK the $mam of whom he is a &uHallid JadherentK.
$t is unlawful JimpermissibleK to follow any other $mam besides your own
$mam without any legitimate reason of !hariah.

Waajib-e-E’tiqaadi (Explicit Compulsory Act): is that which
is proven as essential through %aleel+e+LanCni Ja tradition reliably
transmitted by one or a few peopleK. 7ard+e+)mali and 9aaBib+e+)mali are
the two categories of this and it is enclosed within these two.

Waajib-e-Amali (Implicit Compulsory Act): is that 9aaBib+e+
"CtiHaadi that even though one does not fulfill it, there is the probability
that one will be absolved of his responsibility. ?owever, its necessity Jto be
fulfilledK is given precedence. $f the 9aaBib+e+S)mali is omitted in any
$baadat JworshipK where it is regarded as necessary to be fulfilled Jin other
words it is an essential part of that $baadatK then without it being done,
such $baadat will be regarded as defective but valid. ) &uBtahid has the
right to disagree with Jdiffer regardingK the rules of a 9aaBib, based on
evidence in the light of the !hariah. ,o intentionally omit even a single
9aaBib is a minor sin JMunah+e+!agheeraK and to do so more than once Ji.e.
a few timesK is a maBor sin JMunah+e+=abeeraK.
Vol.3 pg.35


36
Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah (Regular Emphasised Practice
of The Holy Prophet ): $t is a practice which was always
JregularlyK practiced by the ?oly 1rophet  but he occasionally omitted it
to show it as permitted Ji.e. so that it is not regarded as 7ardK. $t Jcan also be
understoodK in the sense of it being an importantly emphasised practice, to
which he  did not completely close off the part of it being omitted. ,o
leave it out is $saCat Jbad but less than abhorrentK and to practice it is
,hawaab Jdeserving of rewardK. ,o miss it on the odd occasion is deserving
of a warning of serious conseHuences and to leave it out habitually is
deserving of punishment.

Sunnat-e-Ghair-Mu’akkadah JNot ) 2egular 1ractice -ut
%eserving f 2ewardK: $t is that desired action in the light of !hariah, that
leaving it out is regarded as undesirable but it is not regarded as
undesirable to the e4tent where Jone who omits itK has been warned of
receiving punishment for doing so, even if the ?oly 1rophet  regularly
practiced it or not. ,o practice it is to attain reward and to omit it even
habitually does not incur warning of serious conseHuences.

Mustahab (Desirable Action): ,his refers to that practice, which
in the view of the !hariah is desirable and omitting it is not regarded to be
undesirable, even though it was practiced by the ?oly 1rophet  himself
and it was something that was encouragedI or even if the Gearned !cholars
of $slam J<lamaK were pleased with it Jbeing practicedK even though it may
not have been mentioned in the )hadith. $t is worthy of reward if it is done
and if it is not done then there is absolutely no accountability.

Mubah (Lawful): ,he law regarding this is ali:e, either if it is done or
not J$n other words either doing it or not doing it, are both lawfulK.

Haraam-e-Qat’ai (Explicitly prohibited): ,his is comparable
to 7ard. ,o intentionally carry out such an action is a maBor sin and
transgression Jof the lawK and to abstain from Jsuch an actionK is 7ard Jan
obligationK and deserving of reward.
Vol.3 pg.3/


37
Makrooh-e-Tahreemi (Disapproved to the Point of
Being Forbidden): ,his is comparable to 9aaBib. -y committing such
an action, the $baadat becomes defective and one who commits such an
action is regarded as sinful, even though the sin of such an action is less
than that of committing a ?araam J7orbidden 6 1rohibitedK offenceI the
committing of such an offence on a few occasionsC amounts to it being
regarded a maBor sin J=abeeraK.

Isa’at (Bad Action): ,he committing of such an action is bad and one
who commits it occasionally deserves chastisement, whereas ma:ing it a
habitual action causes one to be culpable of punishment. ,his J$saCatK is
comparable to !unnat+e+&uCa::adah.

Makrooh-e-Tanzeehi (Undesirable Action): ,hat action
which is regarded as undesirable in the !hariat but it is not to the e4tent
where there is warning of any punishment for committing it. ,his is
comparable to !unnat+e+Mhair &uCa::adah.

Khilaaf-e-Ula (Contrary to what is best): ,his means to do
something which was best not done. ?owever, if it is done, then there is no
harm or any chastisement for it. ,his is comparable to &ustahab.

ne will find numerous discussions regarding these technical terms of
!hariat, but this Jwhich has been presentedK is the essence of the research
done.

,ﺤ, ﺎﻤ´ .ﻴﻠﻋ ﺎ,ﺎ,. .ﻴ· ´ .,ﺎ,.
´
.,:´ ´ ﺪﻤﺣ ﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ ﷲو ¸:ﺮ, و ﺎ:ﺑ,






Vol.3 pg.30


38

Dedication


In The Love & Honour of
A Sea of Knowledge, Wisdom,
Piety and humility

The Great Imam of Fiqh

Hazrat Nu’man ibn Thaabit
Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ

I would like to dedicate this translation
to two of the Greatest Imams of Fiqh
Of Our Time

Murshid-e-Barhaq, Huzoor Taajush
Shariah, Rahbar-e-Tariqat Hazrat Allama
Mufti Mohammed Akhtar Raza Khan
Qaadiri Azhari Qibla

&

Mumtaz ul Fuqaha, Huzoor Muhadith-e-
Kabeer, Ja Nasheen-e-Sadrush Shariah
Hazrat Allama Zia-ul-Mustafa
Qaadiri Amjadi Qibla


Vol.3 pg.3.


39

Bahaar
E
Shariat
Volume 3

[BOOK 0FSALAAH]

Comprising approximately 213 Ahadith & 868 Laws of
Fiqh, referenced to Authentic Books of Hadith &
Jurisprudence

Compiled By
Sadrush Shariah Hazrat Allama Maulana Mufti
Mohammed Amjad Ali Aazmi Razvi ؓ 

Translated into English through the Blessings of
Ghaus-ul-Waqt Huzoor
Mufti-e-Azam Hind ؓ 

By a humble servant of Allah
Muhammad Afthab Cassim al-Qaadiri Razvi Noori

Published FOR
Free Distribution
By : IMAM MUSTAFA RAZA RESEARCH CENTRE
OVERPORT, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA
Vol.3 pg.'#


40

Contents



Chapter 1: Namaaz 41

Chapter 2: Azaan 85

Chapter 3: Conditions/Pre-Requisites of Namaaz 115

Chapter 4: Method of Performing Namaaz 163

Chapter 5: Recitation of the Holy Qur’an 235

Chapter 6: Imamat 261

Chapter 7: Virtues of Namaaz in Jama’at 289

Chapter 8: Performing Namaaz without Wudu 319

Chapter 9: Nominating A Khalifa in Namaaz 329

Chapter 10: Factors Which Nullify Namaaz 337

Chapter 11: Makruh Actions in Namaaz 361

Chapter 12: Rules Regarding the Masjid 389

Endorsement by Aala Hazrat ؓ  410





Vol.3 pg.'1


41




Chapter 1

Namaaz



* Virtues of Namaaz in the Light of Qur’an 43

* Virtue of Namaaz in the Light of Hadith 46

* Laws of Jurisprudence 57

* Namaaz Times 60

* Mustahab (Preferred) Times 73

* Makruh (Disliked) Times 77





Vol.3 pg.'2


42
ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ,

ﻢ,¸.ﺍ .ﻟﻮ., _.ﻋ _.ﺼ. و :ﺪﻤﺤﻧ


Namaaz (Prayer)

)fter $maan JbeliefK and refinement of oneCs beliefs as per the
true tenets of the )hle !unnat 9a ;amaCat, Namaa3 is regarded
the most essential and e4alted 7ard Jobligatory actK of all 7ard
actions.

,he ?oly *urCan and the )hadith of the ?oly 1rophet 
announces and presents the splendour and e4cellence of
Namaa3 J!alaahK.

,he *urCan and )hadith regularly emphasise the importance
and e4cellence of Namaa3, and strict caution and warning Jof
chastisementK is for those who omit it JNamaa3K.

,here are a few verses and )hadith Huoted below, so that
&uslims may ta:e heed to the commands of their Creator )llah
)lmighty and ?is -eloved 1rophet  in this regard, and by
virtue of the guidance bestowed upon them, they may practice
accordingly.


Vol.3 pg.'3


43
Qur’anic Verses

)lmighty )llah says

“‰δ ´#,¸)`"!=¸9 ¸%!# βθ`Ζ¸Β$`ƒ ¸=0#9$¸$ βθ`10¸)`ƒ´ρ 2θ=¯Á9# $34´ρ ¯)γ≈´Ζ%%´‘ βθ)¸Ζ`ƒ

‘3n it, there is guidan&e for the $ious (Allah <earing+" 2hose ho believe
ithout seeing( and (ho+ $erform Namaaz ($rayer+ regularly, and
(generously+ s$end in )ur #ay, of the sustenan&e hi&h #e have $rovided
for them! D!urah 2, Verse 2+3E

)lmighty )llah says

#θ!,¸%& 2θ=¯Á9# #θ?#´5´ρ 2θ"&9# #θ`è"¯‘#´ρ 'Β 6¸è¸"≡¯9#

‘And (establish+ $erform $rayers regularly, and give Aa-aat ($oor-due+ and
bo don ith those ho bo (in Namaaz+! D!urah 2, Verse '3E

$n other words, to bow in Namaa3 with &uslims as is done in 2u:u is
only in our !hariat. ,his could also refer to performing Namaa3 with
;amaCat JcongregationK.

)llah says

#θ´(¸≈) ’7* ¸N≡´θ=¯Á9# ¸2θ=¯Á9#´ρ 8+`,'θ9# #θ`Βθ%´ρ ¸- 6¸"¸-≈%

‘Huard all your 6rayers, ($arti&ularly+ the middle 6rayer( and stand before
Allah in sin&ere reveren&e! D!urah 2, Verse 230E

Vol.3 pg.''


44
)lmighty )llah says

$κ9¸)´ρ 2´Ž'¸739 ā¸) ’7* 6¸è¸.≈/:#

‘And undoubtedly, Namaaz is definitely intense( e%&e$t to those ho humble
themselves before Me in heartfelt devotion! D!urah 2, Verse '(E

,o leave out and omit performing Namaa3 absolutely is an
outrageous and ine4cusable act. )lmighty )llah says as follows in
regards to those who perform their Namaa3 after the prescribed
time has e4pired Ji.e. they allow it to become *a3aK:

≅ƒ´θù š;,¸#Á!=¸9 ¸%!# ¯)δ #* ¯)¸κ¸0Ÿ<1 βθδ$,

‘,o, affli&tion unto those orshi$$ers ho are negle&tful of their Namaaz!
D!urah 1#/, Verses '+(E

,here is an abyss in the depths of ?ell, which ?ell itself dreads and
from the intensity of which, ?ell itself as:s deliverance from. ,his
abyss is called F9ailC. ,hose who intentionally delay their Namaa3
causing the time to e4pire Ji.e. become *a3aK, will be deserving of
J?ellK.

)llah says

==/2 #¸Β ¯)¸δ¸‰è$ ==z #θ`*$3& 2θ=¯Á9# #θ`è7?#´ρ ¸N≡´θκ49# >¯θ¡ù β¯θ)=ƒ $¯05

Vol.3 pg.'(


45
‘2hen in their $la&e, after them, &ame those undutiful ones( ho ruined
Namaaz and folloed their lustful desires( so it is near that they ill
en&ounter in hell, the harshness of Hhay ! D!urah 1., Verse (.E

FMhayC is an abyss in the depths of ?ell. $t is the deepest and the most
scorching abyss. ,here is a well JpitK in ?ell called F?abahabC. 9hen
the fire JflamesK of ?ell is about to be e4tinguished Ji.e. become less
intenseK, )llah )lmighty opens this well JpitK, and the fire of ?ell
begins to bla3e and rage li:e it did before.

)llah says
$!=( M7z `Ογ≈Ρ6¸% #Ž'¸è,

‘And henever it is &lose to being e%tinguished, #e shall &ause it to rage"!
D!urah 1/, Verse ./E

,his well is for those who omit their Namaa3I for adulterers and
fornicatorsI for those who consume alcoholI for those who ta:e
usury JinterestKI and for those who cause anguish and heartache to
their parents. ne may also ascertain the e4cellence and importance
of Namaa3 by )lmighty )llah revealing all ?is commands upon
1rophet  on the "arth, but when ?e willed to reveal and bestow
Namaa3 upon him, )lmighty )llah invited the -eloved Nabi  unto
?imself, beyond the %ivine )rsh, where ?e made Namaa3 7ard. )llah
blessed him with Namaa3 the most -lessed Mift on the eve of F$sraC
Ji.e. Night of &eCraBK.




Vol.3 pg.'5


46
Ahadith-e-Nabawiyyah

Hadith 1: $t is reported in !ahih -u:hari and &uslim from $bn
<mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F,he foundation of $slam is
established on ( 1illars. J1K ,o bear testimony that there is none
truly worthy of worship besides )llah and &uhammad  is the
chosen servant and 1rophet of )llah. J2K ,o establish Namaa3. J3K ,o
give La:aat. J'K ,o perform ?aBB. J(K ,o 7ast in the month of
2amadan.C 0Mish-aat $g"B=1

Hadith 2: $mam )hmed, ,irmi3i and $bn &aBah report that ?a3rat
&uCa3 ؓ says, F$ as:ed the ?oly 1rophet  to inform me regarding
that practice which will ta:e me into ;annat and save me from ?ell.
?e  said, F9orship )llah and do not associate any partner with
?im, and establish Namaa3 and give La:aat, and 7ast in the month of
2amadan, and ma:e ?aBB of -aitullah J=aabaK.C $n the ?adith it has
been stated that Namaa3 is a 1illar of $slam. 0Mish-aat $g"BE1

Hadith 3: $n !ahih &uslim from )bu ?urairah ؓ  it is narrated
that 2asoolullah  said, F,he five !alaahs, from ;ummah to ;ummah
and from 2amadan to 2amadan, wipes out all the sins that are
between them, as long as one abstains from =abaCir JmaBor sinsK.C
0Mish-aat $g">71

Hadith 4: $t is in !ahihain from )bu ?urairah ؓ it was narrated
that 2asoolullah  said F,ell me, if someone has a river outside his
door and he bathes in it five times a day, will there be any dirt left on
his bodyOC ,hey replied, FNoC. ?e  said, F,his is the very e4ample of
the five daily !alaahs. )lmighty )llah removes ones sins due to this.C
0Mish-aat $g">71

Vol.3 pg.'/


47
Hadith 5: !ahihain have reported from $bn &asCud ؓ  that a
person committed a sin and thereafter came Jto 2asoolullah K and
confessed. <pon this, the verse:

¸Ο¸%&´ρ 2θ=¯Á9# ¸’ûÛ ¸‘$κ*9# $9`%´ρ ´#¸Β ¸≅,9# β¸) ¸M≈´Ζ¡!:# ?¸δ‹`ƒ ¸N$@¸¯,´¡9#
7¸9≡Œ “"¸Œ š;¸¸"≡%#¸9

‘And establish Namaaz on both ends of day and in some $ortion of the night"
'ndoubtedly, good deeds remove sins" 2his is advi&e to those ho a&&e$t
advi&e"! D!urah 11, Verse 11'E. ,he person as:ed, FPa 2asoolC)llah 
is this command specific to meOC ?e  said, F$t is for my entire
<mmah.C 0Mish-aat $g">I1

Hadith 6: $t is reported in !ahih -u:hari and &uslim that
)bdullah $bn &asCud ؓ  says, F$ as:ed 2asoolullah  regarding
which action Jgood deedK is most beloved to )llah. ?e  said,
FNamaa3 in its appointed time.C $ as:ed what was thereafterI JandK he
said, F,o be :ind towards your parentsC, JandK $ as:ed what was after
that, and he said, F,o ma:e ;ihad Ji.e. to striveK in )llahCs way.C
0Mish-aat $g">I1

Hadith 7: -aihaHi reported from ?a3rat <mar ؓ  that a person
as:ed, FPa 2asoolC)llah  in $slam which is the most beloved deed
by )llahOC ,he 1rophet  said, Fto perform Namaa3 in its appointed
time J?e  further saidK, and one who has omitted his Namaa3 has
no %een, JforK Namaa3 is the pillar of %een.C

Hadith 8: )bu %awud reported from )mr ibn !huCaib who
narrated from his father, who narrated from his grandfather that
Vol.3 pg.'0


48
2asoolullah  said, F9hen your children reach the age of seven,
instruct them to perform Namaa3 and when they reach the age of
ten get them to read even if one has to hit them
1
.C 0Mish-aat $g">I1

Hadith 9: $mam )hmed reported that )bu Larr ؓ  mentioned that
the ?oly 1rophet  went out in cold weather, it was autumn. ?e 
held two branches and the leaves began to fall off. ?e  said, F )bu
Larr>C $ said, F$ am present Pa 2asoolC)llah , ?e  then said,
F9hen a &uslim servant performs Namaa3 for )llah, his sins are
shed, Bust as the leaves have fallen from this tree.C 0Mish-aat $g">I1

Hadith 10: $t is reported in !ahih &uslim !hareef from )bu
?urairah ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen a person performs
,ahaarat JMhusl and 9uduK at his home and then wal:s towards the
&asBid to fulfil his 7ard, then one sin is washed away on every step
and on the ne4t step his status is elevated one fold.C

Hadith 11: $mam )hmed has reported from Laid ibn =halid )l
;ahni ؓ that 2asoolullah  said, F9hosoever performs 2 2a:aCats of
Namaa3 without ma:ing any error in it then all his sins before this
are forgivenC J,his refers to !aghaCir, i.e. minor sinsK. 0Mish-aat $g">I1

Hadith 12: ,abrani reported from )bu <maama ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen a servant stands in 1rayer Ji.e. for
Namaa3K, then the %oors of ;annat JparadiseK are opened unto him
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ?itting here does not mean that one should severely beat ones child, but it merely means
that one should be stern and reprimand him so that he may realise the importance of Namaa3.
$t is disallowed to beat and abuse ones child inhumanely under any circumstances.
Vol.3 pg.'.


49
and the veils are removed from between him and ?is Creator, and
the &aidens of ;annat welcome himI for as long as he does not blow
his nose or clear his throat.C

Hadith 13: ,abrani reported in )wsat and Lia reported from )nas
ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, ‘)n the ?ay of Qiyaamat (Retribution+, the
servant ill first be held a&&ountable for his Namaaz" 3f this is in order, then
the rest of his a&tions (deeds+ ill be in order, and if this is flaed then all
ill be regarded as being flaed"!

$n one narration it is stated that Jif not all his actions are in orderK
then such a person shall be in severe loss and affliction.

Hadith 14: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, NasaCi and $bn &aBah have
reported a narration from ,ameem %aari ؓ wherein it is mentioned
that, if one completed his Namaa3 in full. ,hen it shall be recorded as
being fulfilled properly and if it is not completed correctly Ji.e. if
there is some impairment in it etc.K, it will then be said to the )ngels,
F)bserve if there are any Naafil (o$tional Namaaz+ of my servant, so that
you may use it to fulfil his <ardC" ,he accountability for his La:aat will
be ta:en in a similar manner, followed by JaccountabilityK for the
rest of his actions.

Hadith 15: )bu %awud and $bn &aBah have reported from )bu
?urairah ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen a &uslim enters
;ahanum
1
Jand we see: protection in )llah from thatK, then the fire
of hell will devour his entire body, e4cept for the limbs on which he
performs !aBdah, for )llah has made such limbs ?araam JforbiddenK
upon the fire Jof ?ellK.C

Vol.3 pg.(#


50
Hadith 16: ,abrani has mentioned in )wsat, that 2asoolullah 
said, F)llah loves a person most when he sees him in the position of
!aBdah, whereby he is rubbing his face in the dust.C

Hadith 17: ,abrani has mentioned in )wsat from )nas ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, FNot a single morning or evening passes by
without one portion of the earth calling out to another portion of
the earth sayingI %id a servant pass by you today, who performed his
Namaa3 on you, or made Li:r+e+$laahi Jremembered )llahKO $f it
replies in the positive, it is afforded superiority based on this.C

Hadith 18: $n !ahih &uslim narrated from ;aabir ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, FNamaa3 is the =ey to 1aradise, and ,ahaarat
JpurificationK is the =ey to Namaa3.C

Hadith 19: )bu %awud reported from $bn <maama ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,he reward of one who leaves his home after
performing proper ,ahaarat JablutionK to fulfil his 7ard Namaa3 is
li:e that person who has Bourneyed for ?aBB, and the reward of one
who leaves his home for Chasht Namaa3, is li:e one who has
Bourneyed for <mrah. $f a person does not behave in an obscene
manner between two !alaahs, then his Namaa3 shall attain the
e4alted level of acceptance.C
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $n other words when a sinful &uslim enters fire of hell to pay for his sins. ?owever, it should
be noted that no matter how sinful he may be, as long as he is a true &uslim, he will pay for his
sins and then through the intercession of 2asoolullah  or through the blessing of
2asoolullah  and through the intercession of any other pious ones, he will be removed
from the fire of hell and allowed to enter ?oly 1aradise.


Vol.3 pg.(1


51
Hadith 20/21: $mam )hmed, NasaCi and $bn &aBah have reported
from )bu )yub )nsari ؓ and <Hba bin )amir ؓ  that 2asoolullah 
said, Fne who performs proper 9udu li:e he has been commanded
to, and then performs his Namaa3 li:e he has been commanded to,
then all which he has done before this is forgiven.C

Hadith 22: $mam )hmed has reported from )bu Larr ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, F7or the one who performs one !aBdah for )llahI
)llah records for him one good deed, forgives one of his sins and
elevates his status by one fold.C

Hadith 23: $t is reported in =an3+ul+<mCmal that 2asoolullah 
said, F,hat person who performs 2 2a:aCats of Namaa3 in such a
manner that with the e4ception of )llah and the )ngels none other
sees him then salvation from hell is written for him.C

Hadith 24: $t has been mentioned in &uniyatul &usalCla that
2asoolullah  said, F,here is a sign for everything and the sign Jof
recognitionK for $maan is Namaa3.C

Hadith 25: $t is mentioned in &uniyatul &usalCla that Nabi
=areem  said, FNamaa3 is a pillar of %een J2eligionK. 9hosoever
:ept it established has :ept $slam JwellK established and whosoever
has omitted it, he has ruined JhisK %een.C

Hadith 26: $mam )hmed and )bu %awud have reported from
<badah bin !aamit ؓ that 2asoolullah  said, F)lmighty )llah has
made ( !alaahs 7ard upon ?is servants. 9hosoever performs 9udu
properly, performed it JNamaa3K in its appointed time, fulfilled the
2u:u, and prayed with devotion then )llah has given ?is %ivine
Vol.3 pg.(2


52
1romise that ?e shall forgive him. ,here is no promise for him who
did not do soI )llah may either forgive him or punish him.C

Hadith 27: ?aa:im has reported in his ,aari:h from <mmul
&omineen !iddiHa ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, )lmighty )llah
says, F$f my servant performs his Namaa3 in the appointed time, then
it is &y %ivine 1romise as per &y &ercy that $ may not punish him,
and $ may enter him into ?oly 1aradise without any rec:oning.C

Hadith 28: %ailmi has reported from )bu !aCeed ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F)lmighty )llah has not commanded any 7ard,
which is more virtuous than ,auheed J)ccepting his nenessK and
Namaa3. $f there were anything more virtuous than this, then ?e
would have made it 7ard upon the )ngels. !ome from amongst them
are in 2u:u whilst others are in !aBdah.C

Hadith 29: )bu %awud and ,ayalsi report from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F,he )ngels see: the forgiveness for a
person who performs his Namaa3 and then remains seated there,
until such time that his 9udu brea:s or he stands up Jfrom where he
is seatedK. ,he $stighfar, which the )ngels ma:e on his behalf, is · ﻢ
´
, ﻠﻟ´ﺍ

´
.´ ﻟ
`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ ¸.
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

`
,
´
. · ﻢ
´
, ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
.
`

´

`
,ﺍ · ﻢ
´
, ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!magh <irlahu #arhamhu, Allahum!ma 2ub
Alaih!

,ranslation: F )llah, 1ardon him> )llah, have &ercy on him>
)llah, accept his repentance>C

$t has also been mentioned in numerous )hadith that for as long as a
person is seated waiting to commence Namaa3, he is regarded as
being in Namaa3 Ji.e. he receives the reward of Namaa3K.

Vol.3 pg.(3


53
The Above Mentioned Narrations Were All
Related To The Merits And Virtues Of Namaaz In
General. Those Ahadith Mentioned In Regards
To Specific Salaahs, Are As Follows:

Hadith 30: ,abrani has reported from $bn <mar ¸:, ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who performs his &orning 1rayer J7aBrK is
in the %ivine 1rotection of )llah until evening.C $n another narration:
F%o not brea:away from the protection of )llah, for one who brea:s
away from the protection of )llahI )llah will throw him face down
into hell.C

Hadith 31: $bn &aBah reported from !alman 7arsi ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who has gone for the &orning Namaa3 has
gone to it with the 7lag of $maan, and the one who has gone to the
mar:etplace in the morning has gone with flag of shaitaan.C

Hadith 32: -aihaHi reported in !haCbul $maan from <thman ؓ
Jwith merit of it being a &auHuf
1
narrationK, that one who goes for
the morning Namaa3 J7aBrK with the intention of attaining reward, it
is as if he remained standing Jin $baadatK for the entire night. ,he
one who goes for "sha Namaa3 is li:e one who remained standing in
$baadat for half the night.C

Hadith 33: =hateeb reported from )nas ؓ  that 2asoolullah 
said, F)lmighty )llah will grant a person who consistently performs
his 7aBr and "sha !alaah with ;amaCat Jin congregationK for '# days,
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ) &auHuf, i.e. stopped narration refers to a narration, which is directly mentioned by the
Companion wherein he directly relates the words of the ?adith.

Vol.3 pg.('


54
with salvation from two thingsI the first being the fire Jof ?ellK and
the second being hypocrisy.C

Hadith 34: $mam )hmed reported from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,he %ay and Night )ngels assemble at the times
of 7aBr and )sr Namaa3. 9hen they return, )llah says to them, F7rom
where are you returningOC even though ?e =nows 9ell. ,hey say,
Ffrom JvisitingK your servants. 9hen we went to them, they were
engrossed in performing Namaa3. 9e have returned to Pou, leaving
them in the state of Namaa3.C

Hadith 35: $bn &aBah reported from $bn <mar ﷲﺍ ¸:, ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. that
2asoolullah  said, F)llah )lmighty declares salvation from hell, for
the person who performs his "sha Namaa3 with ;amaCat in the
&osHue for '# nights consecutively without missing the first
2a:aCat.C

Hadith 36: ,abrani reports from $bn &asCud ؓ that 2asoolullah
 said, F,he weightiest amongst the !alaahs for a hypocrite are the
"sha and 7aBr !alaahs. $f only you :new the virtues of these !alaahs,
you would have definitely presented yourselves for them, even if it
meant dragging yourself on your rear end.C J$n other words, by any
means possibleK.

Hadith 37: -a3C3aar reported from $bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that
2asoolullah  said, F&ay )llah not allow his eyes to sleep, who
sleeps before "sha.C



Vol.3 pg.((


55
Below Are The Ahadith That Are Related To The
Warnings And Harmful Effects Of Not Reading
Namaaz:

Hadith 38: $t is reported in !ahihain from Naufil bin &uCawiyah
ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F7or one who missed his Namaa3, it is as
if he has lost his family and wealth.C

Hadith 39: )bu NuCaim reported from )bu !aCeed ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who intentionally leaves out his Namaa3,
has his name written on the door of hell.C

Hadith 40: $mam )hmed reported on the authority of <mm+e+
)iman ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F%o not omit your Namaa3
intentionally for )llah and ?is 2asool  are not responsible for the
one who intentionally omits his Namaa3.C

Hadith 41: ,he !hay:hain have reported on the authority of
<thman ibn )bul )Cas ؓ that 2asoolullah  said, F,hat %een which
has no Namaa3 has no good JbenefitK in it.C

Hadith 42: -aihaHi reported from <mar ؓ that 2asoolullah 
said, F?e who has omitted Namaa3 has no %een. Namaa3 is the 1illar
of %een J$slamK.C

Hadith 43: -a3C3aar reported from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F$n $slam, there is no share for him, who has no
Namaa3.C

Hadith 44: $mam )hmed, %aarimi and -aihaHi reported in !haCbul
$maan that 2asoolullah  said, F,he Namaa3 of one who guarded it
Vol.3 pg.(5


56
Ji.e. he performed it punctually and consistentlyK, shall be a lustre
and glowing light, and means of salvation for him on the %ay of
*iyaamat. 7or the one who did not guard it, there is neither any
light, nor radiance or salvation, and on the %ay of *iyaamat he will
be with *aroon, 7irawn, ?amaan, and <bay bin =half.C

Hadith 45: -u:hari, &uslim and $mam &aali: report from NaafiC
ؓ  that ?a3rat )meer+ul+&oCmineen 7arooH+e+)3am ؓ  sent a decree
towards his entire empire JcitiesK, in which he decreed, F,he most
important action of all your actions in my sight is Namaa3.
9hosoever guarded it has guarded his %een, and whosoever wasted
it, he will harm others more than that.C

Hadith 46: ,irmi3i reported from )bdullah ibn !haHeeH ؓ that
the !ahaba+e+=iraam never regarded the omission of any amal
JactionK as :ufr Jcause for infidelityK e4cept for Namaa3.

Numerous )hadith have reported, wherein the apparent meaning of
it demonstrates that it is :ufr to omit Namaa3 intentionally. ,his was
the &adhab Jthought6viewK of certain !ahaba+e+=iraam such as
?a3rat )meer ul &oCmineen 7arooH+e+)3am, ?a3rat )bdur 2ahmaan
ibn )uf, )bdullah ibn &asCud, )bdullah ibn )bCbas, ?a3rat ;aabir bin
)bdullah, &uCa3 ibn ;abal, )bu ?urairah and )bu %ardah ¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﻢ,:ﻋ .
,his was also the view of certain )Cima J2ighteous GeadersK such as
$mam )hmed ibn ?ambal, $shaH bin 2ahwiya, )bdullah ibn &ubara:
and $mam Na:hiCi. ?owever, our $mam )3am and the other )Cima,
including numerous !ahaba+e+=iraam, do not pass the verdict of
J,a:feerK infidelity on such a person. ,herefore, this cannot regard
this as a minor issue when such great personalities have regarded
such a person Ji.e. one who intentionally omits his Namaa3K as a
:aafir.
Vol.3 pg.(/


57
Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: Namaa3 is 7ard+e+)in Jindividual obligationK upon every
&u:alClaf Jresponsible and accountableK person. $t is 7ard on every
person who is )aHil Jsensible6of sane mindK and -aaligh Ji.e. one
who has reached the age of pubertyK. ne who reBects Namaa3 to be
7ard JobligatoryK is a :aafir JinfidelK, and one who intentionally
omits it even once, is a 7aasiH JtransgressorK. ne who does not
perform his Namaa3 must be imprisoned Jin a &uslim !tateK, until
such a time that he repents and starts performing his Namaa3.
)ccording to the three $mams, i.e. $mam &aali:, $mam !hafiCi and
$mam )hmed ¸:, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. ﻢ,:ﻋ the !ultan+e+$slam J2ightly appointed
&uslim 2ulerK has the right of e4ecuting such a person. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar Vol"B $g" =D>1

Law: ) child who has reached the age of seven should be taught how
to perform Namaa3, and when the child reaches the age of ten, he
should be hit and made to read Namaa3 Ji.e. reprimanded for not
reading Namaa3K. 0Abu ?aud K 2irmizi1

Law: Namaa3 is purely an individual physical means of 9orship.
,here can be no deputising in $tI neither can one read Namaa3 on
behalf of some other person, and nor can any amount of money be
given as 7idya Jcompensation 6 paymentK for not reading it in oneCs
lifetime. ?owever, if a person has passed away and one intends to
give out an amount as compensation for the !alaahs which the
deceased has missed, then this may be done and there is hope that it
will be accepted, $n !ha )llah. "ven if the deceased did not advice
that it should be done, his heirs may do so on his behalf, as there is
hope that it will be accepted and he will be pardoned. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar $g"=D7 and other authenti& boo-s1
Vol.3 pg.(0


58
Law: ,he 7ardiyat of Namaa3, i.e. based on the direct %ivine
Command of )lmighty )llah, and the evident rationale for it is
F,imeC. $t will be regarded as being fulfilled if it is performed in any
time between the starting and ending time of that Namaa3, thus the
responsibility of the 7ard will be regarded as being discharged. $f one
did not read Jthe Namaa3K and only a very small portion of the
prescribed time is left, this time is the last time and will be rationale.
,herefore, if an insane person regained sanity, or an unconscious
person became conscious, or a female menstruating female became
pure, or a child reached puberty, or a person who has reached
puberty becomes a &uslim, and the amount of time remaining is
only sufficient to say
´
ﷲ´ﺍ
`
.
´
,
`
´
´
‘Allahu A-bar!, then the Namaa3 for that
time becomes 7ard JobligatoryK upon all of them. $f the insanity of a
person or the unconscious state of a person does not e4ceed the five
times Jof prayerK or more than that, then even if he does not have
sufficient time to ma:e the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema J7irst ,a:beer to
commence Namaa3K that Namaa3 is still 7ard Jupon himK and he
must perform the *a3a. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar Vol"B $g"=DI1

,he e4planation regarding females in menstruation J?aidhK and
those who are bleeding after childbirth JNifaasK is covered in detail
in the Chapter on &enstruations
1
.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $f she became paa: JcleansedK within the full period and she only has sufficient time to say
)llahu ):bar in the JremainingK time, then Namaa3 will be regarded as being 7ard Jon herK.
?owever, if she became cleansed before the complete period Ji.e. before 1# days in ?aidh and
before '# days in NifaasK, then that amount of time is reHuired where she may be able to ma:e
Mhusl Jta:e bath for purificationK, wear her clothes and say )llahu ):bar. ?aving sufficient
time to ma:e Mhusl, means she should have sufficient time to complete all those things that
are pre+reHuisites for Mhusl, in other words, bringing water Jgetting water readyK, removing
her clothing and ma:ing purdah Jgoing into a covered areaK. )ll these will be regarded as pre+
reHuisites for Mhusl. J2addul &uhtarK
Vol.3 pg.(.


59
Law: $f a Na+-aaligh Jone who has not as yet reached the age of
pubertyK performed his Namaa3 in the appointed time, but later
towards the ending time Jof that Namaa3K he attains puberty, then in
such a case, it is obligatory upon him to repeat that Namaa3.
!imilarly, if J)llah 7orbidK a person had become a &urtad Jan
apostate, i.e. he left the fold of $slamK and then he accepts $slam in
the last time of a Namaa3 then the Namaa3 of that time will be
regarded as 7ard upon him. J,his isK, even if he had already
performed that Namaa3 in the beginning time Jof that Namaa3K
before committing apostasy. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar Vol"B $g"=DI1

Law: $f a Na+-aaligh, slept after performing "sha, and then had
$htilaam Jnocturnal emissions or wet dreamK. ?owever, he did not
get up until after the time of 7aBr had commenced, then he should
repeat the "sha of that night, and if his eyes opened before the time
of 7aBr commenced, then it is unanimously agreed that the Namaa3
of "sha is 7ard upon him. 0*ahrur Raa!i. Vol"= $g"J@1

Law: $f a person did not perform his Namaa3 in the starting time Ja
Namaa3K and then at the ending time such an F<3rC
1
presents itself,
that causes the Namaa3 to be missed. 7or e4ample, menstruation
commenced in the last timeI or a woman began to bleed after
childbirthI or insanity or unconsciousness overtoo: one, then the
Namaa3 for that particular time is e4empt and there is no need to
ma:e *a3a
2
for it as well.


1. F<3rC or F<dhrC refers to the reason, which e4cuses person from fulfilling or discharging his
obligations, i.e. chronic annulment of purification etc.

2. *a3a or *adha Namaa3 is the Namaa3 for clearing missed Namaa3.


Vol.3 pg.5#


60
?owever, the condition in the case of insanity and unconsciousness
is that they should encompass Jlast forK more than the time of the
entire five !alaahs continuously, otherwise *a3a will become
necessary. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"E7( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=DI1

Law: ne had the notion that the time of a particular Namaa3 had
not as yet commenced, but he still proceeded by reading the
Namaa3I however, after completing his Namaa3 he established that
the prescribed time had indeed commenced Ji.e. it was the correct
time for that Namaa3K. $n this case, his Namaa3 will not be regarded
as being valid. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=E71

Namaaz Times

)lmighty )llah says

β¸) 2θ=¯Á9# MΡ7" ’7* š;6¸Ζ¸Β$!9# $´7≈"¸" $´?θ%¯θΒ

‘'ndoubtedly, Namaaz has been made obligatory u$on the believers at set
times! D!urah ', Verse 1#3E

´#≈s¯8´¡ù ¸-# 6¸) šχθ´¡!? 6¸9´ρ βθs¸8`Á? `&!´ρ ‰!s9# ’¸û ¸V≡´θ≈!´¡9#
¸:¯‘{#´ρ $0¸.*´ρ 6¸9´ρ βρ`¸γ(?

‘,o, glorify Allah, hen entering into to the evening (Maghrib and Lsha+, and
hen entering the morning (<a4r Namaaz+" And 9is 6raise is in the s-ies and
the earth( and hen a $ortion of the day remains (Asr Namaaz+ and hen
noon a$$ears (Auhr Namaaz+! D!urah 3#, Verses 1/+10E

Vol.3 pg.51


61
Hadith 1: ?aa:im reported from $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that
2asoolullah  said, F,here are two 7aBrs JdawnsK> ne is that in
which eating is ?araam, and Namaa3 is ?alaal Ji.e. for one who is
fastingK, and the second is that in which Namaa3 J7aBrK is ?araam and
eating is ?alaal.C

Hadith 2: NasaCi reports from V)bu ?urairah ؓ that 2asoolullah
 said, Fne who obtained one 2a:aCat of 7aBr !alaah before sunriseI
obtained the Namaa3 Ji.e. that Namaa3 has become 7ard upon himK.
ne who obtained even one 2a:aCat of )sr before sunsetI obtained
the Namaa3 Ji.e. his Namaa3 is validK.C $n this narration, the word
2a:aCat in both cases refers to ,a:beer+e+,ahreema J,he )llahu
):bar that is proclaimed to commence Namaa3K. !o, if one tied the
Niyyah Ji.e. made the intentionK for )sr Namaa3 and proclaimed
)llahu ):bar and the sun had not set as yet, but then set Jafter he
proclaimed the ,a:beerK, then that Namaa3 will be regarded as valid.
!imilarly, if an unbeliever became a &uslim, or if a child reached the
age of puberty at such a time wherein he had sufficient time to say
the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema before the sunrise, then that 7aBr Namaa3
becomes 7ard upon him, and he should ma:e *a3a for that 7aBr.
?owever, if he became a &uslim or became -aaligh after sunrise,
then that Namaa3 is not 7ard upon him.

Hadith 3: ,irmi3i reports from 2aafiC bin =hadiB ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F2ead the Namaa3 of 7aBr in brightness as there
is immense reward JblessingsK in this.C

Hadith 4: $t is reported in the narration of %ailmi from )nas ؓ 
that in doing so you will be pardoned J$n doing what will be
pardonedOK. $t is in another narration of %ailmi from )nas ؓ that
Vol.3 pg.52


62
one who performs his 7aBr as it becomes bright, )llah will brighten
his grave and his heart, and ?e will accept his Namaa3.

Hadith 5: $n ,abrani )wsat it is narrated from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F&y <mmah will always remain on 7itrat
Ji.e. on the ,rue 2eligionK for as long as they perform their 7aBr
!alaah in brightness.C

Hadith 6: $mam )hmed and ,irmi3i report from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F,here is a starting and ending time for
Namaa3. ,he starting time for Luhr is when the sun declines and its
ending time is when the time of )sr starts. ,he ending time for )sr is
when the disc of the sun turns yellowI and the starting time of
&aghrib is when the sun has set, and its last JendingK time is when
the evening twilight vanishes which is the beginning time for "sha,
and its ending time is when half night passes Ji.e. &ubah6lawful time
without any disli:eKC.

Hadith 7: $n -u:hari and &uslim it is narrated from )bu ?urairah
ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F1erform your Luhr when it becomes
cool, for verily the intensity of the heat is from the scorching effects
of ?ell. ?ell complained to its Creator that some of my elements
devour my other elements. $t was thus granted the permission to
ta:e two breathsI one in winter and one in the summer.C

Hadith 8: !ahih -u:hari !hareef narrates in the section on )3aan
of the ,ravellers, that )bu Larr ؓ  reports, Fwe were on a Bourney
with 2asoolullah  and the &uCa33in intended to call out the )3aan.
?e  said, F9ait for it to cool downC )gain he intended to give the
)3aan and he  again said, F9ait for it to cool downC. nce again, he
Vol.3 pg.53


63
intended to call out the )3aan and again he  said, F9ait for it to
cool downC, until such time that the shadows are eHual to the hills.C

Hadith 9&10: $mam )hmed and )bu %awud have reported
respectively from ?a3rat )bu )yub and <Hba bin )amir ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,
that 2asoolullah  said, F&y <mmah will always remain on 7itrat as
long as they do not delay &aghrib to the e4tent that the stars appear
close together.C

Hadith 11: )bu %awud reported from )bdul )3i3 bin 2afee ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, F$n overcast JcloudyK conditions, perform the
Namaa3 of the day Ji.e. )sr Namaa3K swiftly, and delay the &aghrib
1rayer.C

Hadith 12: $mam )hmed reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F$f $ did not feel that it would be difficult upon
my <mmah, then $ would have commanded them to perform
&iswaa: with every 9udu. )lso commanded to delay the "sha
!alaah until a third or half the night has passed, for Jat this timeK
)lmighty )llah manifests ?is !pecial -lessings on the s:ies, and until
morning ?e announcesI $s there someone in need that $ may give
him Jwhat he wishesKO $s there someone wanting forgiveness, that $
may grant him forgivenessO $s there anyone wanting to ma:e %ua, so
that $ may accept his %uaOC

Hadith 13: $n ,abrani )wsat from )bu ?urairah ؓ  it is narrated
that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen the time of 7aBr appears then there
is no Namaa3 JNafilK e4cept for the 2 2a:aCats of 7aBr.C

Hadith 14: -u:hari and &uslim have reported from )bu !aCeed
=hudri ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F)fter the morning JprayerK there
Vol.3 pg.5'


64
is no Namaa3 until such a time that the sun does not rise properly,
and there is no Namaa3 after )sr until such a time that the sun does
not set.C

Hadith 15: $n !ahihain it is narrated from )bdullah !anaabahi ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F,he sunrises together with the horns of
shaitaan. 9hen the sunrises fully, shaitaan separates from it, then
when it reaches its 3enith, shaitaan comes near it again, and when it
declines he moves awayI then when it is about to set, shaitaan comes
near it again, and when it has set he separates from it, so do not
perform Namaa3 in these 3 times.C

Laws of Jurisprudence

The Time of Fajr

Law: ,he time of 7aBr is from the brea: of ,rue dawn J!ubho !aadiHK
up to the first ray of the sun. D,e4tE
1


Note: !ubho !aadiH J,rue %awnK is a glow, which appears in the
eastern hori3on from where the sun is to rise today. ,he brightness
of this glow increases until it spreads along the entire hori3on Js:yK,
and earth becomes bright Ji.e. daylight appearsK.

-efore this, in the centre of the s:y a very light whiteness appears,
under which the entire hori3on remains blac: Jdar:K. !ubho !aadiH
J,rue %awnK brea:s from under this, spreading out to the southern
and northern ends, and then rising upwards.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. 9herever in this boo: the word te4t appears by itself as reference, it will refer to the actual
te4t of the general authentic boo:s of 7iHh, namelyI *udoori, =an3 ul <maal, &aBma Ful )nhur,
!harah 9iHaaya and NiHaaya etc.E
Vol.3 pg.5(


65
,his slight whiteness becomes lost in this. ,his slight whiteness is
:nown as !ubho =aa3ib J7alse %awnK. !ubho =aa3ib does not mar:
the starting time of 7aBr. ,hat which has been mentioned by some,
wherein they say that after the whiteness of !ubho =aa3ib fades
away dar:ness appears, is an incorrect notion. ,he correct view is
that which we have mentioned.

Law: $t is preferred in regards to the Namaa3 of 7aBr to commence
praying it once the glow of !ubho !aadiH brea:s and then starts to
spread a little. Credence should be given to this. ?owever, with
regards to last time of "sha and halting eating at the time of !ehri,
credence should be given to the beginning of !ubho !aadiH Jin other
words, the moment dawn brea:s the time of "sha should be regarded
as having elapsed, and the one ma:ing !ehri should stopK. 0Alamgiri
vol"B $g"EI1

Note: $n this region
1
, the minimum time duration between the
brea: of ,rue %awn and sunrise is at least 1 hour and 10 minutes and
the ma4imum duration is 1 hour and 3( minutes. ,he duration
should be less or more than this. n the 21
st
of &arch, it is 1 hour and
10 minutes, and then it increases until on the 22
nd
;une it reaches the
full 1 hour 3( minutes. $t then starts to decreases until on the 22
nd
of
!eptember when it becomes 1 hour 10 minutes, thereafter it
increases again until the 22
nd
%ecember when it becomes 1 hour 2'
minutes. ,hereafter it decreases again, until on the 21
st
&arch it
returns to the same 1 hour 10 minutes once again. ne, who is not
aware of the time of %awn, should end his !ehri 1 hour '# minutes
before JsunriseK during the summer months, especially during ;une
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,his refers to those cities, which are on the same longitude and latitude as -areilly.

Vol.3 pg.55


66
and ;ulyI and during the winter months, he should end !ehri 1 hour
3# minutes before JsunriseK, especially during %ecember and
;anuary.

,owards the end of &arch and !eptember, when the days and nights
are eHual, one should end !ehri 1 hour 2' minutes before JsunriseK.
ne should give the )3aan of 7aBr 0 or 1# minutes after the times,
which have been mentioned for ending !ehri, so that precaution is
ta:en in regards to both !ehri and )3aan.

!ome uninformed people call out the )3aan one and three Huarter
hours to 2 hours before sunrise. ,hen, they even pray their !unnat
and sometimes even the 7ard in this time.

Neither is this )3aan valid, nor is the Namaa3 valid. !ome people
thin: that the seventh portion of the night is when the 7aBr time
commences. ,his is certainly not correct.

%uring ;une and ;uly, when the days are longer and the nights are
around 1# hours, then in such days, the time of dawn does come into
the seventh portion of night, or even a few minutes before it.

?owever, in %ecember and ;anuary, when the night is 1' hours long,
then in this time, the time of 7aBr only comes in the ninth portion of
the night or even later.

Goo:ing for the indication of the start time of 7aBr is difficult,
especially when it is ha3y and unclear or when it is a moonlit night.
ne should thus always pay attention to the time of sunrise, noting
the time of sunrise on that day and then giving the )3aan the
following day in that time, appro4imately according to the same
Vol.3 pg.5/


67
time as e4plained above for the )3aan and 7aBr Namaa3
1
. D$fadaat+e+
2a3viyah Vol.2 pg.310E

The Time of Zuhr and Jummah

,he ,ime of Luhr and ;ummah is from the time the sun declines
Jfrom mid+dayK up to such time that the shadow of every obBect is
doubled with the e4ception of its original shadow Jwhich was cast at
mid+dayK. 02e%t1

Note: ,he original shadow of an obBect is the shadow, which is
manifested when the sun reaches the ‘Ghat Nisfun Nahaar! Ji.e. the
meridian line of the locationK on that day. ,his differs according to
the region and season. )s the day declines the shadow increases, and
as the day grows the shadow decreases. $n other words, it is longer in
winter and shorter in summer. $t becomes less in those regions
which are closer to the "Huator, whereas in certain regions, during
certain seasons, there is no shadow at all when the sun is directly
over the head Ji.e. e4actly at mid+dayK.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. 9ith regards to that which has been mentioned above, it must be noted that, this refers to
the times at the particular locality in $ndia. ,he times and the duration between the ,rue dawn
and !unrise will differ in your city or town. )s: your local <lama to guide you in regards to the
correct times for your locality. ?owever, the basic principle that *adi !adrush !hariah has
mentioned is that one should always try to end !ehri before the commencement of ,rue %awn,
rather than at the e4act time. $n other words, if in your locality there is 1 hour 2# minute
duration between ,rue %awn and !unrise, you should end your !ehri 1 hour 2( minutes before
sunrise. ,his way you are ending at least ( minutes before the commencement of ,rue %awn,
so there is no ris: of you e4ceeding the time limit, thereby damaging your fast. ,he principle
mentioned in regards to the )3aan is also very clear and that is, as a precautionary measure
one should only call out the )3aan 0 to 1# minutes after the appearance of ,rue %awn, so that
the )3aan is given in the correct time. ,he point that he made is that some people give )3aan
much earlier than the starting time for 7aBr and in doing so, neither will such an )3aan which
has been called out in the incorrect time, nor such Namaa3 which has been performed in the
incorrect time, be regarded as valid.
Vol.3 pg.50


68
?ence, in the winter months, such as in %ecember, the original
shadow in our region Ji.e. -areillyK which lies close to 20 degrees
latitude, which is more than 0 W foot
1
and in &a::ah &ua33amah
which lies at appro4imately 21 degrees, the actual shadow there
during the said season is slightly more than / foot. $t never e4ceeds
this, after this time. !imilarly during the summer months, between
the 2/
th
and 3#
th
of &ay there is no actual shadow at all in &a::ah
during mid+day.

,hereafter, this shadow is seen reversed. $n other words, the
shadow, which used to be seen towards the North, will now be seen
towards the !outh in &a::ah &ua33amah. ,hen, until the 22
nd
of
;une, it e4tends by W foot and then begins to decrease againI until
between the 1(
th
and 10
th
of ;uly it becomes non+e4istent again.
,hereafter it will be seen towards the North again. $n our city
J-areillyK, neither does it fall towards the !outh and nor does it
become in+e4istent, but the shortest shadow is on the 22
nd
of ;une,
when it remains W foot. 0RefM 3fadaat-e-Razviyah vol"= $g"D=71

Note: ,he indication of the sun declining can be gained by planting
a stic: straight JuprightK into flat level ground, in a manner whereby
it is not really tilting towards the "ast or the 9est. )s the suns
height increases, the shadow of the stic: will become smaller. nce
it stops getting any smaller, it has reached its mid+point Ji.e. it has
reached the meridian line of the locationK, and the shadow at that
time is :nown as the !aya+e+)sli, meaning the actual or original

UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,he reference here to 0 W foot and / foot refers to the original shadow of the height of an
average person. $n early times, the height of an average person was used as the unit of
measure and this is what *adi !adrush !hariah means when saying that the original shadow of
an obBect at that particular time is 0 W foot long. $t must also be noted that foot here does not
refer to the foot measure used today, but refers to the si3e of the foot of an average person.
Vol.3 pg.5.


69
shadow. ,hereafter, it will start to grow. ,his is confirmation that it
has now started to move past the point of the meridian line of the
location Ji.e. its 3enithK. Now, the time of Luhr has commenced. ,his
is simply an estimate, because the matter of the shadow becoming
more or less, especially in the summer months, is not easily distinct.

) better method than this is the meridian line of location JtheoryK. $n
this method, one needs to place a compass correctly on level ground
and draw the meridian line of location at the point of the needle. $n
these regions J-areilly, <1K, one should plant a thin conical shaped
rod with a pointed tip straight into the ground, on the southern side
of the line, which should neither be leaning to the "ast or 9est, and
it should be in the e4act centre of the meridian line of location as per
its theory. 9hen the shadow of its tip, coincides e4actly with that
line, it is e4actly mid+day, and if it tilts even minutely towards the
"ast, the Nisfun Nahaar
1
has ended and time of Luhr has
commenced.

The Time of Asr

,he time of )sr commences once the time of Luhr has ended. $n
other words, the time of )sr starts from the time the shadow of any
obBect becomes two times its si3e, e4cluding the original shadow,
and it ends at sunset.

Note: $n these regions, i.e. cities lying along the same longitude
and latitude of -areilly, the minimum duration for )sr is 1 hour and
3( minutes and the ma4imum duration for )sr is appro4imately 2
hours and 5 minutes. ,he detail in regards to this is as follows:

Vol.3 pg./#


70
$n other words, the duration from the 2'
th
ctober from ,ahweel+e+
)Hrab
2
, until the end of the month is 1 hour 35 minutes. ,hen from
the 1
st
November until the 10
th
of 7ebruary Ji.e. for 3 X monthsK, it
remains for almost 1 hour and 3( minutes. ,his is the shortest
duration in the year for )sr. $n this region, the time of )sr is never
shorter than this. ,hen at ,ahweel+e+?aut, from the 1.
th
7ebruary
until the end of month, the duration for )sr will be 1 hour and 35
minutes. ,hen in the first wee: of &arch, it will be for 1 hour and 3/
minutes. $n the second wee:, it will be 1 hour and 30 minutes and in
the third wee:, it will be 1 hour '# minutes. ,hen on the 21
st
&arch,
from ,ahweel+e+?amal until the end of the month the duration of
)sr will be 1 hour '1 minutes. $n the first wee: of )pril, it will be 1
hour '3 minutesI in the second wee:, it will be 1 hour '( minutesI in
the third wee:, it will be 1 hour '0 minutes. 7rom the 2#
th
621
st
)pril
during the ,ahweel+e+,haur until the end of the month, the
duration of )sr is 1 hour (# minutes.

Note: ,he actual times for your locality can be obtained with the
help of your <lama or from the observatory.

,hen in the first wee: of &ay, the duration is 1 hour (3 minutesI in
the second wee:, it is 1 hour (( minutesI in the third wee:, it is 1
hour (0 minutes. ,hen from the 22
nd
623
rd
&ay during the ,ahweel+e+
;au3a until the end of the month the duration is 2 hours 1 minute.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. Nisfun Nahaar is when the !un is at its highest point at mid+day.

2. ,he ,ahweel mentioned in this discussion refers to the crossing of the sun into the
particular celestial station. 7or e4ample, ,ahweel+e+?amal would mean when the sun passes
the celestial station of ?amal, which is called )ries. ,he names of the celestial stations
mentioned above are as follows: )Hrab is !corpion, ?aut is 1isces, ?amal is )ries, ,haur is
,aurus, ;au3a is Memini, !artaan is Cancer, )sad is Geo, !ambla is Virgo and &i3aan is Gibra.
Vol.3 pg./1


71
,hen in the first wee: of ;une, the duration is 2 hours 3 minutesI in
the second wee:, it is 2 hours ' minutesI in the third wee:, it is
2hours ( minutes, then from the 22
nd
;une during the ,ahweel+e+
!artaan up to the end of the month, the duration is 2 hours 5
minutes. ,hen in the first wee: of ;uly, it is 2 hours ( minutesI in the
second wee:, it is 2 hours ' minutesI in the third wee:, it is 2 hours 2
minutesI then on the 23
rd
;uly during the ,ahweel+e+)sad it is 2
hours 1 minute. )fter this, until the end of the month the duration is
2 hours. ,hen in the first wee: of )ugust, the duration of )sr is 1
hour (0 minutesI in the second wee:, it is 1 hour (( minutesI in the
third wee:, it is 1 hour (1 minutes. ,hen from the 23
rd
62'
th
)ugust
during the ,ahweel+e+!ambla, it is 1 hour (# minutes. )fter this,
until the end of the month it is 1 hour '0 minutes. ,hen in the first
wee: of !eptember, the duration is 1 hour '5 minutesI in the second
wee:, it is 1 hour '' minutesI in the third wee:, it is 1 hour '2
minutes, then on the 22
nd
623
rd
!eptember during the ,ahweel+e+
&i3aan, it is 1 hour '1 minutes. )fter this, until the end of the month
it is 1 hour '# minutes. ,hen in the first wee: of ctober, it is 1 hour
3. minutesI in the second wee:, it is 1 hour 30 minutesI in the third
wee:, it will be 1 hour 3/ minutes until 23
rd
ctober. ,he time of )sr
is valid before the setting of the sun. 03fadaat-e-Razviyah vol"= $g"BJE1

The Time of Maghrib

,he time of &aghrib is from the time the sun has set until the setting
of the F!hafaHC i.e. the evening twilight. 02e%t1

Law: )ccording to our &adhab, the F!hafaHC J)byadK, i.e. the evening
twilight refers to the whiteness in the western hori3on after the
setting of the redness J!hafaH e )hmarK, which spreads out in the
southern and northern directions, li:e the JwhitenessK of !ubho
Vol.3 pg./2


72
!aadiH. 09idaya vol"B $g"55( ,harh #i.aaya, vol"B $g"BD@( Alamgiri vol"B
$g"EI( 3fadaat-e-Razviyah vol"= $g"=@D1

$n this region J-areilly etcK, this time duration remains for at least 1
hour 10 minutes and at most 1 hour 3( minutes. D7atawa 2a3viyah
vol.2 pg.2#3E ,his humble servant has also personally noted and
e4perienced this on numerous occasions.

Note: ,he daily times of !ubho J%awnK and &aghrib are eHual Ji.e.
the time difference between the both from mid+day is eHualK.

The Time of Esha and Witr

,he time of "sha and 9itr is from after the setting of the
aforementioned whiteness until the rise of dawn. $t must be noted
that we do not depend on that whiteness which remains outspread
for a lengthy period to the east and west, it is the whiteness after
which spreads out to the North and !outh disappears when "sha
time commences. $t is similar to the !ubho =aa3ib Jfalse dawnK on
the eastern Jhori3onK.

Law: "ven though the time for "sha and 9itr is the same, but
F,arteebC Ji.e. to follow seHuence between both of themK is 7ard, so if
one read his 9itr before the "sha prayer then it will not be valid.
?owever, if one forgetfully read the 9itr before the "sha prayer or if
one later reali3ed that he read the "sha Namaa3 without 9udu, and
then he read the 9itr with 9udu, then in this case 9itr prayer will
be valid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=EB( Alamgiri vol"B $g" EI1

Law: 9ith regards to those cities JregionsK in which the time of "sha
does not appear at all and where the moment the evening twilight
Vol.3 pg./3


73
J!hafaH )byadK sets or even before it sets, the time of 7aBr
commences JBust as in the case of Gondon and -ulgar, where in every
year, there are forty days and nights Jor moreK wherein the time of
"sha does not appear at all, and during certain days it only lasts for a
few seconds or minutesK, so the people in these regions should
perform *a3a for the "sha and 9itr of those days. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar,
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=ED1


The Preferred (Mustahab) Times Of Salaah

$t is &ustahab Jrecommended6preferredK to delay
1
commencing the
7aBr prayer until F)sfaarC Ji.e. until the land has become properly
brightenedK. ?owever, &ustahab to perform it at such a time,
wherein one will be able to recite '# to 5# )yats JversesK with
F,arteel, Ji.e. to recite in a slow, measured, regular toneK and after
turning the !alaam, one should still have sufficient time that if
something which nullifies the Namaa3 occurs then one may be able
to perform ablution and still have sufficient time to recite '# to 5#
verses again. $t is &a:ruh to delay
1
the Namaa3 until such time
whereby there is a chance of the sun rising. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"=E>( Alamgiri vol"B $g"EI1

Law: $t is &ustahab for ?aBis to perform their 7ard in the very
earliest time of 7aBr whilst in &u3dalifa. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EI1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,o delay here does not mean purposefully causing the Namaa3 to become *a3a or reading it
other than in its fi4ed time. $t means delaying it within its fi4ed time, until it becomes bright,
rather than performing it in total dar:ness.

Vol.3 pg./'


74
Law: ,he Namaa3 of 7aBr is always &ustahab for females at FMhalasC,
i.e. in its beginning time. $n regards to all the other !alaahs, it is best
for females to perform these after the time men have performed
their Namaa3 with ;amaCat JcongregationK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, vol"B $g"
=E>1

Law: %uring winter, it is &ustahab to perform Luhr !alaah early Ji.e.
in the beginning timeK and during the summer months, it is
&ustahab to perform the Luhr later Ji.e. towards the latter part of
the timeK. ,his applies whether one performs it individually or in
;amaCat. ?owever, during the summer months, if the ;amaCat for
Luhr is performed in the beginning time, then it is not permissible
to delay ones Namaa3 so that one may read individually in the
&ustahab time Ji.e. one should not omit ;amaCat for this reasonK. ,he
ruling for spring is that which applies to summer and the ruling for
autumn is that which applies to winter. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"=E>( Alamgiri vol"B $g"EI1

Law: ,he &ustahab Jdesirable and preferredK time for ;ummah is
the same as that for Luhr. 0*ahr vol"B $g"=E71

Law: $t is always &ustahab to perform the )sr Namaa3 in the later
time of )sr. ?owever, it should not be delayed to the e4tent that the
dis: of the sun becomes yellowish, whereby one is able to loo: at it
directly without any obscurity, i.e. without the sight being da3ed due
to ha3e. Credence is not given in this case to the yellowness of the
sunlight. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.'0I %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2'/E

Law: $t is preferred that Luhr should be read after the first shadow
and )sr after the second shadow. 0Hhuniya $g"=D51

Vol.3 pg./(


75
Law: 7rom e4perience, the yellowness in the dis: of the sun appears
when there is about 2# minutes left before the sun sets. !o this time
is regarded as F9aHt+e+=arahatC, i.e. non+recommended time.
!imilarly, 2# minutes after sunrise is a permissible time to perform
Jany Namaa3. 0<ataa Razviyah vol"= $g"BJD1 (i"e" su&h as to $erform
,unnats of <a4r hi&h one did not have time to $erform, or any other Nafil
su&h 3shraa. et&"+

Law: ,o delay the Namaa3 means that one should divide the
&ustahab duration of that Namaa3 into two parts. $t should be
performed in the preceding part of that time. 0*ahrur Raa!i. vol"=
$g"=E71

Law: $f one commenced )sr Namaa3 in the &ustahab time but one
performed, it at such a length that it entered into the &a:ruh time,
and then there is no offence or disapproval in this. 0*ahr $g"=E7,
Alamgiri vol"B $g"EI, ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=E51

Law: 9ith the e4ception of when the weather is cloudy and
overcast, it is &ustahab to perform &aghrib promptly Ji.e. without
delaying itK. ,o delay &aghrib for more than the duration of 2
2a:aCats, is &a:ruh+e+,an3eehi. ?owever, it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi
to delay the &aghrib without a valid reason of Bourney or illness etc.
up to such a time that the stars are seen close together Ji.e. clusters
of stars are visibleK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=E5( Alamgiri vol"B $g"EI(
<ataa Razviyah1 (9ere the Namaaz does not be&ome Ma-ruh-e-2ahreemi
but the a&t of delaying the Namaaz is Ma-ruh-e-2ahreemi+

Law: ,o delay "sha until one third of night is &ustahab and to delay
it until half the night is F&ubahC Ji.e. lawfulKI where the 7ard !alaah is
performed before midnight. ,o delay to the e4tent that the night
Vol.3 pg./5


76
starts to decline is &a:ruh as it is the cause for ma:ing the Jsi3e of
theK ;amaCat smaller. 0*ahr vol"B $g"=EI( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=E51

Law: $t is &a:ruh to sleep before performing ones "sha Namaa3 and
it is &a:ruh to tal: of worldly issues and to tell worldly stories and
tales etc. after "sha Namaa3. ,here is no obBection or harm in
discussing necessary issues, reciting the ?oly *urCan, discussing
%eeni issues, narrating anecdotes of the pious and having
conversation with your guest. !imilarly, after the start of 7aBr until
sunrise, it is &a:ruh to discuss any other issue e4cept for being
engrossed in the 2emembrance of )llah, i.e. FLi:r+e+$laahiC. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=E51

Law: ne who is confident of remaining awa:e should perform his
9itr Namaa3 towards the latter portion of the nightI otherwise, he
should perform it before sleeping. ,hereafter, if his eyes open later
that night, he should perform his ,ahaBud, and to repeat his 9itr at
this time is impermissible. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=E71

Law: n cloudy days, it is &ustahab to be prompt in "sha and )sr,
and to delay the other !alaahs. 02e%t1

Law: $t is ?araam to combine the Namaa3 of two times together in
one time, due to the e4cuse of Bourney etc., be this if one read the
second Namaa3 in the time of the first, or if one delays the first to
the e4tent that its time e4pires, thereby reading it in the time of the
second Namaa3. ?owever, in the second case, ones responsibility for
fulfilling the first Namaa3 will be regarded as being discharged, as it
has been read in the sense of it being *a3a, even though one will
charged with Munah+e+=abeera JmaBor sinK for allowing the Namaa3
to become *a3a Ji.e. allowing it to e4pireK. )s for the first case, then
Vol.3 pg.//


77
in this situation, the second Namaa3 will not even be regarded, as
being valid and the one will still be responsible for discharging the
7ard. ?owever, if one combines them with a valid e4cuse of Bourney
or illness etc., in the manner and situation whereby one performs
the first Namaa3 in its last time, and the second Namaa3 in its
beginning timeI then in fact both have been read within their
respective times and there is no obBection to this. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EI
ith further detail1

Law: ,he case of Namaa3 at )rafat and &u3dalifa is e4cluded and
distinct from the above rule. $n )rafat, Luhr and )sr will be prayed
in the time of Luhr, and in &u3dalifa, &aghrib and "sha will be read
in the time of "sha. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ1

Makruh Times of Salaah

No Namaa3 is permissible at the following 3 times:

1. !unrise
2. !unset
3. Nisfun Nahaar Jwhen the sun it at its LenithK

%uring the above mentioned times, one is not permitted to perform
any type of 7ard, 9aaBib or Nafil 1rayer, be it F)daC JNamaa3 of fi4ed
timeK or F*a3aC JNamaa3 after e4pired timeK. !imilarly, !aBdah+e+
,ilaawat or !aBdah+e+!ahw is also impermissible at this time.
?owever, if one did not perform ones )sr Namaa3 for that day, then
even though the sun is already setting, one should read the )sr, but
to have delayed it to such an e4tent is ?araam. ,his has been
mentioned in the ?adith as the FNamaa3 of a hypocriteC.
Vol.3 pg./0


78
F,ulooC Ji.e. sunriseK is from the time the rim of the sun appears until
such a time that the sight is da3ed by loo:ing at it. ,his duration is
for about 2# minutes from after the rim has appeared. !unset is from
the time the vision is not obscured or da3ed when loo:ing at it Jthe
sunK, up to the time, it sets.

,his duration also lasts for about 2# minutes. Nisfun Nahaar here
refers to the time from Nisfun Nahaar !harCi up to Nisfun Nahaar
?aHeeHi meaning it is until such time that the sun slips down, which
is :nown as ‘Aaha-e-Gubra!. $n other words, one should ta:e the
start time of 7aBr and the sunset time for the day and divide into 2
eHual parts.

9hen the first part ends, it mar:s the beginning of Nisfun Nahaar
!harCi, and from this time until such time that the sun declines, is the
forbidden time for every Namaa3. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar
K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=EI( <ataa Razviyah vol"= $g"D@51

Law: $f laymen are reading their 7aBr Namaa3 whilst the sun is
rising, they should not be interrupted. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=EI1" $n
other words, they should not be interrupted whilst reading. )fter
they have completed their Namaa3, they should be informed and
as:ed to repeat their Namaa3 after sunrise.

Law: $f a ;anaa3ah is brought during the forbidden or offensive time,
it should be performed in that time, as there is not disapproval of
this. $t is only disapproved if the ;anaa3ah was ready before the
Namaa3 was delayed, until such time that the forbidden time
appeared. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g" =EI1

Vol.3 pg./.


79
Law: $f an F)yat+e+!aBdahC JVerse that necessitates !aBdahK is recited
during these times, it is better to delay the !aBdah until the
forbidden time elapses. ?owever, if one does perform the !aBdah
during the forbidden time, it is also regarded as permissible. $f one
recited the )yat+e+!aBdah in a non+&a:ruh time and then performed
the !aBdah in a &a:ruh time, it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. 0Alamgiri vol"B
$g"EJ1

Law: *a3a Namaa3 during these times is impermissible. $f one
already started the *a3a Namaa3 during this time, it is 9aaBib to
brea: the Namaa3 and then read it in a non+&a:ruh time. ?owever,
if one does not brea: the Namaa3 but completes it, the 7ard will be
discharged, but he is sinful. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"=EI1

Law: $f a person made a vow to perform Namaa3 during this specific
time, or if one made an absolute vow to perform Namaa3, then in
both cases it is impermissible to fulfil these vows during these
forbidden times. ,his vow must be fulfilled in an appropriate time of
Namaa3. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>@( Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ1

Law: $f one commenced any Nafil, during this time then it becomes
9aaBib to fulfil them, but to perform them during this time is
impermissible. $t is thus 9aaBib to brea: the Namaa3 and perform its
*a3a in the appropriate time. ?owever, if one already performed the
Namaa3 in this time, then one has committed a sinful act, but now it
is not 9aaBib to perform the *a3a. 0Hhuniya $g"=E=( ?urr-e-Mu-htar
vol"B $g"=>@1

Vol.3 pg.0#


80
Law: "ven those Namaa3 that commenced in a &ubah JlawfulK or
&a:ruh time and then caused to brea:, should not be read during
these times. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>B1

Law: $t is not preferred to recite the ?oly *urCan during these times.
$t is rather better to spend this time in Li:r and %urood !hareef.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>@1

Law: $t is disallowed to perform Nafil during 12 times and from
amongst them, i.e. during numbers 5 and 12, the performance of
7ard and 9aaBib Namaa3, ;anaa3ah Namaa3 and !aBdah+e+,ilaawat is
disallowed:

1. 7rom the start of 7aBr until sunrise. %uring this time with the
e4ception of the !unnat of 7aBr, no other Nafil Namaa3 is permitted.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B, =>B1

Law: $f a person was reading Nafil Namaa3 before the
commencement of 7aBr time, and he had only Bust read one 2a:aCat
and the time of 7aBr commenced, then he should complete the
second 2a:aCat as well. ?owever, both these 2a:aCats cannot be
regarded as being in place of the !unnat of 7aBr. $f one made the
intention of reading ' 2a:aCats Jof NafilK and after reading the first
2a:aCat the time of 7aBr commenced then he completed the entire '
2a:aCatsI the last 2 2a:aCats will be regarded as being in place of the
!unnat of 7aBr. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ1

Law: )fter the Namaa3 of 7aBr has been performed, right up to
sunrise, even if sufficient amount of time is remaining, and even if
the !unnat of the 7aBr was not performed before the 7ard then he
Vol.3 pg.01


81
now wishes to read it Ji.e. the !unnatK, it is not permissible to do so.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=>B1

Law: $f the !unnat of 7aBr commenced before the 7ard of 7aBr and
then annulled and he now wishes to read the *a3a for it after the
7ard of 7aBr, it is still not permitted. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ1

2. $f the $Haamat for ;amaCat according to your &adhab has been
given, then from the time of the $Haamat until the end of the
;amaCat, it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi to read any !unnat or Nafil.
?owever, if the ;amaCat for 7aBr has already commenced and if one
:nows that by reading ones !unnat, one will still be able to catch the
;amaCat. "ven though it means Boining in the *aCda, then in this case
the ruling is that one should move away from the ;amaCat and read
the two !unnat of 7aBr, thereafter Boin the ;amaCat. $f one :nows that
by reading the !unnat, the ;amaCat will elude him, and he still
neglected the ;amaCat for the sa:e of reading his !unnat, then this is
an impermissible and sinful act. $n all the other !alaahs, even if one
:nows that after reading the !unnats for them he will still catch the
;amaCat, it is still not allowed for him to read the !unnats once the
;amaCat has commenced. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"=>=1

3. 7rom after )sr Namaa3, up to the time that the sun becomes
yellowish, all Nafils are disallowed. $f one started a Nafil Namaa3 in
this time and then bro:e the Namaa3, then too one is not permitted
to perform its *a3a in this time. $f he still persists and continues this
Namaa3 in this time, it will not be regarded as being valid. ?e will
not be absolved from the responsibility of performing that *a3a.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>B( Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ1

Vol.3 pg.02


82
'. 7rom the time of sunset, right up to the 7ard of &aghrib. 0Alamgiri
vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>=1" ?owever, $mam $bn )l
?umaam made an e4ception for 2 very short 2a:aCats.

(. 7rom the moment the $mam stands up from his place to deliver
the =hutbah JsermonK of ;ummah until the end of the 7ard of
;ummah, it is &a:ruh to perform any Nafil Namaa3, and this even
includes the !unnat of ;ummah. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>=1

5. Namaa3, including *a3a Namaa3 is not permissible at the time of
=hutbahI be it during the first or second =hutbah, or during the
=hutbah of ;ummah or any other =hutbah, such as the =hutbah of
"ids, =asoof, $stisHa, ?aBB or Ni:ah. ?owever, one who is a !aahib+e+
,arteeb is permitted to perform his *a3a whilst the ;ummah
=hutbah is in progress. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>=1

Law: $f one had already commenced the !unnat of ;ummah and the
$mam got up from his place to deliver the ;ummah =hutbah then in
this case, one should complete the entire ' 2a:aCats. 0Alamgiri vol"B
$g"EJ1

/. Nafil before both the "id Namaa3 is &a:ruh, be it at home, at the
"id Mah or at the &asBid. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"=>D1

0. Nafil after both the "id Namaa3 is &a:ruh, if it is read at the "id
Mah or at the &asBid. $t is however not &a:ruh if done at home Jafter
the "id prayerK. 0Alamgiri, ?urr-e-Mu-htar1

.. $t is &a:ruh to perform any Nafil or !unnat in+between, or after
Luhr and )sr, which are performed together JcombinedK at )rafat.
Vol.3 pg.03


83
1#. Nafil and !unnat is &a:ruh only between the &aghrib and "sha,
which is combined at &u3dalifa. ?owever, it is not &a:ruh to do so
after completion Jof bothK. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g=>D1

11. $f the time remaining for the 7ard is very little then to perform
any other Namaa3 including the !unnats of 7aBr and Luhr is &a:ruh.

12. $t is &a:ruh to perform any Namaa3 if one has the ability to
remove the intrusion of any such thing that distracts the heart Jfrom
praying with devotionKI for e4ample, if one is overwhelmed by the
need to pass urine, stool or air JflatulenceK.

?owever, if the fi4ed time is elapsing then one should perform the
Namaa3 and then repeat it later. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( ?urr-e-Mu-htar
vol"B $g"=>D1

!imilarly if food has been served and you have the yearning to
parta:e in it, or if any other such situation arises which causes ones
sincerity Jin worshipK to be diminished, or ones heart to be
distracted then to read Namaa3 during such times is also &a:ruh.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>D( Alamgiri vol"B $g"EJ( *ahrur Raa!i. vol"B $g"
=>E1

ne may perform 7aBr and Luhr during anytime from their
beginning up to their last time without any censure. 0*ahrur Raa!i.
vol"B $g"=>J1

$t is not &a:ruh no matter in which portion of their fi4ed durations
one reads them.

Vol.3 pg.0'


84



























Vol.3 pg.0(


85




Chapter 2

Azaan
The Call to Prayer



* Virtues of Azaan 86

* Virtues of Replying To the Azaan 91

* Laws of Jurisprudence 93

* Laws regarding Iqaamat 104

* Dua after Azaan 112

* Tasweeb 113





Vol.3 pg.05


86
#Β´ρ #¡)& ¯θ% #´!¸Β 7;6 ’A¸) ¸-# Ÿ≅¸!*´ρ $´s¸=≈1 B$%´ρ C¸DΡ¸) ´#¸Β 6¸!¸=`¡!9#

‘And hose ord is better than him, ho invites toards Allah( and
$erforms virtuous deeds, and says( ‘3 am a Muslim! D!urah '1, Verse 33E

)meer ul &omineen 7arooH+e+)3am and ?a3rat )bdullah bin Laid
)bd 2ab ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, were taught the words of )3aan in their dream.
,he -eloved 2asool  said that this dream was a F,rue %reamC. ?e
 commanded )bdullah ibn Laid ؓ  , FMo to -ilal and inform him of
it, so that he may call out the )3aan, as he has a louder voice than
youC. )bu %awud, ,irmi3i, $bn &aBah and %aarmi have reported this
?adith. 2asoolullah  instructed ?a3rat -ilal ؓ  to place his fingers
into his ears when calling out the )3aan, as this causes the sound of
the )3aan to be more high pitched. $bn &aBah has reported this
?adith from ?a3rat )bdur 2ahmaan bin !aCad ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:,.

,here are numerous virtues and distinctions mentioned in the
?adith regarding the calling of the )3aan. ) few virtues of calling
out the )3aan are being presented here:

Hadith 1: &uslim, )hmed and $bn &aBah report from &uCawiyah
ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F,he nec:s of the &uCa33ins shall be the
elevated on the day of *iyaamat.C )llama )bdur 2auf &anawi has
mentioned in ,ayseer that this ?adith is in the merit of &utawatir.
"4plaining the meaning of this ?adith, he mentions that the
&uCa33ins will truly be hopeful of the &ercy of )llah, and one who is
hopeful of something in particular will stretch his nec: out towards
that which he is hopeful of and that which he wishes. $t could also
mean that they will receive a great reward. !ome have mentioned
that this is a metaphor, in the sense that, they shall not be
Vol.3 pg.0/


87
dishonoured because the nec: of one who is dishonoured or
humiliated hangs down Jwhilst the nec: of one who is given honour
is elevatedK.

Hadith 2: $mam )hmed reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F)s far as the sound of a &uCa33in reaches,
forgiveness is recorded, every dry and wet thing which hears his
voice is witness to it.C $t has been mentioned in another narration
that, F"very wet and dry thing which hears his voice will testify on
his behalf.C )nother narration mentions that, F"very clod of clay and
every stone will testify for himC

Hadith 3: -u:hari, &uslim, &aali: and )bu %awud report from
)bu ?urairah ؓ that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen the )3aan is called
out, shaitaan flees whilst passing air, so far away that he is not able
to hear the sound of the )3aan. ?e returns when the )3aan has been
completed then he flees again whilst the $Haamat is called out, and
then again he returns when it is completed. ?e causes distraction by
saying, thin: of a certain and certain thing, which you did not thin:
of beforeI to the point where a person does not remember how much
Ji.e. how many 2a:aCatsK he has performed.C

Hadith 4: !ahih &uslim from ;aabir ؓ  narrates that ?u3oor 
said, F9hen shaitaan hears the )3aan, he flees to the distance of
2owha.C ,he distance of 2owha from &adina is eHual to 35 miles.

Hadith 5: ,abrani reports from $bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that
2asoolullah  said, F,he one who gives )3aan with the intention of
acHuiring reward, is li:e a !haheed JmartyrK, whose body is covered
in blood and when he passes away, his body will not be infested by
worms.C
Vol.3 pg.00


88
Hadith 6: $mam -u:hari reports in his ,aari:h from )nas ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen a &uCa33in calls out the )3aan, )lmighty
)llah places ?is F%ast+e+*udratC J%ivine MraceK over his head and it
remains in this way until he has completed calling out the )3aanI
and he is forgiven for as far as his voice reaches. 9hen he has
completed Jthe )3aanK, )lmighty )llah says, F&y servant has spo:en
the ,ruth and you have testified to the ,ruth, so glad+tidings be
upon youC.C

Hadith 7: $n ,abrani !agheer from )nas ؓ it is narrated that
2asoolullah  said, F)llah gives protection from his punishment to
that locality for the day, wherein )3aan was called out.C

Hadith 8: $t is in ,abrani from &uCHil bin Pasaar ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,hat community in which )3aan was called in
the morning, will be safe from the punishment of )llah until evening
and that community in which )3aan was given in the evening will be
safe from the punishment of )llah until morning.C

Hadith 9: )bu PaCla reports in &usnad from <bay ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F$ entered ;annat and saw %omes made from
pearls. $ts dust was from mus:. $ said, F ;ibraCeel> 7or whom is thisOC
?e said, F$t is for the &uCa33ins and $mams of ?u3oorCs <mmat.C

Hadith 10: $mam )hmed reports from )bu !aCeed ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, F$f only people :now the amount of reward they
will receive for calling out the )3aan, they would draw their swords
for this, amongst themselves.C

Hadith 11: ,irmi3i and $bn &aBah report from ?a3rat $bn )bCbas
ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F)llah will write freedom from
Vol.3 pg.0.


89
hell for a person who gives )3aan for seven years, only for attaining
its reward.C

Hadith 12: $bn &aBah and ?aa:im report from ?a3rat $bn <mar ¸:,
_ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ that 2asoolullah  said, F;annat is 9aaBib JcompulsoryK upon
a person who called out )3aan for twelve years. !i4ty good deeds will
be recorded for his daily )3aan and thirty good deeds will be
recorded for his $Haamats.C

Hadith 13: -aihaHi reports from ,haubaan ؓ  in this manner that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who protected the )3aan Ji.e. called it outK
for one year, ;annat is 9aaBib upon him.C

Hadith 14: -aihaHi reported from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who gave the )3aan of five Namaa3 on the
basis of $maan and solely for attaining its reward. ,hen all his past
sins shall be forgivenI and one who performs $mamat amongst his
friends Ji.e. leads them in Namaa3K for five Namaa3, on the basis of
$maan and solely for attaining reward, then his past sins shall be
forgiven.C

Hadith 15: $bn )saa:ir reported from )nas ؓ  that 2asoolullah 
said, Fne who called out the )3aan for a year without demanding
any payment for it, will be summoned on the day of *iyaamat and
made to stand at the %oor of ;annat. ?e will then be told, $ntercede
Jma:e !hafaCatK for whomsoever you wish.C

Hadith 16: =hateeb and $bn )saa:ir report from )nas ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,he &uCa33ins will appear on the 1lains of
?ashr whilst riding on camels from ;annat. ,hey shall be lead at the
front by ?a3rat -ilal ؓ  , and all of them will come forth calling out
Vol.3 pg..#


90
the )3aan aloud. 1eople will loo: at them and enHuire in regards to
who they are and it will be said, Fthey are the &uCa33ins of <mmat+e+
&uhammad . 1eople are stric:en with fear, yet they have no fear>
1eople will be enveloped in grief, yet they have no grief.C

Hadith 17: )bu !hay:h reports from )nas ؓ that 2asoolullah 
said, F9hen the )3aan is called, the %oors of the !:ies are opened
and %uas JinvocationsK are accepted. %ua is not reBected at the time
when the $Haamat is given.C )bu %awud and ,irmi3i have also
reported from him J)nas ؓ  K that 2asoolullah  said, F%ua is not
reBected in the time between )3aan and $Haamat.C

Hadith 18: %aarmi and )bu %awud reported from !ahl bin !aCad
ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F,wo %uas are never reBected or are very
rarely reBectedI Jone isK at the time of )3aan and the other is during
the intensity of ;ihad.C

Hadith 19: )bu !hay:h reports that the -eloved 2asool  said, F
$bn )bCbas> )3aan is associated with Namaa3, so none from amongst
you should call out the )3aan unless he is in 9udu.C

Hadith 20: ,irmi3i reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that 2asoolullah
 said:
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Hadith 21: $n -u:hari, )bu %awud, ,irmi3i, NasaCi, $bn &aBah and
)hmed from ;aabir ؓ it is that 2asoolullah  said, F&y intercession
is 9aaBib JcompulsoryK upon that person who hears the )3aan and
then reads this %uaC:

Vol.3 pg..1


91

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Hadith 22: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, ,irmi3i and NasaCi have
reported from $bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F2eply to
the &uCa33in, then send %urood upon me, and then see: my 9asila
JintercessionK.C

Hadith 23: ,he narration of ,abrani from $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, also
has
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Hadith 24: $n ,abrani from =aCab bin <Brah ؓ  it is narrated that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen you hear the )3aan, then reply to the one
who is inviting you towards )llahC Ji.e. reply to the &uCa33ins wordsK.

Hadith 25: $bn &aBah reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen you hear the &uCa33in proclaiming the
)3aan then you too should say that which he says.C

Hadith 26: 2asoolullah  said, F$t is sufficient for a believer to
Jincur upon himselfK misfortune and ill+luc: by hearing the &uCa33in
calling out the ,a:beer and not replying to itC.

Hadith 27: 2asoolullah  said, F$t is inBustice, complete inBustice
and :ufr JdisbeliefK and hypocrisy when a person hears )llahCs
announcer Ji.e. the &uCa33inK calling out the )3aan and he does not
present himself Jin Namaa3K.C -oth these )hadith J?adith 25 and
?adith 2/K have been reported in ,abrani from &uCa3 ibn )nas ؓ .
,here is great virtue in giving the answer to the )3aan.

Vol.3 pg..2


92
Hadith 28: ,he narration of )bu !hay:h from &ughira bin !huCba
ؓ  mentions that, F?e will be forgivenC.

Hadith 29: $bn )saa:ir reported that 2asoolullah  said, F
assembly of females> 9hen you hear -ilal calling out the )3aan and
$Haamat then you too should say Bust as he says, as )llah will record
for you a hundred thousand good deeds for every word, and ?e will
elevate you by a thousand folds, and ?e shall wipe out a thousand of
your sins.C ,he women said, F,his is for the females, so what is there
for the malesOC ?e  said, F7or the males, it is doubledC.

Hadith 30: ,abrani has reported from &aymuna ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that the
females will be elevated by a million folds for every wordI 7arooH+e+
)3am ؓ  enHuired if this was for the women, then what is there for
the men, and 2asoolullah  said, F%oubleC.

Hadith 31: ?aa:im and )bu NuCaim report from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F,here are two hundred and twenty
virtuous deeds more for a &uCa33in compared to one who simply
reads the Namaa3, e4cept for the one who repeats whatever he Jthe
&uCa33inK has said. $f he has called out the $Haamat, then he has
received one hundred and forty virtuous deeds more, unless he too
repeats the same.C

Hadith 32: $n !ahih &uslim it is narrated from )meer ul
&omineen ?a3rat <mar ؓ that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen a
&uCa33in calls out the )3aan. ,hen whosoever says as he has said and
when he J&uCa33inK proclaims
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#a Na Qu!ata il!la *il!laahi!. ?e shall enter ;annat J1aradiseK.C

Vol.3 pg..3


93
Hadith 33: )bu %awud, ,irmi3i and $bn &aBah reported that Liyad
bin ?aarith !adaCi ؓ said, F2asoolullah  instructed me to call out
the )3aan for the 7aBr Namaa3. $ called out the )3aan and -ilal ؓ
intended to call out the $Haamat, so he  said, F!adaCi has called out
the )3aan, so the one who calls out the )3aan should call out the
$HaamatC.C

Laws of Jurisprudence

)ccording to the common law of !hariah, )3aan is a specific
announcement JproclamationK for which the words are specified.
,he words of )3aan are:


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´

´
ﷲ´ﺍ
¸
- ´ ·´ .` ﻟﺍ

Allahu A-bar Allahu A-bar,
Allahu A-bar Allahu A-bar(
Ash 9adu Al Naa ilaaha il!lal laah,
Ash 9adu Al Naa ilaaha il!lal laah,
Ash 9adu An!na Muhammadar Rasoolullah,
Ash 9adu An!na Muhammadar Rasoolullah,
9ay!ya alas ,alaati,
9ay!ya alas ,alaah,
9ay!ya alal <alaahi,
9ay!ya alal <alaah,
Allahu A-bar
Allahu A-bar,
Naa ilaaha il!lal laah
Vol.3 pg..'


94
Law: 9hen the 7ive %aily 7ard JNamaa3K which includes ;ummah,
are performed in the &asBid with ;amaCat in the preferred ;amaCat
time, then to call out )3aan for it Ji.e. to announce itK is !unnat+e+
&uCa::adah. ,he command regard to this is that it is eHuivalent to
9aaBib JcompulsoryK, for if )3aan is not proclaimed there, then all
those in that community will be regarded as being sinful. ,he
intensity is to the e4tent that $mam &uhammad .ﻤﺣ, ﷲﺍ _ﺎ.. has stated
that if all the people of a city discontinue calling out the )3aan, then
$ will wage a war against them, and if one person discontinues it, $
shall beat him Ji.e. reprimand himK and have him imprisoned.
0Ghania vol"B $g"55( 9indiya $g">@( ?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"=>71

Law: $t is &a:ruh to perform the ;amaCat Jcongregational prayerK in
the &asBid without proclaiming the )3aan and $Haamat. 0Alamgiri
vol"B $g">B1

Law: )3aan should not be said if performing *a3a Namaa3 in the
&asBid. $f a person living in a city or town performs his Namaa3 at
home and does not call out the )3aan, there is no obBection to this, as
the )3aan from the &asBid there is sufficient for him but it is
&ustahab to give the )3aan. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=>71

Law: $f there is a &asBid in a village Ji.e. rural areaK then the ruling
in regards to one who performs his Namaa3 at home is the same
which applies to one who is in a city Ji.e. urban areaK. $f there is no
&asBid in the rural area then the ruling in regards to )3aan and
$Haamat for him is the same, which applies to a &usafir
Jtraveller6wayfarerK. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">B1

Vol.3 pg..(


95
Law: $f one is outside the city, in a township, orchard Ji.e. farmK, or
in the fields and this place is nearby then in this case the )3aan from
the town or rural area will suffice. ?owever, it is still better to
proclaim the )3aan. $f one is not close Jto the city etc.K then the
)3aan from there is not sufficient. ,he meaning of being nearby or
close enough is that the sound of the )3aan can be heard. 0Alamgiri
vol"B $g">B1

Law: $f people read Namaa3 in the &asBid with ;amaCat, then later
realised that the Namaa3 was not valid Jfor some reasonK, and time is
remaining Jfor that Namaa3K, then they may repeat the Namaa3 in
the same &asBid with ;amaCat and the )3aan should not be repeated.
$f the gap between both was not too long, then there is also no need
to repeat the $Haamat. ?owever, if the gap was lengthy, then the
$Haamat should be repeated, and if the time has e4pired, it should be
read out of the &asBid with )3aan and $Haamat. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g" =5=( Alamgiri vol"B $g">B( in&luding 3fadaat-e-Razviyah1

Law: $f an entire congregation missed a Namaa3 Ji.e. their Namaa3
became *a3aK, then they may read it with )3aan and $Haamat. ne is
even permitted to proclaim the )3aan and $Haamat if one is
performing *a3a individually, when he alone in an isolated place,
otherwise, to disclose that you are reading *a3a is a sin.

?ence, it is &a:ruh to read ones *a3a in a &asBid and if it is
performed in the &asBid, then one should not proclaim the )3aan for
it, and if one is performing 9itr *a3a there, one should not raise the
hands for %ua+e+*unoot. ?owever, if the Namaa3 became *a3a due
to such a reason, which affects all the &uslims there, then in this
case )3aan will be proclaimed even if it is read in the &asBid.
Vol.3 pg..5


96
0Alamgiri vol"B $g">=( ?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g" =5=1 ith
&larifi&ation from 3fadaat-e-Razviyah

Law: $f a few Namaa3 of those who perform their Namaa3 in
congregation becomes *a3a, then in this case they may proclaim the
)3aan and $Haamat for the first Namaa3, and for the other Namaa3
Jfor which they will perform *a3aK, they have the option of either
proclaiming both or simply sufficing with the $Haamat. ?owever, it is
better to proclaim both.

,his applies only if they perform all of them in one instance.
?owever, if they perform it in different instances Ji.e. timesK then in
this case, they should proclaim the )3aan for the first one in every
time. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">B1

Law: )3aan should be given after the prescribed time of the
particular Namaa3 has commenced. $f the )3aan was given before
the time started or if one started to proclaim it before the time
commenced, and during the course of the )3aan the time did
commence, then in both cases the )3aan must be repeated
1
. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar te%t vol"B $g"=>I1

Law: ,he &ustahab time for )3aan is the same time, which is
regarded as &ustahab for that particular Namaa3. $n other words,
the &ustahab time for the )3aan of 7aBr is after the whiteness starts
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

1. 9hat this really means is that if one is giving )3aan for &aghrib !alaah, it can only be
proclaimed for &aghrib after the time of &aghrib has commenced. $f one called out the )3aan
for &aghrib in the time of )sr or started calling it out at the time of )sr and then &aghrib
commenced then in both cases it must be repeated.

Vol.3 pg../


97
to spread, and in the beginning time of &aghrib and of Luhr in
winterI and after half the time has passed for the Luhr in summer
and for )sr and "sha during anytime of the year. ?owever, for )sr
Namaa3, it should not be proclaimed with such delay that whilst
performing the Namaa3 the &a:ruh time appears. $f the )3aan was
given in the beginning time of any Namaa3, and the Namaa3 was
performed in the ending time of that Namaa3, then too the !unnat of
)3aan has been accomplished. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"=>I1

Law: 9ith the e4ception of the 7araaCid Ji.e. the 7ard 1rayersK there
is no )3aan for the other !alaahs, such as for 9itr, "idain Jboth "idsK,
Na3r JNamaa3 read to fulfil a vowK, !unan, 2awaatib, ,araweeh,
$stisHa, =asoof, =husoof and Nafils. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">@1

Law: $t is &ustahab to proclaim the )3aan in the ear of a Jnew+bornK
childI in the ear of an aggrieved personI in the ear of one who is
having an epileptic sei3ureI one who is overwhelmed by angerI in the
ear of an ill+tempered person or animalI during the intensity of a
battleI when a fire is ragingI after burying a deceasedI when a ;in is
displaying its mischiefI and behind a travellerI and when you lose
your way in a Bungle Ji.e. in an isolated and harsh environmentK and
there is none to guide you. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g" =>I1" $t is also
&ustahab to proclaim the )3aan during any plague Jor disasterK.
0<ataa Razviyah1

Law: $t is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi for females to call out the )3aan and
$Haamat. $f they do call it out, they will be sinful and it must be
repeated. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">@( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=>I1

Vol.3 pg..0


98
Law: 9hether females are performing their Namaa3 as F)daC or
*a3aI it is &a:ruh for them to proclaim the )3aan or $Haamat for it
even if they are reading it in a congregation. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"=5=1" 2eason being that the congregational prayers for females is
by itself &a:ruh. 02e%t1

Law: ,he )3aan proclaimed by an =hunsa or a 7aasiH Jopen sinnerK
even though he may be an )alim, one in the state of into4ication, an
insane person, a child who has not reached the age of understanding
and a person in the state of ;anaabat Jone in an impure state and in
need of the mandatory ritual bathK, is &a:ruh. ,he )3aan given by
any of the above+mentioned persons must be repeated. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5D1

Law: ,he )3aan proclaimed by a child who has already reached the
age of understanding, a slave Ji.e. servantK, a blind person, one who
is an illegitimate child, and one without 9udu, is regarded as being
valid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5=1" ?owever, it is &a:ruh for one who
is not in 9udu to proclaim the )3aan. 0Mara.i Al <alah $g"B@71

Law: $t is impermissible to proclaim the )3aan for Luhr in a City
J<rban areaK on a 7riday, even though those praying Luhr there may
be e4empt for some valid reason from ;ummah being 7ard upon
them. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=5=1

Law: ,he one who is aware and has :nowledge of the times of the
Namaa3 is the one who is suitable for proclaiming the )3aan. $f he is
not aware of the times, then he is not deserving of the reward, which
is appropriate to a &uCa33in. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">@( Hhuniya vol"B $g" D5=1

Vol.3 pg...


99
Law: $t is &ustahab for the &uCa33in to be a male who is of sane
mindI a pious and )llah fearingI who has :nowledge of the !unnah,
and is dignified, and one who is the guardian of the affairs of the
people, and one who cautions those who abstain from Namaa3 in
;amaCat, and one who is continuous and punctual in calling out the
)3aan, and one who calls out the )3aan for the sa:e of attaining its
reward Ji.e. he does not ta:e a salary for itK. $f the &uCa33in is a blind
person, and if there is such a person, who correctly informs him in
regards to the time, then his )3aan and the )3aan of a seeing person
is, ali:e Ji.e. there is no discrepancyK. 0Alamgiri1

Law: $f the $mam is the same person who calls out the )3aan Ji.e. the
&uCa33inK, then this is even better. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5I1

Law: 7or one person to give )3aan in two different &osHues in one
time Jof 1rayerK is &a:ruh. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5I1

Law: ,he right of appointing the $mam and &uCa33in is that of the
founder of the &asBid Ji.e. or the person in charge of the &asBidK. $f
he is not there, then it is the right of his children and the people of
his tribe. $f the people in the community appointed such a person as
the $mam or the &uCa33in, who is better Jmore appropriate in the
light of !hariatK as the $mam or &uCa33in, then such a person is more
appropriate. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=5I1

Law: $f the &uCa33in passes away whilst proclaiming the )3aanI or if
he loses his power of speechI or if he stopped Jdue to forgetting etc.K
and there is none to tell him what followsI or if his 9udu becomes
nullified Jbrea:sK and he went to perform fresh 9uduI or if he lost
consciousness, then in all such cases, the )3aan must be repeated,
Vol.3 pg.1##


100
even if he or another person is calling it out again. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar
vol"B $g"=5D( Hhuniya vol"B $g"D5B1

Law: $f after proclaiming the )3aan J)llah 7orbidK, the &uCa33in
becomes a &urtad Japostate, i.e. he left the fold of $slamKI there is no
need to repeat that )3aan Jwhich he proclaimedK. ?owever, it is
better to repeat it. $f he became a &urtad whilst proclaiming the
)3aan then it is better for another person to proclaim the )3aan
afresh from the beginning, and if the other person completes it from
there forth, it is also permissible. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">@1" $n other words,
this means that the other person should complete the )3aan from
the point where the person who became &urtad stopped. ,his does
not mean that the one who has become &urtad should still complete
it even after committing apostasy, for the )3aan of an unbeliever is
not regarded as being valid and will not earn him any reward, so the
invalidation of part is invalidation of everything. ,herefore, if there
is something that nullifies the preceding 2a:aCat in Namaa3, it will
invalidate the entire Namaa3. 03fadaat-e-Razviyah1

Law: $t is &a:ruh to proclaim the )3aan whilst sitting. $f it was
proclaimed whilst sitting, it should be repeated JstandingK. ?owever,
if a &usafir JtravellerK proclaims the )3aan whilst sitting on the
mode of transport, it is not &a:ruh. ,he &usafir should dismount
and proclaim the $Haamat. ?owever, if he does not dismount and
proclaims the $Haamat whilst on the mode of transport, it will still be
regarded as being valid. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">@( Raddul Muhtar1

Law: )3aan should be proclaimed whilst facing the direction of the
*ibla and to act contrary to this is &a:ruh. $n this case, the )3aan
should be repeated. ?owever if a &usafir who is on a mode of
transport, does not face the direction of the *ibla when proclaiming
Vol.3 pg.1#1


101
the )3aan, there is no obBection. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5@( Alamgiri
vol"B $g">@1

Law: ,o clear the throat without reason whilst proclaiming the
)3aan is &a:ruh. ?owever, if one clears the throat because ones
voice has become hoarse and one wishes to bring more clarity in the
voice, then there is no obBection. 0Hhuniya $g"D5B1

Law: $t is &a:ruh for the &uCa33in to wal: whilst proclaiming the
)3aan. $f someone calls out the )3aan whilst wal:ing, then the )3aan
must be repeated. 0Hhuniya $g" D5B( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=5D1

Law: $t is disallowed to tal: whilst proclaiming the )3aan. $f one did
tal: whilst calling out the )3aan, it must be repeated. 0,agheeri $g"BJ51

Law: ,o proclaim the words of the )3aan with FGahnC Ji.e. with
incorrect pronunciationK is ?araam. $n other words, to change the
?am3a Ji.e. )lifK in the word )llah or ):bar, by adding a F&addC and
reading it as F)allahC and F)a:barC. !imilarly, to read it by adding an
alif after ):bar is also ?araam. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>I( Alamgiri
vol"B $g">=1

Law: !imilarly, to sing the )3aan in a musical style is also regarded
as a FGahnC and to do so is impermissible. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=>J1

Law: $t is !unnat to proclaim the )3aan Jwhilst standingK on an
elevated place, so that those in the neighbourhood may hear it
clearly. )3aan should be proclaimed in a loud voice. 0*ahr1

Law: $t is however &a:ruh to force the voice more than ones
strength to do so. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">=1
Vol.3 pg.1#2


102
Law: ,he )3aan should be called out from the specially built area for
)3aan or from outside the &asBid. )3aan should not be given inside
the &asBid. 0,ummary of Alamgiri vol"B $g">=1" ,o proclaim the )3aan
inside the &asBid is &a:ruh. 0Hhayatul *ayaan, <athul Qadeer vol"= $g"=J(
Nazm Aandaaisi 2ahtai alal Mara.i $g B@71" ,his ruling is in regards
to all the )3aans. None of the -oo:s of 7iHh J;urisprudenceK have
e4cluded any )3aan from this rule. "ven the second )3aan during
;ummah falls within this rule. $mam $tHaani and $mam $bn )l
?umaam have written this ruling and law especially in the chapter
on ;ummah. ?owever, there is one difference here that they have
pointed out, and that is that the &uCa33in must call out the )3aan
Joutside the &asBidK but in+line with the =hateeb Ji.e. the one
delivering the =hutbahK. )s for the practice of calling out Jthe
second )3aan of ;ummahK directly in front of the &imbar JpulpitK or
one or two hand lengths away from the &imbar, li:e is the practice
in many places in $ndia today, then with regards to this, it must be
noted that there is no authentic proof of this in any authentic boo:.
,his is contrary to both the ?adith and 7iHh.

Law: ,he words of )3aan should be announced with short pauses.
)llahu ):bar )llahu ):bar combined is regarded as one word. )fter
saying both these, there should be a pause. ,here should not be a
pause between each of them. ,he duration of the pause should be
eHual to the amount of time wherein the person replying to it may
reply. ,o disregard this pause is &a:ruh and to repeat such an )3aan
is &ustahab. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=>J( Alamgiri
vol"B $g">=1

Law: $f whilst giving )3aan, one changed Jin errorK the seHuence of
the words, then that portion should be rectified. ,here is no need to
repeat the )3aan from the beginning. $f one does not rectify it, and
Vol.3 pg.1#3


103
Namaa3 was performed with this )3aan, there is no need to repeat
that Namaa3. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">=1

Law:
¸
ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ _´ .
´

·
_´ - F?ayCya alas ,alaat! must be proclaimed whilst turning
towards the right and
¸
- ´ ·´ .` ﻟﺍ _.
´

·
_´ - ‘9ay!ya alal <alaah! must be proclaimed
whilst turning towards the left. ,his applies even if the )3aan, which
is being proclaimed, is not for Namaa3. $f the )3aan is being
proclaimed in the ear of a new+born child or for any other reason,
then merely turning the face is sufficient. ,here is no need to turn
with the entire body to the right or left. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>J1

Law: $f one is proclaiming the )3aan from a &inaret, then he should
put his head out of the opening on the right and proclaim the

¸
ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ _´ .
´

·
_´ - ‘9ay!ya alas ,alaat! and he should put his head out of the
opening on the left to proclaim the
¸
- ´ ·´ .` ﻟﺍ _.
´

·
_´ - ‘9ay!ya alal <alaah!" 0,harh
#i.aaya vol"B $g"BDE1" ,his is only in the case when his voice is not
able to reach the necessary area without him doing this. 0Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"=>J1" $t must also be noted that putting the head out
through the opening is only in the case when it is a sealed &inaret
and there are openings on either side. $f it is a completely open
&inaret, he should not try to do this Ji.e. turn too much or stretch
outK, but he should :eep his feet in place and merely turn his face
only Jto the right and leftK.

Law: $n the )3aan of the &orning 1rayer Ji.e. 7aBrK, after the F7alaahC
he should proclaim, ´ﺍ ¸.
`

·
:ﻟﺍ
´
ﻦ .
´
.`,
´
: ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟ ‘As ,alaatu Ghairum Minan Naum!, as
to do so is &ustahab. 0Heneral *oo-s of <i.h1" 2ranslationM ‘Namaaz is
better than slee$!"

Vol.3 pg.1#'


104
Law: $t is &ustahab to thrust the fingers into the hole of the ears
whilst calling out the )3aan, and if both hands are :ept over the ears
then this is good as well. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar1" ,he first
manner Ji.e. thrusting the fingers into the earsK is more virtuous as
this is in accordance with the ?adith and is more effective in raising
the voice. ,he second manner may be used when a personCs ears are
bloc:ed and he feels that his voice has not been clearly heard, so he
increases his pitch. 0Raza1

Law: $Haamat is the same as )3aan, in other words the
aforementioned rules are applicable in the case of $Haamat as well.
,here is only difference concerning a few points. $n $Haamat, after
‘<alaah! ´ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ ¸ .
´
.ﺎ´ s
`
ﺪ´ s ‘Qad Qaamatis ,alaat! ‘6rayer is ready (to &ommen&e+!
is proclaimed twice.

"ven in $Haamat, the voice must be loud, but it should not be as loud
as )3aan. ?owever, it should be loud enough for those present to
hear it. ,he words of $Haamat should be proclaimed rapidly and
there should be no pause in+between Jli:e in )3aanK.

Neither should the hands be placed over the ears, nor should the
fingers be thrust into the ears, and the words ¸.
`

·
:ﻟﺍ
´
ﻦ .
´
.`,
´
: ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟ´ﺍ ‘As ,alaatu
Ghairum Minan Naum! are not proclaimed in the $Haamat. $t is not
!unnat to call out the $Haamat on an elevated platform or from
outside the &asBid.

$f the $mam is the one who has called out the $Haamat then whilst
saying ´ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ ¸ .
´
.ﺎ´ s
`
ﺪ´ s ‘Qad Qaamatis ,alaat! he should proceed onto the
&usalCla J1rayer &atK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=5@(
Alamgiri vol"B $g">=( Hhuniya et&"1

Vol.3 pg.1#(


105
Law: "ven during the $Haamat, one should turn his face to the right
and left when proclaiming the ?ayCya alas !alaat and the ?ayCya alal
7alaah. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=>J1

Law: ,he issue of the $Haamat being !unnat is more emphasised in
comparison to the )3aan. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"=5@1

Law: $f the person who has proclaimed the )3aan is not present,
then anyone Jwho Hualifies for this dutyK may proclaim the $Haamat,
but in this situation, it is best for the $mam to call out the $Haamat. $f
the &uCa33in is present Jand one wishes to proclaim the $HaamatK, he
should first see: the permission of the &uCa33in before doing so. ,his
is the right of the &uCa33in. $f one proclaims it without his
permission and he was offended by this, then it is &a:ruh to do so.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g">@1

Law: ,he $Haamat of a F;unubC Ji.e. one in the state of ;anaabatK and a
F&uhaddathC Ji.e. one in the state of impurityK is &a:ruh. ?owever, if
they did proclaim it, it will not be repeated.

,his is however different in the case of )3aan. $f a person in the state
of ;anaabat gives )3aan, then it will be repeated. ,he reason for this
is because the repetition of )3aan is legal in the !hariah and $Haamat
cannot be given twice. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5D1

Law: $f a person entered whilst $Haamat is being proclaimed, it is
&a:ruh for him to stand whilst the $Haamat is being proclaimed. ?e
should sit down. ?e should only stand when Jthe &uCa33inK says

¸
- ´ ·´ .` ﻟﺍ _.
´

·
_´ - ‘9ay!ya alal <alaah!. !imilarly, those people who are in the
&asBid should also remain seated, and when the F&u:abbirC J,he one
Vol.3 pg.1#5


106
calling out the ,a:beer, i.e. $HaamatK says
¸
- ´ ·´ .` ﻟﺍ _.
´

·
_´ - 9ay!ya alal <alaah
1

then only should they stand. ,he same ruling applies to the $mam.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g">D1" Nowadays, in many places it has become the
norm for everyone to stand upI the moment the $Haamat
commences. $n certain places unless the $mam does not stand on the
&usalCla, the $Haamat is not proclaimed. ,his is F=hilaaf+e+!unnatC,
i.e. contrary to the !unnah.
2

UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
1. !ome boo:s have mentioned that one should stand when F?ayCya alas !alaahC is proclaimed,
thus one should rather commence to stand at the end of F?ayCya alas !alaahC being proclaimed,
and stand upright at the commencement of F?ayCya alal 7alaahC. D7atawa 2a3via vol.1 pg.3'0E

2. !ome people say that it has been mentioned in many boo:s of 7iHh that the $mam should say
the ,ahreema at F*ad *aamatis !alaahC and commence the Namaa3I so in this case, if the
&uHtadis only stand up at F?ayCya alal 7alaahC then after straightening the !affs JrowsK they
will not be able to get the 7irst ,a:beer. ,hey say it is for this reason that we should stand at
the very beginning of the $Haamat, and straighten the rows. ,he answer to this is that for the
$mam to say the ,ahreema and commence the !alaah at F*ad *aamatis !alaahC is &ustahab
according to the F,arafainC Ji.e. $mam+e+)3am and $mam &uhammadK. ?owever, to stand for
$Haamat before ?ayCya alas !alaah is &a:ruh, Bust as it has been mention in vol.1 pg.(3 of
)lamgiriI vol.1 pg.250 of 2addul &uhtar and on page 1(1 of ,ahtawi alal &araHi. !o, if in
attempting to avoid this &a:ruh, if the &uHtadi does not get the ,a:beer+e+<la J7irst
,a:beerK, then in this case, the $mam should delay the ,a:beer+e+<la for the end Jof the
$HaamatK which is permissible without any protest. $n %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 322 it states as
follows: ﺎ
´
ﻋﺎﻤ,ﺍ .ﺑ ¸ﺎﺑ ·ﺎﻤﻤ.ﺍ ¸.ﺣ ¸ﺍ ﻮﻟ.,here are three benefits in the $mam proclaiming ,a:beer+e+<la
on completion of the $Haamat. ,hese 3 benefits are: J1K both, the $mam and the &uHtadi will
have the opportunity of giving the reply to the entire $Haamat of the &uCa33in and to do this is
&ustahab. J2K ,he &uCa33in will be able to get the ,a:beer+e+<la after completion of the
$Haamat. J3K ,he &uHtadis will be saved from committing an act which is &a:ruh, and they
will be able to straight their !affs. !o Jif the $mam proclaims the ,a:beer+e+<laa at *ad
*aamatis !alaahK, then for the sa:e of the $mam practising on one &ustahab, it will cause the
$mam himself, and the &uHtadis to omit another &ustahab. $n this case, none of them will
have the opportunity of replying to the entire $Haamat, and the &uCa33in will not be able to get
the ,a:beer+e+<la Jwith the $mamK, and all the &uHtadis will be charged with committing a
&a:ruh act, but standing up to straighten the !affs, before F?ayCya alas !alaahC. ,herefore, a
&a:ruh action cannot facilitate a &ustahab action, but in such a condition, &ustahab will be
omitted. $t is in Volume 1, page 2#2 of 7athul *adeer as follows: .ﺮ. :و¸. ¸ﺎ·.,ﺍ ¸وﺪ:ﻤﻟﺍ ¸ﻴﺼﺤ. ﻦ. .,ﻟ ﺍsﺍ


Vol.3 pg.1#/


107
Law: $f a &usafir did not proclaim both the )3aan and $Haamat or if
he did not proclaim the $Haamat, then it is &a:ruh and if he only
proclaimed the $Haamat, there is no censure in this regard. ?owever,
it is of greater e4cellence and preferred that )3aan should be given
as well, whether he is alone or if all his companions are there with
him. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=5E1

Law: $t is &a:ruh if ;amaCat Jcongregational prayerK was performed
outside the city Jurban areaK in an open field and $Haamat was not
proclaimed for this purpose. ,here is no obBection if )3aan was not
given but it is F=hilaaf+e+<laC, i.e. contrary to what is the best. 0Ghania
vol"B $g"7E1

Law: $t is &a:ruh to repeat the )3aan in that local &osHue of the
community. $n other words, in such a &asBid wherein the $mam and
;amaCat is permanent and wherein the $mam had performed the
F;amaCat+e+<laC, i.e. the 1rimary Congregational 1rayer in that &asBid
has already been performed according to the recommended manner.
$f a second ;amaCat is performed in that &asBid without the )3aan,
then in this case, the $mam should not stand in the F&ehraabC Ji.e. in
the Niche of the &osHue whilst leading the second ;amaCatK. ?e
should rather move a bit and lead the second congregation to the
right or left of the &ehraab, so that there can be some distinction. $t
is &a:ruh for the $mam performing the second ;amaCat to stand in
the &ehraab. $f it is not the local &asBid, but it is the &asBid on a
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

ContY. from last footnote: and with Jthe e4ception ofK committing a &a:ruh act, another
&ustahab is also omitted, and then it is best not to act on the &ustahab. $t is for this reason
that the way of the of the maBority and the )hl+e+?aramain is based on the statement of $mam
)bu Pusuf, Bust as it has been mentioned on page 53 of !harah 9iHaaya:
ﻋ .ﻴﻠﻋ و .ﺎ.·ﺍ ة·,_وﺍ ¸s,ﻤﻟﺍ.,ﺪﻴﻟ,.ﻮ, _¸ﺍ _ﻮs_.ﻋ,ﻮ,ﻤ,ﺤﻟﺍو ¸,.,ﻟﺍ ¸ﻤ . ﻢﻠﻋﺍ ﺍﻮ.و
Vol.3 pg.1#0


108
street, a &ar:et place &asBid, or &asBid in a station or the &asBid of
an $nn etc. wherein a few people at a time usually come in, to read
their Namaa3 and then leave, followed by others who come in later
and perform their Namaa3 and leave, then on the basis of this
analogy, repeating the )3aan in such a &asBid is not &a:ruh.
)ctually, it is more virtuous for every new group that enters to
proclaim afresh the )3aan and $Haamat and then perform the
;amaCat. $n such a &asBid, every $mam should stand in the &ehraab.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5>( Alamgiri vol"B $g">@( <ataa Qazi Ghan(
*azaazia vol"B $g" 5=1

?ere, &ehraab refers to the Centre of the &asBid, whether the Niche
is common or not, such as in the &asBid+e+?araam !hareef wherein
in reality there is no real &ehraab, or in every F&asBid !aifiC, i.e.
wherein the !ahn Je4terior areaK is the centre, i.e. &ehraab of the
&asBid, even though in this case, there is really no building even
there.

,his is in reality what the ,rue &ehraab is, and that Niche shaped
construction is actually the JlaterK invented &ehraab and it was
actually not present in the time of 2asoolullah  or in the time of
the =hulafa+e+2aashideen ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,. $t was actually invented and
built in the era of the =ing 9aleed &arwaani. 0<ataa Razviyah1

!ome people thin: that the $mam who is to lead the second ;amaCat
cannot stand on that &usalCla which was used by the $mam who led
the first ;amaCat, so they move the &usalCla away and stand in the
e4act place where the actual $mam stands. ,his is simply ignorance.
ne should move away and stand to either the right or left of it, even
if the same &usalCla is used. 0Raza1

Vol.3 pg.1#.


109
Law: $f some of the people in the community JlocalityK already
performed their Namaa3 in congregation in the local &asBid J&asBid
&ohallaK, and after they finished, the $mam and the others arrived,
then their ;amaCat will be the first ;amaCat. ,here is censure in
regards to those who performed first. !imilarly, if people from
outside the locality came in and already read their ;amaCat and
thereafter the people of the locality came in, then in this case their
;amaCat will be regarded as the first ;amaCat and the $mam will stand
in his normal place. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">B1

Law: $f the )3aan was proclaimed softly, it should be repeated and
the first ;amaCat in this case will not be regarded as the actual
F;amaCat+e+<laC Ji.e. primary ;amaCatK. 0Qazi Ghan Vol"B $g"7E1

Law: ;ust as it is impermissible in )3aan, it is also impermissible in
$Haamat, for the &uCa33in to tal: whilst calling out the $Haamat.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g">=1

Law: $f someone conveyed !alaam to the &uCa33in whilst he was
proclaiming the )3aan or $Haamat, then in this case he should not
reply to him, and it is not 9aaBib for him to reply to his salaam even
after he has completed proclaiming the )3aan. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">=1

Law: n hearing the )3aan, we are instructed to reply to the )3aan.
$n other words, the one listening to the )3aan should repeat what
the &uCa33in said, after he has said it. ?owever, in response to
‘9ay!ya alas ,alaat! and ‘9ay!ya alal <alaah! he should say
¸
ﷲﺎ
¸

·
·
¸
ﺍ ´ ة· ﻮ´ s ´ ·
´
و
´
_
`

´
ﺣ ´ ·
‘Na 9ala #a Na Qu!ata il!la *il!laahi! and it is better to say both and
to add these words as well
´
¸ﺎ
´

´
ﷲﺍ
´
·ﺎ ´ :ﺎ
´
.
`

´
.
´
,
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ
`
·ﺎ ´ :´ ,
`
ﻢ´ ﻟﺎ
´
.
´
و ‘Masha Allahu Gaana
a Num Fasha Num Fa-un!" 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=55(
Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1
Vol.3 pg.11#


110
2ranslationM ‘#hatever Allah illed ha$$ens, and hat 9e did not #ill, did
not ha$$en!"

Law: $n reply to ¸.
`

·
:ﻟﺍ
´

¸
.
´
.`,
´
: ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟ´ﺍ F)s !alaatu =hairum &inan NaumC, one
should say
´
.
`
t
´
.´ ﻧ j
´
ﺤ` ﻟﺎ
¸

´
و
´
:
`
,
´

´

´
و
´
.` s
´

´
, ‘,ada.ta #a *ararta a *il 9a.!.i Nata.ta!"
0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=551

2ranslationM ‘Fou have s$o-en the truth and &onfirmed a virtuous deed!"

Law: "ven one who is in the state of ;anaabat Ji.e. a F;unubC should
also reply to the )3aanK. ) menstruating female, a female bleeding
after childbirth JpostnatalK, one listening the =hutbah, one parta:ing
in ;anaa3ah !alaah, those who are being intimate Jse4uallyK and one
answering the call of nature Ji.e. in the toiletK will not reply to the
)3aan. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g" =5>1

Law: 9hilst the )3aan is being proclaimedI cease tal:ing, conveying
salaam, replying to the salaam and everything else you are doing for
the duration of the )3aan, to the e4tent that if whilst reciting the
?oly *urCan, you hear the sound of the )3aan, even stop your
recitation and listen attentively to the )3aan and reply to it. ,he
same applies to the $Haamat. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5I( Alamgiri vol"B
$g">E1

,here is the fear that one who tal:s during )3aan will die a bad
death J)llah 7orbidK. 0<ataa Razviyah1

Law: $f whilst wal:ing on the road, you hear the )3aan, then stop
wal:ing and stand for the duration of the )3aan, and reply to it.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g">E( *azaazia vol"B $g"=51

Vol.3 pg.111


111
Law: ,o reply to the $Haamat is &ustahab and to reply to the )3aan
is the same. ,he only difference is that in reply to the words ¸ .
´
.ﺎ´ s
`
ﺪ´ s
´ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ F*ad *aamatis !alaahC, the listener should say these words
´
و
´
ﷲﺍ ﺎ
´
,
´
ﻤ´ s´ﺍ
´ ¸
`
,´ ` ·ﺍ
´
و ¸ :ﺍﻮ

ﻤ · ﺴﻟﺍ ¸ .
´
.ﺍ
´
دﺎ
´
. ﺎ
´
,
´
.
`
د´ﺍ ‘A.amahal!lahu #a Admaha Ma ?aamatis ,amaati
#al Ard!" 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1

2ranslationM ‘Allah -ee$ it established, and -ee$ it forever established as
long as the s-y and earth are established!"

)lternatively, he should say the following
`

¸
. ﺎ
´
:` ﻠ
´
.
´
,
´
و ﺎ
´
,
´
.
`
د´ﺍ
´
و
´
ﷲﺍ ﺎ
´
,
´
ﻤ´ s´ﺍ ﺎ
´
,¸ﻠ` .´ﺍ
`
_
¸
-¸ﻟﺎ
´
,

´
.ﺍ
´

`
.´ﺍ · و
´
·ﺎ
´

`
ﺣ´ﺍ ‘A.amahal!lahu a Admaha #a Ca!alna min ,aahihi Ahliha Ahya
#a Amaatan!" 0Raza1

2ranslationM ‘Allah -ee$ it established, and -ee$ it forever, and -ee$ us from
amongst the honourable ones in life and after death!"

Law: $f a person is able to hear more than one )3aan then he only
has to reply to the first one. ?owever, it is better to reply to all.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=551

Law: $f one did not reply to the )3aan whilst it was being
proclaimed and much time has not lapsed after the )3aan, then one
may reply now. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=551

Law: $t is not permissible for the F&uHtadisC Ji.e. the congregationK
to reply to the )3aan of the =hutbah with the tongue Ji.e. audiblyK.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5>1

Vol.3 pg.112


112
Law: )fter the )3aan has been proclaimed, the &uCa33in and those
who heard it should recite %urood !hareef and thereafter they
should recite this %ua:

¸ .´ .` ﻟﺍ
´
و ´ .´ ﻠ
`
ﻴ¸ .
´
ﻮ` ﻟﺍ ¸ ¸
´

·

´

´
. ﺎ
´

´
ﺪ ﻴ
´
. ¸ :
¸
.
´
ﻤ¸.ﺎ
´
t` ﻟﺍ
¸
ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ
´
و
¸
.
´
..
·
ﺘﻟﺍ
¸
ة
´

`

·
ﺪﻟﺍ ¸:¸ ;

. · ¸
´
, · ﻢ
´
,
·
ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ´ .
´
,
´
,
·
ﺪﻟﺍ
´
و ´ .´ ﻠ
`

` ﻟﺍ
´
.
`

´
, ¸.¸ﺘ
´
ﻋﺎ´ .
´
:
`
_
¸

´
:` ﻠ
´
.
´
,ﺍ
´
و
´
.
´
.
`

´

´
و
`
¸¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ ¸ ¸
´
د
`

´

`

´
. ﺎ
´
.ﺎ
´
t
´
.
´
.
`
:
´
.
`
,ﺍ
´
و ´ .
´
.
`
ﻴ¸·· ﺮﻟﺍ
´
,
¸
ﻠ` •
´
. ´ · ´ €
·

¸

¸
.
´

ﻴ¸t

´
دﺎ
´
.
`

¸
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ

‘Allahum!ma Rab!ba 9aazihi ?a!atit 2aam!mati #as ,alaatil Qaa!imati
Aati ,ay!yidana Muhammadanil #aseelata #a <adeelata #ad!dara4atar
Rafee!ata #ab!ath!hu Ma.aamam Mahmoodanil Nazee #a Adtahu #a
Ca!alna <i ,hafa!atihi Faumal Qiyaamati 3n!na-a Na 2u-hliful Mi!aad!"
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=57( Hhuniya $g"D5>1

2ranslationM ‘) Allah, Fou are 2he ,u$reme Rub of this ever-establishing
$rayer, and of this $erfe&t &all" Hrant our Neader Muhammad  ‘Al #asila!
(the loftiest $osition of inter&ession+ and ‘Al <adilah! (,$e&ial L%&ellen&e+,
and the 9ighest Ran-, and elevate him to ‘Ma.aam Al Mahmud! (an
e%&lusively $raiseorthy su$eriority reserved only for the 9oly 6ro$het +
hi&h Fou have 6romised, and bring forth for us his inter&ession on the last
day" 'ndoubtedly, you do not do anything against Four 6romise"!

Law: 9hen the &uCa33in says
¸
ﷲﺍ
´
_
`

´
.
·
, ﺍ ´ ﺪ· ﻤ
´

´
.
·
¸´ﺍ ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
:´ﺍ ‘Ash 9adu An!na
Muhammadar Rasoolullah!, the listener should recite %urood !hareef.
$t is &ustahab to :iss the thumbs and place them over the eyes,
saying,
¸
´

´
,` ﻟﺍ
´
و ¸ ‚
`
ﻤ · ﺴﻟﺍﺎ
¸

`
¸¸ƒ
`
.¸ﺘ
´
. · ﻢ
´
,ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
¸
ﷲﺍ
´
_
`

´
.
´
, ﺎ
´
, ´ €
¸

`
¸¸ƒ
`

´
ﻋ ´ ة
·
´ „ ‘Qur!ratu Ayni *i-a Fa
Rasool!Allahi" Allahum!ma Mati!ni *is ,am!i al *asari!" 0Raddul Muhtar
vol"B $g"=571

Vol.3 pg.113


113
2ranslationM Fa Rasool!Allah , the &oolness of my eyes are through you" )
Allah, bless me ith en4oying the ability to see and hear"!

Law: 9ith the e4ception of the )3aan for Namaa3, one must also
reply to any other )3aan, such as the one given at the time when a
baby is born. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=551

Law: $f the )3aan was given incorrectly, Ji.e. with FGahnCK then there
is no reply to this )3aan. )ctually should not even listen to such an
)3aan. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=551

Law: ,he F&utaCa:hireenC Ji.e. the latter !cholarsK stated that
F,asweebC is F&ustahsanC. ,asweeb means that after )3aan and before
Namaa3, to announce the commencement of Namaa3 once again.
,he !hariat has not specified any words for this, but the commonly
used words are
`
.
´
.ﺎ´ s
`
.
´
.ﺎ´ s ﺎ
´
, ´ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟ´ﺍ ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟ´ﺍ ‘As ,alaatu As ,alaatu, Fa Qaamat Fa
Qaamat! or
¸
ﷲﺍ
´
_
`

´
.
´
, ﺎ
´
, ´ €
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

´
. ´ · · ﺴﻟﺍ
´
و ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟ´ﺍ ‘As ,alaatu #as ,alaamu Alai-a Fa
Rasool!Allah! Jshould be usedK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g" =5B et&"1

Law: ,here is no ,asweeb after the )3aan of &aghrib. 03naaya1 $f
,asweeb is said twice, there is no obBection to it. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"=5B1

Law: $t is !unnat to have an interval between the )3aan and the
$Haamat. ,o proclaim the $Haamat immediately after proclaiming the
)3aan is &a:ruh. ?owever, the interval during &aghrib should be
eHual to the duration of reciting three short verses or one lengthy
verse. 7or the remaining !alaahs, the duration between the )3aan
and $Haamat should be sufficient time wherein those who punctually
come for ;amaCat may be able to come. ?owever, it should not be
Vol.3 pg.11'


114
delayed to an e4tent that the prohibited time appears. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5B( Alamgiri vol"B $g">D1

Law: $n those !alaahs in which there is !unnats or Nafils in the
beginning, it is F<laC Ji.e. betterK, for the &uCa33in to pray the !unnats
and Nafils. therwise, he should remain seated. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">D1

Law: ,o wait for the chief of the locality due to the position of his
leadership is &a:ruh. ?owever, if he is a troublema:er and there is
still time remaining, then one may wait. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5I1

Law: ,he F&utaHadCdimeenC J7ormer !cholarsK have mentioned that
it is ?araam to ta:e payment for proclaiming the )3aan, but when
the &utaCa:hireen noticed carelessness and indolence in the people,
they permitted it, and the 7atawa JdecreeK now is based on this.
?owever, the reward which has been mentioned in the ?adith for
those who proclaim the )3aan, is in actual fact for those who
pronounce it without demanding payment, and who carry out this
service solely for the pleasure of )lmighty )llah. ?owever, if the
people on their own accord give something to the &uCa33in as they
notice that he is needy, then this it is unanimously regarded as being
permissible, but it is actually better Ji.e. a good thing to doK, and it is
not regarded as a salary or payment. 0Hhuniya $g"D551

,his is as long as this does not reach the level of it being regarded as
¸ …
`
و
´
` †
´
ﻤ` ﻟ ﺎ
´
¸د
`

´
,
`
.
´
ﻤ` ﻟ´ﺍ i.e. where ‘something hi&h is regular, ill be &onsidered to be
a &ondition!. 0Raza1




Vol.3 pg.11(


115






Chapter 3

The Pre-Requisites
(Conditions)
Of Salaah


∗ The First Condition (Tahaarat) 116

∗ The Second Condition (Satr-e-Awrat) 121

∗ The Third Condition (Istiqbaal-e-Qibla) 135

∗ Laws related to Tahar’ri 141

∗ The Fourth Condition (Time) 145

∗ The Fifth Condition (Niyyat) 145

∗ The Sixth Condition (Takbeer-e-Tahreema) 160





Vol.3 pg.115


116
Note of Caution: $n this issue, wherever it is mentioned that,
‘2he Namaaz is valid! or ‘2he Namaaz ill be regarded as being done! or ‘it
is $ermissible!, will mean that the 7ard Jmandatory actionK has been
fulfilled. $t will not mean that it is correct and permissible, without
any fault, e4clusion or sin. $n many instances, it will be said that it is
&a:ruh+e+,ahreemi and ,ar:+e+9aaBib Jomission of 9aaBibK but it
will still be mentioned that the Namaa3 will be done. )s this issue is
not being discussed in this chapter, it will be discussed in detail, in
the Chapter discussing the &a:ruh actions in Namaa3. ?ere, we are
discussing the F!hurootC Ji.e. the pre+reHuisites or conditions of
Namaa3K, without which the Namaa3 will not be valid at all. ,here
are si4 pre+reHuisites for the validity of Namaa3V:

1. ,ahaarat J1urificationK
2. !atr+e+)wrat JCovering of the essential parts of the bodyK
3. $stiHbaal+e+*ibla Jto 7ace the %irection of the ?oly =aabaK
'. 9aHt J,imeK
(. Niyyat J$ntentionK
5. ,ahreema J,o proclaim the )llahu ):bar to commence Namaa3K

First Pre-Requisite: Tahaarat – Purification

,ahaarat here refers to the body of the F&usalCliC Ji.e. the one
intending Namaa3K being F1aa:C Jpure and freeK from any F?adath+e+
):barC JmaBor ritual impurityK or F?adath+e+)sgharC Jminor ritual
impurityK, and from FNaBaasat+e+?aHiHiyaC JVisible impurityK which is
regarded as a preventative impurity
1
.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. 9henever the term preventative impurity is used here, it refers to an amount of impurity,
which prevents one from performing Namaa3. $n other words, Namaa3 is not allowed in such a
condition. ,his preventative impurity is generally referred to as the amount of NaBaasat, which
is F*adr &aaneC this means the amount of impurity that prevents !alaah from ta:ing place.
Vol.3 pg.11/


117
$n addition, his clothing and the area on which he is performing his
Namaa3 should be pure and free from the amount of NaBaasat+e+
?aHiHiya, which is in the category of being a preventative impurity.

?adath+e+):bar here refers to those ritual impurities, which ma:e
Mhusl compulsory upon a person and ?adath+e+):bar refers those
things that nullify the 9udu. ,he manner of purifying oneCs self
from these impurities have already been discussed in the chapter on
9udu and Mhusl, and the manner of cleaning out NaBaasat+e+
?aHiHiya has already been discussed in the chapter regarding
cleansing of impurities. ,hese can be e4amined in the said chapters.
,he pre+reHuisite of Namaa3 is to cleanse oneCs self of the impurities
accordingly, because the Namaa3 will not be done at all. $f performed
without the purification, such as if NaBaasat+e+Mhalee3a JmaBor
impurityK pollutes the area more than the amount of a dirhamI or if
NaBaasat+e+=hafeefa Jminor impurityK pollutes more than one fourth
of any part of a limb or clothing. ,hese are regarded as preventative
impurities. $f these JimpuritiesK have polluted or soiled less than the
amount, which regarded as a preventative impurity, then to cleanse
it is !unnat. 2ulings in this regard have also been e4plained in the
chapter on impurities.

Law: $f a person assumed that, he was not in the state of 9udu, but
he still performed his Namaa3 in this state, and later it was
ascertained that he was actually not without 9udu, then in such a
case the Namaa3 has not been done. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=J=1

Law: $f the &usalCli has on him such an item that when he moves, it
causes it to move as well, then if that item is polluted with the
preventative impurity, the Namaa3 is impermissible. 7or e4ample, if
one is wearing one end of a cloth Jor shawlK etc. and performing
Vol.3 pg.110


118
Namaa3, and the other end is polluted by impurity, then if by his
movement in 2u:u, !aBdah, *iyaam or *uCood, there is movement up
to the area of impurity, the Namaa3 will not be doneI otherwise it
will be done. !imilarly, if whilst performing Namaa3, he has in his
lap a baby who does not have the ability to grip on with his own
strength. ?owever, is only secure because he Jthe &usalCliK is holding
him, then in this case, if the childCs body or clothing is polluted by an
preventative impurity, the Namaa3 will not be done, as he Jthe
&usalCliK is the one carrying the child. ?owever, if the child is able to
secure himself with his own strength, and is not dependent on being
held by him Jthe &usalCliK, then the Namaa3 will be done, because
now he will not be classified as carrying the child. ?owever, it is not
without any defect to perform Namaa3 in this manner, without a
valid reason, even if there is no impurity on the body or clothing of
the child. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5J( Alamgiri vol"B $g">5( Raza1

Law: $f there is impurity JvisibleK which is less than the preventative
impurity, it is still regarded as being &a:ruh. $f NaBaasat+e+Mhalee3a
is eHuivalent to the amount of a dirham, it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi,
and if it is less than this, then it is =hilaaf+e+!unnat Ji.e. contrary to
the !unnahK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1

Law: $f the roof, tent or canopy Jover the headK is NaBis Jpolluted by
impurityK and if it touches the head of the &usalCli when he stands
then in this case the Namaa3 will not be done. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"=5J1

Law: $n other words if the impure area eHuivalent to the Jamount
ofK preventative impurity touches his head for the time it ta:es to
complete that act. 0Raza1

Vol.3 pg.11.


119
Law: $f his clothing or body becomes impure according to the
amount of the preventative impurity and there is a gap JintervalK of
3 tasbeehs
1
, the Namaa3 will not be done. $f his clothing were impure
at the time of Namaa3 commencing or if he commenced whilst
having something impure in his possession and only removed it Jthe
impurityK after proclaiming the )llahu ):bar then the Namaa3 has
not even convened. 0Raddul Muhtar1

Law: $f the body of the &usalCli is touching the body of a F;unubC
Jone in need of MhuslK or the body of a menstruating female, or a
female bleeding after childbirth, or if they :ept their head on his lap,
then the Namaa3 will still be valid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=5J1

Law: $f a naBis JimpureK pigeon sat on the body of a &usalCli, his
Namaa3 will still be valid. 0*ahr vol"B $g"=571

Law: ,he meaning of the statement that the area on which Namaa3
is performed should be pure, actually means that the area of F!uBoodC
Ji.e. prostrationK and the area where the feet are placed, should be
pure Jfrom impurityK. $t is not a condition for the entire place on
which one is performing Namaa3 to be pure, for it to be valid. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7@1

Law: $f there is impurity beneath one foot of the &usalCli, which is
more than the amount of a dirham, the Namaa3 will not be valid.
!imilarly, if there is a small amount of impurity under each foot,
which if combined will be eHual to the amount of one dirham, or if
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,he gap or interval of 3 tasbeehs refers to the amount of time in which one may say
!ubhaanC)llah thrice.

Vol.3 pg.12#


120
the area under one foot is pure, but the area where he is to place his
second foot is impure, and he :eeps that foot raised up Ji.e. he does
not place it there but stands on one foot onlyK, then in this case, the
Namaa3 will be regarded as being valid. ?owever, it is &a:ruh to
read Namaa3 by raising one foot without a valid reason. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7@1

Law: $f the forehead is placed on a pure area and the nose is placed
on an impure area, then in this case the Namaa3 will be valid as the
nose is placed on an area, which is less than the amount Jsi3eK of the
dirham, without reason, this is &a:ruh. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7@1

Law: )ccording to the proper &adhab, if the hand or :nees are
placed on an impure area during !aBdah, the Namaa3 will not be
valid. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7@1" $f the hand is placed on an impure
area, and the !aBdah is performed on the hand, then it is accepted
unanimously with consensus J-il $BmaK that the Namaa3 is invalid.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7@1

Law: $f there is impurity under the sleeve and one performed !aBdah
on the same sleeve, the Namaa3 will not be valid. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"=7@1" "ven if the NaBaasat JimpurityK is not under the hand, but
under the empty area of a wide sleeve. $n other words, the sleeve will
not be regarded as a separator or divider, even if it is thic:, as it is
regarded as being accessory to the body. ,his is dissimilar to Jthe
rule regardingK a thic: fabric, which when placed over an impure
area, and Namaa3 is read on it, and the smell or colour Jof the
impurityK is not evident, the Namaa3 will be done. ,his is a thic:
cloth will be regarded a divider or separator between the impurity
and the &usalCli, as it is not regarded as an accessory to the body of
the &usalCli. !imilarly, if an empty part or a wide sleeve touches an
Vol.3 pg.121


121
impure area whilst in !aBdah, and neither the hand nor the forehead
is on this area, the Namaa3 will be regarded as being valid. "ven
though the sleeve in this case may be thin, as in this case the
impurity is not connected JdirectlyK with the body of the &usalCli in
any way. 0Raza1

Law: $f whilst performing !aBdah, the F%aamanC Js:irt of the
clothingK touches an impure piece of ground, there is no harm Jto
the Namaa3K. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7@1

Law: $f one read Namaa3 by placing such a thin fabric on an impure
piece of ground, which does not suffice to cover the !atr Jportions of
the body which need to essentially be covered, i.e. the na:edness of
the bodyK, in other words whatever is underneath it can be seen, the
Namaa3 will not be valid. ?owever, if one performed Namaa3 on a
piece of glass under which there is impurity, even if it is clearly
visible, Namaa3 will be still be valid. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7@1

Second Pre-Requisite: Satr-E-Awrat – Covering
the Nakedness of the Body

!atr+e+)wrat means to cover those parts of the body, which are 7ard
to cover. )llah )lmighty says

#ρ‹< ¯/3GEƒ¸% ‰Ζ¸* ¸≅" ¸‰¸=`¡Β

‘Adorn yourself (Clothe yourself ell+, henever you enter the Mas4id!
D!urah /, Verse 31E



Vol.3 pg.122


122
)lmighty )llah says

Ÿ´ρ š;¸‰¯7`ƒ ´#γ"Eƒ¸% ā¸) $Β γ> $γ-¸Β

‘And they (females+ should not reveal their beautifi&ation, e%&e$t for that
hi&h is normally noti&eable! D!urah 2', Verse 31E

Hadith 1: $bn )di reported in =aamil from $bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen you pray your Namaa3 then tie a
waistcloth and cover yourself with a sheet, and do not imitate the
;ews.C

Hadith 2: )bu %awud, ,irmi3i, ?aa:im and $bn =hu3aima have
reported from <mm ul &omineen !iddiHa ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah
 said, F)llah does not accept the Namaa3 of a -aaligh female, who
prays without wearing a head covering.C

Hadith 3: )bu %awud reports that <mm ul &omineen <mm+e+
!alma ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, enHuired, FCan a female pray her Namaa3 without
wearing pants, but by only wearing a dress Jcloa:K and a head
coveringOC ?e  said, F9hen the cloa: is so full Ji.e. longK that it
chides the bac: of the foot.C

Hadith 4: %arHutni reports from <mar bin !huCaib who reports
from his father, from his grandfather, that 2asoolullah  said,
F7rom below the naval up to the :nees is the F)wrahC Jna:edness
which needs to be coveredKC.

Vol.3 pg.123


123
Hadith 5: ,irmi3i reported from )bdullah ibn &asCud ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, ‘Arat is Arat! Ji.e. a female is one that should
be concealedK, for when she emerges shaitaan glances at her.C

Law: !atr+e+)wrat Ji.e. covering of the na:ednessK, meaning the
essential parts of the body which must be covered is 9aaBib, be it in
Namaa3 or outside Namaa3. ,his applies whether one is alone or in
the presence of others. $t is even impermissible to reveal the
na:edness of the body when alone, without a valid reason. ,o cover
the body, i.e. the ‘,atr! is 7ard, in the case of Namaa3 and whilst in
the presence of others. ,his applies even if one is praying Namaa3
alone in a dar: room. $f one has sufficient amount of clothing to
cover the !atr and he still prayed the Namaa3 na:ed, then it is
unanimously agreed that Namaa3 is invalid. ?owever, when a female
is alone in the privacy of her room, it is not 9aaBib for her to cover
her entire body, but she must cover at least from the naval to the
:nees. $t is also 9aaBib for her to cover the stomach and the bac: etc.
when in the presence of those who are her F&ahaarimC
1.
$f she is in
the presence of a Mhair &ahram or for Namaa3, even if she is alone
in a dar: room, it is 7ard for her to cover the entire body, e4cept for
the five parts, which will be e4plained further. $t is also not allowed
for a young female to show her face in the presence of strange males.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7@-=7=1

Law: ,he use of such a thin fabric, through which the body is visible,
is not sufficient as F!atrC. $f Namaa3 was performed in such clothing,
it is not valid. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. &ahaarim is plural of &ahram. &ahram is the guardian of a female. $t refers to that person
with whom !hariah has forbidden her marriage for always.

Vol.3 pg.12'


124
!imilarly if the blac:ness of a females hair is visible through the
sheet Jwith which she is covering her headK, the Namaa3 will not be
done. 0Raza1" !ome people wear very thin !aaris J,hin sil:en fabric
used by femalesK and ,ahbands JwaistclothK during Namaa3, which
causes the thigh to be visible. ,he Namaa3 of such persons will not
be valid. ,o wear such clothing, which does not comply with the
F!atr+e+)wratC, is actually ?araam, even when not in Namaa3.

Law: $f one is wearing such thic: fabric, through which the body
does not show, but it is worn so tight that the shape of the body is
evident, then Namaa3 will be valid in such clothing, but for someone
to loo: towards those parts of the body is impermissible. 0Raddul
Muhtar1. ,o wear such clothing in the presence of others is
disapproved and not allowed, and this is disallowed to a greater
degree for females. ,his law should serve as a warning for those
women who wear such tight pants.

Law: 7or Namaa3, it is essential to have pure clothing for the !atr
Jto cover the bodyK. $t should not be impure to the e4tent where it
prevents Namaa3. $f one had the means of wearing pure clothing but
one read his Namaa3 in impure clothing, the Namaa3 will not be
valid. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">51

Law: $f according to a personCs own :nowledge the clothes were
impure and he still performed Namaa3 in it but later realised that it
was actually pure, then in this case the Namaa3 is still regarded as
being invalid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g" =J=1

Law: $f outside Namaa3, one wore some impure clothing, there is no
harm, even though pure clothing was available and if there are no
other clothes available for him to wear then in this case it is 9aaBib
Vol.3 pg.12(


125
for him to wear those. 0Raddul Muhtar K ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"B7@1"
,his only applies in the case where the impurity on such clothing
has dried up, and does not have the ability of coming off from the
clothing and polluting the body. therwise, if it has not dried off and
pure clothing is available, then to wear such impure clothing in this
case is absolutely disallowed, as it means one is causing the body to
become impure without any reason. 0Raza1

Law: 7or a male, the F)wratC Ji.e. parts that reHuire coveringK are
from below the waist up to below the :nees. $n other words, to cover
these areas is 7ard. ,he naval is not included in this but the :nees
are included. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7B1" Nowadays,
people who wear the waistcloth or trousers in such a manner that
parts of the pelvis remain uncovered. $f it is covered, by a =urta
Jlong shirtK etc. in a way whereby the colour of the s:in is not visible
from underneath it then it is fineI otherwise, it is ?araam, and if
more than one fourth of that area is left opened in Namaa3, the
Namaa3 will not be valid. ,here are also some fearless people who
reveal the :nees and even the thighs etc. in the presence of others.
,his is also ?araam and if one does this habitually, he is regarded as
a F7aasiHC Jopen transgressorK.

Law: ,he F)wratC for free women and for one who is F=hunsa
&ush:ilC
1
is the entire body, e4cept for the face, the palms of the
hands, and the soles of the feet. ,he hair hanging from the head, the
nec: and the wrists are all regarded as F)wratC Ji.e. in other words to
cover these parts is also 7ardK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7B1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. =hunsa &ush:il refers to one who is hermaphrodite, i.e. bearing both male and female
genatalia, and whose se4 cannot be clearly determined.

Vol.3 pg.125


126
Law: $f a female wore such a thin head covering for Namaa3, from
beneath which the blac:ness of the hair is visible, the Namaa3 will
not be valid, unless she covers it with something, which hides the
colour of the hair etc. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1

Law: 7or a F-aandiC Ji.e. slave+girlK, her entire stomach, bac: and
both sides, and the area between her naval up to below the :nees is
regarded as F)wratC. $f a F=hunsa &ush:ilC is a slave then the ruling is
also the same. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7B1

Law: $f a -aandi was performing her Namaa3 with her hair
uncovered and her master freed her in the midst of Namaa3, then if
through ‘Amal e Qaleel! in other words she performs a trivial
movement, such as by covering the head with one hand, the Namaa3
will be valid, otherwise not. ,his applies whether she had :nowledge
of being freed or not. ?owever, if she did not have any such thing
available JnearbyK with which she could cover her head, the Namaa3
will be regarded as being valid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7B( Alamgiri
vol"B $g">>1

Law: $f less than Huarter of any limb Ji.e. part of the bodyK which is
7ard to be covered is e4posed during Namaa3, the Namaa3 will be
validI and if a Huarter was e4posed and one covered it immediately,
then in this case, the Namaa3 will also be valid. ?owever, if it
remained e4posed for the duration of one F2u:nC, i.e. the amount of
time it ta:es to say F!ubhaanC)llahC thrice, or if it was e4posed
intentionally, even though it was covered immediately thereafter,
the Namaa3 will be regarded as being invalid Jin both casesK.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g">>( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7D1

Vol.3 pg.12/


127
Law: $f when commencing Namaa3, i.e. at the time of saying ‘Allahu
A-bar!, one fourth of a limb was uncovered then the Namaa3 has
actually not even commenced. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7D1

Law: $f small portions of few parts JlimbsK are e4posed, whereby
each part that is e4posed is actually less than a fourth of that limb,
but if all of them were combined, it would be eHual to one fourth of
the smallest limb that is uncovered then in this case, the Namaa3 is
not valid. 7or e4ample, a ninth of a females ear is e4posed and a
ninth of her shin is e4posed then both combined will definitely add+
up to more than a Huarter of the ear area, so in this case the Namaa3
will be regarded as being invalid. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">>, Raddul Muhtar
vol"B $g"=7E1

Law: ,he ‘Arat-e-Hhaleeza! J‘Ma4or 6rivate areas to be &on&ealed!K refers
to the parts of the body such as the anus and other private parts and
the areas adBoining, whereas the rest of the limbs are called ‘Arat-e-
Ghafeefa! J‘minor areas to be &on&ealed!+. ,he ruling in regards to all of
them is the same, i.e. they all need to be covered. ,he issue of it
being a maBor area that needs to be concealed or a minor area
actually refers to the prohibition of loo:ing. $n other words, to loo:
towards the parts classified, as ‘Hhaleeza! is ?araam Jtotally
forbiddenK at a greater degree, such as when one sees someone with
his :nees e4posed, he should caution him with gentleness. $f he
persists, then do not bic:er with him. ?owever, if he is e4posing his
thigh, then he should be cautioned firmly, and if he persists, do not
beat him. ?owever, if a female e4poses the area, which is regarded as
‘Hhaleeza! then the one who has the power or right to reprimand her,
such as her father or the J&uslimK 2uler, then he should reprimand
her. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g" =7E1

Vol.3 pg.120


128
Law: $n the case of the ‘,atr!, i.e. covering the body, it is not
necessary that only your eyes do not fall upon that areaI so if
someone is wearing only a long :urta and his collar area is open, and
if one peers into his collar area, he will be able to see other parts,
then in this case the Namaa3 will be valid, even though it is &a:ruh+
e+,ahreemi to loo: there without a valid reason. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"=7E( Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1

Law: 7or ‘,atr! to be 7ard from others, means that the body cannot
be seen from all over the place, so J)llah 7orbidK, if some
mischievous person bent and loo:ed at the limbs from underneath,
then the Namaa3 will not become invalid. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">E1

Law: ,he limbs that need to be concealed for men and those which
are regarded as the ‘Arat! are nine, and )llama $brahim ?alabi,
)llama !haami and )llama ,ahtawi etc. have mentioned eight of
which are:

1. ,he penis, including all its parts i.e. the head, the perch and the
fores:in.

2. ,estes, both these are regarded as one part. $f one fourth of only
one is e4posed, it will not invalidate the Namaa3.

3. ,he anus, in other words the area of e4cretion of faeces.

'N(. "ach buttoc: is regarded as a separate part that needs to be
covered

5N/. "ach thigh is regarded as a separate part that needs to be
covered. ,he entire area from the groin to the :nee is regarded as
Vol.3 pg.12.


129
the thigh. ,he :nee is also included in this and is not counted here as
a separate part, so if the :nee becomes e4posed or if both :nees are
e4posed, then it will still not invalidate the Namaa3, as both
combined will still not be eHual to Huarter of one thigh.

0. 7rom below the naval up to the base of the penis, and in its
direction, the rear and the both sides together are regarded here as
one F)wratC Ji.e. part which must be concealedK. )ala ?a3rat, the
Mreat &uBadCdid of the Century presented research proving the area
between the anus and the testes is also a separate F)wratC Ji.e. part
which must be concealedK. ?e counted and presented the rulings in
regards to the above mentioned in the form of four couplets:


¸
.

-..,
¸
..' , ·
¸
. ·.
¸
..
¸
·
¸
.
.-
_

¸. .)
_
¸
·¸

. _ ,¸

´
¸
..:. .. -
_

.
¸

¸ . ·
¸
¸
¸
.
¸

_
.
¸

· ´

¸
. ·.·
¸
.
¸

 
¸
.
¸
·
·

_,· .

.
¸
- .
¸

. ·
¸
¸
¸
.
¸

_
.
¸

¸ -

¸
...
¸
¸
¸
. ¸.
¸

Law: 7or free women, with the e4ception of the five parts, which
have already been e4plained, the entire body is regarded as ‘Arat!
and this consists of thirty parts. $f one fourth of any of these parts is
e4posed, the ruling in regards to Namaa3 is as mentioned above.
,hose parts are:

B" 2he head, i"e" from the to$ of the forehead u$ to the beginning of the ne&-
and from ear to the other ear, in other ords on the area hi&h usually has
hair groth"

=" 2he hair that hangs (from the head+"

Vol.3 pg.13#


130
DKE" *oth ears"

>" 2he ne&-" 2he throat is also in&luded in this"

5K7" *oth shoulders"

IKJ" *oth arms, hi&h in&lude both elbos"

B@KBB" *oth rists, in other ords from belo the elbo u$ to the rist 4oint"

B=" 2he Chest, in other ords from under the ne&- right u$ to under the
e%treme ends of the breasts"

BDKBE" 2he ba&-s of both hands"

B>KB5" *oth breasts, if they are $ro$erly formed (raised+" 3f they are not yet
full or if they are only slightly raised, here it does not loo- li-e a se$arate
$art, then it ill be regarded as $art of the &hest, and ill not be &ounted as
a se$arate $art" Lven in the first instan&e, the s$a&e in-beteen both breasts
ill be &ounted as $art of the &hest, and ill not be regarded as a se$arate
$art"

B7" 2he stoma&h, hi&h is from the end of the &hest as mentioned, u$ to the
end of the naval area, meaning that the naval is also in&luded as $art of the
stoma&h area"

BI" 2he *a&-, in other ords, the area behind the &hest, hi&h is in line ith
the &hest, u$ to the aist"

BJ" 2he area that is beteen both shoulders" 2his is the area from under the
arm$it, u$ to the e%treme end of the &hest, and the s$a&e, hi&h is on both
Vol.3 pg.131


131
sides" 3ts frontal se&tion falls ithin the &hest area and its rear falls ithin
the shoulders or ba&-" After this, the area, hi&h is on both sides, u$ to the
aist, its frontal area, is $art of the stoma&h area and its rear is $art of the
ba&-"

=@K=B" *oth butto&-s"

==K=D" 2he vagina and the anus"

=EK =>" *oth thighs" 2he -nees are in&luded in this"

=5" 2he $elvi& area and that hi&h is in line ith it, belo the naval, and the
area $arallel to it toards the ba&-, altogether are regarded as one ‘Arat!"

=7K=I" *oth shins in&luding the an-les"

=JPD@" *oth soles of the feet( ,ome 'lama have also mentioned that the ba&-
of the hands and the soles are not &ounted ithin the ‘Arat!, i"e" they do not
need to be &on&ealed"

Law: "ven though the face of a female is not regarded as F)wratC Ji.e.
part that must be concealedK but due to the ris: of temptation it is
disallowed Ji.e. disapprovedK to open the face in the presence of
strange males. !imilarly, it is impermissible for a non+&ahram to
loo: towards her face and to touch her face is disallowed to a greater
degree. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=7E1 (?etail in this regard is dis&ussed in
Volume B5 of *ahaar-e-,hariat+"

Law: $f a person has no other clothing to cover his na:edness with,
e4cept for a sil: garment, then he should use the same fabric as
F!atrC, and he may perform his Namaa3 in it as well. ?owever, if
Vol.3 pg.132


132
other clothing is available, it is ?araam for males to wear sil:
clothing, and Namaa3 in such clothing is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7>1

Law: $f a na:ed person covers his entire body completely including
his head, with one full sheet and performs his Namaa3 in this state,
the Namaa3 will not be valid. ?owever, if he removes his head from
under the sheet, the Namaa3 will be valid. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=7>1

Law: $f a person has no clothing available to him, he should sit and
perform his Namaa3, be it during the day or night, be it inside a
house or outside on an open field. ne should either sit li:e one sits
in Namaa3. ) male will sit in the manner wherein males sit in
Namaa3 and a female, in the manner of femalesI or one may sit with
the legs stretched out and the hand covering the F)wrat+e+Mhalee3aC
and this is preferred. $n place of 2u:u and !uBood, one should Bust
gesture, and Jin this caseK this gesturing is more virtuous for such a
person than ma:ing the actual 2u:u or !uBood. J$n such a situationK
,o sit and read the Namaa3 is greater than standing and reading the
Namaa3, even if one has to ma:e gestures in *iyaam for 2u:u and
!uBood, or if one ma:es 2u:u or !uBood. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"=7>1

Law: $f such a person was performing his Namaa3 na:ed, and
someone loaned some clothes, or made its use lawful for him, then
the Namaa3 will be invalidated. ?e will have to wear the clothing
and then repeat the Namaa3 from the beginning. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=751

Law: $f someone promised to give him some clothing, he should wait
until the very last time Jof that Namaa3K, and if he sees that the
Vol.3 pg.133


133
Namaa3 will not be done on time, then he should perform his
Namaa3 without clothing. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=751

Law: $f someone else has some clothing with him and there is a
predominant li:elihood that by as:ing him, he will give it to you,
then in this case it is 9aaBib to as: for the clothes. 0Raddul Muhtar
vol"B $g"=751

Law: $f one is able to get the clothing for cash, and he has more than
the ‘9aa4at-e-Asliyah! Ji.e. that which is reHuired for his absolute
necessitiesK. ?owever, if the one selling is as:ing for an amount,
which is not more than the estimated price of those who have
estimated it, then in such a case it is 9aaBib to purchase it. 0Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"=751" !imilarly, if he agrees to sell the clothing on
credit, it is still 9aaBib to purchase it.

Law: $f he has such clothing, which is completely impure then he
should not wear it in Namaa3. ?owever, if one fourth of it is pure
then it is 9aaBib upon him to wear it for Namaa3. 7or him to perform
his Namaa3 na:ed is impermissible.

)ll this only applies when one does not have any such thing with
which the clothing can be cleansed and purified, or which will allow
its impurity to become less than the amount of the preventative
impurity. $f not, it will be 9aaBib to purify the clothing or reduce the
amount of impurity. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=751

Law: $f a few people are na:ed, each should read his Namaa3
individually, far away from one another and if they performed
;amaCat, the $mam should stand in the middle. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">>1

Vol.3 pg.13'


134
Law: $f a na:ed person finds a grass+mat or some bedding, he should
use it to cover himself. ?e should not perform his Namaa3 na:ed in
this case. !imilarly, if he is able to cover himself with grass or leaves
etc., he should do so. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g">>1

Law: $f one does not have sufficient clothing for the entire !atr but
the clothing is only sufficient for !atr of some parts, then to cover
with this is 9aaBib. ne should actually use this material to cover the
F)wrat+e+Mhalee3aC, i.e. the frontal and rear private parts. $f the
material is only enough to cover one of the private parts, then one
should be covered. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=771

Law: ,here is no need for one who has performed his Namaa3 in
such a dire circumstance, to repeat the Namaa3 after he has acHuired
clothing. ,he Namaa3 will be regarded as being valid. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"=771

Law: $f one is not able to get clothing for the !atr or something to
purify impure clothing because of some act of the servants Ji.e.
creationK then in such a case he should perform the Namaa3.
,hereafter, Jwhenever he obtains itK he should repeat the Namaa3.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=771








Vol.3 pg.13(


135
Third Pre-Requisite: Istiqbaal-E-Qibla – Facing
the Direction of the Qibla

$stiHbaal+e+*ibla means to face the direction of the *ibla, i.e. the
?oly =aaba. )lmighty )llah says

`Bθ)´0, '5$γ´¡9# ´#¸Β ¸¨$Ζ9# $Β ¯)γ99´ρ #* `)¸κ¸?=¯8¸% C¸@9# #θΡ7" $γ0=; ≅% ¸-
F¸ŽARQ# ´B¸#!9#´ρ “¸‰¯κ´G #Β '5$.„ ’A¸) ¸C≡´Ž¸D ¸Ο,¸)G`¡¯Β

‘No the fools amid the $eo$le ill say( ho turned the Muslims aay from
the Qibla, on hi&h they ere/ () 6ro$het+ Fou say( 2he Last and the #est
belong to Allah" 9e guides u$on the straight $ath homsoever 9e #ills!
D!urah -aHarah, Verse 1'2E + ?u3oor  performed Namaa3 facing
the direction of -ait+ul+&uHaddas for si4teen or seventeen months,
but the -eloved 2asool  wished that the =aaba should be the *ibla.
$t was on this, that the following verse of the ?oly *urCan was
revealed:

$Β´ρ $-=è '#¯7¸)9# C¸@9# MΖ" $κ¯.=; ā¸) ´)=è´Ζ¸9 #Β '¸8Eƒ Bθ,¯9# #´!¸Β ´=¸=)Ζƒ
’7* ¸H07¸)* β¸)´ρ MΡ7" 2´Ž'¸739 ā¸) ’7* ¸%!# “‰δ ´-# $Β´ρ β7" ´-#
'0¸F`0¸9 ¯)3-≈!ƒ¸) āχ¸) ´-# ¸¨$-9$¸$ >ρ'59 'Ο,¸)¯‘ IJKLM ‰% “Ρ ==)?
7¸γ´ρ ’¸û ¸5$!´¡9# 7-´,¸9´θ`-=ù '#¯7¸% $γ93¯? ¸B´θù 7γ´ρ +G ¸‰¸=`¡!9#
¸Θ#s9# H,)´ρ $Β `Ο"Ζ" #θ9´θù ¯)3δθ``ρ NO+G β¸)´ρ ¸%!# #θ?ρ& =≈G¸39#
βθ!=è´09 HΡ& ´Ps9# #¸Β ¯)¸γ¸$¯‘ $Β´ρ ´-# ¸≅¸≈#¸$ $´!* βθ=!èƒ
Vol.3 pg.135


136
‘And () *eloved+ the Qibla on hi&h you ere before, e only set it for this
reason, so that it may be&ome obvious, ho follos (obeys+ the Rasool, and
ho turns ba&- on their heels" And undoubtedly, this as a diffi&ult
(ad4ustment+, e%&e$t for those guided by Allah" And it is not (in+ the
Magnifi&en&e of Allah, to allo your 3maan (<aith+ to be ineffe&tual"! D!urah
-aHarah, Verse 1'3E

‘#e are seeing you &onstantly turning your fa&e toards the s-ies, so surely
#e ill turn you toards the Qibla hi&h holds your $leasure" No, turn
your fa&e toards the Mas4id-e-9araam (2he ,a&red and ,an&tified Mos.ue+
immediately" And ) MuslimsQ #herever you are, turn your fa&es toards it
as ell" And those ho ere given the *oo-, definitely -no, that this is the
2ruth from their Rub, and Allah is not unaare of their deeds"! D!urah
-aHarah, Verse 1''E

Law: Namaa3 is performed for )llah alone and !aBdah JprostrationK
is for )llah alone, and not for the =aaba. $f J)llah 7orbidK someone
ma:es !aBdah for the =aaba, then he has committed an act, which is
?araam Ji.e. totally forbiddenK and ‘Hunah-e-Gabeera! Ji.e. a maBor
sinK. $f he did this with intention of worshipping the =aaba, then he
is regarded as a blatant :aafir JunbelieverK, as it is :ufr JinfidelityK to
worship other than )llah. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.205I $fadaat+e+
2a3viyahE

Law: ,he $stiHbaal+e+*ibla is general, in the sense of facing the
actual =aaba+e+&ua33amah, as is in the case of the people of &a::ah
&u:arramah, or for others, to face the direction of the =aaba. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=I51" $n other words, the research is carried out by
the one who is able to specially investigate the actual direction of
the =aaba, even if the =aaba is covered. )s is in the case of the
houses in &a::ah, where one stands on the rooftop of the house, he
Vol.3 pg.13/


137
is able to see the =aaba, then in this case, it is 7ard to direct the face
to the actual =aaba, and the direction alone without investigation
will not be sufficient. )s for those who are not able, to research or
establish this, even if they are in &a::ah &u:arramah, then for such
a person to face the direction of the =aaba is sufficient. D$fadaat+e+
2a3viyahE

Law: $f one reads Namaa3 inside the ?oly =aaba, he may read in
whichever direction he wishes. "ven if Namaa3 is performed in the
2oof of the =aaba, the Namaa3 will be valid, but to climb on the roof
of the =aaba is ‘Mumnoo! Jdisallowed6disapprovedK. DMhuniya etcE

Law: $f he only directed his face towards the F?ateem+e+=aabaC,
whereby the =aaba &ua33amah does not fall in front of it, then in
this case the Namaa3 will not be valid. DMhuniyaE

Law: ,o face the direction of the ?oly =aaba means that some
portion of the surface of the face is in the direction of the =aaba.
?ence, if one is somewhat deflected from the *ibla direction, but
some part of the face is facing the direction of the =aabaI the
Namaa3 will be valid. ,he fi4ed angle stipulated in this regard is '(
degrees, so if the deflection is more than '( degrees from the
direction of the =aaba, the $stiHbaal+e+*ibla will not be valid and the
Namaa3 will be invalid. 7or e4ample, و . ¸ is a straight line and : . ‡ is
perpendicular to it. !uppose that the =aaba is at the point ‡ $f the
right angles و . : . ‡ and : . ¸ .‡ are intersected by lines , . : and -.: then
these right angles will be intersected to form two '( degree angles
each, because a right angle is .# degrees. Now, if a person is standing
at point : and is directly facing ‡ then he is in line with =aaba, i.e. he
is facing the actual direction of the =aaba. $f he is orientated towards
Vol.3 pg.130


138
, or - then in this case, he will be regarded as facing the =aaba as
long as he is within ‡ , or ‡ - . ?owever, if he e4ceeds the point ,
orientated towards و or if he e4ceeds - orientated towards ¸ at any
degree, he has deviated from the direction of =aaba and his Namaa3
is thus invalid. D$fadaat+e+2a3viyah, %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.205E



Law: *ibla is not the name of the structure JbuildingK of the =aaba,
but the space within which it Jthe =aabaK is situated. ,he entire
space within the vicinity of it, from the seventh earth right up to the
)rsh, is *ibla. Now, if the building Jof the =aabaK is removed from its
place and put somewhere else and someone performed his Namaa3
facing the building where ever it may have been moved to, his
Namaa3 will not be valid. $f the ?oly =aaba had gone for the Liyaarat
Jvisiting and ta:ing the blessingsK of any 9ali )llah and one
performs his Namaa3 facing the space that is the *ibla, his Namaa3
will be valid Jas the !tructure of the =aaba is not the name of *ibla
but *ibla is that space and the =aaba is erected within its confinesK.
!imilarly, if one performed his Namaa3 on a mountain or in the
depths of a well, whilst facing the direction of the *ibla his Namaa3
is valid, because his direction was that of that space which is *ibla,
i.e. the area and vicinity of *ibla, even though one did not face the
structure Jof the =aabaK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.#E
Vol.3 pg.13.


139
Law: ne who is incapable and helpless in regards to facing the
*ibla, i.e. of ma:ing $stiHbaal+e+*ibla, such as in the case of being ill
to the e4tent where he does not have the energy to face the
direction of *ibla, and there is no one else there who can direct him
towards *iblaI or in the case where he is in the possession of
personal valuable or if he has been entrusted by some other person
to safeguard some valuables, and he :nows for sure that if he faces
the *ibla it will be stolenI or if he is floating on a ships plan: and he
:nows that by changing direction to face *ibla he will sin:I or if he is
riding a disobedient animal which will not allow him to dismount, or
if he dismounts, he will not be able to re+mount it again without the
help of someoneI or if he is an old person and will not be able to
mount the animal himself, and there is also no one available to assist
him to mount it, then in all the above mentioned situations, one
should perform ones Namaa3 in whichever direction one is able to,
and there is also no need to repeat such Namaa3. ?owever, if one has
the ability to halt the animal, he should try to do so, and if he is able
to direct his face towards *ibla, he should attempt to do this as well.
$f even this is not possible, he should perform his Namaa3 however,
he is able to. $f there is a ris: of him losing sight of the travel group if
he stops, then in this case as well, there is no need to halt the animal
Ji.e. conveyanceK. $n such a situation, one may perform Namaa3
whilst in motion. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.#E

Law: $f one is performing his Namaa3 on a ship which is already
sailing, he should face the direction of *ibla when performing
,a:beer+e+,ahreema Ji.e. saying )llahu ):bar to commence
Namaa3K, and he too should change direction as the ships changes
course, even if he may be performing a Nafil Namaa3. DMhuniya
pg.223E

Vol.3 pg.1'#


140
Law: $f a &usalCli has in possession valuables, and he is sure that
they will be stolen if he faces the *ibla, then in such a situation, if he
is able to find a person to guard his valuables, even if it means
paying him the F<Brat &ithlC, i.e. the current general wage, he should
do so, and to face *ibla is 7ard Jin this caseK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.2.#E

,his ruling applies if the amount being demanded in payment is
surplus to his fundamental necessary reHuirements, i.e. F?aaBat+e+
)sliyahC, or if the person guarding the valuables agrees to being paid
later.

$f the person is demanding cash payment for this duty and one does
not have sufficient cash, or if one does have cash but it is not surplus
to his ?aaBat+e+)sliyah, or if the person is demanding more than the
current general wage, then there is no need to secure the services of
such a person, for this purpose. ne may perform his Namaa3 as he
can. D$fadaat+e+2a3viyahE

Law: $f a person has been captured or imprisoned and his captors do
not allow him the privilege of facing the *ibla, he may perform his
Namaa3 in whichever direction he can. ,hen, if he gets the time to
perform it within the fi4ed time of that !alaah or even afterwards,
he should repeat it. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.#E

Law: $f a person is at such a place where he is not able to establish
the direction of *ibla, as he is not able to locate any indication in
regards to *ibla direction, or if there is no &uslim there who is able
to show him the *ibla direction, or if there is no &asBid or &ehraab
etc. at such a location, or if the sun, moon or stars have not as yet
appeared, or even if they have appeared, he does not possess the
relevant :nowledge to establish *ibla by way of them, then the
Vol.3 pg.1'1


141
ruling in regards to such a person is that he should practice
F,aharriC
1
, i.e. he should deliberate in regards to the direction of
*ibla, and he should face that direction which his heart firmly settles
on as being the direction of *ibla. DMeneral -oo:sE

Law: $f after performing Namaa3 by practising ,aharri, one realised
that he did not really face the *ibla direction, then in such a case,
there is no need to repeat the Namaa3. D,anweerul )bsaar vol.1
pg.2.1E

Law: $f such a person performs his Namaa3 in Bust any direction
without practising ,aharri, his Namaa3 will not be valid, even
though he had actually faced the *ibla direction. ?owever, if after
Namaa3, it was confirmed without doubt that he had faced the
correct *ibla directionI then in this case, the Namaa3 will be valid. $f
after Namaa3, he assumes that it was *ibla, but is not certain, or if
whilst in the midst of Namaa3 he became aware of that direction
being *ibla, the Namaa3 is not valid. D2addul &uhtar N %urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.2E

Law: $f he deliberated and his heart was content with a certain
direction being *ibla, but he still faced some other direction, his
Namaa3 is invalid, even though the direction that he might have
been facing was actually the correct *ibla direction. ,his ruling even
applies in a case, where after the Namaa3 he confirmed for sure that
it really was *ibla. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.2E
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,aharri refers to a decision based on deliberation and positive intuition. 9hen it becomes
complicated to determine the truth of a matter in any situation, then one should deliberate in
this regard and act based on oneCs positive intuition to determine the truth. ,his deliberation
is called ,aharri. $t is only permissible to practice ,aharri when there is no other evidence to
substantiate the reality. $t is not permissible to practice ,aharri if there is evidence present.
&ore detail in this regard can be found in -ahaar e !hariat Volume 1/.
Vol.3 pg.1'2


142
Law: $f there is such a person present who is aware of the *ibla
direction, but one performed Namaa3 by assuming the direction
without as:ing himI then in this case, if one was actually facing the
correct *ibla direction, the Namaa3 is valid, otherwise not. D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.2.#E

Law: $f you enHuire regarding the direction of *ibla from such a
person who is aware of the direction of *ibla. ?owever, he refuses to
inform you of the direction, and you practiced ,aharri and
performed your Namaa3, but afterwards, the said person informed
you in regards to the *ibla direction, the Namaa3 is still valid and
there is no need to repeat it. D&uniya pg.1##E

Law: $f there are &asBids and &ehraabs present at that location, but
one did not give any credence to this. ?owever, he directed himself
to another direction based on his own opinion, or if the stars etc. are
visible and he has the relevant :nowledge to establish *ibla by way
of them, but does not do so, and merely performed his Namaa3 based
on deliberation. ,hen in such a case, if he performed his Namaa3 in
the incorrect direction, the Namaa3 will be invalid in both cases.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.1E

Law: $f a person is performing his Namaa3, facing a particular
direction, which he chose based on deliberation J,aharriK, in this
case it is not permissible for another person to follow him. ?e too
should practice ,aharri on his personal capacity. $f he did not
practice ,aharri and Bust followed the other person Jin regards to
*ibla directionK, his Namaa3 is invalid. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. 2.1E


Vol.3 pg.1'3


143
Law: $f one was performing his Namaa3 on the basis of ,aharri and
whilst in Namaa3, even if it is in !aBdah+e+!ahw, his view Jregarding
*iblaK changed, or he realised that he was mista:en, then in this
case, it is 7ard for him to immediately change direction, and there is
no harm to those J2a:aCatsK which he has already performed.
!imilarly, if he performs all ' 2a:aCats facing four different
directions Jas his view changed in each 2a:aCatK, it is permissible. $f
on changing his view, he did not turn immediately and a delay of
longer than one F2u:nC ta:es place, i.e. the time it ta:es to say
‘,ubhaan!Allah! thrice passes, the Namaa3 becomes invalid. D%urr+e+
&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.1E

Law: $f a blind person was performing his Namaa3 whilst facing the
incorrect direction and if an able+eyed person arrived and aligned
him correctly Jto *iblaK. ,hen followed him Jas a &uHtadiK, in this
case, if there was such a person present from whom the blind person
could enHuire in regards to *ibla, but failed to do so, then the
Namaa3 of both persons is invalid. $f there was no such person
present there, from whom he could have enHuired, then in this case,
the Namaa3 of the blind person is valid and the Namaa3 of the able+
eyed person is invalid. D=hania, ?indiya vol.1 pg.5#I Mhuniya pg.22'I
2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.1E

Law: $f one was performing his Namaa3 whilst facing a direction
other than *ibla, based on ,aharri, and he later realised his error
and then turned towards *ibla. ,hen any such person who is aware
of the said persons initial condition, and if his condition is also
similar in the sense that he too practiced ,aharri regarding this
direction and he too realised his error, then in such a case, he is
permitted to follow such a person, otherwise not. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.2.1E
Vol.3 pg.1''


144
Law: $f the $mam
1
and &uHtadis
2
were performing Namaa3 in the
same direction, based on ,aharri and the $mam completed the
Namaa3 and turned !alaamI but now the view Jin regards to *iblaK of
the F&asbooHC
3
and the FGaahaHC
'
has changed, then in this case, the
&asbooH should change his direction and the GaahaH should start
Namaa3 afresh. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.1E

Law: $f the $mam is performing Namaa3 in the correct direction
based on ,aharri from inception, then even if the &uHtadi is not
amongst those practising ,aharri, he may follow the $mam in this
case. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.1E

Law: $f ones initial decision was made regarding a particular
direction then after commencing Namaa3 ones opinion changed, so
he turned towards that directionI then either in the third or fourth
instance, he reverted to the initial opinionI then again, he should
turn to that direction. ,here is no need in this case for him to start
afresh. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.1E

Law: $f one practiced ,aharri and had Bust read one 2a:aCat, when
his Budgment changed in the second 2a:aCat, and he now remembers
that he left out one !aBdah of the previous 2a:aCat, then in this case,
he should start the Namaa3 afresh. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=J=1

Law: $f on a dar: night, a few people practiced ,aharri in ;amaCat
and performed Namaa3 in different directions but as it was during
Namaa3, they did not realise that their direction is contrary to the
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,he $mam is the one who leads the ;amaCat !alaah Jcongregational prayerK.
2. ,he &uHtadi is the one who performs his Namaa3 following the $mam in congregation.
3. ,he &asbooH JGatecomerK is one who has Boined the $mam after one or more 2a:aCats.
'. ) GaahaH is a resident J&uHeemK who follows an $mam who is a &usafir J,ravellerK.
Vol.3 pg.1'(


145
direction of the $mam and nor are the &uHtadis in front of the $mam,
then in this case the Namaa3 will be valid. $f after Namaa3, they
realised that their direction was different from the direction of the
$mam, there is still no harm and if either in Namaa3 or after Namaa3
one finds out that one was in front of the $mam, the Namaa3 is
invalid. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2.3E

Law: $f the &usalCli intentionally turned his chest away from *ibla,
even if he then immediately reverted to *ibla, his Namaa3 is invalidI
if he turned away and the gap in+between does not e4ceed that of 3
,asbeehs Ji.e. duration of saying !ubhaanC)llah thriceK, the Namaa3
is valid. D&uniya pg.1#1, -ahr vol.1 pg.2.0E

Law: $f only his face was turned away from *ibla, it is 9aaBib upon
him to immediately turn his face towards the *ibla direction and
this will thus not invalidate his Namaa3. ?owever, to do this without
valid reason is &a:ruh. D&uniya pg.1#1, -ahr vol.1 pg.20(E

Fourth Pre-Requisite: Waqt - Time

,he laws related to this pre+reHuisite have already been e4plained in
the earlier discussion pertaining to time.

Fifth Pre-Requisite: Niyyat – Intention

)lmighty )llah says

$Β´ρ #ρ'I¸Q& ā¸) #ρ‰8è´0¸9 ´-# 6¸Á¸=/R `&! ¸$!#

Vol.3 pg.1'5


146
‘And they ere &ommanded only this, that they should orshi$ Allah, ith
sin&erely devotion in faith (to 9im+! D!urah .0, Verse (E

?u3oor+e+)Hdas  said:

¸


´
ﻧ .

.
ˆ
·
`
¸
¸

`
.ﺍ
`
_‰.
´
·¸ﻟ
´
و ¸ :ﺎ· ﻴ

:ﻟﺍﺎ
¸

´
_ﺎ
´

`
ﻋ´ ` ·ﺍ ﺎ
´

·

¸


‘A&tions are based on intention, and for every $erson is that hi&h he
intended"! -u:hari, &uslim and other &uhaditheen have reported
this ?adith from )meer ul &omineen <mar bin =hattab ؓ  .

Law: Niyyat JintentionK refers to the resolved intent of the heart.
&erely :nowing it is not counted as Niyyat, until such time that
there is no resolved intent. D,anweerul )bsaar vol.1 pg.2/0E

Law: Credibility is not given to that which is uttered by the tongue,
i.e. audibly in regards to Niyyat. $n other words, if one intended to
pray Luhr Namaa3, but one uttered the word )sr with the tongue,
the Namaa3 of Luhr will be done. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.2/0E

Law: ,he wea:est degree of intention is that if one enHuires from
you which Namaa3 you are performing, you should be able to
immediately respond without any hesitation at all. $f ones condition
is such that he has to thin: before answering, then the Namaa3 will
be invalid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2/0E

Law: $t is &ustahab to say the Niyyat with the tongue JaudiblyK. ,o
mention the Niyyat in )rabic is not a condition. $t can be said in 7arsi
J1ersianK etc. Ji.e. in language of your choiceK. ?owever, the words of
Vol.3 pg.1'/


147
intention must be in the past tense, such asI FNawaytuC or F$ have
intendedC. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2/0E

Law: ,here is greater caution for the Niyyat to be present when
saying ‘Allahu A-bar! Ji.e. when ma:ing ,a:beer+e+,ahreemaK.
D&uniya pg.11#E

Law: $f the Niyyat was made before the ,a:beer, and no such action
which is a hindrance to Namaa3, and which is not part of Namaa3
was committed between the Niyyat and the time one commenced
Namaa3I such as eating, drin:ing or spea:ing etc., the Namaa3 will be
valid, even if the Niyyat was not present Ji.e. currentK at the time of
,ahreema. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2/.E

Law: $f one performed Niyyah before 9udu, the 9udu is not
regarded as an act that is foreign Jto Namaa3K, so Namaa3 will be
done. !imilarly, if one made Niyyah after 9udu and wal:ed for
Namaa3, then this wal:ing will not be regarded as an act that is
foreign, and it will not be regarded as a separating factor, so the
Namaa3 in this case will thus be valid. DMhuniya pg.2(3E

Law: $f the Niyyat was made after commencing Namaa3, it will not
be acceptedI to the point that if one proclaimed the Niyyah during
the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema by proclaiming it after ‘Allahu! and before
‘A-bar!, the Namaa3 is not valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.2/.E

Law: ,he proper and correct ruling is that for Nafil, !unnat and
,araweeh, Bust the absolute intention of Namaa3 is sufficient, but it
is advisable JbetterK to mention the word ,araweeh in ,araweeh, to
mention the Niyyat of !unnat of the time, to ma:e the intention of
Vol.3 pg.1'0


148
Qiyaam-ul-Nayl for Qiyaam-ul-Nayl. $n the other remaining !unnats, it
is advisable to mention the Niyyat for !unnat or the intention of
following the practice of Nabi , as some &ashaCi:h regard simply
Niyyat Jof Namaa3 without stipulating which type of Namaa3K as not
being sufficient. D&uniya pg.1#5E

Law: $n Nafil Namaa3, the absolute intention of Namaa3 is sufficient,
even if the word FNafilC is not mentioned in the intention. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.2/.E

Law: 9hen performing the 7ard Namaa3, it is also necessary to
ma:e the intention of F7ardC. &erely ma:ing the absolute intention
of Namaa3 or Nafil etc. will not suffice. $n the case where one does
not have any :nowledge in regards to it being 7ardI such as in the
case where he reads he five daily !alaah, but he does not have
:nowledge regarding its F7ardiyatC Ji.e. it being mandatory and
obligatory prayerK, then in this case Namaa3 is not valid, and it is
7ard upon him to ma:e *a3a of all such !alaahs, e4cept in the case
where he performs them behind the $mam and in the intention he
says, F$ am reading whatever Namaa3 the $mam is performingCI then
in this case, his Namaa3 will be valid. $n the case where he has
:nowledge of it but he does not ma:e any distinction between the
7ard and the non+7ard, there are two situationsI J1K $f he ma:es
Niyyah of 7ard in all the 2a:aCats, the Namaa3 will be valid but if he
already read the !unnats in such !alaahs where the !unnat is before
the 7ard, then he is not permitted to ma:e $mamat because by
reading the !unnats with the Niyyat of 7ard, his 7ard has been
discharged. 7or e4ample, if he read the four !unnats of Luhr before
the 7ard, with the intention of 7ard, then he cannot ma:e $mamat
for the 7ard !alaah Jas his 7ard has been dischargedK. J2K $f he did not
ma:e the Niyyat of 7ard for any of the 2a:aCats, then in this case, the
Vol.3 pg.1'.


149
7ard will not be discharged. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.20#E

Law: 9hen reading 7ard Namaa3, it is also necessary to ma:e
Niyyah of that particular Namaa3 Ji.e. to ma:e Niyyah for 7ard of
Luhr or 7ard of )sr etc.K or for e4ample to say the following in the
time of that particular Namaa3, F$ have made Niyyat for the Luhr of
today or to say, F$ have made Niyyat for the 7ard of this present
JcurrentK timeC. ?owever, in the case of ;ummah, the Niyyah of F7ard
of the current timeC is not sufficient. 7or ;ummah, one must ma:e
the specific Niyyat for ;ummah. D,anweerul )bsaar pg.202E

Law: $f a person made the Niyyat for F7ard+e+9aHtC Ji.e. the Niyyat of
that time, such as in the case of LuhrK and the time of that particular
Namaa3 had already e4pired, then in such a case, the Namaa3 is not
done, even if he is aware or not of the time e4piring. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.202E

Law: $n 7ard Namaa3, to merely ma:e the Niyyat, F$ am reading the
7ard of todayC is not sufficientI unless a particular, Namaa3 has not
been stipulated, such as F,he Luhr of todayC or F,he "sha of ,odayC.
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=I=1

Law: $t is F<laC Jbest and most appropriateK to ma:e this Niyyat, F$ am
reading a certain Namaa3 of todayC Ji.e. words stipulating the Name
of the Namaa3 where the word certain has appeared, meaning one
can say either 7aBr or Luhr or )sr etc.K. "ven if the time of that
Namaa3 e4pires, it will be regarded as being discharged, especially
for one who suspects that it is outside the fi4ed time. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.203I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.51E

Vol.3 pg.1(#


150
Law: $f a person mistoo: that day for some other dayI for e4ample, if
it is a &onday and he mistoo: it for a ,uesday and made Niyyah for
the Luhr of ,uesday, later he realised that it was actually &onday,
then in this case, the Namaa3 will be done and valid. DMhuniya
pg.2(1E ,his applies if the words ‘of today! (or today!s Auhr et&"+ are in
the Niyyat because after stipulating this, the use of the words
&onday or ,uesday etc. is futile and error in this is not harmful.
?owever, if he only used the name of the day in the Niyyat and he in
the Niyyat he did not intend with the words Fof todayC. 7or e4ampleI
in the case where he merely said, F$ have intended for the Luhr of
,uesdayC then in this case the Namaa3 will not be valid, even if that
day was ,uesday, as there are many ,uesdays. D$fadaat+e+2a3viyahE

Law: $t is not necessary to stipulate the number of 2a:aCats in the
Niyyat. ?owever, it is F)fdalC Jof greater virtueK to do soI so in the
case of an error in the number of 2a:aCats, such as if one made
Niyyat for 3 2a:aCats of Luhr Jinstead of 'K, or he made Niyyat for '
2a:aCats of &aghrib Jinstead of 3K, the Namaa3 will still be valid.
D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.201E

Law: $f the 7ard becomes *a3a then it is necessary to stipulate the
day or the Namaa3. $t is necessary to say FCertain Namaa3 of Certain
%ayC Ji.e. Luhr Namaa3 of ,uesdayK. ;ust mentioning FLuhrC etc. or
F*a3aC Namaa3 is not sufficient. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.20#E

Law: $f one has only made one Namaa3 *a3a then there is no need to
stipulate the day etc. $t is sufficient to say, F$ have intended to pray
the certain Namaa3 for which $ am liableC. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.201E

Vol.3 pg.1(1


151
Law: $f a person has made many of his Namaa3 *a3a, and he does
not :now, which days or which dates Namaa3 Jare *a3aK. ,hen the
simple manner for him to ma:e Niyyat is for him to say, F$ have
intended to pray my very first or very last particular Namaa3 which,
$ have missedC, i.e. if it is for a Luhr and he has numerous Luhrs
which are *a3a. ?e should say $ have intended to pray my very first
Luhr which $ have missedC, or he can say, F$ have intended to pray my
very last Luhr which $ have missedC, or for which $ am liable. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.201E

Law: $f a person was liable for the Namaa3 of a !unday and he
thought it was for !aturday and he performed it with this Niyyat and
afterwards realised that it was for !unday, then this Namaa3 is not
done. DMhuniya 2(1E

Law: ,here is no need to stipulate ‘Qaza! or ‘Ada! in the Niyyat. $f
*a3a was read with the Niyyat of )da or )da with the Niyyat of *a3a,
the Namaa3 is done. $n other words, if there is still time remaining
for Luhr, and he thought that it has e4pired, and he read Luhr of
that day with the Niyyah of *a3aI or if the time had already e4pired
and he thought that there was still time remaining and made Niyyat
of )da, then in this case, the Namaa3 is still regarded as valid. $f he
did not do this, but the time is remaining and he read with the
Niyyat of *a3a of Luhr, but he did not stipulate it as the Luhr of that
day, the Namaa3 is not valid. !imilarly, if he was liable for the Luhr
of a certain day and he completed a later prayer Ji.e. )srK with the
Niyyat of )da then it is not valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.203E

Law: $t is also necessary that the &uHtadi ma:es Niyyat to follow
the $mam. ?owever, it is not necessary for the $mam to ma:e Niyyat
Vol.3 pg.1(2


152
to lead that &uHtadi, in order for the Namaa3 of the &uHtadi to be
valid. $f the $mam in his intention says, ‘3 am not the 3mam of a &ertain
$erson! and that person followed him, the Namaa3 of that &uHtadi
will still be validI but if the $mam does not ma:e the Niyyat of
$mamat, the ,hawaab of ;amaCat will be lost. ,o obtain the ,hawaab
of ;amaCat, it is not necessary to intend it before the &uHtadi Boins
the ;amaCat, but he can also do this when the &uHtadi is Boining.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52I %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.202E

Law: ,here is one condition wherein it is regarded as necessary as
per consensus, for the $mam to ma:e Niyyat of $mamat. ,his is in the
case where the &uHtadi is a female, who stands near a male, and that
Namaa3 is not Namaa3+e+;anaa3ahI then in this case, if the $mam did
not ma:e Niyyat for F$mamat LanaC, i.e. to lead a female in Namaa3,
then the Namaa3 of the female is not valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.20(E $n this case, the $mam has to have intended this in the
beginning of the Namaa3. "ven if he ma:es the intention afterwards
it will not suffice for the validity of a female to follow him Jin
prayerK
1
. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.20(E

Law: $n the case of ;anaa3ah Namaa3, the rule is absolute, whether
she is near a male or not, it is unanimously agreed that Jif such a case
does present itselfK, then there is no need to ma:e intention to lead a
female. ,he correct ruling is that it is also not necessary Jif this
happensK in ;ummah or "idain. $n the other !alaahs, if she is not near
a male, then her Namaa3 will be done, even if the $mam did not ma:e
the Niyyat of F$mamat+e+LanaC. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=I>1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $t is unanimously agreed that females are not permitted to perform Namaa3 in ;amaCat, in
this current time and era, especially together with males and they should perform Namaa3 in
the privacy of their homes. ,his rule is only being e4plained so that the ruling may be :nown,
if such a situation does arise.
Vol.3 pg.1(3


153
Law: $f the &uHtadi merely made Niyyat of the FNamaa3 of the
$mamC or F7ard of the $mamC and he did not ma:e the intention of
F$HtidaC, i.e. of following him, the Namaa3 is invalid. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.52E

Law: $f the &uHtadi made the Niyyat, F$ am reading whichever
Namaa3 the $mam is readingC with the Niyyat of $Htida, then it is
permitted. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52E

Law: $f a &uHtadi ma:e the following Niyyat, F$ am commencing that
Namaa3 which is the Namaa3 of this $mamC then in this case, if the
$mam has already commenced his Namaa3, then it is obvious that
$Htida with this Niyyat is permissible. ?owever, if the $mam has not
yet commenced his Namaa3, then in such a case, there are two
situationsI

JaK $f the &uHtadi :nows that the $mam has not as yet commenced,
then in this case, after he commences, the &uHtadis initial Niyyat is
sufficient.

JbK $f the &uHtadi assumes that the $mam has commenced his
Namaa3, but he has actually not commenced his Namaa3 yet then in
this case, the initial Niyyat is not sufficient anymore. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.52E

Law: $f the &uHtadi made Niyyat of $Htida but in the 7ard, he did not
specify the 7ard, then the 7ard is not valid. DMhuniya pg.2'.E $n other
words, unless he does not say, F$ am the &uHtadi of the $mam in his
Namaa3C Ji.e. $ am following the $mam in his Namaa3K.

Vol.3 pg.1('


154
Law: $f in ;ummah, the &uHtadi merely made intention of following
the $mam in his Namaa3 and did not intend ;ummah or Luhr, his
Namaa3 is still regarded as valid, whether the $mam led ;ummah or
Luhr. $f one made intention of $Htida for Luhr and the $mamCs
Namaa3 was ;ummah, then has neither Luhr nor ;ummah been done.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52E

Law: $f the &uHtadi Boined whilst the $mam was in the F*aCdaC
Jsitting positionK and he is not sure if it is F*aCda+e+<laC Jthe first
*aCdaK or F*aCda+e+)a:hiraC Jthe second *aCdaK, and he ma:es
intention by saying that if it is the first *aCda, then $ ma:e Niyyat for
$Htida, otherwise not.

,hen in such a case, even if the $mam is in *aCda+e+<la, the $Htida is
not regarded as being valid. $f he made $Htida with this Niyyat, that if
he is in *aCda+e+<la, $ ma:e $Htida of Niyyat in 7ard, otherwise, $
ma:e Niyyat of NafilI then in this case, even if the $mam is in *aCda+
e+<la, the 7ard will not be fulfilled Jby such an intentionK. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.53E

Law: !imilarly, if he found the $mam in Namaa3 and he is uncertain
whether he is performing "sha or ,araweeh, and he followed by
saying that if it is 7ard, $ have made $Htida and if it is ,araweeh $ do
not, then in this case the $Htida is not valid, be it "sha or ,araweeh.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.53E

?e should ma:e Niyyat of 7ard, because if it is really the 7ard
Namaa3 then his 7ard will be discharged and if it is not it will
become Nafil for him. D%urr+e+&u:htarE

Vol.3 pg.1((


155
Law: $f the &uHtadi made Niyyat Jto followK as soon as the $mam
stood on his $mamat position, then even if the Niyyat was not
prevailing at the time of the ,a:beer, the $Htida is valid. ,his is on
condition that he did not do any such thing, which is not associated
to Namaa3 Jfrom the inception of his Niyyat up to the time of the
,a:beerK. DMhuniya pg.'(#E

Law: $n ma:ing Niyyat of $Htida, it is not necessary to :now who the
$mam is, i.e. whether it is Laid or )mr Ji.e. one person or anotherK,
and if in the Niyyat he said, F-ehind this $mamC and in his :nowledge
it was Laid but later realised it was )mr, then in such a case his
$Htida is valid. ?owever, if he did not say F-ehind this $mamC or
F-ehind this personC but he specified only by mentioning the name,
such as by saying, Fbehind LaidC and then later he realised it was
)mr, then in this case the Namaa3 is invalid. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52I
Mhuniya pg.'(#E

Law: $n the case of ;amaCat+e+=atheerC Ji.e. unprecedented mass
congregationK, the &uHtadi should not specify the $mam Jby nameK
in the Niyyat. !imilarly, in ;anaa3ah, one should not say, F$ ma:e
Niyyat for the Namaa3 of the particular deceasedC Ji.e. by name, if
there are many ;anaa3ahsK. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.53E

Law: ,he Niyyat for ;anaa3ah Namaa3 is, F$ have intended Namaa3
for )llah and %ua for this &ayyit JdeceasedKC. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.203E

Law: $f the &uHtadi is in doubt as to whether the deceased is male
or female, he should say, F$ ma:e Namaa3 with the $mam, upon Jthe
deceasedK whom the $mam is ma:ing Namaa3 on. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.20'E
Vol.3 pg.1(5


156
Law: $f one intended the Namaa3 of a male and it was later realised
that it is a female or it was the other way around, it is not
permissible Ji.e. invalidK, unless he mentions Jin his NiyyatK that he is
performing Namaa3 of the ;anaa3ah that is present.

!imilarly, if he intended ;anaa3ah of Laid and later realised it was
)mr, his Namaa3 is not valid. $f he said, F$ have intended for
J;anaa3ah Namaa3K of this deceasedC and he thought it was Laid but
later realised that it was )mr then Namaa3 is done. D%urr+e+&u:htar
N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.20'E

Law: !imilarly, if he thought it was a male and later found out it was
a female or the other way around, the Namaa3 will be valid if he used
the words, Fthis deceasedC in the Niyyat of Namaa3. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.20'E

Law: $f one performed few ;anaa3ahs at once, it is not necessary to
stipulate the number of deceased. $f he stipulated the figure and they
were more than the figure stipulated by him, then none of the
;anaa3ahs have been done. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.20'E

$n other words, this in the case where he does not gesture regarding
the ;anaa3ahs present, for e4ample, if he says, F$ have intended for
the Namaa3 upon ten deceasedC and there were actually eleven, then
in this case none have been done. ?owever, if he says, F$ have
intended for Namaa3 over these ten deceasedC and there are twenty,
then in this case, all are done. ,hese rules are applicable to the $mam
who leads the ;anaa3ah Namaa3. ,he negative aspect as e4plained
regarding stipulating the number of deceased only without
gesturing by saying FtheseC will apply to the &uHtadi as well.

Vol.3 pg.1(/


157
$f his intention was not, F$ have intended the ;anaa3ah Namaa3 of
those over whom the $mam is readingC, because in this case, if he
thought they were ten and they were actually more, then even his
Namaa3 will be valid for all. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.20'E

Law: 9hen reading a 9aaBib Namaa3, one should ma:e Niyyat for
9aaBib and it must also be stipulated, i.e. he should stipulate
whether it is the Namaa3 of "id+ul+7itr, "id+ul+)dha, Na3r Jfulfilling a
vowK, Namaa3 following a ,awaaf, or such a Nafil which he
intentionally bro:e Jbecause the *a3a of such a Nafil also becomes
9aaBibK.

$n !aBdah+e+,ilaawat it is also necessary to stipulate the Niyyat but
when it is done immediately in Namaa3 then Niyyah should also be
made for !aBdah+e+!hu:r J!aBdah to show gratitude to )llahK even if
it is Nafil, i.e. one should ma:e this Niyyat, F$ am ma:ing Niyyah of
!aBdah+e+!hu:rC. ,his applies to !aBdah+e+!ahw as well. J!aBdah made
as amends for errors in !alaah. ,his will be e4plained later in detailK.
$n %urr+e+&u:htar it states that to stipulate the Niyyat for !aBdah+e+
!ahw is not necessary, but in Nahr )l 7aaCiH, it is mentioned as being
necessary and this seems to be more obvious. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg. 201E

$f in the case of Na3r, the vows are many, then intention is reHuired
for each one individually, and in 9itr Namaa3, merely the intention
of 9itr is sufficient, even if the Niyyat of it being 9aaBib is not added
to it. ,o ma:e the intention of 9aaBib is F<laC Jbetter and more
virtuousK. ?owever, if the intention is one which is contrary to
9aaBib JprayerK then it is insufficient. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul
&uhtar Vol.1 pg.201E

Vol.3 pg.1(0


158
Law: $n Niyyat to say, ‘3 am fa&ing the dire&tion of the Qibla! is not a
condition. ?owever, it is necessary that conflict to *ibla should not
be in the Niyyat. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.20(E

Law: $f one commenced Namaa3 with the intention of 7ard and
during the course of Namaa3, he thought that it was Nafil and thus
completed it as NafilI the 7ard is valid. $f he commenced with Niyyat
of Nafil and during the course of Namaa3 he thought it was 7ard and
thus completed it as 7ard, the Nafil has been done Jand not the 7ardK.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52E

Law: $f after commencing one Namaa3, one made Niyyat for a
second Namaa3 and if this was done with a fresh ,a:beer
Jproclaiming )llahu ):barK, then the first has been invalidated and
the second has commenced.

$f this is not the case, then it is still regarded as being the initial
Namaa3 which he first intended, even if both these are Jwith
intentionK of 7ard, or the first is 7ard and the second is Nafil, or if the
first is Nafil and the second is 7ard. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52I Mhuniya
2'/E

,his is in the case where the Niyyat is not uttered again with the
tongueI otherwise, the first one will become invalid in any event.
D?indiya vol.1 pg.52E

Law: $f after one 2a:aCat of Luhr, he again made ,a:beer with the
Niyyat of the same Luhr, then it is the same Namaa3 and the first
2a:aCat will be counted, so if he ma:es the *aCda+e+)a:hira it will be
valid, otherwise not. "ven here, if he ma:es the Niyyat JagainK by
uttering it with his tongue, the first Namaa3 will become invalid and
Vol.3 pg.1(.


159
that JprecedingK 2a:aCat will not count. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.52,
Mhuniya pg.2'0E

Law: $f in his heart, he intended to brea: the Namaa3, but he did not
say anything with the tongue, he is regarded as being in Namaa3.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.5E ,his is as long as he does not do
anything that nullifies the Namaa3.

Law: $f one ma:es Niyyat of two !alaahs together, there are a few
circumstances in this regard: $f amongst them Jboth the Namaa3K,
one is 7ard+e+)in and the other is ;anaa3ah Namaa3 then the Niyyat
for the 7ard is the valid one. $f both are 7ard+e+)in and one is within
its appointed time and the time for the other Namaa3 has not started
yet, then the one which is in the appointed time is done. $f one is in
the appointed time, the second is *a3a, and there is not sufficient
time remaining, then too, the Niyyat of the appointed time Namaa3
is valid. $f there is sufficient time remaining, then neither has been
done.

$f both are *a3a, then the first one is for the one who is !aahib+e+
,arteeb, and if he is not !aahib+e+,arteeb, then both are invalid. $f
one is 7ard and the other is Nafil, the 7ard is done. $f both are Nafil,
then both are, and if one is Nafil and the other is for Namaa3+e+
;anaa3ah, the one for the Nafil Namaa3 is valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.2.'I Mhuniya pg.2'/E

Law: $f one commenced Namaa3 solely for the pleasure of )llah and
J)llah forbidK, the Namaa3 was tainted by 2iya FJfor show and to be
applaudedK, then in this case credence will be given to the beginning,
i.e. he will be given benefit because he commenced it for the
pleasure of )llah. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.'I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.53E
Vol.3 pg.15#


160
Law: )ctual F2iyaC Jto do something for showK is when one only
reads JNamaa3K because he was in the presence of people, if not he
would not have read Jhis Namaa3K. $f the case is such that when
alone he reads but not as sincerely, and in the presence of people, he
reads with more sincerity Ji.e. with more dedicationK, then in this
case he will get the ,hawaab for JfulfillingK the actual Namaa3 and
no ,hawaab will be obtained for his Jso+calledK sincerity. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.2.'I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.53E F2iyaC is punishable in
any event.

Law: $f in the course of performing Namaa3 with JtrueK devotion
and sincerity, he noticed people and felt that F2iyaC will creep in, or if
he was about to start his Namaa3 and he felt the threat of F2iyaC
creeping in, then in such a case, he should not omit the Namaa3 due
to this, but he should perform his Namaa3 and then ma:e $stighfar
Jsee: forgiveness from his shortcomingsK. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.2.'E

Sixth Pre-Requisite: Niyyat – Intention

,he si4th pre+reHuisite is ,a:beer+e+,ahreema Ji.e. proclaiming the
)llahu ):bar to commence the Namaa3K.

)lmighty )llah says

"Œ´ρ ´Ο`,# S¸H¸$´‘ ’7Áù

‘And ho 6raises the Name of his Rub, and offers Namaaz!
D!urah 0/, VerseI 1(E

Vol.3 pg.151


161
,here are numerous )hadith which confirm that ?u3oor+e+)Hdas 
commenced Namaa3 by proclaiming ‘Allahu A-bar!"

Law: $n ;anaa3ah Namaa3, ,a:beer+e+,ahreema is a F2u:nC Jbasic
element of the Namaa3K and for all the other !alaahs, it is a condition
Ji.e. pre+reHuisiteK. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.2./E

Law: $n a Namaa3, other than ;anaa3ah Namaa3, if a person
proclaims ,a:beer+e+,ahreema whilst having some impurity, but
before completing F)llah ):barC, he discards it, the Namaa3 will be
established. !imilarly, if at the time of ,a:beer+e+,ahreema the ‘,atr!
Jna:edness of the bodyK was revealed, or if he was not facing *ibla,
or if the sun was at its 3enith, and by way of ‘Amal-e-Qaleel!
Jnegligible movementK and before completing the ,a:beer, he
covered his F!atrC, faced towards the *ibla, or if the sun descended
from its 3enith, Namaa3 has been established. !imilarly J)llah forbidK
if a person without 9udu fell into a river and before water can pass
over the parts which need to be washed in 9udu, he commenced
,a:beer+e+,ahreema, but before completing the ,a:beer, all the
parts were washed, then in this case Namaa3 will be established.
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"2./1

Law: ne is permitted to start a Nafil Namaa3 with the ,ahreema of
7ard. 7or e4ample, after the completion of the 7our 2a:aCats of "sha,
if he stands up for the !unnats, without turning !alaam. ?owever, to
do this with intent is &a:ruh JunadvisableK and disallowed, and if it
is not done with intent, then there is no obBection. 7or e4ample, if he
performed the ' 2a:aCats of Luhr and entered into *aCda+e+)a:hira,
then thought he had only read 2 2a:aCats, so he stood up and then
even made !aBdah of the fifth 2a:aCat and then realised he had
already ready ' 2a:aCatsI in this case the fifth 2a:aCat becomes Nafil.
Vol.3 pg.152


162
?e should add one more 2a:aCat to ma:e it 2 2a:aCats, and since this
formation was not intentional, there is no defect in it. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=J71

Law: ne is allowed to establish Ji.e. startK one Nafil based on
another Nafil. ,he establishment of one 7ard on another 7ard or on a
Nafil cannot be done. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=J71





















Vol.3 pg.153


163
Chapter 4

The Method Of
Performing Namaaz


∗ Hadith 163

∗ Method 168

∗ Fard Actions in Namaaz 177

∗ Takbeer-e-Tahreema 177

∗ Qiyaam 181

∗ Qira’at 184

∗ Ruku 186

∗ Sujood (Prostration) 186

∗ Qa’da-e-Aakhira 189

∗ Khusoof (Terminating the Namaaz) 191

∗ Waajib Actions in Namaaz 194

∗ Sunnats of Namaaz 200

∗ Virtues and Laws pertaining to
Durood Shareef 216

∗ Mustahab Actions in Namaaz 227

∗ Zikr and Dua after Namaaz 228

Vol.3 pg.15'


164
Hadith 1: -u:hari and &uslim report from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
a person entered the &asBid, and 2asoolullah  was seated in one
side of the &osHue. ,hat person performed his Namaa3 and then
approached 2asoolullah  and conveyed !alaam. 2asoolullah 
said, ‘#a alai-as salaam, Ho and read your Namaaz (again+ for your
Namaaz has not been done (&orre&tly+!" ?e proceeded to repeat his
Namaa3 and then again returned and conveyed !alaam. J)gainK ?e
 said, ‘#a alai-as salaam, Ho and read your Namaaz (again+ for you
Namaaz has not been done (&orre&tly+!" )fter the third time or after this,
he said, FPa 2asoolC)llah , J1leaseK educate me Jas to the correct
mannerKC. ?e  said, F9hen you intend to stand for Namaa3I then
perform thorough 9uduI then facing the direction of the *ibla, say
)llahu ):barI then read as much of the *urCan as you are able toI
then ma:e 2u:u until such time that you are satisfiedI then come up
from 2u:u and stand up straightI then ma:e !aBdah for a duration
wherein you are satisfiedI then get up Jfrom !aBdahK and sit for a
duration wherein you are satisfiedI then again ma:e Janother
!aBdahK for a duration wherein you are satisfiedI then stand up until
you are standing straight againI then complete the rest of your
Namaa3 in this manner.C

Hadith 2: $t is in !ahih &uslim from <mmul &omineen )Cisha
!iddiHa ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  would commence his Namaa3
by proclaiming )llahu ):bar and he commenced his recitation with

´
¸`,
¸
ﻤ´ ﻠ

.` ﻟﺍ ¸
´
, Š ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ F)lhamdu lil laahi 2ab Fbil )alameenC, and when he
performed 2u:u, he would not lift his head up or :eep it completely
lowered, but he :ept it in a mid+positionI and after he raised his head
from 2u:u, he would not enter into !aBdah until such time that he
did not stand up straight, and after coming up from !aBdah he would
not ma:e another !aBdah until such a time that he did not sit up
straightI and he would recite )tCtahiyaat after every two 2a:aCats,
Vol.3 pg.15(


165
and Jduring this timeK, he would :eep his left foot flat and his right
foot standing, and he forbade us from sitting li:e shaitaan, and he
forbade the placing of the wrists Jon the groundK li:e wild animals
do Ji.e. for men to do this in !aBdahKI and he would complete his
Namaa3 with !alaam.

Hadith 3: $t is in !ahih -u:hari !hareef from !ahl bin !aCad ؓ
that the people are commanded, that in Namaa3, men should place
their right hand on the left wrist Ji.e. grasp the left wrist with the
right handK.

Hadith 4: $mam )hmed reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  led us in Namaa3 and there was a person in the rear
!aff JrowK who had done something incorrect in his Namaa3. )fter
completing Namaa3, ?e  called out to him saying, F Certain
person> %o you not fear )llah> 9hy do you not pay attention to the
manner in which you read your Namaa3O %o you thin: from that
which you do, anything is hidden from meO -y )llah> $ see from
behind Bust as $ see from in front.C

Hadith 5&6: )bu %awud reports that <bay bin =aCab ؓ that
!amurah bin ;undub ؓ  remembered two occasions where
2asoolullah  paused. ne was when he proclaimed the ,a:beer+e+
,ahreema and the other was when he would complete reciting

´
¸`,

ﻟ.
·
.ﻟﺍ ´ ·
´
و
`

¸
,
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

¸
¸
`
ﻮ ´ .
`

´
ﻤﻟﺍ ¸.`,´.<bay bin =aCab confirmed this. ,irmi3i, $bn &aBah
and %aarmi have also presented similar narrations. ,his ?adith
proves that F)ameenC Jafter !urah 7aatehaK should be said softly.



Vol.3 pg.155


166
Hadith 7: $mam -u:hari reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen the $mam says ¸.`,´.
¸
¸
`
ﻮ ´ .
`

´
ﻤﻟﺍ
`

¸
,
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

´
و ´ ·
´
¸`,

ﻟ.
·
.ﻟﺍ then
say ‘Aameen! because the one whose word coincides with the word of
the )ngels will have all his past sins forgiven.C

Hadith 8: $t is in !ahih &uslim from )bu &usa )shCari ؓ that
?u3oor  said, F9hen you read Namaa3, ma:e your !affs straight>
,he one who performs the $mamat amongst you proclaims the
,a:beer, then you too should proclaim the ,a:beer, and when he
says
´
¸`,

ﻟ.
·
.ﻟﺍ ´ ·
´
و
`

¸
,
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

¸
¸
`
ﻮ ´ .
`

´
ﻤﻟﺍ ¸.`,´. then you should say ‘Aameen!I )llah will
accept your %uaI and when he says )llahu ):bar and enters into
2u:u, then you too should say .
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ ‘Allahu A-bar! and ma:e 2u:u,
for the $mam will ma:e 2u:u before you and rise from 2u:u before
you.C 2asoolullah  JthenK said, F,his is in place of that and when he
says :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. ‘,ami Allahu li mun 9amidah!, you should say
´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!ma Rab!bana Na-al 9umd!I )llah will listen to you
Ji.e. accept what you sayK.C

Hadith 9&10: $t has been reported similarly from )bu ?urairah
and *atadah ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, in !ahih &uslim that when the $mam ma:es
*iraCat Jrecites the *urCanK, then you should remain silent. ,his
?adith and the ?adith which has been Huoted before this, both
prove that )ameen should be said softly, because if )ameen had to
be said aloud, then what need was there to point out when to say
)ameen, whereas it has been mentioned that when he says
´
¸`,

ﻟ.
·
.ﻟﺍ ´ ·
´
و
‘#a lad ?aal!leen! then you should say )ameen. ) narration which is
even clearer in this regard is present in ,irmi3i !hareef from !huCba
who narrates from )lHama, who narrates from )bi 9aaCil that
.´ .
`

´
,ﺎ
´
,
¸

´
Ž´ .
´
:
´
و
´
¸`,
¸
.
´
_ﺎ ´ t´ · F ‘9e said Aameen and did so in a soft voi&e!.

Vol.3 pg.15/


167
,his is also the command of the ?oly *urCan wherein it is mentioned:

#Œ¸)´ρ T¸% `β#´5¯)9# #θ`è¸!G`,$ù NH9 #θ"¸ÁΡ&´ρ ¯)3=è9 βθΗJ¯?

‘And hen the Qur!an is re&ited, then listen to it attentively, and remain
silent, so that you may be blessed ith Mer&y"! D!urah /, Verse 2#'E

Hadith 11: )bu %awud, $bn &aBah and NasaCi have reported from
)bu ?urairah ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F)n $mam is appointed so
that he may be followed. 9hen he says the ,a:beer then you too
should say the ,a:beer and when he recites Jma:es *iraCatK then you
should remain silent.C

Hadith 12: )bu %awud and ,irmi3i report from )lHama that
)bdullah bin &asCud ؓ  says, Fshould $ not lead you in that Namaa3
which was the Namaa3 of 2asoolullah OC ?e then performed the
Namaa3 and did not raise his hands e4cept in the beginning Jin other
words for ,a:beer+e+,ahreemaK. $t has been mentioned in one
narration that he  used to only raise his hands in the beginning
and then not again. ,irmi3i has mentioned that this ?adith is on the
merit of being ?assan.

Hadith 13: %arHutni and $bn )di have also narrated from him that
)bdullah ibn &asCud ؓ  said, F$ read Namaa3 behind ?u3oor , )bu
-a:r and <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, and none of them raised their hands, e4cept
when commencing the Namaa3.C



Vol.3 pg.150


168
Hadith 14: &uslim and )hmed report from ;abir bin !amurah
ؓ that ?u3oor  said, F9hy is it that $ find you raising your hands
li:e the tail of a lively horse. 1erform your Namaa3 in a comfortable
Jrela4edK manner.C

Hadith 15: )bu %awud and )hmed have reported from ?a3rat )li
ؓ . $t is from the !unnats to :eep the one hand on the other hand,
under the naval. ,here are also numerous other )hadith and signs in
this regard. nly a few of these narrations have been presented here,
as the obBective is not to prove the actions of Namaa3 from )hadith,
as we are neither worthy of doing and nor do we have any need to do
so, as the Mreat )Cima have already completed this stage, and in this
regard, their statements are sufficient, as they are the pillars of
!hariat and they only decree that which has been ta:en from the
sacred sayings of the -eloved 2asool .

Method of Performing Namaaz
(Explanation)

,he method of performing JreadingK Namaa3 is to stand upright with
a space of four fingers between both feet, raising both hands up to
the ears, allowing the thumbs to touch the earlobes. ,he fingers
should neither be completely Boined together and nor should they be
widely spread out, but should remain in its normal way, and the
palms of the hand should face the *ibla.

ne should then ma:e the Niyyat and proclaim whilst saying .
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ
‘Allahu A-bar! then one should bring the hands down and tie the
hands below the naval in a manner whereby the stomach JpalmK of
the right hand is on the main section of the wrist of the left hand,
and the middle three fingers should be on the bac: Ji.e. upper
Vol.3 pg.15.


169
sectionK of the wrist JhandK and the thumb and little finger should be
on either sides Ji.e. graspingK. ,hereafter recite the ,hana:


´

´
.,´.
´
:´ 
´
_
¸
ﺍ ´ ·
´
و
´


´
, ‘


´
.
´
.
´
و
´
Œ
´

`
.ﺍ
´

´
,ﺎ
´
,
´
.
´
و
´
•¸ ﺪ
`

´

¸

´
و · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟﺍ
´
Œ
´
ﻧﺎ
´

`
,
´
.

‘,ubnaa-al!laah 9um!ma a *i 9amdi-a #a 2abaara-asmu-a #a 2a Aala
Cad!du-a a Naa ilaaha Hhayru-a!

2ranslationM All Hlory be to Allah, and All 6raise is for Allah( Four Name is
the Most ,an&tified, Four Ma4esty is Most L%alted, and there is none orthy
of orshi$ e%&e$t Fou"

,hen recite the ,aCoo3:


¸
ﻢﻴ
¸
,· ﺮﻟﺍ
¸

.ﻴ
·
:ﻟﺍ
´

¸
. ¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ

A!oozu *il!laahi minash shaitaanir ra4eem

2ranslationM 3 see- refuge in Allah, from shaitaan the a&&ursed"

,hereafter recite the ,asmiyah:

ﻢﻴ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
¸


`
ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ ¸. ﻠﻟﺍ
¸

`

¸
,

‘*ismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem!

2ranslationM Allah, in #hose Name 3 begin, 2he Com$assionate, Most
Mer&iful"

Vol.3 pg.1/#


170
,hen recite Alhamdu ,urah (,urah <aateha+ and at the end of it say
F)ameenC silently. ,hereafter recite any !urah or 3 )yats JversesK or
1 verse that is eHual to 3 verses Jin lengthK.

Now saying .
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ F)llahu ):barC ‘Allah is the Hreatest!, go into 2u:u
Jbowing positionK and grasp the :nees with the hands, in a manner
whereby the palms are placed on the :nees with the fingers well
spread out. $t should not be in a manner where all the fingers are
placed on one sideI or that four fingers are placed on one side and
only the thumb is placed on the other side.

,he bac: should be flat and the head should be in line with the bac:
and not high or low. 9hilst in this position one should say at least
thrice:


¸

`
ﻴ¸ .
´
.` ﻟﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
.

‘,ubhaana Rabbiyal Azeem!

2ranslationM Hlory be to )ur ,ustainer, 2he Most 9igh"

,hen whilst saying:

:
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
.

‘,ami Allahu li mun 9amidah!

2ranslationM Allah listens to the one ho $raises 9im"

Vol.3 pg.1/1


171
ne should stand up straight and if he is a &unfarid Jone reading
Namaa3 individuallyK, he should say:

· ﻢ
´
,
·
ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ
´
و ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
,

‘Allahum!ma Rab!bana a Na-al 9umd!

2ranslationM )! Allah, our ,ustainerQ All $raise is for Fou alone"

,hereafter, he should say ‘Allahu A-bar! and go into !aBdah
JprostrationK, in a manner whereby he first places his :nees on the
ground followed by the hands. ?e should then place the head Jon the
groundK between both hands. $t should not be done in a manner
whereby only the forehead and the tip of the nose touch the ground,
but he should firmly plant the forehead and the bone of the nose on
the ground. ,he hands should be :ept away from the sides. ,he
stomach should be :ept away from the thighs and the thighs should
be :ept away from the shin Jin other words there should be a gap
between each of these limbs and they should not be against one
anotherK, and the stomach of all the toes of both feet should be
firmly on the ground facing the *ibla direction. ,he palms should be
flat on the ground, the fingers should face the *ibla and in this
position, one should say at least thrice:

.
`
ﻋ´ ·ﺍ

‘¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

´
,
`
.

‘,ubhaana Rabbiyal Aala!
Hlory be to Allah, 2he Most L%alted

Vol.3 pg.1/2


172
ne should then raise the head Jfrom !aBdahK and then the hands.
ne should sit in the manner whereby the right foot is upright in a
manner where the toes are facing the *ibla, and place the left foot
flat on the ground, and sit upright on it, and place the palms on the
lap JthighsK near the :nees, so that the fingers of both hands are
facing the *ibla. ,hen say )llahu ):bar and Jonce againK go into
!aBdah and perform the !aBdah in the same manner. ,hereafter raise
the head. ,hen, by placing the hands on the :nees, stand up by rising
using the tip of the feet. Now Jonce standingK commence recitation
Jof the *urCanK by reciting the ﻢﻴ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
¸


`
ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ ¸ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
, ‘*ismillahir Rahmaanir
Raheem!.

,hen perform 2u:u and !aBdah in the manner mentioned. Now sit
with the right foot upright and the left foot placed flat on the ground
Ji.e. by sitting on itK and recite

.
´
.ﺎ
´

´

´
و ¸ﷲﺍ
´
.
´

`

´
,
´
و

¸
¸
,
·
:ﻟﺍ ﺎ
´
,

,´ﺍ
´
Œ
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

´

·
ﺴﻟ´ﺍ ´ :ﺎ
´
,
¸

·
.ﻟﺍ
´
و ´ :ﺍ

ﻮ´ ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ
´
و Š ´ :ﺎ· ﻴ¸ ﺤ
·
ﺘﻟ´ﺍ F ﺎ
´
:
`
’´ ﻠ
´

´

·
ﺴﻟ´ﺍ
:´ ﺪ
`
,
´
ﻋ ﺍ ´ ﺪ
·

´

´
.
·
¸´ﺍ ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
:´ﺍ
´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
`
¸´ﺍ ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
:´ﺍ
´
¸`,¸ ﺤ¸ﻟﺎ · ﺼﻟﺍ ¸ﷲﺍ¸دﺎ
´
,¸ﻋ ‘

.
´

´
و F .
´

`

´
.
´
,
´
و F

At 2ahiy!yaatu lil Naahi #as ,alaaatu #at 2ay!yibaatu As!salaamu Alai-a
Ayuhan Nabiy!yu #a Rahmatul!laahi a *ara-aatuhu" As!salaamu Alaina
#a Ala 3baadil!laahis ,aaliheen" Ash hadu Al Naa ilaaha il!lal laahu #a Ash
9adu An!na Muhammadan Abduhu #a Rasooluhu"

2ranslationM All veneration, orshi$ and Hlory is for Allah" 6ea&e be u$on
you )! (*eloved+ 6ro$het Q And the Mer&y of Allah, and 9is ?ivine Hra&e"
6ea&e be u$on us and u$on all the virtuous servants of Allah" 3 bear itness
that there is none orthy of orshi$ e%&e$t Allah, and 3 bear itness that
(9azrat+ Muhammad  is 9is Chosen ,ervant and 9is (Most *eloved+
Messenger"
Vol.3 pg.1/3


173
9hen reciting the )tCtahiyaat, do not add or subtract any words in it.
,his is :nown as the F,ashahudC. 9hen you are close to saying ‘Naa!
in the =alima, ma:e a circular form with the middle finger and the
thumb of the right hand and Boin the little finger and fingers close to
it, and bring them to the palm Jli:e a clinched fistK and on the word
‘Naa! raise the !hahaadat finger Jinde4 fingerK, but do not sha:e it Jor
move it aroundK, and drop the finger at the word FilClaC and
immediately straighten all the fingers. $f one intends to perform
more than 2 2a:aCats, then stand up and follow the same manner Jas
e4plained for a 2 2a:aCat Namaa3K. ?owever, it is not necessary to
Boin a !urah in the second two 2a:aCats of a Jfour 2a:aCatK 7ard
Namaa3.

Now, in his final *aCda JsittingK wherein he is going to complete his
Namaa3, he should recite %urood !hareef after the F,ashahudC:

· ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘

.
´

´
و
´

`
ﻴ¸.ﺍ
´

`

¸
ﺍ ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
. ‘

.
´

´
.
`

·

´
, ﺎ
´

´
´ ˆ ﺪ
·

´

´
. ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
.
¸
_ ‘

.
´
ﻋ · و ˆ ﺪ
·

´

´
. ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
. ‘

.
´
ﻋ ¸
´
,
¸
_

´

`

¸
,
·
.
´

`

¸

´

´
Œ
·

¸

´

`
ﻴ¸.ﺍ
´

`

¸
ﺍ ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
.

Allahum!ma ,al!le Alaa ,ay!yidina Muhammadi #a Alaa Aali ,ay!yidina
Muham!madin Gama ,al!layta Alaa ,ay!yidina 3braheema #a Alaa Aali
,ay!yidina 3braheema 3n!na-a 9ameedum Ma4eed"

2ranslationM )! AllahQ (Fou+ send ?urood on our Master (9azrat+
Muhammad  and the ?es&endants of (9azrat+ Muhammad  as Fou
sent ?urood on our Master (9azrat+ 3brahim (alaihis salaam+ and the
(blessed+ ?es&endants of (9azrat+ 3brahim (alaihis salaam+" 3ndeed, Fou are
the Most 6raised, Most Hlorified"

Vol.3 pg.1/'


174
¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
.
¸
_ ‘

.
´
ﻋ · و ˆ ﺪ
·

´

´
. ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
. ‘

.
´

`
•¸,ﺎ
´
ﺑ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
¸
_ ‘

.
´

´
و
´

`
ﻴ¸.ﺍ
´

`

¸
ﺍ ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
. ‘

.
´

´
.
`
´
´
,ﺎ
´
ﺑ ﺎ
´

´
´ ˆ ﺪ
·

´

´
. ﺎ
´


´
ﺪﻴ
¸
,
·
.
´

`

¸

´

´
Œ
·

¸

´

`
ﻴ¸.ﺍ
´

`

¸
ﺍ ﺎ
´
ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
.

Allahum!ma *aari- Alaa ,ay!yidina Muhammadi #a Alaa Aali ,ay!yidina
Muham!madin Gama *aara-ta Alaa ,ay!yidina 3braheema #a Alaa Aali
,ay!yidina 3braheema 3n!na-a 9ameedum Ma4eed"

2ranslationM )! AllahQ (Fou+ send *lessings on our Master (9azrat+
Muhammad  and the ?es&endants of (9azrat+ Muhammad  as Fou
sent *lessings on our Master (9azrat+ 3brahim (alaihis salaam+ and the
?es&endants of (9azrat+ 3brahim (alaihis salaam+" 3ndeed, Fou are the Most
6raised, Most Hlorified"

?e should then recite:


`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ
´
و
·

´
ﺪ¸ﻟﺍ
´
ﻮ¸ﻟ
´
و ‘
¸

`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
ﺪ´ ﻟﺍ
´

´
. ¸ :ﺎ
´

¸

`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
و
´
¸`,
¸

¸

`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
و ¸ :ﺎ
´
:
¸
.ﻮ
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
و
´
¸`,¸:
¸
.
`
,
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ ¸ ‚
`

¸

´
,¸ﻟ
´
و

´
¸`,
¸
ﻤ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
´

´

`
,´ﺍ ﺎ

,
´
Œ¸ﺘ
´

`

´

¸
ﺑ ¸ :ﺍ
´

`

·
ﺪﻟﺍ
´
,
`

¸
,
´
.
´
Œ
·

¸
ﺍ ¸ :`ﺍ
´

`
.´ ·ﺍ
´
و
`

´
,
`
:
¸
.
¸
·ﺎ
´

`
ﺣ´ ·ﺍ

Allahum!magh firli #a li #aaliday!ya a li mun 2aalada #a Ni Camee!il
Mu!mineena #al Mu!minaati #al Muslimeena #al Muslimaatil Ahya!i
Minhum #al Amaati, 3n!na-a Mu4eebud ?a!aati *i Rahmati-a Fa
Arhamar Raahimeen"

2ranslationM )! Allah, <orgive me and my $arents, and those born to them,
and all the *elieving men and *elieving omen, and Muslim men and
Muslim omen, and the living amongst them, and the de&eased" Verily Fou
are the a&&e$tor of ?uas" (A&&e$t our ?uas+ by Four Mer&y, ) 2he Most
Mer&iful of the Mer&iful"

Vol.3 pg.1/(


175
ne may either read the %ua Bust mentioned, or read any other %ua+
e+&aathura. 7or e4ample:

.
·

¸
ﺍ · و ﺍ
´
.,¸:
´
´ ﺎ
´
ﻤ` ﻠ ´ ”
`
¸¸ •` .
´
. ´ .
`
ﻤ´ ﻠ ´ ” ‘‰–
¸
ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ F
´
•¸ﺪ
`
:¸ﻋ
`

. ´ ة
´
¸ ¸
`

´
. ‘
¸

`
¸ ¸`.ﺎ´ ·
´
.`ﻧ´ﺍ
·
·
¸

´
¸
`
ﻮ´ﻧ ;ﻟﺍ
´
¸ ¸
`
‹´ , ´ ·

´

`
ﻴ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
´
,
`
ﻮ´ .
´
‹` ﻟﺍ
´
.`ﻧ´ﺍ Œ
·

¸

`
¸¸ƒ
`

´

`
,ﺍ
´
و

Allahum!ma 3n!ni Aalamtu Nafsi Aulman -atheera #a 3n!nahu Na
Faghfiruz Aunooba il!la Anta, <agh firli Maghfiratan min 3nda-a #ar
9umni 3n!na-a Antal Hhafoorur Raheem"

2ranslationM )! AllahQ 3 have done huge in4usti&e to my soul and
undoubtedly, there is no forgiver of sins but Fou alone" )! AllahQ <orgive me
and have mer&y on me" 'ndoubtedly, Fou are the Most <orgiving, the Most
Mer&iful"


´
Œ
¸
ﺑ¸s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ
´
و
´
ﻢ´ ﻠ
`
ﻋ´ﺍ
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
.
´
و
´
.
`
:
¸
. ´ .
`

¸

´
ﻋ ﺎ
´
. ¸.


´
¸.`,´ •` ﻟﺍ
´

¸
. ´ €´ ﻠ´ —
`
.´ﺍ ‘‰–
¸
ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
.
`
:
¸
. ´ .
`

¸

´
ﻋ ﺎ
´
. ¸.


´

¸

†ﻟﺍ
´

¸
.

`
ﻢ´ ﻠ
`
ﻋ´ﺍ
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
.
´
و

Allahum!ma 3n!ni As!alu-a Minal Ghairi Gul!lihi Maa Alimtu minhu #a maa
Num A!lam, #a A!oozubi-a Minash ,har!ri Gul!lihi Maa Alimtu minhu #a
Ma Num A!lam"

2ranslationM )! Allah 3 see- from Fou, everything good and virtuous, of
hi&h 3 -no and of hi&h 3 -no not( and 3 see- refuge in Fou from
everything evil, of hi&h 3 -no, and of hi&h 3 -no not"

Vol.3 pg.1/5


176

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
¸
.
´
:`.¸·
`

¸
.
´
Œ
¸
ﺑ¸s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ
´
و ¸.
`
,
´
t` ﻟﺍ
¸
¸ﺍ ´ ;
´

`

¸
.
´
Œ
¸
ﺑ¸s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ ‘‰–
¸
ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
¸
.
´
:`.¸·
`

¸
.
´
Œ
¸
ﺑ¸s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ
´
و
¸
_ﺎ· ,
·
ﺪﻟﺍ ¸ ˜
`

¸


`

¸
.
´
Œ
¸
ﺑ¸s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ
´
و ¸.
´

`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´

¸
.
´
و
¸

´
.
`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´

¸
.
´
Œ
¸
ﺑ¸s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ ‘‰–
¸
ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ¸ :ﺎ
´

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
¸
.
´
:`.¸·
´
و
¸
·ﺎ
´

`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´

`
,´ s
´
و ¸

`
, ·
ﺪﻟﺍ
¸
.
´
,` ﻠ´.
_ﺎ
´
, ﺮﻟﺍ

Allahum!ma 3n!ni A!oozubi-a min Azaabil Qabri a A!oozubi-a min <itnatil
Maseehid ?a4!4aali, #a A!oozubi-a min <itnatil Mahya <itnatil Mamaati,
Allahum!ma 3n!ni A!oozubi-a minal Maathimi a Minal Maghrami #a
A!oozubi-a min Hhalbatit ?ain #a Qahrir Ri4aal"

2ranslationM )! Allah, 3 see- refuge in Fou from the torment of the grave, and
from the turmoil of ?a4!4aal, and 3 see- Four 6rote&tion from the affli&tions of
life and death" ()! Allah+ 3 see- Four $rote&tion from sins and damages, and 3
see- your from being overhelmed by debt, and from the fury of men.

¸,ﺎ
·
:ﻟﺍ
´
¸ﺍ ´ ;
´
ﻋ ﺎ
´
:
¸
s · و
´
.
´
:
´

´

¸
ة
´
¸
¸

·ﺍ ‘
¸
· و
´
.
´
:
´

´
ﺣ ﺎ
´
ﻴ`ﻧ

ﺪﻟﺍ ‘
¸

´
:¸. ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ

Allahum!ma Rab!bana Aatina <id ?unya 9asanata #a <il Aa-hirati
9asanata #a Qina Azaaban Naar"

2ranslationM )! AllahQ )ur ,ustainer, grant us good in this orld and good in
there hereafter, and $rote&t us from the torment of hell"

,hese should not be recited without the word · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!ma!.
ne should then turn the face towards the right shoulder and say
¸ ﷲﺍ
´
.
´

`

´
,
´
و
`

´
.
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

´
.´· · ﺴﻟ´ﺍ ‘As ,alaamu Alai-um #a Rahmatul!laahi! and then say
the same turning the face towards the left shoulder. ,his method of
how to read Namaa3, which has been e4plained above is applicable
for an $mam or &unfarid who is male. ,here are certain things in
this regard which are impermissible for the &uHtadi Jone following
Vol.3 pg.1//


177
$mam in congregational prayerK, such as the reading of !urah
7aateha or any other !urah when following the $mam. "ven females
are ‘Mustathna! in certain regards, in other words there is a different
method for them in regards to tying the hands, !aBdah and sitting in
*aCda, which we will e4plain later. 7rom those things that have been
mentioned above, there are certain things, which are 7ard and
without them, the Namaa3 will not be done. ,here are other actions
which are 9aaBib, and to omit them intentionally is sinful and it
becomes ‘#aa4ib ul 3!aada! in other words, if they are omitted it is
9aaBib to repeat that Namaa3, and if it is left out by error, then
!aBdah+e+!ahw is sufficient for it. !ome things are !unnat+e+
&uCa::adah. ,o habitually leave out this is sinful, whilst other things
in Namaa3 are &ustahab, which if done gives reward and if not done,
does not give any sin.

Fard Actions in Namaaz

,here are / actions, which are 7ard in Namaa3 J1K ,a:beer+e+
,ahreema J2K *iyaam J3K *iraCat J'K 2u:u J(K !aBdah J5K *aCda+e+
)a:hira J/K =hurooB -i !unooCi.

First Fard – Takbeer-e-Tahreema

,his is from amongst the pre+reHuisites of Namaa3 but because it is
very much connected to the actions of Namaa3, it is counted
amongst the 7ard actions of Namaa3.

Law: ,he pre+reHuisites of Namaa3 Ji.e. ,ahaarat, $stiHbaal, !atr+e+
)wrat and 9aHt JtimeKK are all conditions for ,a:beer+e+,ahreema.
$t is necessary for these conditions to be present before the ,a:beer+
e+,ahreema is completed. $f one already said )llahu ):bar and one
Vol.3 pg.1/0


178
of the conditions is missing, the Namaa3 will not be done. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=J71

Law: *iyaam for ,a:beer+e+,ahreema is 7ard in those Namaa3
wherein *iyaam JstandingK is 7ard. !o, if one sat and said )llahu
):bar and then stood up afterwards, the Namaa3 has not
commenced. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=J7( Alamgiri vol"B $g"5E1

Law: $f one found the $mam in 2u:u and he then went into 2u:u by
proclaiming the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema, in other words, he completed
the ,a:beer at a point Jwhen going to 2u:uK, that if one has to
stretch the hand, it will reach the :nees then in this case the Namaa3
has not been done J!ome people in a hurry do this. ,he Namaa3 in
this case will not be done. ,hey should repeat itK. 0Alamgiri vol" $g"5E(
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=JI1

Law: $f a person said ,a:beer+e+,ahreema for a Nafil Namaa3 whilst
in 2u:u, the Namaa3 is not done, but if he did so whilst sitting, the
Namaa3 is valid. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=D1

Law: $f the &uHtadi said the word )llahu with the $mam but
completed saying ):bar before the $mam, his Namaa3 is not valid.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D==1

Law: $f one found the $mam in 2u:u, and said )llahu ):bar whilst
standing. ?owever, he intended that ,a:beer as the ,a:beer of 2u:u,
then in this case, the Namaa3 has commenced and that intention has
no basis. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D=D1

Law: $f one made ,a:beer+e+,ahreema before the $mam but his
intention is to follow the $mam then he has not as yet entered into
Vol.3 pg.1/.


179
the Namaa3I otherwise it will be regarded as having commenced, but
he will not be counted as following the $mam Jin ;amaCatK, it will be
regarded as reading Namaa3 individually. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5E1

Law: $f one is not able to ascertain when the $mam actually
proclaimed the ,a:beer, then in this case if one has a greater
assumption that he did so before the $mam, then it is not valid and if
he has a greater assumption that he did not proclaim it before the
$mam, then it is valid. $f he does not have a greater assumption
leaning to any one of them, then in such a case he has the option to
disregard it and proclaim the ,ahreema afresh. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=D1

Law: $n regards to one who is not able to proclaim the words of
,a:beer, for e4ample if he has impaired speech Ji.e. he cannot
spea:K, or his mouth is closed due to some other reason, then in such
a case, it is not necessary for him to actually say the words Jwith his
tongueK. $ntending it in the heart will suffice for such a person. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDE1

Law: $f one proclaimed )llahu ):bar in ama3ement for something
or in reply to the &uCa33in Ji.e. to )3aanK and he used that ,a:beer to
commence his Namaa3, the Namaa3 will not be valid Jby this
proclamation of the ,a:beerK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D=D1

Law: $f one mentioned any other word instead of ‘Allahu A-bar!, with
the intention of purely for showing ?onour to )llah, such as:

¸
´
,´ﺍ ´ﷲ´ﺍ
Allahu A4al!luI
´
ﻢ ´ .
`
ﻋ´ﺍ ´ﷲ´ﺍ Allahu A!zamuI
´
.`,
¸
,
´
´ ´ﷲ´ﺍ Allahu GabeerunI
´
.
´
,
`
´´ ` ·ﺍ ´ﷲ´ﺍ
Allahul A-baruI
´
.`,
¸
,
´
.` .ﺍ ´ﷲ´ﺍ Allahul GabeeruI
´
.
´
,
`
´
´

´


`
ﺣ· ﺮﻟ´ﺍ Ar Rahmaanu A-baruI

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ﷲ´ﺍ Allahu 3laahunI ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · Naa ilaaha il!lal laahuI ¸ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
.
Vol.3 pg.10#


180
,ubhaan!AllahiI Š ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ AlhamdulillahiI :
´
.`,´.
´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · Na ilaaha HhayruhuI ´ﷲﺍ
´

´
,ﺎ
´
,´ .
2abaara-al!laahu etc.

,hen in this case, the Namaa3 will commence by using the words of
1raise and ?onour, but to ma:e this change is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.
$f the words that are used in place of )llahu ):bar are words of %ua
or words that are to as: for fulfilment of oneCs needs, such as:

´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ · ﻢ
`

¸
Allahum!magh <irliI
`
¸¸ƒ
`

´

`
,ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ Allahum!mar 9amniI
`
¸¸ƒ` s ´ ™
`
,ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
Allahum!mar Au.ni etc. then the use of such words of %ua etc., the
Namaa3 has not commenced. !imilarly if one only says .,´ ‘A-bar! or
¸,ﺍ ‘A4al! and did not Boin the word ‘Allahu! to it, the Namaa3 will also
not commence in this case. $f one said,
´
¸ ¸
`
‹´ ﺘ
`
.´ﺍ ﷲﺍ Astaghfirul!laahI
¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ A!oozu *il!laahiI Š ﺎ
·

¸
ﺍ 3n!na lil laahiI ´ ·
´
و
´
_
`

´
ﺣ ´ · ¸ﷲﺎ
¸

·
·
¸
ﺍ ´ ة· ﻮ´ s
Na 9ala #a Na Qu!ata il!la *il!laahiI
´
¸ﺎ
´
´ﷲﺍ
´
·ﺎ ´ :ﺎ
´
. Masha Allahu Gaana, or

¸

`
ﻴ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
¸


`
ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ ¸ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
, *ismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem, the Namaa3 will not
commence. $f one only said, ´ﷲ´ﺍ Allahu or ﺎ
´
, ´ﷲ´ﺍ Fa Allahu or · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
Allahum!ma, the Namaa3 will commence. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5E( ?urr-e-
Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D==1

Law: $f one proclaimed the word ´ﷲ´ﺍ Allahu as ´ﷲ Aallahu or
`
.
´
,
`
´
´
A-bar
as
`
.
´
,
`
´ Aa-bar, the Namaa3 will not be done and if after understanding
there incorrect meanings, one still intentionally proclaims it in this
way, he is a :aafir. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D=D1

Law: $f one got the 2u:u of the first 2a:aCat, he has acHuired the
blessing of the ,a:beer+e+<la Jfirst ,a:beerK. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5E1



Vol.3 pg.101


181
Second Fard – Qiyaam

,he minimum reHuirement for *iyaam Ji.e. standingK is that if one
stretches out the hands, they should not reach the :nees and the
complete *iyaam is to stand upright. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"=JI1

Law: ,he duration of the *iyaam should be eHuivalent to the
duration of the *iraCat JrecitationK. $n other words, to stand for the
duration, which is 7ard to ma:e *iraCat is 7ard and for the duration,
which is 9aaBib, is 9aaBib and for the duration, which is !unnat is
!unnat. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=JJ1

,his ruling applies to the other 2a:aCats e4cluding the first 2a:aCat,
because in the case of the first 2a:aCat, the time that is needed for
,a:beer+e+,ahreema will also be included in this JdurationK of
*iyaam and in *iyaam+e+&asnun Ji.e. in the recommended *iyaamK,
then the duration of ,hana, ,aCoo3 and ,asmiyah will also be added
to the *iyaam duration. 0Raza1

Law: *iyaam and *iraCat being 9aaBib or !unnat actually is in this
meaning, that it refers to that which if omitted then the ruling of
omitting a 9aaBib or !unnat will applyI otherwise, in fulfilling it, for
as long as one performed *iyaam and whatever *iraCat one recited,
are all within it being 7ard and one will receive the reward of 7ard.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=JJ1

Law: *iyaam is 7ard in 7ard JNamaa3K, 9itr, "idain Jboth "id
Namaa3K and in the !unnat of 7aBr, because if one reads these
Namaa3 whilst in sitting position without a proper J!harCiK reason,
Vol.3 pg.102


182
the Namaa3 will be invalid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"=JJ1

Law: ,o stand on one foot, whereby the other foot is raised from the
ground, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, but if one does this due to a valid
J!harCiK reason, there is no obBection. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5E1

Law: $f a person is able to ma:e *iyaam, but is unable to perform
!aBdah, then in this case, it is better for him, to sit and perform his
Namaa3 gesturing J$shaaraK, and he may also stand and read Jif he
wishesK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=JJ1

Law: $f a person is able to ma:e !aBdah, but if he ma:es !aBdah then
a wound may oo3e, then in this case, it is better for him sit and
perform his Namaa3 by gesturing, as this is &ustahab for him. $t is
also permissible for him to stand and perform it by gesturing. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"=JJ1

Law: $f droplets of urine are discharged or a wound oo3es if a person
stands up and reads his Namaa3, then for such a person, it is 7ard to
read his Namaa3 whilst sitting, if there is no other way for him to
control this situation. !imilarly, if by standing, more than one fourth
of his !atr will be revealed or if he will not be able to ma:e any
*iraCat at all then he should sit and read his Namaa3. ?owever, if he
is able to recite even a little whilst standing then it is 7ard for him to
stand for that duration and then he may sit when he is not able to
stand any longer. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=JJ1

Law: $f he is so wea: that if he wal:s to the &asBid, then he will not
have the strength to stand and read his Namaa3, but if he reads it at
home, then he will have the strength to stand, then in this case, he
Vol.3 pg.103


183
should read it whilst standing at home. $f he can do so in ;amaCat Jat
homeK then he should, if not he should do so individually. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"=JJ1

Law: $f by standing, one feels some discomfort, this is not a valid
e4cuse, but the rule regarding *iyaam being e4cluded will only apply
when one is not able to stand at all, or not able to ma:e !aBdah at allI
or if standing or ma:ing !aBdah causes a wound to oo3e, or if
standing causes droplets of urine to be dischargedI or if one fourth of
the !atr Jna:ednessK is revealed, or if one is totally unable to ma:e
*iraCat. !imilarly, if he is able to stand, but doing so causes the illness
to progress, or it will ta:e longer to heal, or by doing so, he will have
e4cruciating and unbearable pain, then in such cases, he is permitted
to read whilst seated. 0Hhuniya vol"B $g"=JI1

Law: $f one is able to lean against Jwith the support ofK an )asa
Jstic:K, or a servant or the wall, then it is 7ard upon him to read
whilst standing. 0Hhuniya $g"=>J1

Law: $f he is able to only stand for a very short while, wherein he
can only say )llahu ):bar, then it is 7ard for him to stand for this
duration and then thereafter he may read the remainder Namaa3
sitting. 0Hhuniya $g"=>J1

Important Note of Caution: Nowadays we notice that if a
person has the slightest fever or slight pain, he commences his
Namaa3 whilst sitting, whereas the same people are able to stand for
ten and fifteen minutes at a time, and even longer and tal: about all
other issues. ,hey should be cautioned by way of these laws. )ll
those Namaa3 in who were able to stand, but they sat and read
becomes 7ard to repeat. !imilarly, if one was not able to stand by
Vol.3 pg.10'


184
himself but could do so with support of a stic:, servant or the wall
then even those Namaa3 must have not been fulfilled. ,o repeat
them is 7ard, )llah grants them the ,aufeeH JopportunityK to do so.
1


Law: $f a person is on a ship and it is already sailing, then in this
case it is permissible for him to sit and read his Namaa3. DMhuniyaE.
,his is in the case when he has an overwhelming assumption that he
will become di33y if he stands, or if there is no way for him to
disembar: Jand perform Namaa3 on shoreK.

Third Fard – Qira’at

*iraCat refers to reciting every alphabet Jin recitationK with its
correct pronunciation whereby every alphabet is clear and can be
distinguished correctly from another alphabet Jin pronunciationK,
and when reciting softly, it should be at least in a tone whereby you
are able to hear yourself. $f one pronounced the alphabets correctly
Ji.e. recited the verses of *urCan correctlyK but did so very softly
whereby one is not able to hear himself, and there is nothing
obstructing one from hearing, such as loud noises Jor rowdinessK or
hearing impairment etc. then the Namaa3 is not done. 0Alamgiri vol"B
$g"5>1

Law: !imilarly, in cases where what needs to be read or said has
already been fi4ed, then even here, the aim is that it should be at
least so loud that one is able to hear it himself, such as in issuing a
,alaaH JaudiblyK, in freeing someone, and in sacrificing an animal.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
1. &any females also have this habit of reading all their Namaa3 whilst sitting, even though the
ruling in regards to them is the same. $n other words, they have to stand and perform their
Namaa3. ?ence, they must repeat all the 7ard and 9aaBib !alaahs, which they read whilst
seated Jwithout any valid reasonK.
Vol.3 pg.10(


185
Law: ,o read one verse absolutely, in 2 2a:aCats of 7ard, and in
every 2a:aCat of 9itr and Nafil, is 7ard upon the $mam and the
&unfarid. *iraCat is not permissible in any Namaa3 for a &uHtadi.
Neither is he permitted to recite !urah 7aateha, nor any verse,
neither in a Namaa3 where it is recited softly nor in a Namaa3 where
it is read aloud. ,he *iraCat of the $mam is also sufficient for the
&uHtadi. 0Heneral *oo-s of <i.h1

Law: $f one did not ma:e *iraCat in any 2a:aCat of 7ard Namaa3 or if
he only made *iraCat in one 2a:aCat, the Namaa3 is invalidated.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>1

Law: 2eciting a short verse which contains two or more than two
words, will suffice for the 7ard to be discharged, and if it is a verse
with only one alphabet such as š ¸ › whereas they have been
regarded as being verses in certain *iraCats Jmannerism of
recitationK, then reciting them JaloneK will not fulfil the 7ard, even if
they are read repetitively. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>( Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"D5B1

)s for the ruling in regards to verses with one word, such as in the
case of ¸β$GΒ$δ‰`Β then there is F$:htilaafC difference of opinion in this
regard, and it is better to avoid reading it JaloneK.

Law: ,he ﻢ
`
ﻴ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
¸


`
ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
¸
ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
, ‘*ismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem! at the
beginning of the !urahs is actually one complete verse, but merely
reading it JaloneK will not allow the 7ard to be fulfilled. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"DD@1

Vol.3 pg.105


186
Law: 2eciting *iraCat !haa3a Jrare manner of recitationK will allow
the 7ard to be fulfilled. !imilarly, by merely spelling out the verses
instead of *iraCat Jproper recitationK, will not validate the Namaa3.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D=51

Fourth Fard – Ruku

2u:u is to bend Ji.e. bowK to the e4tent whereby the hands are able
to touch the :nees if stretched out. ,his is the minimum
reHuirement of 2u:u 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D@@1 and the complete
manner of performing 2u:u is to spread and straighten the bac: Jin
bowingK.

Law: ) humpbac:ed Jor hunchedK person whose hunch has reached
the level of 2u:u should gesture using the head for the purpose of
2u:u. 0Alamgiri1

Fifth Fard – Sujood

$t has been mentioned in the ?adith !hareef that a servant is closest
to )llah when he is in !aBdah, so he should ma:e %ua in abundance
Jin !aBdahK. ,his ?adith has been reported by &uslim from )bu
?urairah ؓ . ,he reality of !aBdah Ji.e. proper !aBdahK is to firmly
plant the forehead on the ground, and it is a condition for the
stomach of at least one toe of the foot to touch the ground, so if
someone performed !aBdah in a manner whereby both his feet did
not touch the ground, then in this case the Namaa3 has not been
done. "ven if only the tips of the toes touch the ground, the Namaa3
will still not be considered as being valid. &any people are unaware
of this law. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DD5( <ataa Razviyah1

Vol.3 pg.10/


187
Law: $f due to an F<3rC Ji.e. valid e4cuse supported by the !hariahK
one is not able to ma:e !aBdah by performing the forehead on the
ground, he should ma:e !aBdah by Bust placing his nose Jon the
groundK. $n this case merely placing the tip of the nose on the
ground is not sufficient but it is necessary for the bone of the nose to
be Jfirmly plantedK on the ground. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>( Raddul Muhtar1

Law: &erely placing the chee: or the chin on the ground will not
suffice for !aBdah, be this due to an F<3rC or without any F<3rC. $f one
has an F<3rC, then the ruling is that he should ma:e F$shaaraC, i.e. he
should gesture. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>1

Law: $t is 7ard to perform two !aBdahs in every 2a:aCat.

Law: $f one performed !aBdah on something which is soft, such as on
grass, on wool, or on a carpet etc. and the forehead was firmly
placed, in other words that it was pressed down so firmly that if
pressed anymore, it cannot be pressed, then in this case it is
permissible Jto ma:e !aBdah on such itemsK, otherwise not. 0Alamgiri
vol"B $g"5>1 $n certain places during winter, dry stal:s of rice are laid
out in the &asBid. ,hose who perform !aBdah on this should ta:e
special heed to this, that if the forehead does not press firmly down,
the Namaa3 will not be valid, and if the nose does not press down
firmly upto the bone, then it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi and to repeat
such a Namaa3 is 9aaBib Ji.e. 9aaBib ul $CaadaK. $t has been mentioned
in %aar that when performing Namaa3 on a mattress, the forehead
cannot be properly pressed, thus, the Namaa3 will not be valid. $n
some of the classes on trains, they have the same type of mattresses.
ne should move away from it and perform Namaa3 Ji.e. Namaa3
should not be performed on thisK.
Vol.3 pg.100


188
Law: $f one performed !aBdah on a two+wheeler or on an o4 carriage
etc., then if its yo:e or shaft is on the o4 or the horse, the !aBdah will
not be doneI and if it was :ept on the ground, then the !aBdah will be
done. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>1

Law: $f the small bed on a light two wheeled carriage is woven from
woof and weft, and if it is woven so firmly that the forehead remains
firm on it and even after pressing the forehead onto it, it does not
press any more, then it is valid, otherwise invalid.

Law: !aBdah will not be valid on small grains such as barley and
millet etc. on which the forehead does not really settle. ?owever, if
these are tightly pac:ed into a sac: etc. and do not hinder the
forehead from being planted firmly, then in this case it will be valid.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"551

Law: $f one performs !aBdah on oneCs thigh, due to some F<3rC such
as due to e4cess crowds etc. then it is permissible, but it is invalid to
do so without a valid e4cuse. !aBdah on ones :nee, with or without
an <3r is not permissible. $t cannot be done in any condition.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"55( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DD71

Law: $f due to e4cessive crowds, one made !aBdah on the bac: of
some other person, and that person is in that same Namaa3, then it is
permissible, otherwise impermissible, be he not in the Namaa3, or
even if he is in Namaa3, but he is not reading with him, but both are
reading their Namaa3 individually. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"551

Law: $f one performed !aBdah on the palm of his hand, or on the
sleeve or on the turn of the turban or on any other clothing which
one is wearing, and the area underneath Jarea under himK is impure
Vol.3 pg.10.


189
Jna+paa:K, then in this case the !aBdah is not done. ?owever, in all
these situations, if one performs !aBdah again on some pure surface,
the !aBdah will be valid. 0Muniya $g"B=B( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DD71

Law: $f one performed !aBdah on the turn of the turban, and when
doing so, the forehead settled firmly, the !aBdah will be doneI and if
the forehead did not settle firmly, but merely touched it, whereby it
can still be pressed down more if pressed or if any part of the head
touched it, then in this case the !aBdah is invalid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar1

Law: $f one made !aBdah on a place, which according to the foot is
higher than 12 fingers in height, the !aBdah will not be doneI
otherwise, it will be done. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDI1

Law: $f one performed !aBdah on some small roc: Jstone etc.K, then
if the greater part of the forehead touch it JproperlyKI the !aBdah is
valid, otherwise not. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"551

Sixth Fard – Qa’da-e-Aakhira

$t is 7ard to sit after completing the 2a:aCats of Namaa3 for a
duration, wherein one is able to recite the entire )tCtahiyaat, in
other words, up to F2asooluhuC. 0Alamgiri, vol"B $g"551

Law: $f after reading four 2a:aCats, one stood up again, assuming
that he had only read three 2a:aCats, but then he remembered that
he had already read four 2a:aCats so he sat again, and then turned
!alaamI then in this case if the combined duration of sitting in both
instances is eHual to the duration for ,ashahud, the 7ard has been
discharged, otherwise not. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D@B1

Vol.3 pg.1.#


190
Law: $f the entire *aCda+e+)a:hira passed by in sleep Ji.e. he fell
asleepK, then after awa:ening, it is 7ard to sit for the duration of
)tCtahiyaat, otherwise the Namaa3 will be invalid. !imilarly, if he
slept from the beginning to the end in *iyaam, *iraCat, 2u:u and
!uBood, then after awa:ening, it is 7ard to repeat themI otherwise,
the Namaa3 will not be valid. ?e should also perform !aBdah+e+!ahw.
1eople are careless in this regard, especially in ,araweeh and
especially in hot weather. 0Muniya $g"B=D( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D@51

Law: $f one read the entire 2a:aCat whilst asleep, the Namaa3 is
invalid and has not been done. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D@51

Law: $f in a four 2a:aCat 7ard Namaa3, if one did not ma:e *aCda
after the fourth 2a:aCat, then until he has not as yet made the !aBdah
of the fifth 2a:aCat, he should sitI and if he has already made the
!aBdah of the fifth 2a:aCat, or if in 7aBr, he did not sit in the second
2a:aCat, and already made the !aBdah of the third 2a:aCat, or if in
&aghrib Namaa3, he did not sit in the third 2a:aCat and already
made the !aBdah of the fourth 2a:aCat, then in all these cases, the
7ard is Null. 9ith the e4ception of &aghrib, he should add one more
2a:aCat to the 2a:aCats. 0Hhuniya $g"=I>1

Law: $f after sitting for the duration of ,ashahud, he realised that he
needed to perform !aBdah+e+,ilaawat or any other !aBdah of Namaa3,
and he then performed it, then in this case, it is 7ard for him to sit
again for the duration of reading ,ashahud Ji.e. he must read
)tCtahiyaat etc. againK. ,hat earlier !aBdah will not be counted. $f one
does not ma:e this *aCda, the Namaa3 will not be valid. 0Muniya
$g"B=D1

Vol.3 pg.1.1


191
Law: *aCda is not null JinvalidK before !aBdah+e+!ahw, but ,ashahud
is 9aaBib. $n other words, if one made !aBdah+e+!ahw and then
turned !alaam, the 7ard has been discharged, but to do so is sinful,
and to repeat it is 9aaBib. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DBB1

Seventh Fard – Khurooj Bi Sunoo’i

$n other words, after *aCda+e+)a:hira, to ma:e !alaam or converse
or intentionally do such an action which is dissimilar to Namaa3 Ji.e.
something that brea:s the Namaa3K. ?owever, with the e4ception of
!alaam, if any other action is done with intent, the Namaa3 will
become 9aaBib ul $Caada, i.e. compulsory to repeat. $f any other
action is done without pre+intent, then in such cases the Namaa3 is
-aatil Ji.e. not countedK, such as in the following cases:

• $f a person who was performing Namaa3 with ,ayammum,
after sitting for the duration of the ,ashahud, finds water
available to him,
• $f one performed &asah on the leather soc:s and the
duration for this has not lapsed,
• $f by way of )mal+e+*aleel one removed the leather soc:s,
• $f one was completely illiterate and he learnt a verse of the
*urCan without it being taught to him by anyone but simply
by listening to it,
• $f one was na:ed and now somebody has given him clean and
pure clothing which is sufficient for him to cover his
na:edness J!atrK and in which his Namaa3 will be valid, in
other words it is not soiled with any impurity which hinders
Namaa3, or even if there is some impurity on it, then he has
something in his possession by which he can clean the
Vol.3 pg.1.2


192
impurity off, or even if this is not the case, but one fourth or
more of the clothing is pure,
• $f he is performing Namaa3 by way of gesturing and he is
now able to perform the 2u:u and !uBood,
• $f a !aahib+e+,arteeb remembers that he has not performed
the Namaa3 before this and if this !aahib+e+,arteeb is an
$mam, then in this case the Namaa3 of the &uHtadi
JfollowerK will also become null,
• $f the $mams 9udu bro:e and he made one who is illiterate
his =halifa Jin Namaa3K, but if he made him =halifa after
,ashahud, the Namaa3 will be valid,
• $f the sun came up during Namaa3 of 7aBr,
• $f whilst in the Namaa3 of Luhr, the time )sr commenced,
• $f the sun reached its 3enith at the time of the "id !alaahs,
• $f one performed &asah on a bandage and the wound has
now healed,
• $f one was a !aahib+e+<3r and the <3r is now no more, in
other words that hadath which caused him to be !aahib+e+
<3r is no longer e4isting, to the e4tent that the entire time
of the ne4t Namaa3 was free from it,
• $f he was performing his Namaa3 in impure clothing, and he
found something by which he can purify it,
• $f he was performing his *a3a Namaa3 and the &a:ruh time
of Namaa3 appeared,
• $f a -aandi JhandmaidK was performing her Namaa3 with her
hair uncovered, and she was given freedom, but did not
immediately cover her head.

$n all the above mentioned case the Namaa3 has become F-aatilC Ji.e.
it is void and not countedK. 0Heneral *oo-s of <i.h1

Vol.3 pg.1.3


193
Law: $f the &uHtadi was an F<mmiC
1
Jilliterate or one who cannot
readK and the $mam is a *aari Ji.e. one who :nows how to readK and if
learnt any verse of the *urCan whilst in Namaa3, the Namaa3 will not
become F-aatilC. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"E@I1

Law: ,arteeb J!eHuenceK is 7ard in *iyaam, 2u:u, !uBood and *aCda+
e+)a:hira. $f one performed 2u:u before *iyaam and then
performed the *iyaam thereafter again then that JinitialK 2u:u is
void. $f after this *iyaam, he performs 2u:u again, the Namaa3 will
be valid, otherwise not. !imilarly, if one made !aBdah before 2u:u
and then !aBdah after the 2u:u again, the Namaa3 will be valid,
otherwise not. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D@=1

Law: $t is 7ard upon the &uHtadi to follow the $mam in those
actions, which are 7ard. $n other words, if he performs any of these
actions before the $mam performed it and does not perform it with
the $mam or after the $mam performed it, then in such cases the
Namaa3 is invalid. 7or e4ample, if one performed 2u:u and !aBdah
before the $mam, whereas the $mam has not yet entered into his
2u:u or !aBdah or if he raised his head from !aBdah before the $mam.
$f he did this with the $mam or after the $mam performed this action
then the Namaa3 is valid, otherwise not. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar, Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"D@=1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $ have noticed some people who when translating the word F<mmiC in regards to
2asoolullah  they use the word FilliterateC J)llah 7orbidK. $t must be noted that when the
term F<mmiC is used for 2asoolullah  it does not mean FilliterateC J)llah 7orbidK, but it
means one who was not taught by any creation. None in the creation is the teacher of
2asoolullah . ,he only ne who taught 2asoolullah  is )lmighty )llah.


Vol.3 pg.1.'


194
Law: $t is also necessary for the &uHtadi to believe that the Namaa3
of the $mam is correct and proper and if he believes the Namaa3 of
the $mam as -aatil then his Namaa3 Ji.e. that &uHtadiCs Namaa3K is
not valid, even though the Namaa3 of the $mam is correct and
proper. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D@D1

Waajib Actions in Namaaz

,he 9aaBib actions of Namaa3 are:

• ,o say the word .
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ ‘Allahu A-bar! in the ,a:beer+e+
,ahreema
• ,o recite Š ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ )lhamdulillah J!urah 7aatehaK. $n other
words to recite its entire seven verses, as recitation of every
verse is 9aaBib by itself. ,o omit even one verse or one word
in it is to omit a 9aaBib.
• )fter reciting !urah 7aateha, to Boin Ji.e. followK with one
other !urah, such as be reciting one short !urah such as

´

´
.
`

´
.` .ﺍ
´
Œ

:
`

´
.
`
ﻋ´ﺍ ﺎ
·

¸
ﺍ !urah =authar, or three short verses of the *urCan
such as :
´
ﺮ ´ .´ ﻧ · ﻢ
´
. F :
´ ´

´
,
´
و
´
œ
´
,
´
ﻋ · ﻢ
´
. F
´
.
´
,
`
.´ ﺘ
`
.ﺍ
´
و
´
,´ 
´
¸
`
د´ﺍ · ﻢ
´
. D!urah /', Verses 21+23E, or
to recite one or two verses which are eHuivalent to three
small verses.
• $n a 7ard Namaa3, it is 9aaBib to ma:e *iraCat in the first two
2a:aCats.
• $t is 9aaBib to recite )lhamdu and a !urah in the first two
2a:aCats of a 7ard Namaa3 and in all the 2a:aCats of the Nafil
and 9itr Namaa3.
• ,o recite )lhamdu before the !urah.
• ,o recite )lhamdu in every 2a:aCat only once, before the
!urah.
Vol.3 pg.1.(


195
• ,here should be no foreign action separating the )lhamdu
and the !urah.
• ,he F)ameenC is subsidiary of the )lhamdu and the -ismillah
is subsidiary to the !urah. $t is not regarded as being foreign.
• ,o go into 2u:u immediately after completion of *iraCat.
• 7or one !aBdah to be performed after the other, whereby no
action separates both of them.
• ,aCdeel+e+)r:aan: in other words to remain in 2u:u, !uBood,
*auma and ;alsa at least for the duration of saying
!ubhaanC)llah once.
• !imilarly, *auma Jis 9aaBibK. *auma is to stand upright after
coming up from 2u:u.
• ;alsa Jis 9aaBibK. ;alsa means to sit upright between the two
!aBdahs.
• *aCda+e+<la Jsitting for first ,ashahudK, even if it is in a Nafil
Namaa3.
• Not to add anything after the ,ashahud in the 7ard, 9itr and
!unan 2awaatib J!unnats before and after 7ard 2a:aCatsK.
• ,o read the entire ,ashahud in both *aCdas. !imilarly to read
the entire ,ashahud in all the *aCdas of a Namaa3. $f one
leaves out even one word of the ,ashahud J)tCtahiyaatK
when reciting it, it will be regarded as F,ar:+e+9aaBibC
Jomitting a 9aaBibK. ,o say the word
´
.´· · ﺴﻟ´ﺍ ‘As ,alaamu! twice
and the word ﻢ
´
.
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´
ﻋ‘Alai-um! is not 9aaBib.
• ,o recite the %ua+e+*unoot in the 9itr Jis 9aaBibK.
• ,he ,a:beer of *unoot Ji.e. to say )llahu ):bar and raise the
hands for *unootK.
• )ll si4 ,a:beers of the "id !alaahs.
• ,he ,a:beer of 2u:u in the second 2a:aCat of the "id !alaahs.
• ,he word )llahu ):bar to be proclaimed for this ,a:beer.
Vol.3 pg.1.5


196
• 7or the $mam to recite *iraCat with ;ahr JaudiblyK in every
;ahri JaudibleK Namaa3.
• ,o recite *iraCat softly in non+;ahri !alaahs.
• 7or every 7ard and 9aaBib to be done in its correct place Ji.e.
order of seHuenceK.
• 7or 2u:u to be performed only once in every 2a:aCat.
• 7or !uBood to be done only twice in each 2a:aCat.
• Not to perform *aCda before the second 2a:aCat.
• Not to perform *aCda in the third 2a:aCat of a four 2a:aCat
Namaa3.
• ,o perform !aBdah+e+,ilaawat if any )yat+e+!aBdah JVerse of
!aBdahK has been recited.
• ,o perform !aBdah+e+!ahw if there has been any such error
Jwhich reHuires !aBdah+e+!ahw to be performedK.
• 7or there not to be a pause eHual to three ,asbeehs between
any two 7ard JactionsK or two 9aaBib JactionsK, or between a
7ard and a 9aaBib JactionK.
• 9hen the $mam ma:es *iraCat, be it aloud or softly, the
&uHtadi should remain silent at this time.
• 9ith the e4ception of in *iraCat, for the &uHtadi to follow
the $mam in all other 9aaBib actions. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"55(
?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D@7 et&"1










Vol.3 pg.1./


197
Sajdah-E-Sahw

Law: $f one forgets any part of the ,ashahud in any *aCda, it is
9aaBib for him to perform !aBdah+e+!ahw. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"DBD1

Law: $f one recited )yat+e+!aBdah and one mista:enly delayed the
!aBdah for the duration of three verses or more, then one should
perform !aBdah+e+!ahw. 0Hhuniya $g"=JB1

Law: $f one recited, the !urah first and thereafter recited )lhamdu
J!urah 7aatehaK, or if one paused Jor hesitatedK for a lengthy period,
i.e. for a duration eHual to saying !ubhaanC)llah thrice, !aBdah+e+
!ahw becomes 9aaBib JcompulsoryK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D@J(
<ataa Razviyah vol"D $g"5D@1

Law: $f even one word of )lhamdu has been left out, !aBdah+e+!ahw
must be performed. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D@71

Law: ,hose things which are 7ard and 9aaBib, are 9aaBib upon the
&uHtadi to do with the $mam, on condition that there is no
interference to any 9aaBib Jhe is still completingK, and if it causes an
interference, then it should not be left out. ?owever, it should be
completed and only then should one follow Jthe $mam in the ne4t
actionK. 7or e4ample, if the $mam has already read the ,ashahud and
stood up already, and the &uHtadi has not completed it yet, then in
this case, it is 9aaBib upon the &uHtadi to complete the ,ashahud
J)tCtahiyaatK and then stand up. $t is !unnat to follow in !unnat
JNamaa3K, on condition that there is no interference, and if there is
any interference, he should leave it out and follow the $mam, such as
in the case where one is in !aBdah 2u:u or !aBdah and he has not said
Vol.3 pg.1.0


198
three ,asbeehs yet and the $mam raised his head. ,hen in this case,
the &uHtadi too should follow JimmediatelyK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"DB51

Law: $f one forgets a !aBdah of any 2a:aCat, he should perform it
once he remembers, even if it is after turning !alaam, as long as no
other action, which is negating is performed. ,hereafter, one should
perform !aBdah+e+!ahw. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DBB1

Law: $f one performed 3 !aBdahs in one 2a:aCat and forgot to
perform 2u:u or *aCda+e+<la, he should perform !aBdah+e+!ahw.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DB>1

Law: 9hen mentioning the words of ,ashahud
1
, it is necessary to
have in mind its meaning and diction, so as to say that you are
Mlorifying )lmighty )llah, and sending !alutations JsalaamK upon
Nabi , and upon yourself and upon the )wliyah )llah, and note
this, that you should JmerelyK :eep in view the account of the &eCraB.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"57( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DE71

Law: $f after the ,ashahud in the *aCda+e+<la of the 7ard, 9itr or
!unan 2awaatib, one only said ˆ ﺪ· ﻤ
´

´
. ‘

.
´
ﻋ ¸
´
, · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!ma ,alle Alaa
Muham!madin! or ﺎ´ ﻧ¸ ﺪ ﻴ
´
.‘´ .
´
ﻋ ¸
´
, · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!ma ,alle Alaa ,ay!yidina!, then
if this was done by mista:e, one should perform !aBdah+e+!ahw and
if it was done deliberately, then to repeat the Namaa3 is 9aaBib.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DED1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. !ince the words of ,ashahud are e4pressions of Mlorification and !alaam and not merely
depicting the incident of the &eCraB, then to call out to 2asoolullah , which the wahabiya
JwronglyK regard as -idCat and shir:I is so clearly permissible and it is actually 9aaBib in
Namaa3 Jto do soK.
Vol.3 pg.1..


199
Law: $n the *aCda+e+<la, if the &uHtadi recited the ,ashahud
J)tCtahiyaatK before the $mam Jcompleted reciting itK, he should
remain silent and not read %urood and %ua Ji.e. he should not read
anything elseK, and one who is a &asbooH, should recite this slowly
with slight pauses in the *aCda+e+)a:hira, in a way whereby he is
able to complete Jthe ,ashahudK at the time when the $mam is
turning his !alaam, and if he completes before the $mam Jturns
!alaamK, he should repeatedly recite the =alima+e+!hahaadat
2
Ji.e.
the words of !hahaadatK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DED1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

2. $f one repeats the words,
´
Œ
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

´
.· · ﺴﻟ´ﺍ

¸
¸
,
·
:ﻟﺍ ﺎ
´
,

,´ﺍ in this situation, there is also no obBection to it.
D7atawa 2a3viyah vol.3 pg.31'E



















Vol.3 pg.2##


200
Sunnat Actions in Namaaz

• ,o raise the hands for ,a:beer+e+,ahreema
• ,o allow the fingers to remain in its natural manner. $n
other words, without pressing them close together or
spreading them wide apart
• ,o allow the palms of the hands, and the stomachs of the
fingers to face the direction of the *ibla
• ,o lower the head at the time of the ,a:beer
• ,o raise the hands before proclaiming the ,a:beer
• !imilarly, in the ,a:beers of *unoot and both "ids, to
proclaim the ,a:beer after raising the hands to the ears.
9ith the e4ception of this, to raise the hands in Namaa3 at
any other instance, is not !unnat

Law: $f one already proclaimed the ,a:beer and did not raise the
hands in doing so, then he should not raise it now. $f one
remembered that he has not as yet raised his hand and he has not as
yet completed proclaiming ‘Allahu A-bar! Ji.e. he is in the midst of
proclaiming itK, then he should now raise the hands, and if he is not
able to raise it upto the level where it is !unnat to do so, then he
should raise the hands as far as he can Jbefore completion of saying
)llahu ):barK. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5I( ?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar
vol"B $g"DBJ1

Law: $t is !unnat for a female to raise her hands upto the shoulders.
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=E1

Law: $f a person is only able to raise one hand Jdue to illness or
paralysis etc.K, then he should only raise that one hand. $f he is only
Vol.3 pg.2#1


201
able to raise the hand upto which it is !unnat to raise it to, then he
should still raise it. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5I1

• 7or the $mam to proclaim Jcall outK the .
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ ´ﺍ ‘Allahu A-bar!
and :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. F ‘,ami Allahu li Mun 9amidah! and to
pronounce the !alaam, in a loud voice as per necessity of
loudness. ?owever, to do so in a very loud voice without
need is &a:ruh. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g" DBJ1

Law: $t is &asnun for the $mam to proclaim the ,a:beer+e+
,ahreema and the F2a-beeraat-e-3nti.aal! Ji.e. ,a:beers, which ta:e
one from one act to the ne4tK in ;ahr Ji.e. audiblyK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar
vol"B $g"DBJ1

Law: $f the sound of the $mamCs voice does not reach all the
&uHtadis, then it is better for one of the &uHtadis to also proclaim
the ,a:beers aloud, so that there is awareness amongst all, regarding
the commencement of Namaa3 and the moving from one action to
the ne4t. ?owever, to do this without a valid reason is &a:ruh and
-idCat JinnovationK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=@1

Law: $f the aim of proclaiming the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema is not
,ahreema, but it is merely proclaimed as an announcement, then the
Namaa3 will not be valid at all. ,he actual aim of the ,a:beer should
be for ,ahreema, and this should be done aloud. !imilarly, the one
transferring the sound Jof the ,a:beerK to the people Ji.e. the
&u:abbirK, should also intend Jfor ,ahreemaK. $f he merely intends
transferring the sound to the people, then neither is his Namaa3
valid, nor the Namaa3 of those who performed ,ahreema following
his voice. ?owever, with the e4ception of ,a:beer+e+,ahreema, if he
merely ma:es intention of announcement of ,a:beers in the other
Vol.3 pg.2#2


202
,a:beers, or in the :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. F ,ami Allahu li Mun 9amidah or in the

´

`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, ‘Rab!bana #a Na-al 9umd!, then in this case, the Namaa3 will
not be F7aasidC Ji.e. ruinedK. $t will however be regarded as being
&a:ruh, as this is to omit a !unnat. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DBJ1

Law: ) &u:abbir Jone calling out the ,a:beerK should announce the
,a:beer at a place, from where there is a need to do so for the
people. ,here is no benefit if he announces the ,a:beers whilst
standing in the first or second !aff JrowK, whereas the voice of the
$mam reaches these rows without any difficulty. $t is also very
important, that he should call out the ,a:beers in conBunction with
the voice of the $mam. $f he announces the ,a:beers after the $mam
has called out the ,a:beers, it will cause confusion to the followers.
)lso, if the &u:abbir delayed the announcement of the ,a:beer,
then in this case, one should not wait for him to complete his
,a:beer, if the $mam has already completed his ,a:beer but one
should commence reciting the ,ashahud etc. ,he ruling is if after
saying the ,a:beer the $mam remained silent and waited for a
duration eHuivalent to saying !ubhaanC)llah three times, Jso as to
allow the &u:abbir to complete his ,a:beerK, and only commenced
the ,ashahud thereafter, then he has omitted a 9aaBib then that
Namaa3 becomes 9aaBib ul $Caada Jcompulsory to repeatK.

Law: ,he &uHtadi and &unfarid do not need to do so with ;ahr Ji.e.
audibly aloudK. ?owever, it should be loud enough that one can hear
it personally. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DBJ( *ahr vol"B $g"D@D1

• )fter the ,a:beer, to immediately tie the hands, in a manner
whereby the men tie their hands below the naval, with the
palm of the right hand being placed over the wrist Boint of
the left hand, and the little finger and thumb should be on
Vol.3 pg.2#3


203
either side of the wrist, and the rest of the fingers should be
:ept on the wrist of the left hand. 7emales and F=hunsaC Ja
person with reproductive organs of both se4esK, should :eep
the left palm on the chest, below the breasts, placing the
palm of the right hand on the bac: of the palm of the left
hand. 0Hhuniya $g"=JE1" !ome people let the hands hang after
proclaiming the ,a:beer, and only after doing this, do they
tie their hands. ,his should not be done, but the hands
should be JimmediatelyK tied below the naval Jafter
,a:beerK.

Law: $f one reads Namaa3 whilst sitting or lying down, he should tie
his hands in the same manner. 0Raddul Muhtar1

Law: $t is !unnat to tie the hands in that *iyaam wherein there is
‘Ai-r Masnun!, so when reading the ,hana J!ubhaana:C)llahK and %ua+
e+*unootI and in ;anaa3ah, after ,a:beer+e+,ahreema, until the
fourth ,a:beer, the hand must be tied. 9hen standing up from 2u:u
and in the ,a:beers of both "id !alaahs, the hands should not be
tied. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D=I1

• $t is !unnat to say the ,hana J!ubhaana:C)llahK ,aCoo3
J)Coo3ubillahK, ,asmiyah J-ismillahK, )ameen, and for all of
them to be done softlyI and to first read the ,hana, then the
,aCoo3, followed by the ,asmiyah, and to follow with each
one immediately after the other, without any stoppageI to
recite the ,hana immediately after the ,a:beer+e+,ahreemaI
and not to read
´
.´ •ﺎ
´
:
´
. · ¸
´
,
´
و ‘#a Calla 2hana!u-a! e4cept in
;anaa3ah Namaa3. )ll the other ‘Az-aar! Jblessed prayersK
that have been mentioned in the )hadith are all for Nafils.

Vol.3 pg.2#'


204
Law: $f the $mam has already commenced reciting the *iraCat with
;ahr, i.e. audibly aloud, the &uHtadi should now not recite the
,hana, even if he is not able to hear the voice of the $mam due to
being far away or due to being deaf, as is in the case of the &uHtadis
in the last !affs JrowsK during the ;ummah and "id prayers, who are
not able to hear the *iraCat because they are in the last rows.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"I>( Hhuniya $g"=J71" $f the $mam is reciting J*iraCatK
softly, then you may recite the ,hana. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=I1

Law: $f you found the $mam in 2u:u or in the first !aBdah, and you
are certain that you will be able to catch up to the $mam, even after
reading the ,hana, then in this case you may read it, and if you find
him in the *aCda or second !aBdah, then it is better to Boin without
reciting the ,hana. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=I1

Law: $n Namaa3, ,aCoo3 and -ismillah are subsidiary to *iraCat and
there is no *iraCat for the &uHtadi Jone following the $mamK, so
,aCoo3 and ,asmiyah are not &asnun for the &uHtadi as well.
?owever, that &uHtadi who missed any 2a:aCats may read both
these in those 2a:aCats when he is completing them. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar
vol"B $g"D=J1

Law: ,aCoo3 is only to be recited in the first 2a:aCat, and it is
&asnun to recite the ,asmiyah in the beginning of every 2a:aCat. $f
after !urah 7aateha, one commenced recitation of a !urah from the
beginning, then in this case it is &ustahsan Jvirtuously
recommendedK, be it in !irri JsoftK or ;ahri JloudK *iraCat. ?owever,
-ismillah will be recited silently at all times. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"D=J1

Vol.3 pg.2#(


205
Law: $f one forgot to recite ,hana, ,aCoo3 and ,asmiyah and already
commenced the *iraCat, then there is no need to repeat it as the time
for it has gone. !imilarly, if one forgot to recite the ,hana and
already commenced reciting ,aCoo3, there is no repeating the ,hana.
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D=J1

Law: $f a &asbooH was not able to read the ,hana at the beginning,
he should recite it when he is completing his remaining 2a:aCats.
0Hhuniya $g"=J71

Law: $n the 7ard Namaa3, one should not read ´ .,· ,
´
و
`
_‰–
¸
ﺍ F$nni
9aBCBahtu....C J<ntil its endK, after the Niyyah and before the ,a:beer,
or afterwardsI but if one does read it, then at the end of it instead of
´
و

´
¸,
¸
ﻤ¸ﻠ
`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
_· و´ﺍ ﺎ´ ﻧ´ﺍ you should read
´
¸,
¸
ﻤ¸ﻠ
`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´

¸
. ﺎ´ ﻧ´ﺍ
´
و. 0Hhuniya $g"=J51

Law: %uring both of the "id 1rayers, it is !unnat to say the ,hana
after the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema. 9hen reciting the ,hana, one should
tie the hands, and the )Coo3u -ilClaah should be recited after the
fourth ,a:beer. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D=J1

Law: ,he ¸,.¯ can be recited in three ways. $t can be recited with the
F&addC, in other words, by pulling the F)lifC or with F*asrC in other
words without Je4cessivelyK pulling the F)lifC, or with F$maalaC,
similar to &add, whereby the )lif is concentrated towards the FPaaC.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDB1

Law: $f with the F&addC the F&eemC was read with F,ashdeedC, i.e. ¸, .¯
J)amCmeenK, or if it was read by dropping the FPaaC i.e.
`

¸
.¯ J)aminK,
then in these cases, the Namaa3 will still be valid but this is =hilaaf+
e+!unnat, i.e. contrary to the !unnat. $f one read it with a F&addC in a
Vol.3 pg.2#5


206
manner whereby there is a ,ashdeed on the F&eemC and the FPaaC
has been dropped, i.e.
`
ﻦ .¯ J)amCminK, or one read it with *asr and
added the ,ashdeed, i.e.
`
¸, .´ﺍ J)mCmeenK or he read it with *asr by
dropping the FPaaC, i.e.
`

¸
.´ﺍ J)minKI then in all three cases, the Namaa3
has been invalidated. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDB1

Law: $f the voice of the $mam did not reach him Jthe &uHtadiK but
the &uHtadi ne4t to him said )ameen, and he heard him saying
)ameen, even if he did so softly, then he too should say )ameen.
,his means that if one becomes aware that $mam has said,

ﻟﺎ
·
.ﻟﺍ ´ ·
´
و
´
¸`,
then it becomes !unnat for him to say )ameen, be this by hearing
the voice of the $mam or by hearing another &uHtadi saying
)ameen. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDB1

Law: $n a !irri Ji.e. inaudibleK Namaa3, if the $mam said, ‘Aameen! and
one heard this then in such a case, he too should say ‘Aameen!" 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDB1

• ,o say
`
ﻢﻴ¸ .
´
.` ﻟﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. !ubhaana 2abbiyal )3eem 3 times in 2u:u.
• ,o grasp the :nees with the hands.
• ,o spread the fingers wide apart when doing so. ,his ruling
is for the males.
• ,he women should simply place their hands on the :nees.
• ,hey should not spread out the fingers. Nowadays, many
males are seen merely placing their hands on the :nees,
Jwithout grasping the :neesK and they :eep the fingers close
together Jnot spread outK. ,his is =hilaaf+e+!unnat.
• ,o :eep the legs straight whilst in 2u:u. &any people :eep
the bent li:e a bow. ,his is &a:ruh.
Vol.3 pg.2#/


207
• ,o proclaim the ‘Allahu A-bar! for 2u:u. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DD=1

Law: ne who is not able to correctly pronounce the letter ž JLauK,
should say, ﻢ
`
,
¸
´ ¸` .ﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. ,ubhaana Rabbiyal Gareem, instead of saying

`
ﻴ¸ .
´
.` ﻟﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. ,ubhaana Rabbiyal Azeem. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DD=1

Law: $t is better to say ‘Allahu A-bar! as you are going into 2u:u. $n
other words, when you start bending for 2u:u, you should
commence saying )llahu ):bar, and you should complete the
,a:beer when in 2u:u. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5J1" $n order to cover this
entire distance, you should lengthen the FGaamC of the word F)llahC.
%o not lengthen the F-aaC of the word F):barC or any other alphabet
J$f one said, ´ﷲ ‘Aallahu!
`
.
´
,
`
´ ‘Aa-bar! or ,ﺎ
´
,
`
´
´
‘A-baar!, the Namaa3 will
be negatedK.

Law: $n every ,a:beer, the F2aaC of the word F):barC should be read
with a F;a3mC. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5J1

Law: $f the latter part of the !urah ends with the ,hana
JMlorificationK of )lmighty )llah, then in this case, it is better and
more virtuous to Boin the *iraCat to the ,a:beer, such as in this case:

´
.`,
¸
,
`
.´ .
´
:
`
.,
´
´
´
و :ﺍ .
´
,
`
´
´

´
ﷲﺍ ´ and in this case:
·
.´ﺍ
´
و
¸
Ÿ


´
ﺤ´ · ´ € ﺑ
´
,
¸
.
´

`
.¸:
¸
ﺑ ﺎ ﺍ .
´
,
`
´
´

´
ﷲ ` ?ere, the Ÿ J,haaK
should be recited with =asra. ?owever, if there is such a word at the
end of the !urah, which is disli:ed to be Boined to the F$sm+e+;alaalatC,
i.e. Jthe %ivine Name of )llahK, then in this case, it is better and more
virtuous not to Boin it to the ,a:beer. $n other words, one should
stop at the end of the *iraCat and thereafter say )llahu ):bar, such
as in the case of a verse li:e,
´
.
´
:
`
ﺑ´ ` ·ﺍ
´
ﻮ´. ´ €´ —¸ﻧﺎ ´ :
·
¸
¸
ﺍ where you should pause and
give space after the verse and then say the ,a:beer for the 2u:u. $f
Vol.3 pg.2#0


208
neither of the two cases Jmentioned aboveK e4ists, then one may
ma:e either ‘<asl! Jto separateK or ‘#asl! Jto BoinK Jin regards to the
,a:beer, i.e. one may Boin the verse to the )llahu of the ,a:beer or
:eep both separateK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DD=( <ataa Razviyah vol"D
$g"B=51

Law: ,o lengthen the 2u:u or the *iraCat because of some person
who is about to Boin Jthe ;amaCatK, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. ,his is in
the case where you recognise and :now him. $n other words, your
aim is to show JspecialK consideration to him. ?owever, if you do not
:now or recognise the person who is about to Boin, then in such a
case, it is ‘Afdal! Jbetter and more virtuousK to lengthen Jthe 2u:u or
*iraCatK, for it is to assist one in acHuiring good deeds. ne should
however not lengthen it to such an e4tent that it causes concern to
the &uHtadis JfollowersK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g" DD=1

Law: ,he &uHtadi had not as yet proclaimed the ,asbeeh thrice,
when the $mam raised his head from 2u:u or !aBdah, so in this case,
it is 9aaBib upon the &uHtadi to adhere to the $mam Ji.e. to follow
with the $mamK. $f the &uHtadi raised his head before the $mam,
then he should return to Jthe said actK. $f he does not return, then he
will be liable for an offence which, is disallowed and this will render
him sinful. 0Raddul Muhtar K ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDD1

Law: ,he bac: should be spread out nice and flat whilst in 2u:u, to
the degree that if a glass Jor bowlK of water is :ept on the bac:, it
should remain Jwithout fallingK. 0<athul Qadeer vol"B $g"=>J1

Law: $n 2u:u, neither should the head be bent JloweredK, nor should
it be raised high but it should be in line with the bac:. 09idaya vol"B
$g"IJ1
Vol.3 pg.2#.


209
$t has been mentioned in the ?adith !hareef that, F,he Namaa3 of
that person who does not properly straighten his bac: in Namaa3, is
insufficient Ji.e. not completely perfectKC. ,his ?adith has been
reported by )bu %awud, ,irmi3i, NasaCi, $bn &aBah, and %aarimi from
)bi &asCud )l )nsari ؓ  . $mam ,irmi3i has mentioned this ?adith to
be on the merit of ?assan !ahih.

2asoolullah  said, F1erform your 2u:u and your !uBood correctly,
for -y )llah> $ am able to see you from behind as well.C ,his ?adith
has been reported by the !hay:haan from )nas ؓ.

Law: ) female should only bend JbowK a little in 2u:u. $n other
words, enough for her to Bust touch her :nees with her hands. !he
should not straighten her bac:, and she should not press on the
:nees, but she should simply :eep the hands on the :nees. !he
should not properly straighten up as the men do. 0Alamgiri, vol"B
$g"5J1

Law: ,o recite the ,asbeeh thrice is the minimal reHuirement,
because reciting less than this will not allow the !unnat to be
fulfilled. $f one recites more than thrice, then this is F)fdalC Jmore
virtuousK, but one should end with and odd number Jof tasbeehsK.
?owever, if you are the $mam, and they J&uHtadisK become restless,
then do not increase Jthe ,asbeehs too muchK. 0<athul Qadeer, vol"B
$g"=>J1

$t is in ?uliya from )bdullah ibn &ubara: etc. that it is &ustahab
Jdesirable and recommendedK for the $mam to say the ,asbeehs five
times JeachK. $t has been mentioned in the ?adith !hareef that
?u3oor  said, F9hen one ma:es 2u:u, he should say ﻢ
`
ﻴ¸ .
´
.` ﻟﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
.
thrice, so his 2u:u has been completed, and this is the JveryK
Vol.3 pg.21#


210
minimal reHuirement, and when he performs !aBdah, he should say

.
`
ﻋ´ ·ﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. thrice, so his !aBdah has been completed, and this is the
minimal reHuirement.C ,his ?adith has been reported by )bu %awud,
,irmi3i and $bn &aBah from $bn &asCud ؓ  .

Law: 9hen standing from 2u:u, do not tie the hands, but let them
hang. 0Alamgiri, vol"B $g"5I1

Law: ,he : F?aaC of :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. ‘,ami Allahu li mun 9amidah! should be
read with F!aa:inC Ji.e. as a Huiescent letterK. %o not apply any
F?ar:atC Jvowel mar:s, i.e. 3abar, 3er, pesh etc.K and nor should the
´
د
‘?aal! be lengthened. 0Alamgiri, vol"B $g"7@1

• 7or the $mam to say :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. ‘,ami Allahu li mun 9amidah!
when coming up from 2u:u.
• and for the &uHtadi to say ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ
´
وﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!ma Rab!bana
a Na-al 9amd!"
• and for the &unfarid to say both is !unnat. 0Alamgiri, vol"B
$g"7@1

Law: !aying ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, ‘Rab!bana Na-al 9amd! will also allow the
!unnat to be fulfilled but it is better to add the FwawC Jin other words
‘Rab!bana a Na-al 9amd!K and to add · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ‘Allahum!ma! is even better.
$t is best to say both. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDE1" ?u3oor  said,
F9hen the $mam says :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. say, ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ for one whose
words correspond to the words of the )ngels, will have his past sins
forgiven.C ,his ?adith has been reported by the !hay:haan from )bu
?urairah ؓ  .

Vol.3 pg.211


211
Law: ,he &unfarid should say :
´

¸

´

`

´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. as he is coming up from
2u:u, and then say ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻟ
´
و ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, · ﻢ
´
,• ﻠﻟ´ﺍ once he stands up straight from
2u:u. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDE1

• ,o say F)llahu ):barC for !aBdah
• and when getting up from !aBdah
• and to say ‘

.
`
ﻋ´ ·ﺍ
´


¸
´
,
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. at least thrice in !aBdah
• and to :eep the hands on the ground in !aBdah 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDJ1

Law: 9hen going into !aBdah

• 7irst place the :nees on the ground
• then the hands
• then the nose
• then the forehead
• and when coming up from !aBdah then do the opposite, i.e.
first the forehead, then the nose, then the hands, and then
the :nees. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7@1

9hen 2asoolullah  would go into !aBdah, he first placed his :nees
down and then his hands, and when he rose from !aBdahI he would
first raise his hands and then his :nees. 2eported by the )shaab us
!unan )l )rbaC and %aarimi from 9aaCil bin ?aBr ؓ  .

Law: 7or males, it is !unnat in !aBdah, to :eep the arms away from
the sides, to :eep the stomach away from the thighs, and the wrists
should not be placed on the ground. ?owever, if one is in a !aff Jrows
for ;amaCatK, then the arms will not be :ept away from the sides.
09idaya vol"B $g"J@( Alamgiri vol"B $g"7@( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDI1

Vol.3 pg.212


212
$t is mentioned in the ?adith that 2asoolullah  said, F-e balanced
in your !aBdah, and do not spread out your wrists, li:e a dog.C ,his
?adith has been reported by the !hay:haan from )nas ؓ.

?u3oor  said, F9hen you perform !aBdah, then :eep your palms on
the ground and raise your elbows.C ,his ?adith is reported in &uslim
from -ara ibn )a3ib ؓ  .

F9hen 2asoolullah  used to perform !aBdah, he would :eep both
his hands away from his sides, to the e4tent that if a baby goat
wanted to pass from under his hands, it would be able to pass.C )bu
%awud has reported this ?adith on the authority of <mmul
&omineen &aymuna ¸:, ﺍ ﷲ _ﺎ.. ﺎ,:ﻋ .

$t has been narrated in another narration of -u:hari and &uslim
from )bdullah ibn &aali: in -uhayna ؓ that he  would :eep his
hands so well spread out that the whiteness of his holy armpits could
be seen.

Law: ) female should gather herself when performing !aBdah Ji.e.
not spread out the bodyK. !he should Boin her arms to her sides, and
her stomach close to her thighs, and her thighs to her shin and her
shin should be close to the ground. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7@1

Law: -oth :nees should be :ept on the ground at once, and due to
any valid e4cuse, if one is not able to place both on the ground at
once then one should first place the right :nee and then the left
:nee. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DD>1

Law: ,here is no harm on placing a fabric Ji.e. clothK on the ground
to ma:e !aBdah. $f one made !aBdah on an end of the clothing one is
Vol.3 pg.213


213
wearing or on oneCs hand, without any valid e4cuse, then to do so is
&a:ruh. $f it is a stony ground, or if the ground is intensely hot or
severely cold, then to do so is not &a:ruh. $f there is dust there and
one made !aBdah on clothing, which one is wearing, in order to
protect ones turban from the dust Jor grimeK, then there is no harm
in doing soI and if one did this merely to avoid dust getting onto the
face, then to do so is &a:ruh. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDI1

Law: $f one placed an F)ch:anC Jlong coatK etc. on the ground and
read Namaa3 on it, then the upper portion should be under the feet
and one should ma:e !aBdah on the lower portion Jits s:irtK. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDI1

Law: ,o :eep one foot raised up during !aBdah is &a:ruh and
F&umnooC Jdisapproved and disallowedK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DDJ1

• ,o sit between both the !aBdahs, li:e one sits in ,ashahud,
in other words, by :eeping the left foot placed on the
ground and :eeping the right foot upright
• and to place both hands on the thighs
• for the fingers to be facing the direction of *ibla in !aBdah
• and for the fingers of the hands to be together 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"DD>1

Law: 7or the stomachs of all ten toes of the feet to touch, the
ground in !aBdah is !unnat, and for the stomachs of three toes of
each foot to touch the ground in !aBdah is 9aaBib, and for all ten to
face the direction of *ibla Jin !aBdahK is !unnat. 0<ataa Razviyah vol"B
$g">5>1

Vol.3 pg.21'


214
Law: 9hen completing both !aBdahs, then get up from the !aBdah
position for the ne4t 2a:aCat by using the tips of the feet, and by
placing the hands on the :nees. ?owever, due to wea:ness or some
other illness etc. if one places the hands on the ground to get up,
then too there is no harm in this. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar
vol"B $g"DE@1

Now, in the second 2a:aCat, do not recite ,hana and ,aCoo3. )fter
completing the !aBdahs of the second 2a:aCat,

• place the left foot on the ground
• and sit with both buttoc:s on it
• and to :eep the right foot upright
• and to allow the toes of the right foot to face the *ibla
direction Jthis is for the malesK
• females should sit with both the legs to the right side,
• sitting on the left buttoc:
• to :eep the right hand on the right thigh
• and to :eep the left hand on the left thigh
• to :eep the fingers in its natural form, neither spread out,
nor close together
• the ends of the fingers should be close to the :nees and
should not grasp the :nees
• to gesture at the point of proclaiming the !hahaadat, by
closing, i.e. bringing together the little finger and the finger
ne4t to it, and to form a circular shape with the thumb and
middle finger, and to raise the =alima finger on the saying
the word FGaaC, and to place it down at FilClaC and then to
immediately straighten all the fingers.

Vol.3 pg.21(


215
$t has been mentioned in the ?adith that, F9hen Nabi  would
ma:e %ua Ji.e. when he reached the =alima !hahaadat in ,ashahudK,
he would gesture with the finger, and he would not move his finger
around Ji.e. sha:e itK.C )bu %awud and NasaCi have reported this
?adith on the authority of )bdullah ibn Lubair ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:,.

$n addition, ?e  once saw a person gesturing with two fingers. ?e
 said, F&a:e ,auheed> &a:e ,auheed> Ji.e. gesture with only one
fingerK.C ,his ?adith has been reported by ,irmi3i, NasaCi and -aihaHi
from )bu ?urairah ؓ  .

Law: 9hen getting up for the third 2a:aCat after *aCda+e+<la, do not
do so by placing the hands on the ground, but get up by applying
pressure on the :nees Jwith the handsK. ?owever, if there is some
valid e4cuse, then there is no harm in doing so. 0Hhuniya $g"D=B1

Law: $n the third and fourth 2a:aCats of a 7ard Namaa3, it is F)fdalC
Jmore virtuousK to read !urah 7aateha and to say F!ubhaanC)llahC is
also permissible, and for the duration of three tasbeehs, if one stood
silently, the Namaa3 will still be done but one should not remain
silent Ji.e. without reciting anythingK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DED1

Law: ne should sit in the second *aCda Bust as one did in the first
*aCda and one should recite the ,ashahud in this as well. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"DEE1

• )fter ,ashahud, to recite %urood !hareef in the second *aCda
and the most virtuous %urood is that which has already been
presented. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DEE( <ataa Razviyah vol"D
$g"5=1

Vol.3 pg.215


216
Law: $t is better to say the word F!ayyidinaC with the names of
?u3oor  and ?a3rat $brahim Jalaihis salaamK when reciting the
%urood !hareef. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"DE>1

Virtues of Reciting Durood Shareef

,here are very many )hadith in regards to the virtues and
e4cellence of reciting %urood !hareef. 7or the sa:e of blessings,
some of them are being presented.

Hadith 1: $t is reported in &uslim from )bu ?urairah ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, F)lmighty )llah will send down %urood
JblessingsK ten times upon a person who sends %urood upon me
once.C

Hadith 2: $t is reported in NasaCi from )nas ؓ that 2asoolullah
 said, Fne who sends %urood upon me once, )lmighty )llah will
send down ten %urood JblessingsK upon him, remove ten of his sins
and e4alt him by ten folds.C

Hadith 3: $mam )hmed reports on the authority of )bdullah ibn
)mr ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that if a person sends %urood once upon the -eloved
2asool , )lmighty )llah and the )ngels will send %urood
JblessingsK seventy times upon him.

Hadith 4: $t is in %urr+e+&u:htar on the narration of )sbahani,
from )nas ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F$f one sends %urood once
upon me and it is accepted, then Jby virtue of thisK )lmighty )llah
will erase eighty years of his sins.C

Vol.3 pg.21/


217
Hadith 5: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from )bu &asCud ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,he closest to me on *iyaamat will be the one
who sent the most %urood upon me.C

Hadith 6: $t is reported in NasaCi and %aarimi from $bn &asCud ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F,here are some special )ngels of )lmighty
)llah who Bourney through the earth and they pass the !alaams of
my <mmat to me.C

Hadith 7: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from $bn &asCud ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F&ay his nose be rubbed in the dust
1
who got the
month of 2amadaan and it passed before he could be forgiven, and
may his nose be rubbed in the dust, who got the company of both or
one of his parents in their old+age and they were not able to enter
him into ;annat
2
, and may his nose be rubbed in the dust, before
whom my name is ta:en and he does not send %urood upon me.C

Hadith 8: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from )li ؓ that 2asoolullah 
said, F?e is a complete miser, before whom $ am remembered and he
does not send %urood upon me.C

Hadith 9: $t is reported in NasaCi and %aarimi that )bu ,alha ؓ
says that once ?u3oor  arrived, and there were signs of happiness
on the ?oly 7ace of ?u3oor  and he  said, F;ibraCeel Jalaihis
salaamK came to me and said, Pour 2ab says, are you not pleased that
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,he word Fmay his nose be rubbed in the dustC is an e4pression in the )rabic language, which
denotes deprivation and degradation.

2. $n other words, deprived is he, who got to be in the presence of his parents in their old+age
but did not serve and obey them so as to enter ;annat by virtue of this.

Vol.3 pg.210


218
whosoever in your <mmat sends %urood upon you, $ will send ten
%urood upon him and whosoever in your <mmah sends !alaam upon
you, $ will send ten !alaam upon him.C

Hadith 10: $t is reported in ,irmi3i that <bay bin =aCab ؓ  says, F$
said, Pa 2asoolC)llah , $ as: a lot of %ua, so how much time should
$ allocate in this J%uaK for sending %urood upon ?u3oor OC, ?e 
said, F)s you wishC, $ said, Fa HuarterC, ?e  said, Fas you wish, but if
you increase it, it is more beneficial to youC, so $ said, FhalfC, ?e 
said, Fas you wish, but if you increase it, it is better and more
beneficial to youC, so $ said, Ftwo thirds and ?e  said, Fas you wish,
but if you increase it, it is of greater benefit to youC so $ said, F,hen $
should set aside the entire Jtime in %uaK for %uroodC and ?e  said,
F$f this is the case, then it will be sufficient for all your needs, and it
will allow your sins to be forgiven.C

Hadith 11: $t is reported in )hmed from 2uwayfaC ؓ that the
-eloved 2asool  said, F&y intercession becomes 9aaBib on one
who recites %urood and says thisC:


¸
.
´

ﻴ¸t` ﻟﺍ
´
.
`

´
,
´

´

`
:¸ﻋ
´
¸
·
´ ¸
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´

´
.
`
t
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.` ﻟ
¸
,`ﻧ´ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,
·
ﻠﻟ´ﺍ

Hadith 12: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from )meer ul &omineen,
7arooH+e+)3am ؓ  that, F%ua is suspended between the s:y and earth,
and does not ascend until %urood is sent upon Nabi .C

Law: ,o recite %urood !hareef at least once in oneCs lifetime is 7ard,
and to recite %urood !hareef in every blessed gathering of Li:r is
9aaBib JcompulsoryK, be this whether you ta:e the blessed Name
yourself, or if you hear it from someone else. $f in one &aBlis
Vol.3 pg.21.


219
JgatheringK, one hears the blessed name a hundred times, one should
recite %urood !hareef on every occasion. $f one mentioned or heard
the -lessed Name Jof 2asoolullah K and did not recite the %urood
!hareef immediately, then he may recite it later Jbut he should try to
do so immediatelyK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"DE51

Law: 9hen selling an item to a customer, it is impermissible to
recite %urood !hareef or say F!ubhaanC)llahC during this time, in
order to show beauty of the item to the buyer. !imilarly, it is
impermissible to recite %urood !hareef when seeing a big person, in
order to inform the people of his arrivalI so that they may get up in
his admiration and leave their places Jfor himK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B
$g"DEI1

Law: $t is &ustahab Jdesirable and recommendedK to recite %urood
!hareef whenever possible, especially in the following instances:

• n a 7riday
• n the eve of a 7riday
• $n the morning
• )t night
• 9hen entering the &asBid J&osHueK
• 9hen leaving the &asBid
• 9hen ma:ing Liyaarat of the 2auda+e+)thar Ji.e. !acred
Mrave of 2asoolullah K
• %uring the =hutbah at !affa &arwah
• )fter replying to the )3aan
• )t the time of $Haamat Ji.e. before proclaiming itK
• $n the beginning and end of %ua, and in the middle
• )fter reciting %ua+e+*unoot
• )fter completion of FGabai:C in ?aBB
Vol.3 pg.22#


220
• )fter a gathering and when departing
• 9hen ma:ing 9udu
• 9hen not able to remember something
• 9hen lecturing
• 9hen ,eaching
• 9hen !tudying, especially before and after reading ?adith
!hareef
• 9hen writing a $slamic Huery
• 9hen writing 7atawa J$slamic %ecreesK
• 9hen writing J$slamicK boo:s etc.
• %uring Ni:ah
• "ngagement
• )nd when doing some important thing

9henever you write the !acred Name, always write %urood !hareef
with it, as some <lama have mentioned that it is 9aaBib to write
%urood !hareef at this time. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol"B
$g"DEI1

Law: Nowadays, many people write ﻢﻋ ﻢ.ﻠ, to do so is
impermissible and strictly forbidden J?araamK. !imilarly, they write
instead of .:ﻋ _

ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, and _

ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ .ﻤﺣ, this too should not be
done. J!ome peopleK whose names are &uhammad, )hmed ?assan
or ?ussain etc. write or above their names. ,his too is
disallowed Ji.e. disapprovedK, because in such cases it is the said
person whose name is intended, so what is meant by writing these
Jsymbols by which they intend %uroodK on these names. 02ahtai1
1

Law: 9ith the e4ception of in the *aCda+e+)a:hira, %urood !hareef
is not recited anywhere else during a 7ard Namaa3. ?owever, it is
&asnun to recite %urood !hareef even in the *aCda+e+<la of a Nafil
Vol.3 pg.221


221
Namaa3.
2
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g" DEI1" $t is !unnat to read %ua after
the %urood. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g" D>@1

Law: J$t is !unnatK to recite the %ua in the )rabic Ganguage. ,o
recite it in non+)rabic language is &a:ruh. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"
D>@1

Law: J$t is !unnatK to as: %ua for your parents and teachers, if they
are &uslims, and to as: %ua for all the -elieving men and women. %o
not only as: %ua specifically for yourself. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g" D>@( Alamgiri vol"B $g"7B1

Law: $t is ?araam to as: %ua+e+&aghfirat J%ua for pardonK for your
teachers and parents, if they are unbelievers and have already died.
!ome 7uHaha J;uristsK have even written that to as: for &aghfirat
Jonce they are deadK amounts to F:ufrC. ?owever, if they are still
alive, then you may ma:e %ua for their ?idaayat JMuidanceK and for
them to receive %ivine help Jto accept the ,ruthK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>B1

UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. ,hat which is being e4plained is in regards to those who instead of writing !all )llahu alaihi
wasallam in full, merely write s.a.w or s, and instead of 2adi )llahu anhu they write r.a. or r.a.h
etc. ,o abbreviate the %urood !hareef is impermissible and ?araam, and to abbreviate 2adi
)llahu anhu etc. is disapproved. 9e should pay particular attention to this. $t has been noticed
in boo:s etc. that people merely use abbreviations. $t must be noted that %urood !hareef is not
something that can be abbreviated.

2. $n other words, with the e4ception of the !unnats before the Luhr and ;ummah. D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.'('E


Vol.3 pg.222


222
Law: ,o ma:e %ua for &uhaalaat+e+)adiya and &uhaalaat+e+
!harCiah is ?araam. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar Mu-htar, vol"D $g"D>@1

Law: 9hen ma:ing %ua, one should use those %uas which have been
mentioned in the *urCan and ?adith, but the %uas which are
mentioned in the *urCan should not be read at this Buncture with the
Niyyat JintentionK of recitation of *urCan, as to do so is
impermissible, and with the e4ception of in F*iyaamC Jduring
Namaa3K, we are not advised to recite *urCan at any other instance in
Namaa3.
1
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>B1

Law: $n Namaa3, such %uas are impermissible, which have words
that people use for one another, such as ¸¸ƒ
`
, و ´ ; · ﻢ
´
,
·
ﻠﻟ´ﺍ.

Law: $t is advisable in Namaa3, to recite the %ua which you :now
well Ji.e. you have memorisedK, and outside of Namaa3, it is best to
ma:e that %ua which you have not memorisedI in other words, that
which is present in the heart. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>=1

Law: $t is &ustahab Jdesirable and recommendedK at the end of the
Namaa3, after all the recitations, to recite the following %ua:

·.
´

´
د
`
¸
´
,
·
t
´
.
´
و ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
,
`
¸¸.
·
,¸,´s
`

¸
.
´
و
¸
ة

ﻮﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ
´

`
ﻴ¸t
´
.
`
¸¸ƒ` ﻠ
´
.
`
,ﺍ ¸
´
, …

´
¸ﺎ
´
ﺴ¸ ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.
`

´
t´ ,
´
.
`

´
,
´
¸`,¸:
¸
.
`

´
ﻤ` ﻠ¸ﻟ
´
و
·

´
ﺪ¸ﻟﺍ
´
ﻮ¸ﻟ
´
و
`

¸

`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ ﺎ
´
:·ﺑ
´
, …
0
Alamgiri vol"B $g"7B1" J$t is !unnatK for all the F$ntiHalaatC Jmovement
from one act to the ne4tK of the &uHtadi, to be with that of the
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $f one forgetfully read it, then it is necessary to perform !aBdah+e+!ahw

Vol.3 pg.223


223
$mam. J$t is !unnatK to say
´
.´· · ﺴﻟ´ﺍ
`

´
.
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´

´
و
´
.
´

`

´
, ¸ﷲﺍ
first to the right and then to the left. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>D1

Law: 9hen turning the face to the right to ma:e the !alaam, turn
the face enough so that the right chee: can be seen, and when
ma:ing !alaam to the left, turn enough so that the left chee: can be
seen. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7B1

Law: $t is &a:ruh to say
´

´
.
`
ﻴ´ ﻠ
´
ﻋ .´· · ﺴﻟﺍ ‘Alai-um-us-salaam!. !imilarly,
´
و .
´
.ﺎﺮ
´

should also not be added at the end. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>D1

Law: $t is !unnat for the $mam to proclaim both !alaams in a loud
voice, but the second !alaam should be not as loud as the first. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>D1

Law: $f one made salaam to the left first Jin errorK, then if he has not
said anything else Ji.e. spo:en anythingK as yet, then he should
immediately turn !alaam to the right and then turn !alaam to the
left again. $n this case, there will be no need to repeat Jthe Namaa3K.

$f in the first !alaam, he does not turn the face in any direction, then
in the second, he should turn the face towards the left.

$f one forgets to turn !alaam to the left, then until such time that his
bac: does not face the *ibla, and he has not spo:en to anyone as yet,
he may proclaim the salaam. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>D( Alamgiri vol"B
$g">=( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>D1

Law: 9hen the $mam turns !alaam, then the &uHtadi, who has not
missed any 2a:aCat, should also turn !alaam. ?owever, if he has not
completed reciting the ,ashahud yet and the $mam turned !alaam,
Vol.3 pg.22'


224
then he should not follow the $mam in !alaam, but it is 9aaBib for
him to complete the ,ashahud J)tCtahiyaatK and then turn the
!alaam. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>=1

Law: ,he &uHtadi has not come out of Namaa3 merely by the $mam
turning !alaam, but he will only be regarded out of Namaa3 after he
Jthe &uHtadiK himself turns !alaam as wellI to the e4tent that if after
the !alaam of the $mam and before his !alaam he laughed loudly, his
9udu has been nullified. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>D1

Law: $t is not permissible for the &uHtadi to turn !alaam before the
$mam, e4cept out of necessity, for e4ampleI he fears F?adathC
occurring Ji.e. he fears he will pass some impurityK, or if he fears that
the sun will rise, or if he fears that the time for ;ummah or "idain
Jboth "id prayersK will e4pire. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>D1

Law: ,he moment the $mam says the word F!alaamC for the first
timeI he has come out of Namaa3, even if he has not yet said
F)lai:umC. $f someone Boins the ;amaCat at this time, his Boining Jand
following the $mamK is not valid. ?owever, if the $mam made !aBdah+
e+!ahw after turning !alaam, then that person will who Boined Jafter
that firstK !alaam, will be regarded as having Boined the ;amaCat.
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>=1

Law: $n turning !alaam to the right, the $mam should ma:e Niyyat
Jin addressingK those &uHtadis who are on the right, and in !alaam
to the left, he should do so for those who are on the left, but he
should not ma:e Niyyat for females even if they are part of the
;amaCat.

Vol.3 pg.22(


225
)lso, in both !alaams, he should ma:e Niyyat for F=iraaman
=aatibeenC
1
and those )ngels, whom )llah has appointed for Jour
protectionK, and we should not stipulate any figure in this regard.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>E1

Law: 9hen ma:ing !alaam, then in !alaam to all sides Ji.e. left and
rightK, the &uHtadis too should ma:e Niyyat of the &uHtadis on that
particular side and they should ma:e Niyyat for those )ngels as well.
,hey should ma:e Niyyat Jof !alaamK for the $mam as well, for the
side where the $mam is, and if the $mam is in front of him, then in
both !alaams he should have Niyyat of J!alaamK to the $mam as well.
) &unfarid should only ma:e Niyyat of J!alaam forK those )ngels.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>51

Law: )fter !alaam, it is !unnat for the $mam to change his direction
to the right or the left
2
Ji.e. sit facing the right or the leftK, and it is
F)fdalC to sit facing towards the right. ,he $mam may also sit facing
the &uHtadis, on condition that there is no &uHtadi in Namaa3, in
front of him Ji.e. facing himK, even if he may be reading Namaa3 in
one of the !affs at the bac:. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>I ith ref to
9uliya and Aa-hirah1

Law: $f the &unfarid ma:es %ua e4actly where he is, without
turning to the left or right, then for him, this too is permissible.
0Alamgiri, vol"B $g"7=1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. =iraaman =aatibeen are the two )ngels appointed by )lmighty )llah to record our good and
bad deeds and are also :nown as the !houlder )ngels. ,he one on the right records the good
deeds and the one on the left records the bad deeds of a person.

Vol.3 pg.225


226
Law: )fter Luhr, &aghrib and "sha, one should recite shorter %uas,
and then continue with the !unnats. ne should not be engrossed in
very lengthy %uas Jafter the 7ard of the above mentioned !alaahsK.
0Alamgiri, vol"B $g"7=1

2. Not to change direction and to remain seated facing the direction
of *ibla is &a:ruh. D7atawa 2a3viyah vol.3 pg./'E

Law: )fter the 7aBr and )sr !alaahs, one has the choice of reciting
Li:r and %ua for as long as one pleases. ?owever, if the &uHtadi is
following the $mam in %ua, the $mam should not lengthen the %ua to
such a degree, whereby the &uHtadi becomes restless. 0<ataa
Razviyah1

Law: %o not read your !unnats at the same spot, but read them by
moving away to the right, left, front or bac:I or read them after
going home. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7=( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>51

Law: ne should not ma:e conversation after the 7ard of those
Namaa3, wherein the 7ard is followed by !unnats, even though Jby
doing soK the !unnats will still be valid, but the reward will be
lessened in doing so. $t is also &a:ruh to delay the !unnats.
!imilarly, very lengthy 9a3ifas etc. are not permitted Ji.e. not
advised between 7ard and !unnatsK. 0Hhuniya $g"DDB( Raddul Muhtar
vol"B $g"D>51

Law: $t is F)fdalC Jbetter and more virtuousK to remain seated in the
same place after the 7aBr !alaah, until the sun has risen properly.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7=1


Vol.3 pg.22/


227
Mustahab Actions in Namaaz

• 9hilst in the *iyaam position, to loo: at the area of !aBdah
• $n 2u:u, to loo: at the top of the foot
• $n !aBdah to loo: towards the nose
• $n *aCda, to loo: towards the lap
• $n the first !alaam, to loo: towards the right shoulder
• $n the second !alaam, to loo: towards the left shoulder
• ,o :eep the mouth closed when feeling the need to yawn
and if it cannot be stopped, then to compress the lips under
the teethI even if this does not curb the yawning, then if one
is in the *iyaam position, he should cover the mouth with
the rear of the right hand, and if in any other position
Je4cept *iyaamK, one should do so with the rear of the left
hand, otherwise one may use the sleeves to cover the mouth
in both situations J*iyaam or non+*iyaamK. ,o cover the
mouth with a cloth or with the hand without a valid reason
is &a:ruh. ne of the best methods to stop the yawning is to
thin: in the heart that that )mbia Jalaihimus salaamK never
yawned.
• 7or men, to :eep the hands out of the clothes at the time of
,a:beer+e+,ahreema Jsuch as when covered in a sheet etc.K
• 7or females, it is better to :eep the hands inside Jthe -urHah
etc.K.
• ,o try to avoid coughing to the best of oneCs ability
• 7or the $mam and the &uHtadis to all stand up when the
&u:abbir Jone calling the ,a:beer6$HaamatK proclaims the
·
‘´ -
‘´ .
´
ﻋ -´·´ .` ﻟﺍ ‘9ay!ya alal <alaah!
• ,he Namaa3 can be commenced once the &u:abbir
J&uCa33ibK says ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ ¸ .
´
.ﺎ´ s
`
ﺪ´ s but it is better to commence
Namaa3 only once the $Haamat has ended
Vol.3 pg.220


228
• 7or there to be four fingers space between both feet, during
*iyaam
• 7or the &uHtadi to commence Jthe Namaa3K with the $mam
• 7or the !aBdah to be made on the ground, without anything
in+between

Zikr and Dua after Namaaz

,hose lengthy F)3:aarC which have been mentioned in the )hadith,
should be recited after the !unnats of Luhr, &aghrib and "sha.
-efore the !unnat, one should rather recite a short %ua, otherwise
the reward of the !unnats become less. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.3(5E

Note of Caution: ne should not increase or decrease the
number of times that a particular %ua which has been mentioned in
the ?adith. $t should be read the number of times as prescribed in
the ?adith, because the e4cellence that is held in these particular
prayers is in reciting it for the number of times prescribed. ,he
e4ample of increasing or decreasing the number of times it needs to
be read, is li:e the e4ample of a particular loc: that needs to be
opened with a specific :ey. Now, if one increases or decreases the
teeth on the :ey, it will not be able to open that particular loc:.
?owever, if one has a doubt as to how many he has read, then in
such a case, one may increase the recitation, and this is not regarded
as reading more than what has been prescribed, Jit is simply a
precautionary measureK so as to reach completion. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.3(5E

)fter every Namaa3, one should ma:e $stighfar thrice, followed by
recitation of )yat ul =ursi and the three *uls, once each. ne should
Vol.3 pg.22.


229
also read ¸ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. ‘,ubhaan!Allah! 33 times Š´ ﺪ
´

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ ‘Alhamdulillah! 33
times, and
`
.
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ ‘Allahu A-bar! 3' times, and once one should read:

:
´

`

´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.

ﻟ´ﺍ ´ · F
´

`
,¸ ﺪ´ s
ˆ
·¸
´
: ¸
´

.
´

´
ﻮ´.
´
و ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
Œ` ﻠ
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
`
.´ ﻟ
´
Œ
`
,
¸
´ , ´ ·

‘Naa ilaaha il!lal laahu #ahdahu Naa ,haree-a lahu, lahul Mul-u, #a lahul
9amdu, #a 9ua alaa Gul!li ,hay!in Qadeer!

,he sins of one who read this will be forgiven, even if they are
eHuivalent to the foam on the sea. )fter )sr, without changing
position and without conversing one should recite 1# times:

:
´

`

´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · F ´ .
`

¸

´
,
´
و
`
¸
¸
¸
`

´
,
´
.`,´ •` ﻟﺍ ¸:¸ ﺪ
´

¸
ﺑ ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
Œ` ﻠ
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
`
.´ ﻟ
´
Œ
`
,
¸
´ , ´ ·
¸
´

.
´

´
ﻮ` .
´
و
ˆ
·¸
´
:
´

`
,¸ ﺪ´ s

‘Naa ilaaha il!lal laahu #ahdahu Naa ,haree-a lahu, lahul Mul-u, #a lahul
9amdu, *i Fadihil Ghair, Fuhyi #a Fumeetu, #a 9ua alaa Gul!li ,hay!in
Qadeer!

)fter every Namaa3, one should :eep the hand on the JupperK
forehead and read:


´
¸
`
,
´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
و · ﻢ
´
,` ﻟﺍ ¸

ƒ
´

`
,´ .`sﺍ · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´

`
ﻴ¸ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
´


`
ﺣ· ﺮﻟﺍ
´
ﻮ´.
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
`
“¸ ;` ﻟﺍ ¸ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
,

ne should then pull the hand towards the lower forehead Ji.e. upto
the eyebrowsK.


Vol.3 pg.23#


230
Hadith 1: $t is reported in )bu %awud from )nas ؓ  that ?u3oor
 said, F,o ma:e Li:r Jbe engrossed in the remembranceK of )llah
from after 7aBr until sunrise, and from after )sr until sunset is more
virtuous than freeing four slaves each from -ani $sraCeel.C

Hadith 2: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from )nas ؓ  that ?u3oor 
said, Fif one engrosses oneself in Li:r until sunrise, after performing
your 7aBr Namaa3 with ;amaCat and then after the sun has risen
completely, if one perform 2 2a:aCats Namaa3, it is as if one has
performed full ?aBB and <mrah.C

Hadith 3: $t is reported by !hay:haan etc. from &ughira ibn
!huCba ؓ  that ?u3oor+e+)Hdas  used to recite this %ua after every
7ard Namaa3:

:
´

`

´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · F ﺎ
´
ﻤ¸ﻟ
´
_
¸
.
`
.
´
. ´ ·
´
و
´
.
`

´
.
`
ﻋ´ﺍ ﺎ
´
ﻤ¸ﻟ ´ ‚¸ﻧﺎ
´
. ´ · · ﻢ
´
,

ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´

`
,¸ ﺪ´ s
ˆ
·¸
´
: ¸
´

.
´

´
ﻮ` .
´
و
`
.´ ﻟ
´
Œ
`
,
¸
´ , ´ ·


´
,` ﻟﺍ
´
Œ
`
:
¸
.


´
,ﻤ` ﻟﺍﺍ´ s
´
‚´ .
`
:
´
, ´ ·
´
و
´
.
`

´
.´ s ﺎ
´
ﻤ¸ﻟ
·
د ¯
´
, ´ ·
´
و
´
.
`
.
´
:
´
.

Hadith 4: $t is reported in &uslim from )bdullah ibn Lubair _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:,
ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ that ?u3oor  said, F)fter turning !alaam, read the following in
a loud voiceC:

:
´

`

´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · F ¸ﷲﺎ
¸

·
·
¸
ﺍ ´ ة· ﻮ´ s ´ ·
´
و
´
_
`

´
ﺣ ´ ·
´

`
,¸ ﺪ´ s
ˆ
·¸
´
: ¸
´

.
´

´
ﻮ´.
´
و ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
Œ` ﻠ
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
`
.´ ﻟ
´
Œ
`
,
¸
´ , ´ ·


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
´

`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
·ﺎ
´
:
·
:ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
¸
`
.´ .` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
.
´

`
.¸:ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
:ﺎ
·
,
¸

·
·
¸
ﺍ ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
.
´
. ´ ·
´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
´
.
´
.´ ﻟ
´
¸`, ¸ ﺼ
¸
ﻠ` •
´
. ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸


´
¸
`
و
´
¸ ¸

.` .ﺍ
´
:
¸
´
¸
`
ﻮ´ ﻟ
´
و
´

`
,

ﺪﻟﺍ

Hadith 5: $t is in !ahih -u:hari and &uslim that the destitute
amongst the &uhaBireen JemigrantsK presented themselves before
Vol.3 pg.231


231
2asoolullah  and said, F,he wealthy have attained great status and
everlasting bounties.C ?e  said, F9hat is the reason Jfor thisKC, so
they said, F;ust li:e we read Namaa3, they too read Namaa3I we :eep
fast and they too :eep fastI they are able to give !adHa JcharityK and
we are not able to do so, and they free slaves whereas we are not
able to do so.C ?u3oor  said, F!hould $ not teach you something by
which you may catch up to those who have surpassed you, and by
which you may be ahead of those who come after, so that none may
be more e4alted than you, e4cept for those who do as you will do.C
,he people said, FPes Pa 2asoolC)llah C, ?e  said, Fsay ¸ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
.
‘,ubhaan!Allah! Š´ ﺪ
´

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ ‘Alhamdulillah! and
`
.
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ ‘Allahu A-bar! 33 times
after every Namaa3CI )bu !aleh ؓ says, F,he destitute amongst the
&uhaBireen again came to 2asoolullah  and said, F9hatever we
have done, our wealthy brothers heard about it and did it as wellC, ?e
 said, F$t is the Mrace of )llah. ?e bestows it upon whomsoever ?e
9ills.C

Hadith 6: $t is reported in &uslim from =aCab bin <Brah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,here are certain F)3:aarC which are to be
recited after Namaa3 and the one who recites it will not find his
needs go unanswered. ,his is to be recited after every 7ard Namaa3:
¸ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. ‘,ubhaan!Allah! 33 times Š´ ﺪ
´

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ ‘Alhamdulillah! 33 times, and

`
.
´
,
`
´
´
´ﷲ´ﺍ ‘Allahu A-bar! 3' timesC.

Hadith 7: $t is reported in &uslim !hareef from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, Fne who recites JthisK after every Namaa3
¸ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. ‘,ubhaan!Allah! 33 times Š´ ﺪ
´

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ ‘Alhamdulillah! 33 times, and
´ﷲ´ﺍ
`
.
´
,
`
´
´
‘Allahu A-bar! 33 times, it adds up to ninety+nine and by
proclaiming one declaration, it ma:es it a hundred:

Vol.3 pg.232


232
:
´

`

´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.

ﻟ´ﺍ ´ · F
´

`
,¸ ﺪ´ s
ˆ
·¸
´
: ¸
´

.
´

´
ﻮ´.
´
و ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
Œ` ﻠ
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
`
.´ ﻟ
´
Œ
`
,
¸
´ , ´ ·

and Jby reciting theseK, all his shortcomings JsinsK will be forgiven
even if they be eHual to the foam on the sea.C

Hadith 8: $t is reported by -aihaHi in !haCbul $maan that ?a3rat
)li ؓ  says, F$ heard 2asoolullah  declare on this very &imbar
JpulpitK that one who recites the )yat ul =ursi after every Namaa3,
nothing can hinder him from entering ;annat e4cept death. $n other
words, he will enter ;annat, the moment he passes away and if one
reads it when going to sleep, )lmighty )llah will protect such a
personCs home and the inhabitants of the homes around him from
shaitaan and thieves.C

Hadith 9: $mam )hmed reports from )bdur 2ahmaan bin Mhanam
and ,irmi3i reports from )bu Larr ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said,
Fne who read this ten times after 7aBr without changing places or
folding the legs Ji.e. he remains in same position as he completed
Namaa3K.C

:
´

`

´
و ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · F ´ .
`

¸

´
,
´
و
`
¸
¸
¸
`

´
,
´
.`,´ •` ﻟﺍ ¸:¸ ﺪ
´

¸
ﺑ ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
´
و
´
Œ` ﻠ
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
.´ ﻟ
`
.´ ﻟ
´
Œ
`
,
¸
´ , ´ ·

´

`
,¸ ﺪ´ s
ˆ
·¸
´
: ¸
´

.
´

´
ﻮ` .
´
و

,hen in lieu of each, ten good deeds will be written for him, and ten
of his sins will be wiped out, and his status will be elevated by ten
folds, and this %ua will serve as a protection for him from every evil
and from shaitaan the accursed. $t is not ?alaal for any sin that it
should reach him, with the e4ception of Fshir:C. ?e who Jdoes thisK is
best in deeds compared to others e4cept for him who says something
more virtuous then he will surpass him.
Vol.3 pg.233


233
$n another Narration, it has been mentioned in regards to 7aBr and
)sr, and in view of the &adhab of the ?anafis, this is more
appropriate.

Hadith 10: $t is reported in )hmed, )bu %awud and NasaCi from
&uCa3 bin ;abl ؓ  whereby he says that ?u3oor  held my hand and
said, F &uCa3, $ love you dearlyC so $ said, FPa 2asoolC)llah , $ too
love you dearlyC. ?e  said, Fdo not abstain from saying after every
Namaa3:
´
,

¸ƒ¸ﻋ´ﺍ ¸
´
Œ¸.
´
دﺎ
´
,¸ﻋ
¸

`

´

´
و
´

¸
` ¸
´
:
´
و
´

¸
`
¸¸s

‘.
´
ﻋ .’

Hadith 11: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from )meer ul &omineen
<mar ibn =hattab ؓ  that ?u3oor  sent a regiment towards naBd.
,hey returned swiftly and brought bac: plenty spoils Jof warK. )
person said, F$ have not seen any battalion that has done so well and
that returned so Huic:ly, bringing bac: so many spoils.C n hearing
this, ?u3oor  said, F!hould $ not inform you regarding that nation
which is more superior to them in bringing bac: spoils and in
returning even fasterO ,hey are those who presented themselves for
7aBr Namaa3 and then remained seated engrossed in the Li:r
JremembranceK of )llah, until such time that the sun rises
completely. ,hey are the ones who return more rapidly and the ones
with greater rewards.C









Vol.3 pg.23'


234































Vol.3 pg.23(


235









Chapter 5

Recitation Of The
Holy Qur’an


∗ Qur’an & Ahadith 236

∗ Laws of Jurisprudence 238

∗ Laws of Qira’at outside Namaaz 249

∗ Errors In Qira’at 254








Vol.3 pg.235


236
)llah )lmighty says

#ρ'5%$ù $Β ´ŽœK´,? ´#¸Β ¸β#´5¯)9# ´)¸=;

‘,o, read of the Qur!an hatever you are able to!

)llah )lmighty says

#Œ¸)´ρ T¸% `β#´5¯)9# #θ`è¸!G`,$ù NH9 #θ"¸ÁΡ&´ρ ¯)3=è9 βθΗJ¯?

‘And #hen the Qur!an is re&ited, Nisten to it attentively, and remain silent,
so that you may be blessed ith Mer&y!

Hadith 1-3: $mam -u:hari and &uslim reported from <badah bin
!aamit ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F,he one who did not recite
!urah 7aateha has not read his Namaa3C. $n other words, he has not
read Namaa3+e+=aamil. ?ence, in another narration it is reported in
!ahih &uslim from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that it was mentioned, ‡ﺍﺪ: _·· in
other words that Namaa3 is in vain. $t must be noted that this law
applies to the $mam and the one who is performing his Namaa3
alone. ,here is no recitation for a &uHtadi JfollowerK, but the *iraCat
Ji.e. recitationK of the $mam is his Jthe &uHtadisK recitation.
D2eported by $mam &uhammad, ,irmi3i and ?aa:im from ;aabir ؓ 
and similar to this $mam )hmed has reported it in his &usnad, and
$mam )l ?alabi has mentioned it to be !ahih on the stipulation of
the !hay:hain Ji.e. -u:hari and &uslimK.

Hadith 4-6: ?a3rat )bdullah ibn )mr, ?a3rat Laid ibn ,haabit and
?a3rat ;aabir ibn )bdullah ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, were Huestioned Jin this regardK
Vol.3 pg.23/


237
and all of these blessed personalities said, F%o not recite *iraCat in
any Namaa3 when following the $mam.C D2ecorded by $mam )bu
;aCfar )t ,ahaawi in &aCani al )tharE

Hadith 7: $mam &uhammad ؓ  reported in &uCatta that )bdullah
ibn &asCud ؓ  was Huestioned in regards to *iraCat behind the $mam.
?e said, F2emain silent, for it is a s:ill in Namaa3, and the *iraCat
JrecitationK of the $mam is sufficient for you.C

Hadith 8: !aCad ibn )bi 9aHCHas ؓ  says, F$ would favour to put
embers Jburning coalK into the mouth of a person who ma:es *iraCat
whilst following the $mam.C
1


Hadith 9: )meer ul &oCmineen 7arooH+e+)3am ؓ  says, F$ wish
there was a stone in the mouth of that person who ma:es *iraCat
whilst behind the $mam.C
2


Hadith 10: $t is reported from ?a3rat )li ؓ  that he said,
Fwhosoever recited Jmade *iraCatK behind the $mam, he has acted
contrary to 7itrat Jthe inherent wayK.C
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $n other words, he is clarifying how disli:ed it is to recite whilst following the $mam.

2. ?ere as well, ?a3rat <mar ؓ is trying to show that if that :ept a man from reciting behind
the $mam then it was better he had stones or a roc: in his mouth rather than reciting.







Vol.3 pg.230


238
Laws of Jurisprudence

9e already :now from before that in *iraCat the voice should be
audible enough that one is able to hear himself, if there is nothing
that is causing a hindrance to him hearing, such as noise or if he is
hard of hearing etc. $f in *iraCat ones voice is not as audible Jas we
have Bust e4plained, i.e. where at least one can hear oneCs own voiceK,
then the Namaa3 will not be done. !imilarly, in all such affairs where
speech is involved, this amount of audibility in the voice is
necessaryI such as when proclaiming the F-ismillahC at the time of
Libah Jslaughtering and animalKI when giving ,alaaH JverballyKI in
$taaH Jwhen freeing a slaveK, and in $stithna Jwhen one proclaims his
faithKI when reciting )yat+e+!aBdah, causing !aBdah+e+,ilaawat to
become 9aaBib JcompulsoryK. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"5>( ?urr-e-Mu-htar
Vol"B $g"D>J1

Law: ;ahr Jto recite audibly, i.e. aloudK is 9aaBib upon the $mam
during the first two 2a:aCats of 7aBr, &aghrib and "sha and in all the
2a:aCats of ;ummah, JK "id 1rayers, ,araweeh and the 9itr of
2amadaan. $t is 9aaBib to recite softly, in the 3
rd
2a:aCat of &aghrib,
the 3
rd
and '
th
2a:aCats of "sha and in all the 2a:aCats of Luhr and )sr.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar Vol"B $g"D>I1

Law: ;ahr Jto read audibly, i.e. aloud in this caseK means that the
recitation Jof the $mamK should be audible enough for the others, i.e.
those in the first !aff JrowK should be able to hear it. ,his is the
minimum reHuirement, and there is no ruling stipulating the
ma4imum reHuirement. ,o read softly, means that Jthe $mamK
should at least be able to hear himself. 0Heneral boo-s of Curis$ruden&e1

Vol.3 pg.23.


239
Law: ,o recite in this manner whereby only one or two people who
are close to him are able to hear will not be regarded as F;ahrC but
this will be regarded as reciting softly. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar Vol"B $g"D>J1

Law: ,o recite so loudly which is more than the need and whereby
it causes discomfort to one self and to the others as well is &a:ruh.
0Raddul Muhtar Vol"B $g"D>71

Law: $f one was reciting softly and someone Boined him, and then
recites what is remaining in F;ahrC and there is no need to repeat that
which, has already been read. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>71

Law: $f one recited one long )yat in a manner whereby he recited
part of that long verse such as F)yat ul =ursiC or F)yat e &adayinahC
in one 2a:aCat and another part in the ne4t 2a:aCat, then this is
regarded as being permissible, on condition that the amount that he
read in each 2a:aCat is eHual to 3 )yats. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7D1

Law: $t is 9aaBib to recite the Nafils during the daytime silently. )s
for the Nafils of the night, then in this regard, one has the choice Jof
either read aloud or softlyK when one reads it alone. $f one reads the
Nafils at night in ;amaCat, then it is 9aaBib to apply F;ahrC Ji.e. read
aloudK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D>I1

Gaws: 9hen reading those Namaa3 which reHuire ;ahr, the &unfarid
Jone reading aloneK, has the option Jof loud or softK, but it is more
virtuous J)fdalK to read it aloud if he is performing F)daC Ji.e. the
Namaa3 in its appointed timeK. ?owever, if he is performing *a3a
Je4pired Namaa3K, then it is 9aaBib to perform it softly. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>I1

Vol.3 pg.2'#


240
Law: $f the *a3a of a ;ahri Namaa3 is being made, even during the
day Jin ;amaCatK, it is 9aaBib upon the $mam to apply ;ahr Ji.e. read it
aloudK, and in the *a3a of !irCri J!oftly read Namaa3K, it is 9aaBib to
read it softly, even if it is being performed at night. 0Alamgiri vol"B
$g"BBD( ?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D>I1

Law: $f in a ' 2a:aCat 7ard Namaa3, one forgot to recite the !urah in
the first 2 2a:aCats then he should recite it in the ne4t two 2a:aCats.
,o do so is 9aaBib. $f he forgot to recite the !urah in the !econd
2a:aCat only then he should recite it in either the third or the fourth
2a:aCat. $f he forgot to recite the !urahs in the first and second
2a:aCat of &aghrib, he should recite !urah in the third 2a:aCat, and
he will lose the *iraCat of one 2a:aCat. $n all these cases, the !urah
must be read with !urah 7aateha. $f it is a ;ahri Namaa3, the !urah
7aateha and !urah must be aloudI otherwise, it must be recited
softly, and in all of the above mentioned cases one must perform the
!aBdah+e+!ahw, and if one intentionally omits it Jthe !urahK, then
one must repeat the Namaa3. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B
$g"D>J1

Law: $f one forgot to Boin a !urah Jafter !urah 7aatehaK and
remembered only in 2u:u. ,hen one should stand up and Boin the
!urah, and thereafter ma:e 2u:u again. ne should perform !aBdah+
e+!ahw at the end. $f one does not ma:e the 2u:u again, the Namaa3
will be invalid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D5@1

Law: $f one forgot to recite the !urah 7aateha in the initial 2a:aCats
of a 7ard Namaa3, then there is no *a3a of this in the following
2a:aCats. $f one remembers this before 2u:u, then he may 2ead it
and then recite the !urah. $f one is in 2u:u, he should come bac:
towards *iyaam and he should recite the 7aateha and the !urah, and
Vol.3 pg.2'1


241
thereafter JagainK go into 2u:u. $f one does not ma:e 2u:u again, the
Namaa3 will be invalid. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5@1

Law: $t is 7ard+e+)in upon every &uslim who is &u:alClaf
Jresponsible and accountableK to ma:e ?if3 of Ji.e. memoriseK at least
one )yat Jverse of the *urCanK. ,he ?if3 of the entire Mlorious *urCan
is 7ard+e+=ifaayah. ,o memorise !urah 7aateha, and one other short
!urah or 3 other short verses eHuivalent to it, or one long )yat is
9aaBib+e+)in. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D5B1

Law: )s per necessity, it is 7ard )in to :now the Gaws of 7iHh, and to
learn more than what is necessary upon you is greater than
memorising the entire *urCan. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5B1

Law: $f one is comfortable and safe during a Bourney then it is
!unnat in 7aBr and Luhr to recite !urah -urooB or !urahs eHuivalent
to it and in )sr and "sha !urahs that are shorter than this should be
recited, in &aghrib one should recite the short !urahs of *isaar+e+
&ufassal. $f one is in a haste Ji.e. time is lessK then in every Namaa3
one may read whichever !urahs one wishes. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7=1

Law: $n the condition of $3tirar, such as when time is about to e4pire
or if there is a fear of enemies, then one should read J!urahsK based
on oneCs situation, be it on Bourney or when resident. ,his is to the
e4tent that if one is not able to ma:e allowance for the 9aaBibs then
he is even e4cused in this regard. 7or e4ample, if the time left for
7aBr is so little that he can only pray one )yat in each 2a:aCat, then
he should do Bust this. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5=1"
?owever, after the sun has risen fully, he should repeat this Namaa3.

Vol.3 pg.2'2


242
Law: $f one fears that he will lose the ;amaCat of 7aBr, then he should
merely fulfil upto the 9aaBibaat in the !unnat of 7aBr. ?e should
leave out the ,hana and the ,aCoo3 and he should recite ,asbeehs
once each in 2u:u and !uBood. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5=1

Law: 9hen one is a resident Jnot &usafirK and the time is not less
then it is !unnat to recite the !urahs, which are ,iwaal &ufassal in
7aBr and Luhr, and in )sr and "sha, he should recite )wsat &ufassal,
and in &aghrib one should read *isaar &ufassal. ,he ruling with
regards to the $mam and &unfarid is the same in all these cases.
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D5D1

Important Note: ,he !urahs from ?uBrat to the end of the
*urCan are :nown as &ufassal. &ufassal is classified into 3
categories, namely J1K ,iwaal+e+&ufassalI J2K )wsat &ufassal and J3K
*isaar &ufassal

,iwaal+e+&ufassal 7aBr N Luhr
)wsat &ufassal )sr N "sha
*isaar &ufassal &aghrib
0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D5D1

Law: $f )sr Namaa3 is read as )da JpromptK in the &a:ruh time, it is
still ,hawaab to fulfil the &asnun *iraCat J%esired !unnah *iraCatK,
on condition that the time remaining is not too little. 0Alamgiri vol"B
$g"7=1

Law: $n 9itr, Nabi =areem  recited

‘.
`
ﻋ´ ·ﺍ
´
Œ ﺑ
´
,
´

`
.ﺍ ¸ ˜ ,
´
. J!urah )ClaK in
the first 2a:aCat. $n the second 2a:aCat he  recited
´
¸
`
و
´
¸ ¸
´
.` .ﺍ ﺎ
´
,

,´ﺍﺎ

,
`
¸´ s
J!urah =aafirunK. $n the third 2a:aCat he  recited
´

´
ﺣ´ﺍ ´ﷲﺍ
´
ﻮ´.
`
¸´ s J!urah
Vol.3 pg.2'3


243
$:hlasK. !o sometimes, you should also read these to acHuire
blessings. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7D1
!ometimes instead of !urah )Cla in the first 2a:aCat, ?e  would
recite ﺎ
´
:` ﻟ
´
,`ﻧ´ﺍ ﺎ
·

¸
ﺍ J!urah *adrK.

Law: %o not overly e4ceed the *iraCat+e+&asnuna if it causes
discomfort to the &uHtadis. $f it does not cause discomfort to them,
then there is no harm in slightly e4ceeding the desired amount of
verses. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7D( Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5D1

Law: 9hen reciting in 7ard !alaahs one should recite with pauses
Ji.e. slowlyK, and in ,araweeh, one should recite at a medium pace
and one is permitted to read rapidly in the Nafils at night. ?owever,
one should be sure to recite in a manner whereby it can be
understood Ji.e. clearly audibleK. $n other words, at least one should
fulfil the level of reHuirement that has been set by the *aaris for the
F&addCI otherwise, it is ?araam because we have been commanded to
recite the *urCan with ,arteel Ji.e. ,o recite in a slow, measured,
regular toneK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5D1

Nowadays, in the manner in which most of the ?ufaa3 recite they
fail to fulfil the reHuirement set for the F&addC. 9ith the e4ception of

´
¸
`

´
ﻤ´ ﻠ
`
.´ , and
´
¸
`

´
ﻤ´ ﻠ
`
.
´
. Ji.e. with the e4ception of hearing the last words of
each )yatK, one is neither able to hear or recognise any other word
that is being recited, nor are the alphabets pronounced correctly.
?owever, in the speed with which they read, they eat up Ji.e. omitK
so many words that they are boastful in this regard by saying, Fa
certain person reads so fastC, whereas it is ?araam to recite the ?oly
*urCan in this manner. $t is severely ?araam to do this.

Vol.3 pg.2''


244
Law: )ll seven *iraCats Ji.e. manners of recitationK are permissible.
?owever, the proper ruling is that it is better for one to avoid
reciting in the manner which is unheard of by the general public,
because in avoiding this, there is safety of their %een, Bust as in our
region Jand in most other placesK, the *iraCat $mam )asim on the
Narration of ?afs is most common. ,hus, it is this, which should be
read. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5D1

Law: $t is &asnun to lengthen the first 2a:aCat of 7aBr, more than
the second 2a:aCat. ,he measure that has been stipulated is two
thirds in the first 2a:aCat and one third in the second 2a:aCat.
0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7D1

Law: $f one e4cessively lengthened the recitation J,ool+e+7aahishK
in the 7irst 2a:aCat, in other words if one recited forty verses in the
first 2a:aCat and only 3 verses in the second 2a:aCat, there is no
harm in this as well but it is not what is best Ji.e. nor recommendedK.
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5E1

Law: $t is also better in all the other Namaa3 for *iraCat of the first
2a:aCat to be slightly longer than the second 2a:aCat. ,he same
ruling applies to the ;ummah and both "id 1rayers. 0Alamgiri vol"B
$g"7D1

Law: $n the !unnats and Nafils, one should JtryK to read the !urahs
that are similar Jin lengthK in both 2a:aCats. 0Muniya $g"B=J1

Law: $t is &a:ruh to lengthen the recitation of the second 2a:aCat
more than the first 2a:aCat, if the difference is obvious and very
apparent. ,he measure for this is that if verses of both the !urahs
seem similar Jin lengthK, then to increase it by more than three )yats
Vol.3 pg.2'(


245
JversesK is disapproved and if the !urahs are long and short, then it
will not depend on the amount of verses recited, but it will depend
on the )lphabets and words. $f there is a huge difference between
the JamountK of alphabets and words, then this is disapproved, even
though the verses may be similar in number. $n other words, if one
read -
´
` †
´
.
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ´ﺍ J!urah )lam NashrahK in the first 2a:aCat and ﻦ., ﻢﻟ J!urah
Gum Pa:unK in the second 2a:aCat, then it is disapproved Ji.e.
obBectionableK, even though both have 0 )yats JversesK each. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5>1

Law: $t is !unnah in ;ummah and both "id 1rayers to recite ﻢ.ﺍ ˜

,. in
the first 2a:aCat and Œ .ﺍ ¸´ . in the second 2a:aCat, as this is proven
from Nabi . ,his is e4empted from the said rule. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K
Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5>1

Law: ,o set a particular !urah, whereby one only recites that
particular !urah in that particular Namaa3 is &a:ruh. $t is &ustahab
to sometimes recite those !urahs, which have been mentioned in the
)hadith. ?owever, one should not recite it continuously, so much so
that someone may start to thin: that it is 9aaBib Jto reciteK. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar K Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D5>1

Law: $n the 7ard Namaa3 when reciting )yat+e+,argheeb Jwhich
discusses attaining rewardsK and )yat+e+,arheeb Jwhich discusses
punishmentK, the $mam and &uHtadis should not ma:e %ua to attain
JrewardK or protection from JpunishmentK. ,he same 2uling applies
when performing any Nafil Namaa3 with ;amaCat. ?owever, if one is
reading Nafil alone, he may ma:e %ua. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar K Raddul
Muhtar vol"B $g"D551

Vol.3 pg.2'5


246
Law: ,o repeat the same !urah in both 2a:aCats is &a:ruh+e+
,an3eehi, unless there is no one and there is some compulsion, then
there is no disapproval at all. 7or e4ample, if one recited the entire
J!urah NaasK
¸
¸ﺎ
·
:ﻟﺍ ¸
´

¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ
`
¸´ s in the first 2a:aCat, he may recite this in the
second 2a:aCat as well, or if in the second 2a:aCat he unintentionally
started reciting the same J!urahK which he recited in the first
2a:aCat, or if one does not :now any other !urah, then one may
recite the same first !urah Jwhich he already recited in the first
2a:aCatK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D571

Law: %uring Nafil Namaa3 to repeat the same !urah in both
2a:aCats, or to recite the same !urah numerous times in each 2a:aCat
is permissible without obBection. 0Hhuniya $g" E5=1

Law: $f one completed the entire *urCan in one 2a:aCat, he should
commence from )lif Gaam &eem after !urah 7aateha in the second
2a:aCat. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7E1

Law: $f in 7ard Namaa3, one read few )yats, then in the second
2a:aCat he read few )yats from another place, even if they are from
the same !urah. $f in+between two or more verses were left out,
there is no obBection, but one should not do this without need.
?owever, if one 2a:aCat, one read few )yats, and then left some
)yats and then read from another place, then this is &a:ruh. $f one
did this by error, one should go bac: and recite the )yats that have
been left out Jand then continueK. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D571

Law: $f one read the end of a !urah in the first 2a:aCat and in the
second 2a:aCat, he recited a short !urah. 7or e4ample, in the first
2a:aCat he recited
`
ﻢ´ ﺘ
`
,
¸

´
ﺤ´ ·´ﺍ and in the second 2a:aCat he recited ´ﷲﺍ
´
ﻮ´.
`
¸´ s
there is no obBection. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7E1
Vol.3 pg.2'/


247
Law: ,wo !urahs should not be recited in one 2a:aCat of 7ard. $f a
&unfarid recites it, there is also no harm in it, as long as there is no
gap between both but if he leaves out one or few !urahs in+between
then this is &a:ruh. 0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D571

Law: $f one read a !urah in the first 2a:aCat and in the second
2a:aCat, he left out a short !urah in+between and then recited
Janother !urahK, then this is &a:ruh, and if the !urah in+between is
very long that if it is recited, then the *iraCat of the second 2a:aCat
will be much longer than that of the first 2a:aCat, then there is no
obBectionI 7or e4ample, there is no harm in reciting ﺎ
´
:` ﻟ
´
,`ﻧ´ﺍ ﺎ
·

¸
ﺍ J!urah
*adrK after ¸,

ﺘﻟﺍ
´
و J!urah ,eenK. ?owever, to read ´ﷲﺍ
´
ﻮ´.
`
¸´ s J!urah $:hlasK
after reciting J!urah NasrK
¸
ﺍ ·.
´
, ﺍ´ s is not recommended. ne should not
do this. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D57 et&1

Law: ,o read the *urCan in a reversed manner, whereby one reads
in the second 2a:aCat J) !urahK which is before the one, which one
read in the 7irst 2a:aCat, then this is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. 7or
e4ample, in the first 2a:aCat one recited J!urah =aafirunK
´
¸
`
و
´
¸ ¸
´
.` .ﺍ ﺎ
´
,

,´ﺍﺎ

,
`
¸´ s
and in the second 2a:aCat one recited the
´
,
`

´
´
´
ﺮ´ .
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ´ﺍ J!urah 7eelK. 0?urr-
e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D571

,here has been severe warning in this regard. ?a3rat )bdullah ibn
&asCud ؓ says, Fdoes the one who reads the *urCan in reverse, not
fear that )llah will overturn his heart.C $f one does this in error then
neither is there any sin for it and nor is there need for !aBdah+e+
!ahw.

Vol.3 pg.2'0


248
Law: ,o ma:e it easy upon the children, to recite 1aara+e+)am
J)mma 1aaraK differing from the seHuence of the *urCan is
permissible.
1
0Raddul Muhtar vol"B $g"D571

Law: $f forgetfully one started reciting in the !econd 2a:aCat a !urah
which is before Jthe one already recited in the first 2a:aCatK, or if
there is a gap of one small !urah, and then only one remembered.
,hen in this case, one should complete the !urah, which one has
already commenced, even if one has only recited one alphabet Jof
that !urahK. 7or e4ample, in the first 2a:aCat one recites
´
¸
`
و
´
¸ ¸
´
.` .ﺍ ﺎ
´
,

,´ﺍﺎ

,
`
¸´ s
J!urah =aafirunK and in the second 2a:aCat, once commenced

´
,
`

´
´
´
ﺮ´ .
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ´ﺍ J!urah 7eelK or
`
.· ,´ . J!urah GahabK, then on remembering, one
should complete this very !urah. $n this case, one is not permitted to
leave it and read ·.,ﺍ´ s
¸
ﺍ J!urah NasrK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D571

Law: $n comparison to one long )yat, it is )fdal Jmore virtuousK to
recite three short verses. )s for a part of a !urah or a !urah, then in
this case the one that is more virtuous Jto reciteK is the one that has
more )yats JversesK. 0?urr-e-Mu-htar vol"B $g"D571

Law: $f one proclaimed the ,a:beer for the 2u:u, but has not yet
entered into the 2u:u. $n other words, he did not bend over low
enough for his hands to touch his :nees, and he wishes to read
JmoreK, he may do so, as there is no harm in this. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"7E1
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. <sually when children are taught 1aara+e+)am, they are first thought the shorter !urahs at
the end and then the longer !urahs at the top. ,his is permissible to ma:e it simple for the
children to learn the !urahs.



Vol.3 pg.2'.


249
Laws of Qira’at (Recitation)
Outside Namaaz

Law: ,o recite the Mlorious *urCan whilst loo:ing is more virtuous
than reciting it from memory Ji.e. without loo:ingK, as in this case
one is reading and loo:ing, and in doing so, one is touching with the
handI all this is $baadat.

Law: $t is &ustahab to ma:e 9udu, wear good clothes and sit down
towards the *ibla, to ma:e ,ilaawat Ji.e. to recite the *urCanK. $t is
9aaBib to recite the ,aCoo3 J)Coo3u -ilClaahi minash shaitaanir
raBeemK, in the beginning of the !urah J$btida+e+!uratK, and it is
!unnat to recite the -ismillah, otherwise its recitation is &ustahab.
$f the verse one wishes to recite commences with a F%ameerC Ja
pronounK which is attributed towards )llah )lmighty, such as in

`
ﻮ´.
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
`
“¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ ´ﷲﺍ
´
ﻮ´. the supererogation of reciting the ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
, after the
¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ is emphasised. $f one performs any worldly action during
recitation Jof a verseKI one should recite the ¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ and ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
, again.
?owever, if one does anything %eeni JreligiousK action during
recitation, in other words if one replied to !alaam or to the )3aanI or
if one said ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. J!ubhaanC)llahK, or recited the =alima ,ayyibah
etc., or read any other )3:aar, then in this case one does not have to
recite the ¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ J)Coo3ubillahK. 0Hhuniya $g"E5D1

Law: $f one commenced ,ilaawat from !urah -araCat, then one
should say the )Coo3u -ilClaah and the -ismillahI and if one already
commenced ,ilaawat before JcomingK to it, and one then reaches
!urah -araCat, then there is no need to recite the ,asmiyah Ji.e.
-ismillahK. 0Hhuniya $g"E5D1

Vol.3 pg.2(#


250
)s for the new ,aCoo3, which the ?ufaa3 of today have implemented
before reciting it, then it must be noted that this is unsubstantiated.
)s for the famous notion nowadays, that even if !urah ,auba
J-araCatK is recited in the beginning Ji.e. when one starts with
recitation from itK, then too -ismillah should not be recited, then it
must be noted that this JnotionK is simply incorrect.

Law: %uring the summer months Ji.e. when it is hotK, it is better to
complete the *urCan in the morning, and in the winter months, it is
better to do so in the first portion of the night. )s it has been
mentioned in the ?adith !hareef, that one who completes the *urCan
in the morning, the )ngels will ma:e $stighfar for him until eveningI
and one who completes the *urCan in the first portion of the night,
the )ngels will ma:e $stighfar for him until morning. D2eported by
%aarimi on the authority of !aCad ibn )bi 9aHCHas ؓ  E

!o in summer because the days are longer, thus by completing the
*urCan in the morning, the )ngels will ma:e $stighfar for the recite
for a longer period of time and in winter, because the nights are
longer, by completing the recitation in the first portion of night, the
$stighfar will be more. 0Hhuniya $g"E5E1

Law: ,o complete the *urCan in less than 3 days is =hilaaf+e+<la,
because Nabi  said that one who completes the ?oly *urCan in less
than 3 nights has not understood. 0Re$orted by Abu ?aud, 2irmizi and
Nasa!i on the authority of Abdullah bin Amr ibn Al A!as ؓ  1

Law: 9hen the *uran is being made =hatam JcompletedK, it is
better to recite !urah $:hlas ﺍ
´
ﻮ´.
`
¸´ s ´ﷲ
`

´
ﺣ´ﺍ thrice Ji.e. 3 timesK, even
though it may be in ,araweeh. ?owever, if one ma:es the =hatam in
Vol.3 pg.2(1


251
a 7ard Namaa3, then he should not recite it Jthe !urah $:hlasK more
than once. 0Hhuniya $g" E5E1

Law: ,here is no harm in reciting the *urCan whilst lying down, as
long as the legs are gathered Ji.e. foldedK, and the mouth is open.
!imilarly, ,ilaawat whilst wal:ing and wor:ing is also permissible,
on condition that oneCs attention is not diverted Ji.e. one is not
distractedK, otherwise to do so is &a:ruh. 0Hhuniya $g"E5E1

Law: ,o recite the *urCan+e+&aBeed in the -athroom and in places
of impurity Jli:e the toilet etcK is not permissible. 0Hhuniya $g"E5E1

Law: 9hen the *urCan is being recited aloud, then it is 7ard upon all
those who are present to listen JattentivelyK, on condition that those
who are gathered there, have done so to listen, otherwise for Bust
one person to listen is sufficient, even though if the others may be
occupied in their wor:. 0Hhuniya $g"E5>, <ataa-e-Razviyah1

Law: 9hilst in a gathering for the people to all read aloud is
?araam. $n most F,eeBaC J3 days 7aateha i.e. "saal+e+!awaab for the
deceasedK, all the people in the gathering usually read aloud. ,o do
this is ?araam. ,he ruling is that if there are few people reciting the
*urCan, then they should recite softly Jand not aloudK. 0?urr-e-
Mu-htar $g"D551

Law: ,o recite the ?oly *urCan aloud in a mar:etplaces or where
people are occupied in their wor: it is impermissible. $f people do
not listen Jto the recitationKI the sin for this is on the reciter. $f he
commenced recitation before the people there commenced wor:ing
and that place is not particularly for wor:ing Ji.e. factory etcKI then
Jin this caseK if he commenced reading from before but the people do
Vol.3 pg.2(2


252
not listen, then Jin this caseK the sin is on the people. ?owever, if he
commenced recitation after they commenced wor:ing, then the sin
is on him. 0Hhuniya $g"E5>1

Law: $t is also disallowed Ji.e. disapprovedK to recite the *urCan
aloud at a place where someone is teaching $lm+e+%een, or at a place
where students are discussing $lm+e+%een, or studying. 0Hhuniya
$g"E5>1

Law: ,o listen to the recitation of the *urCan Jwhen it is being
recitedK is more virtuous than reciting and performing Nafil !alaah.
0Hhuniya $g"E5>1

Law: $f whilst ma:ing ,ilaawat, some respected 2eligious person
such as the -adsha+e+$slam J&uslim 2ulerK, an )alim+e+%een, ones
1eer J!piritual MuideK, <stad J%eeni ,eacherK, or ones father wal:s
in, then Jin such a caseK the reciter is permitted to stand up in
respect for the said personality. DMhuniya pg.'5(E

Law: $t is better for a female to learn to recite the *urCan from
another woman, rather than from a blind non+&ahram male,
because even though he is not able to see her, but he is able to hear
her voice and even the voice of a woman is meant to be veiled. $n
other words, a non+&ahram is not permitted to hear her voice
without valid reason. 0Hhuniya $g"E5>1

Law: ,o read Ji.e. learnK the *urCan and then allow it to be forgotten
is a sin. ?u3oor+e+)Hdas  said, F,he reward of my <mmat was
presented before me, even that of the one who removes a blade of
grass from the &asBid and the sins of my <mmah have been
presented before me, and $ have not seen any sin bigger than JthisK,
Vol.3 pg.2(3


253
that a person has been given a !urah or )yat and he caused it to be
forgotten.C 0Re$orted by Abu ?aud, ?aarimi and Nasa!i1

)nother Narration mentions that one who reads Ji.e. learnsK the
*urCan and then forgets itI he will come forth on the %ay of *iyaamat
as a leper. 0Re$orted by Abu ?aud, ?aarimi and Nasa!i1

$t is mentioned in the *urCan+e+&aBeed that he will be raised blind
Jon the last dayK.

Law: $f a person reads the *urCan incorrectly, it is 9aaBib upon the
listeners to rectify him, on condition that Bealousy and malice is not
caused by rectifying him. DMhuniya pg.'5(E !imilarly if the &ushaf
!hareef J1ages of *urCanK belonging to someone is :ept with you and
you notice any writing Jor typographicalK errors in it, you should
rectify it, as to do so is 9aaBib.

Law: ,o write the ?oly *urCan J,e4tK with a fine very pen Ji.e. very
small font or te4tK so as to minimise Jthe si3eK, li:e the F,awee3i
*urCansC which are being printed nowadays, is &a:ruh, as there is
Jris: ofK disrespect in this. 0Hhuniya $g" E5>1 A&tually, $o&-et size (very
small+ should also be avoided"

Law: $t is more virtuous to recite the *urCan aloud, as long as you do
not cause discomfort JdisturbanceK to a Namaa3i Jone in Namaa3K, an
ill person or to one who is asleep. 0Hhuniya $g"E5>1

Law: ,o write the *urCan+e+&aBeed on 9alls and on the &ehraabs is
not good Ji.e. not advisableK, and there is no harm in gilding the
&ushaf !hareef. 0Hhuniya $g"E5>1" )ctually, to do so with the intention
of respect is &ustahab.
Vol.3 pg.2('


254
Errors in Qira’at

,he *aaCida+e+=ulliya JMeneral 1rincipleK in this discussion is that if
such an error is committed which alters the JactualK meaning then in
such a case the Namaa3 will be damaged Ji.e. invalidatedK, otherwise
not.

Law: $f the !yntactical errors J"Craabi errorsK are such that they do
not cause the meaning to be altered, then this does not cause Jthe
Namaa3K to be invalidatedI such as in the case with reciting
´ ﺪ
´
,
`
.
´
.
`

´
.´ .ﺍ
´

`
,´ﺍ ﺍ
`

´
.´ ·
`
ﺮ´ . ´ · and if it has been altered to an to the e4tent where to
consider it and intentionally read it amounts to :ufr, then in this
case it is best for Jthe Namaa3K to be repeated, such as in .·ﺑ
´
,
´
.
´
د ¸

.
´
ﻋ F if
one recited the F&eemC with a F3abarC J7atahK and the F-eC with a
FpeshC J%ammaKI and in Jthe case of the verseK
´
·.
´
ﻤ´ ﻠ
´
.` ﻟﺍ ¸:¸دﺎ
´
,¸ﻋ
`

¸
. ´ﷲﺍ ¸´ c` •
´
, ﺎ
´

·

¸
ﺍ the
;alaalat JName of )llahK with F2afaC Ji.e. it is read with %ammaK and
·ﺎﻤﻠ.ﻟﺍ is read with F3abarCI and in the case of ´

`
,
¸, ´ ;
`
:
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
´ ¸
´
.
´
·.
´
ﺴ´ · if the FLaalC is
read with a FLerC J=asraKI or if in ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
.
´
.
´
•ﺎ· ,
¸
ﺍ the F=aafC is read with a 3er
J=asraKI or in
´
,
¸
ﻮ · ﺼ
´
ﻤ` ﻟ´ﺍ the FwaawC is read with 3abar F7atahC. D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.'2'I )lamgiri vol.1 pg./5E

Law: $f the ,ashdeed Jsign of emphasis which doubles the alphabetK
is read with ,a:hfeef, i.e. it is shortened, such as if one does not read
Ji.e. applyK the ,ashdeed on the FPaC when reciting
´
¸`,¸ .´ ﺘ
`

´
.
´
•ﺎ· ,
¸

´
و ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
.
´
.
´
•ﺎ· ,
¸
ﺍ or
if one does not apply the ,ashdeed on the F-aaC
´
¸`,
¸
ﻤ´ ﻠ

.` ﻟﺍ ¸
´
, Š ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ or if
one does not apply the ,ashdeed on the F,aaC in ´ ·
`
ﻴ¸.
`
t
´
.ﺍ
`
ﻮ´ ﻠ

ﺘ´ s the Namaa3
will Jstill beK regarded as valid Jand will be doneK. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.'2'I )lamgiri vol.1 pg/5E

Vol.3 pg.2((


255
Law: $f one read a &u:haffaf word Jword in the shortened form, i.e.
with no ,ashdeedK, as a &ushaddad Ji.e. with a ,ashdeedK, such as in
the case of
´
و ¸ ﷲﺍ ‘´ .
´

´
¸´ ;
´
´
`
ﻦ· ﻤ
¸
.
´
ﻢ´ ﻠ ` ”´ﺍ
`

´
. ¸ if one read the FLaalC with a
,ashdeed or if one omitted the F$dghaamC
1
such as in _ﺍ
´
…ﺍ
´
•ﻟﺍ ﺎ´ ﻧ¸ ﺪ`.
¸
ﺍ by
ma:ing it evident, then Jin all these casesK the Namaa3 will be done.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./'E

Law: $f one added an alphabet Jwhilst recitingK and this did not alter
the actual meaning, the Namaa3 will not be invalidated, such as
whilst reciting
¸
´ ¸:
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
¸

´
ﻋ‘ ·`ﻧﺍ
´
و if one added a FPaaC after the F?aaC or in the
case of ´

`
,
¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ
´
ﻢ´. if one read the F&eemC with F;a3mC
2
and then made the
)lif evident. $n the case where the meaning is altered, such as if one
read


¸
¸ﺍ
´
, ´ ; as
´
,
`

¸
ﺑﺍ
´
, ´ ; or if one read ‘–ﺎ:. as ¸,ﻧﺎ:. then this will invalidate
the Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./'E

Law: ;oining any alphabet to another word does not invalidate the
Namaa3 such as by reading ´ ﺪ
´
,
`
.
´
:
´
´ﺎ· ,
¸
ﺍ similarly, to separate an alphabet
after word will also not invalidate the Namaa3.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. $dghaam is the assimilation of a letter carrying a noon saa:in or tanween with one of the
idghaam letters, thus becoming one letter with shadda

2. ;a3m is also :nown as !u:un and is a lin: sign, meaning Huiescence.







Vol.3 pg.2(5


256
!imilarly, to apply the pause or to begin out of place does not also
cause the Namaa3 to be invalidated, even though it may be the 9aHf+
e+Gaa3im
1
such as if one applied the 9aHf Jpause6stopK at ´

`
,
¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ
·
¸
¸
ﺍ ﺍ
`

´
:
´
.
¸ .

ﺤ¸ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮ´ ﻠ
¸

´

´
و and thereafter one recited
¸
.·,¸.
´
,` ﻟﺍ
´
.`,
´
:
`
ﻢ´.
´
Œ
¸
,


`
و´ﺍ … or if one did not
apply the 9aHf on ¸,ﺎ
·
:ﻟﺍ
´
,


`
,´ﺍ and then recited ´ ¸
`

´
.` ﻟﺍ
´
¸
`
ﻮ´ ﻠ
¸

`

´
, ´

`
,
¸ ;
·
ﻟ´ﺍ or if one
applied the 9aHf JpauseK at
´

¸
, ´ : .
·
ﻧ´ﺍ ´ﷲﺍ F
´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · and thereafter read
´
ﻮ´.
·
·
¸
ﺍ then
in all the above mentioned cases, the Namaa3 will be valid, but to do
this is strictly disapproved Ji.e. it is offensiveK. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./2E

Law: $f one added a word, Jit must be seenK whether that word is in
the *urCan or not and in any case Jit must be seenK whether it alters
the meaning or not. $f the meaning is altered, the Namaa3 will be
invalidated such as in the case of Jan addition li:e this oneK

´
¸
`

´
t` ,

ﺼﻟﺍ
´
ﻢ´. Œ
¸
,


`
و´ﺍ ¸.¸ﻟ
`

´
.
´
,
´
و ¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ﺍ
`
و
´
´ ¸
´
´
´
و ﺍ
`

´
:
´
. ´

`
,
¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ
·
¸
¸
ﺍ or in the case of reading
´ ·ﺎ
´

´
, · و ﺎ
´

`
.
¸

`
و
´
د`ﺍ
´
د
`
,
´
ﻴ¸ﻟ
`

´
,´ ﻟ
`
‘¸.
`
ﻤ´ﻧ ﺎ
´

·

¸
ﺍ. $f the meaning is not altered then it will not
invalidate the Namaa3 even though there is no instance of this in the
*urCan, such as Jif one readK ﺍ
´
.`, ¸ ﺼ
´
, ﺍ
´
.`,
¸
,
´
: ¸:¸دﺎ
´
,¸ .
¸
, ´ﷲﺍ
·
¸
¸
ﺍ or if one read this

´
. · و
´
¸` •´ ﻧ · و ´ .
´
,¸´ﺎ´ · ﺎ
´
,
`
ﻴ¸· · و
´
-ﺎ
·
.
´
¸ﺎ
´
.
´
, . D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./(E

Law: $f one left out any word and this did not cause the meaning to
be altered, such as if one failed to read the second .´ — ﻴ
´
. in the verse

´
,´ ﻠ
`
:
¸
. ´ .´ — ﻴ
´
.
ˆ
.´ — ﻴ
´
.
´
·ﺍ
´
,
´
, then the Namaa3 will not be invalidated. ?owever, if it
Ji.e. leaving out the wordK caused the meaning to be altered, such as
if he left of the
َ
in
´
¸
`

´
:
¸
.
`
,
´
, ´ ·
`

´
,´ ﻟ ﺎ
´
ﻤ´ · the Namaa3 has been invalidated.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.'2(E
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. 9aHf+e+Gaa3im meaning a F2eHuired !topC. ,o stop here is absolutely necessary.
Vol.3 pg.2(/


257
Law: $f one left out any alphabet, which caused the meaning to be
altered, such as if one read ﺎ
´
:
`
t´ ﻠ
´
: without the F=haaC or

´
:` ﻠ
´
.
´
, without the F;eemC then the Namaa3 will be invalidated. $f this
omission does not cause the meaning to be altered, where based on
curtailment, it is dropped with the condition, such as if he read
´
_ﺎ
´
. ﺎ
´
,
instead of
´
Œ¸ﻟﺎ
´
. it will not be invalidated. !imilarly, in ﺎ
´
: ﺑ
´
,


´
,

‘ﺎ
´
.
´
. if one
recited _ﺎ.. the Namaa3 will be valid. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./'I 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.'2(E

Law: $f one word was read instead of another word, the Namaa3 will
not be invalidated if the meaning is not altered, such as if one read

´

`
ﻴ¸ .
´
ﺣ instead of
´

`
ﻴ¸ﻠ
´
ﻋ and if the meaning is altered, then the Namaa3 will
be invalidated, such as if one read
´
¸`,¸ﻠ¸·ﺎ´. instead of
´
¸`,¸ﻠ¸ﻋﺎ´ · in the verse

´
¸`,¸ﻠ¸ . · ﺎ
·
:
´
´ ﺎ
·

¸
ﺍ ﺎ
´
:
`
’´ ﻠ
´
ﻋ ﺍ ´ ﺪ
`

´
و. $f one made an error in the FNasbC and the F&ansub
ilaihC is not in the *urCan, the Namaa3 is invalidated, such as if he
read
´
¸´ ·
`
ﻴ´.
´
.
´
:
`
ﺑﺍ
´

´
,
`

´
. and if it is in the *urCan it will not invalidate the
Namaa3, such as if he read
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
t´ ﻟ
´
.
´
:
`
ﺑﺍ
´

´
,
`

´
.. D)lamgiri vo.1 pg./(E

Law: "ven if the ,aHdeem and ,aa:heer Jfronting and bac:ingK of
alphabets the meaning is altered, the Namaa3 will be invalidatedI
otherwise not, such as reading
ˆ
ة
´
´
,
`
ﻮ´ s instead of
ˆ
ة
´
,
´

`
ﺴ´ s or if one read
ˆ ¸` .
´
ﻋ instead of ˆ ,
`

´
ﻋ then in this case, it will be invalidated. $f one
recited,
`
.
´
,
´
´ ¸
`
.
¸
ﺍ instead of ` :
´

´
,´ .
`
.
¸
ﺍ the Namaa3 will not be invalidated.
,he same ruling applies to the F,aHdeemC and F,aa:heerC or words as
well, such as if one recited
´
j
`

¸
, ´ : · و
´
.`,¸· ´ ; ﺎ
´
,
`
ﻴ¸·
`

´
,´ ﻟ and in doing so recited the
word
´
j
`

¸
, ´ : before
´
.`,¸· ´ ; it will not invalidate the Namaa3. ?owever, if
one recited ˆ ﻢ
`
ﻴ¸ .
´
.
`
‘¸·´ ﻟ
´
,ﺎ· ,´ .` ﻟﺍ
·
¸
¸

´
و ˆ ﻢ
`
ﻴ¸ ﺤ
´
,
`
‘¸·´ ﻟ
´
,ﺍ
´

`
ﺑ´ ·ﺍ
·
¸
¸
ﺍ the Namaa3 will be invalidated.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./(E
Vol.3 pg.2(0


258
Law: $f one recites one )yat instead of anotherI then if one made a
complete stop Jbefore doing thisK the Namaa3 will not be invalidatedI
for e4ample if one applied a JcompleteK 9aHf at
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
.¸ ·ﺍ
·
¸
¸

¸
`

´
.` ﻟﺍ
´
و and then
recited
`
‘¸·´ ﻟ
´
,ﺍ
´

`
ﺑ´ ·ﺍ
·
¸
¸
ﺍ ˆ ﻢ
`
ﻴ¸ .
´
. or if one applied the 9aHf Ji.e. stoppedK at
¸ .

ﺤ¸ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮ´ ﻠ
¸

´

´
و ﺍ
`

´
:
´
. ´

`
,
¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ
·
¸
¸
ﺍ and then recited
¸
.· ,¸.
´
,` ﻟﺍ

´ ,
`
ﻢ´.
´
Œ
¸
,


`
و´ﺍ the Namaa3 will be
validI and if one did not stop, then in the case of the meaning being
altered, the Namaa3 will be invalidated, similar to the e4ample givenI
otherwise not. $f one has to recite Jthe verseK ¸ƒ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ ¸ ¸` •¯
´
,
´
, instead of
reciting Jthe verseK ´ .

:
´
,
`

´
,´ ﻟ
`
.´ ﻧﺎ
´
¸ .

ﺤ¸ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮ´ ﻠ
¸

´

´
وﺍ
`

´
:
´
. ´

`
,
¸ ;
·
ﻟﺍ
·
¸
¸

¸
¸
`
و
´
د
`
¸ ¸` ﻟﺍ the Namaa3 will
be done. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./(E

Law: $f a word was read repetitively, then if doing so causes the
meaning to be altered, the Namaa3 will be invalidated, such as in
reading ¸.
`

´
, ¸ Œ¸ﻠ

. ¸ Œ¸ﻠ

.
´
¸`,
¸
ﻤ´ ﻠ

.` ﻟﺍ ¸
´
, ¸
´
, ¸

`
,

ﺪﻟﺍ whereas it was read with the
deliberate intent of ma:ing an addition Ji.e. repeatingK. $n other
words 2ub or 2ub and &aali: of &aali:I and if one recited it
repeatedly to correct ones pronunciation, or if it was uttered
without deliberate intent, or if one did not intend anything at all,
then in all these cases, the Namaa3 will not be invalidated. D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.'2'E

Law: $f in recitation, if one reads one alphabet instead of another
because one is not able to pronounce it Ji.e. he intends to read a
certain alphabet but it comes out differently due to problem
pronouncingK, then in this case, he is compelled Ji.e. he cannot help
doing thisK. ?e should however attempt to rectify this. $f this is done
on the basis or carelessness, li:e many ?ufaa3 and <lama of today,
who have the ability to pronounce it correctly, but due to
heedlessness, they change the alphabet Jits pronunciationK, then in
such a case, if this causes the meaning to be altered, the Namaa3 will
Vol.3 pg.2(.


259
not be valid. )ll those Namaa3, which have been performed in this
way, must be made *a3a, as to do so is necessary. ,his will be
discussed in detail in the Chapter on $maamat.

Law: ne should pay particular attention in showing distinction Ji.e.
clarity in pronunciationK in the following alphabets: : … and ›Ÿ ¸
and ž ; s and , · ﺍ and : - and ¸ž. $f this is not done and the meaning is
altered, it will cause the Namaa3 to be invalid. !ome people do not
even ma:e distinction between the ¸ and the ¸ and the ; and the ‡
and between the š and the ..

Law: $f one read Ji.e. appliedK the &addI MhunnaI $3haarI $:hfa or
$maala, out of placeI or if one did not read it where it was supposed
to be read, then in this case the Namaa3 is JstillK valid. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg. /5E

Law: ,o recite the *urCan with FGahnC and to listen to it is ?araam.
?owever, if Gahn is committed in reading &add )l Geen Jor :nown as
&add o GeenK, the Namaa3 will not be invalidated. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.//E ,his is if it is not a mista:e where it reaches the level of being
regarded F,aanC Jmusical6singing way of recitationK.

Law: <sing a feminine form for )llah or a feminine pronoun for
)llah causes the Namaa3 to be invalidated. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.//E






Vol.3 pg.25#


260


















Vol.3 pg.251


261





CHAPTER 6

IMAAMAT


∗ Hadith 262

∗ Conditions for Imamat 266

∗ Conditions for Iqtida (following) 269

∗ Who is more deserving of Imamat? 276








Vol.3 pg.252


262
Hadith 1: $t is reported in )bu %awud from $bn )bCbas ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,he virtuous amongst you should announce the
)3aan and the *urCra J*aariK should perform the $maamatC Ji.e. lead
the congregational prayerK. J$n that era, the person who :new the
*urCan more was regarded as the one more learnedK.

Hadith 2: $t is reported in the narration of !ahih &uslim from )bu
!aCeed =hudri ؓ  that the one most deserving of the position of
$maamat is one who :nows the *urCan more.

Hadith 3: ,he Narration of )bu !hay:h from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that he  said, F,he $mam and the &uCa33in receive reward
J,hawaabK eHuivalent to all those who performed JNamaa3K with
themC.

Hadith 4: )bu )tiyah )Heeli ؓ  says that &aali: bin ?uwairith ؓ
used to come to visit us. nce Jwhilst he was visitingK, it was the time
of Namaa3, so we as:ed him to go in front and lead the Namaa3. ?e
said, send one from amongst you in front, so that he may lead the
Namaa3 and let me tell you why $ am not leading the prayer. $ heard
2asoolullah  saying, F9hen one goes to visit a people, then he
should not lead them in prayer, rather one from amongst them
should lead them in prayer.C D2eported by )bu %awud and ,irmi3iE

Hadith 5: $t is reported in ,irmi3i from $bn &aBah ؓ that
2asoolullah  said, F,he Namaa3 of 3 persons never e4ceeds their
earsI J1K a runaway JlegalK slave until such time that he returnsI J2K
that female who passes the night in the state whereby her husband
is displeased with herI J3K and the $mam of a people who for some
reason disapprove of his $maamat Jfor some valid reason of
!hariahK.C
Vol.3 pg.253


263
Hadith 6: ,he Narration of $bn &aBah from $bn )bCbas ؓ  is as
follows: ,he Namaa3 of 3 persons does not pass even one span above
their headsI ne who leads a Nation in $maamat and they thin: ill of
him Ji.e. they disapproveKI and that woman who passed her night in
the condition whereby her husband is displeased with herI and two
&uslims brothers, who leave each other because of some worldly
reason.

Hadith 7: $t is reported by )bu %awud )nd $bn &aBah from $bn
<mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F,he Namaa3 of 3 person is
not acceptedI ,he one who is in front of the people, in other words
he ma:es their $maamat and they disapprove of himI and that person
who comes after showing his bac: to the Namaa3, in other words he
reads after the Namaa3 has endedI and that person who enslaved a
free man.C

Hadith 8: $t is reported by )hmad, )bu %awud and $bn &aBah
from !alamah bint ?ur ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  saidI F$t is from
amongst the signs of *iyaamat that the )hl+e+$maamat will place the
responsibility amongst one another. ,hey will not find anyone
worthy of leading them in Namaa3.C J$n other words, none will have
the Hualification to lead them in prayerK.

Hadith 9: $t is reported in !ihah !itCta Je4cept -u:hariK from $bn
&asCud ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, FNeither perform $maamat in the
home of a person, or in his :ingdom JterritoryK, nor sit on his
&asnad Ji.e. throne or a specific sitting place of statureK, e4cept with
his permission.C


Vol.3 pg.25'


264
Hadith 10: $t is reported by !hay:hain etc. from )bu ?urairah ؓ 
that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen one leads others in Namaa3, then
read short J!urahsK, because there are also the ill, the wea: and the
elderly amongst themI and when one leads his own people in prayer
then he may read as lengthy as he wishes.C

Hadith 11: $t is reported by -u:hari from )bu *atadah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F$ enter into Namaa3 and have an intention of
reciting at length, when $ hear the crying of childrenI so $ shorten
Jthe recitationK, for $ am aware that the childCs crying will cause grief
to the mother.C

Hadith 12: $t is reported in &uslim from )nas ؓ  that once
2asoolullah  lead us in Namaa3 and after completion, ?e 
directed his holy attention towards us and saidI F people> $ am your
$mam. %o not ma:e 2u:u, !uBood, *iyaam or go away Jcomplete
Namaa3K before $ do, for $ see you from in front and from behind.C

Hadith 13: $mam &aali: reports from him J)nasK as well in this
manner that 2asoolullah  said, F,he hair on the forehead
Jforeloc:K of one who raises and bows his head before the $mam is in
the hand of shaitaan.C

Hadith 14: $t is reported by !hay:hain etc from )bu ?urairah ؓ
that 2asoolullah  said, F%oes the one who raises his head before
the $mam does, not fear that )llah may turn his head into the head
of a don:ey.C !ome &uhadith have mentioned that $mam Nawawi ؓ
went to %amascus to acHuire :nowledge of ?adith from a very
famous person there, and he learnt a lot from him, but he used to
wear a veil whilst teaching. ?e studied under him for a very long
period but was never able to see his face. 9hen a very lengthy
Vol.3 pg.25(


265
period of time passed and he noticed that he J$mam Nawawi ؓ  K had
a great 3est to learn ?adith, then one day, he removed the veil from
his face. 9hat does J$mam Nawawi ؓK seeO ,he face of the teacher is
similar to that of a don:ey. ?e said, F!on> 7ear going before the
$mam> 9hen this ?adith reached me $ thought it was doubtful, so $
intentionally preceded Ji.e. went beforeK the $mam, so my face
became as you are seeing it.

Hadith 15: $t is reported by )bu %awud from ,haubaan ؓ that
three things are not ?alaal JlegalK upon a personI 9hen any person
leads a people Ji.e. ma:es $maamatK, then he should not specifically
ma:e %ua for himself by leaving them out Jin %uaK. $f he does this,
then he has betrayed their trustI and do not loo: into the house of
anyone without permission, and if he did so, then he has been
distrustfulI and do not hold bac: urine and stool and ma:e Namaa3,
but you should relieve yourself JfirstK.C


















Vol.3 pg.255


266
Laws of Jurisprudence

,he discussion concerning $maamat+e+=ubra has already passed in
the Volume on )HaaCid. $n this Chapter, $maamat+e+!ughra, in other
words, rules and regulations pertaining to $maamat JGeadershipK in
Namaa3 will be discussed. $maamat means: the connection or union
of the Namaa3 of others Ji.e. the &uHtadisK to his Ji.e. the $mamsK
Namaa3.

Law: 7or a male who is not &aC3oor to Hualify as $mam, there are si4
conditions:

1. $slam Ji.e. ?e must be &uslimK
2. ?e must have reached the age of full puberty
3. ?e must be )aHil JsaneK
'. ?e must be male
(. ?e must be able to ma:e *iraCat
5. ?e must not be &aC3oor Ji.e. he must not suffer from any such
chronic illness that ma:es him unable to lead the Namaa3K D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.(13E

Law: 7or women, it is not a condition for the $mam to be male. "ven
a female can be $mam Jamongst themK, even though it is &a:ruh.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(13I Meneral boo:s of 7iHhE

Law: ,o be -aaligh Jto have reached the age of pubertyK is not a
condition to be $mam for those who are Na+-aaligh Jnot reached
pubertyK, but even a na+-aaligh may lead those who are na+-aaligh
in Namaa3, on condition that he is of age of understanding. D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.(13E

Vol.3 pg.25/


267
Law: ) &aC3oor may lead &aC3oors eHual to him Ji.e. with same
ailmentK, and he may lead that &aC3oor whose <3r is more than his.
?e is not permitted to lead one with a lesser <3r than his. $f the
$mam and the &uHtadi, both have two different ailments, such as if
one has an ailment of passing wind Jchronic as e4plained in
discussion of &aC3oorK and the other has the ailment where droplets
of urine are released then they cannot lead one another. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.0'I 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(13E

Law: ne who is ,aahir Ji.e. in complete state of ablution, such as a
non+&aC3oorK cannot follow one who is a &aC3oor, if there has been
any ?adath Jnullifying factorK whilst in the state of 9udu, or if it
occurred after 9udu, within the time period Jof the said Namaa3K.
J?oweverK $f it happened after Namaa3 and if there was no ?adath at
the time of 9udu, and neither did it relapse before the end of the
time Jfor that Namaa3K, then the Namaa3 which he read in the course
of discontinuance is valid and he is permitted to follow him Jthe
&aC3oorK in this case. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('1E

Law: ) &aC3oor may follow Jma:e $HtidaK of a &aC3oor with the same
<3r as him and a person with one <3r cannot follow Jin Namaa3K
someone who has two <3rsI and a person with one particular <3r
cannot follow someone with some other <3rI and one who has two
<3rs may follow one who has only one <3r, whereas that one <3r is
one of the two <3rs which he has. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('1 etcE

Law: $f a &aC3oor led another &aC3oors who is and a normal person
Ji.e. non+&aC3oorK, then in this case the Namaa3 of the others Ji.e. the
&aC3oorsK will be valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('2E

Vol.3 pg.250


268
Law: ,hat budma3hab JdeviateK whose deviation Jand corrupt
beliefsK has reached the level of :ufr, such as the 2aafdhi, even
though he may only reBect the =hilaafat and companionship of
!iddiHue+e+):bar ؓ , or if he practices ,abarCra Ji.e. to curse and
e4press disassociationK regarding the !hay:hain J?a3rat )bu -a:r
and ?a3rat <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,K. ,he FHadariC
1
I FBahamiC Jboth deviant
sectsK and the li:e, who say the *urCan to be a creationI and those
who reBect !hafaCat JintercessionKI or those who reBect %eedar+e+
$laahi J%ivine Vision given to believers in hereafterKI or those who
reBect the punishment of the graveI or those who reBect the reality of
=iraaman =aatibeen, are all amongst those behind whom Namaa3 is
not valid Jnot permissibleK. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0'I MhuniyaE

)n even stricter ruling is in regards to the wahabiya of this era, that
either ma:es F,auheenC Jdisrespect and say words of blasphemyK
regarding )llah and ?is beloved Nabi , or they regard as leaders
those who have made ,auheen, or at least they accept such people as
&uslims.

Law: Namaa3 behind a budma3hab whose deviation has not yet
reached the level of :ufr, such as the F,afdeeliaC, is &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemi. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0'E
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

1. *adari here does not refer to one following the spiritual *aadiriyah order, which is usually
written as *aadri or spelt *aadiri or sometimes *adri as well. ,he F*adariC being referred to
here is spelt as “,ﺪs and not ¸,دﺎs. ,he FHadariC being referred to in the above te4t refers to a
corrupt and misled sect, which denies numerous fundamentals of faith.




Vol.3 pg.25.


269
,here are 13 conditions for $Htida Ji.e. to follow the $mamK:

1. Niyyat of $Htida.

2. 7or that Niyyat of $Htida to be present at the time of ,ahreema or
for it to precede the ,ahreema but the condition in the case of it
preceding the ,ahreema is that no foreign act should be done
separating the Niyyat and the ,ahreema.

3. 7or both, the $mam and &uHtadi JfollowerK to be in the same place.

'. -oth of them must be reading the same Namaa3, or the Namaa3 of
the $mam should be inclusive of the Namaa3 of the &uHtadi.

(. ,he Namaa3 of the $mam should be correct and in accordance with
the &adhab of the &uHtadi.

5. 7or both the $mam and &uHtadi to regard it as correct.

/. 7or a female not to be in pro4imity based on conditions that will
be stipulated.

0. 7or the &uHtadi not to be before the $mam.

.. ,o be aware of the changes Jof positionK of the $mam.

1#. ,o :now whether the $mam is &uHeem JresidentK or &usafir
JtravellerK.

11. ,o be part and parcel in fulfilling the regulatory acts.

Vol.3 pg.2/#


270
12. $n fulfilling the )r:aan Jregulatory actsK the &uHtadi must be
ali:e to the $mam of lesser Ji.e. he should not precede the $mam.
"ither he should be with or little slowerK.

13. !imilarly, in regards to the conditions, the &uHtadi must not
e4ceed the $mam.

Law: $f one who is on a conveyance Jriding or a horse or in a train
etc.K followed one who is on foot, or if one who is on foot followed
one who is on a conveyance, or if the &uHtadi and $mam are both in
separate conveyances. ,hen in all three cases, the $Htida is not valid,
as the places of both of them is regarded are being different. $f both
are on one conveyance, then the one at the bac: may ma:e $Htida of
the one in front, as they are in the same place. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.(1'6(''E

Law: $f there is such a huge pathway between the $mam and the
followers, which allows an o4 drawn cart to pass through, it will
cause the $Htida to be invalid. $f there is a river in+between, wherein
ships and yachts are able to sail, the $Htida is improper, even if the
river may be in the middle of the &asBid. ?owever, if the river is very
narrow and small, wherein even a yacht JboatK is not able to sail,
then in this case the $Htida is valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('/E

Law: $f there is a %ah %ardah 1ond in the middle, then one is not
allowed to follow Ji.e. $Htida will not be validK, unless around the
pond the !affs Jlines of followersK are adBoining continually. $f it is a
small pond, then the $Htida is valid. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('/E

Law: $f there is a wide pathway in+between but a !aff has already
been established there, for e4ample at least three persons have
Vol.3 pg.2/1


271
already stood there, then behind them, other people can ma:e $Htida
of the $mam, on condition that an o4 drawn cart should not be able
to pass in the space between any two !affs and between the first !aff
and the $mam. $n other words if the pathway is so wide that more
than one !aff can be made on it, then that many should be made, so
that there is not enough space between them for an o4 drawn cart to
pass between them. !imilarly, if the pathway JroadK is a long one,
such as at our places, it is east+west, then in this case as well, the
ruling Jregarding the spaceK between every two !affs for the $mam
and &uHtadi, is the same Jwhich is mentioned aboveK. D%urr+e+
&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('/6('0E

Law: $f there is a bridge over the river and !affs are made on it
adBoining Ji.e. bordering itK then even though the $mam is on the
other side of the river, the one on the other side may follow him.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('0E

Law: $f the ;amaCat is being performed on an open field but there is
sufficient space between the $mam and &uHtadis, to form two more
!affs, then the $Htida is not correct. ,he same ruling applies to a F-ig
&osHueC such as &asBid+e+*uds. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('/E

Law: ) huge house JhallK is within the ruling of an open field. )
huge building refers to one that is of forty hand lengths. D2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.('0E

Law: $n the &asBid Jprayer areaK of the "id Mah, no matter how huge
the space between the $mam and the &uHtadis, it does not hinder
$Htida. ,his is even if there is space to form two or more !affs in+
between. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E

Vol.3 pg.2/2


272
Law: $f ;amaCat has commenced on an open fieldI the first two !affs
have not pronounced the )llahu ):bar J,ahreemaK yet and those in
the third !aff already tied the ,ahreema after the $mam, the $Htida
will be regarded as being valid. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('0E

Law: $f ;amaCat was performed on an open field and space
eHuivalent to a %ah %ardah pond was left between the !affs, that
none should stand there, then if the area around it, meaning to its
right and left is adBoining, then if those behind this ma:e $Htida, it
will valid, otherwise not. $f the area less than that of a %ah %ardah is
left out, then the $Htida of those at the bac: is valid. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.('0E

Law: $f two ships JboatsK are tied together, with the $mam on one
and the &uHtadi on the other, the $Htida will be valid. $f the ships are
separate then the $Htida is not valid. $f the ship is anchored at the
shore and the $mam is on the ship and the &uHtadis on the shore
then if there is a road JpathwayK between them, or if there is a an
area eHual to a huge river between them, then the $Htida is invalidI
otherwise it is valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.01'E

Law: $n that &asBid, which is not big, even if the $mam is standing in
the &ehraab and the &uHtadi is at the end of the &asBid, he may
follow the $mam. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.00E

Law: $f there is something between the $mam and &uHtadi, then if
the F$ntiHalaatC Jmovement from one act to the ne4tK of the $mam is
not doubtful, for e4ample if he Jthe &uHtadiK is able to hear the voice
of the $mam or the &u:abbirI or if he is able to see his or his
&uHtadis change of positions, then there is no obBection, even if
there is no way for him to reach the $mam, for e4ample if there is net
Vol.3 pg.2/3


273
on the door whereby he can see the $mam, but the door is not
opened to afford him to go to him if he wishes. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.('0E

Law: ,he &imbar being a partition between the $mam and the
&uHtadi is not something that invalidates $Htida, on condition that
the $mams condition is not doubtful. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('.E

Law: ,he roof of a house Jor buildingK which is completely adBoined
JattachedK to the &asBid, whereby there is no road JpathK between it,
then to ma:e $Htida from that roof is permitted, and if there is a gap
of a pathway then it is not permitted. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('.E

Law: $f there is a veranda JporchK adBoining Ji.e. adBacentK to the
&asBid, the &uHtadi may ma:e $Htida from there, as long as the
condition of the $mam is not concealed. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('0E

Law: $f there is a platform Jor terraceK outside the &asBid and the
$mam is inside the &asBid then in this case the &uHtadi may ma:e
$Htida from this platform, as long as the !affs are adBoining. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.00E

Law: $f at the time of Namaa3 one :new that the Namaa3 of the
$mam was valid, but afterwards one found out that his Namaa3 was
not valid. 7or e4ample, as the duration for &asah on the leather+
soc:s had e4piredI or he forgot and performed Namaa3 without
9uduI then in this case the Namaa3 of the &uHtadi will also not be
done. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.((3E

Law: )ccording to the conviction of the $mam, his Namaa3 is correct
Ji.e. validK but according to the conviction of the &uHtadi, it is not
Vol.3 pg.2/'


274
correct, then even in this situation the $Htida will not be regarded as
being valid. 7or e4ample, $f blood oo3ed out of the body of an $mam
who is a !hafiCi and the blood flowed, which according to the
?anafis, brea:s the 9udu, and he performed the $maamat without
ma:ing 9udu JagainK, then in this case a ?anafi cannot ma:e his
$Htida Ji.e. he cannot follow him in that Namaa3K. $f he follows him in
Namaa3, his Namaa3 will be invalid. ?owever, if according to the way
of the $mam, his own Namaa3 is not correct, but according to the
way of the &uHtadi it is correct, then his $Htida is valid, on condition
that the $mam is not aware of the damage to his Namaa3. 7or
e4ample, if a !hafiCi $mam touched a female or his private organ, and
thereafter forgot to ma:e 9udu and then performed $maamatI then
in this case, the ?anafi may follow him, even though he may be
aware of that which has happened, and that he Jthe $mamK has not
made 9udu JagainK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(1'6((3E

Law: 9e are allowed to follow a !hafiCi or a &uHallid JfollowerK of
another righteous &adhab only if he considers the 7araaCid of our
&adhab in regards to the regulations of ,ahaarat and Namaa3, or if
we :now he gave consideration to it in this Namaa3. $n other words,
his ,ahaarat should not be such that according to ?anafis, he will be
regarded as being without ablution and his Namaa3 should not be
such, that we J?anafisK regard it as being invalid. ?owever, it is )fdal
Jor greater virtueK for a ?anafi to ma:e $Htida of a ?anafi. $f one does
not :now if the particular $mam considers the regulations of our
&adhab, or if he has given consideration in that particular Namaa3,
then it is permissible to follow him, but it is &a:ruh. $f one is aware
that he did not give consideration in that Namaa3, then it is simply
invalid.

Vol.3 pg.2/(


275
Law: 7or a female to stand on par with JbesideK a male, is only a
negating factor for the male when there is nothing of at least one
hand in height that is a separator, or if she is standing on a raised
area on par with the height of a male. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('5I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.00E

Law: $f one female is standing ne4t to a male, then the Namaa3 of 3
males becomes invalid. ,he one standing to her right, the one
standing to her left, and the one behind her. $f two females are
standing beside the male, then the Namaa3 of four men becomes
invalid, one to the right, one to the left and the two behind herI and
if there are 3 females, then the Namaa3 of the one to her right and
the one to her left and from the !aff behind her, the Namaa3 of three
people in every !aff will be invalidI and if there is an entire !aff of
females, then the Namaa3 of all the men that are in the !affs that are
behind that !aff will be rendered invalid. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.('5E

Law: $f there is an upper floor Jor upper roomK, and if the women
there made $Htida Ji.e. followedK the $mam of the &asBid, and below
the upper floor, the men followed the same $mam, even if the males
may be behind where the women Jcompared to where they are on
the upper floorK, the Namaa3 will not be invalidatedI and if the !aff
of the females is at the bottom and the men are on the upper level,
then in that case the Namaa3 of all the men that are behind the
J!affsK of the females Jin comparison to where they areK will have
their Namaa3 invalidated.

Law: $f in one !aff, there are men standing on one side and women
on the other side, then in this case, only the Namaa3 of one person
Vol.3 pg.2/5


276
will be invalid, that is the person standing in+between Jthe bothK.
,he Namaa3 of the others will be done. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0/600E

Law: -ecause the feet of the &uHtadi are larger than that of the
$mam, his toes are further out than the toes of the $mam, but his
heals are in line, the Namaa3 will be valid. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.(3#E

Law: ,he one most deserving to be $mam is that person who is most
well versed in regards to the rules pertaining to Namaa3 and
,ahaarat, even though he may not be fully Hualified in other
branches of :nowledge, on condition that he :nows sufficient *urCan
that he may recite in the &asnun mannerI and he should also be able
to recite properly Ji.e. correctlyK. $n other words, he is able to
pronounce the alphabets correctly with the correct &a:haariB. ?e
should also not have and wea:ness in regards to being budma3hab
Ji.e. deviant sectK. ?e should also be one who abstains from
obscenities. ,hereafter, the ne4t person most deserving, is one who
has more :nowledge of ,aBweed J*iraCatK, and who recites in
accordance with it. $f many persons are eHual in this regardI then the
one who is firmer in abstinence should be appointed, in other words,
let alone abstaining from ?araam, he should be such a person who
even abstains from that which is doubtful. $f all are eHual in this
regard as well, then amongst them the most elderly should be
appointed, in other words the one who has been in $slam for a longer
period of time. $f all are eHual in this regard as wellI then the one
whose character is the best should be chosenI and if all are eHual in
this regard as well, then amongst them choose the most dignified
personality, in other words, one who is regular in ,ahaBCBud, as
performance of ,ahaBCBud causes the face to become bright. J$f all are
eHual in this regard as wellK, then choose one who is of greater
Vol.3 pg.2//


277
nobility Ji.e. the one with the best lineageKI Jif all are eHual in this
regard as wellK, then choose the one who is most Noble due to his
family Ji.e. !ayed etcKI thereafter the one who is most respectableI
thereafter the one who is most financially stableI thereafter the one
whose clothes are more cleanI $f there are few people eHual in all
these, then the one who prefers !hariat most, is the most suitableI
and if there is none preferred in this regard, then draw lots Jwith all
their namesK, and the one whose name comes out should be
appointedI or the one whom the ;amaCat Jmeaning the congregationK
chooses amongst them, should be made the $mam. $f there is a
difference amongst the congregation, then the one whom more
people are pleased with should be appointedI and if the ;amaCat in
this regard chose someone who is not the best JMhair <la amongst all
those who are eHual in all regardsK, then they have acted wrongfully,
but they will not be regarded sinful. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(1#6(222E

Law: ,he appointed $mam Ji.e. the 1ermanent $mamK is the one duly
rightful to perform the $maamat, even though there may be some
more :nowledgeable than him and somebody who has more
:nowledge of ,aBweed than him, in the &asBid. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.(22E $n other words, on condition that the said $mam fulfils
all the necessary reHuirements of being an $mamI otherwise leave
alone being better, he does not even have the right to perform
$maamat.

Law: $f ;amaCat is ta:ing place at someoneCs house and the owner
Ji.e. the hostK has all the reHuirements for $maamat, then it is best for
him to perform the $maamat, even though there is someone else
present who is more than him in :nowledge etc. ?owever, it is )fdal
Jmore virtuousK for the host that he should choose the one with
Vol.3 pg.2/0


278
more :nowledge for the $maamat as there is honour in this for him.
$f the guest himself goes forward to ma:e $maamat, then even in this
case, the Namaa3 will be valid. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.03I 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.22(E

Law: $f the house is a rented house and the wner of the house, the
,enant and the guest are present there together then it is the right
of the tenant Jto appointK. $t is he who will give permission and
permission will be sought only from him Jin this regardK. ,he same
ruling is in regards to the person who lives in a house on loan basis,
as this is most proper Ji.e. he is most deservingK. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.03E

Law: $f the !ultan, )meer and *adi have gathered at someoneCs
home, then the one most deserving is the !ultan, thereafter the
)meer, followed by the *adi, followed by the host. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.(22E

Law: $f the people are displeased with the $maamat of a person due
to some valid !hariC reason, then for such a person to be the $mam is
&a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, and if they displeasure is not due to a valid
!hariC reason, then there is no obBection JdisapprovalK. $f he is the
most deserving person, then it is he, who should be the $mam. D%urr+
e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(22E

Law: $f there is a person who is virtuous and deserving of $maamat,
but he does not ma:e $maamat in his locality Jarea etcK, and if during
the month of 2amadaan he ma:es $maamat for people in another
area, then in this case, he should leave Jhis areaK before the time of
"sha commences. $t is &a:ruh for him to leave after the time has
commenced. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E
Vol.3 pg.2/.


279
Law: ,he $mam should consider the ;amaCat, and he should avoid
lengthening the recitation more than the prescribed and preferred
length, as to do so is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0/E

Law: ,o appoint as $mam and read Namaa3 behind a budma3hab,
whose deviation has not reached the level of :ufr, and behind an
open sinner J7aasiH &uClinK such as one who consumes alcohol, and
behind a gambler, and adulterer, behind one who ta:es usury
JinterestK, and a tale+bearer, etc. is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi and to repeat
that Namaa3 is compulsory J9aaBib ul $CaadaK. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(236(2( etcE

Law: ,he $maamat of a bondsman, a an unrefined person, a blind
person, a child born of adultery, beardless young boy, a leper, one
inflicted with paralysis Jthrough stro:eK, one with leucoderma which
is apparent, and a F!afihC Ji.e. a foolish person who even in issues of
sale and purchase, is fooledK is &a:ruh+e+,an3eehi. ,his is only
obBectionable if there is someone better than him in the ;amaCat, and
if it is he who is deserving of $maamat, then there is no obBection.
,he =arahat Jnon+recommendation6 reprehensibilityK for a blind
person to lead is very minor. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(2(I MhuniyaE

Law: ,he ruling in regards to one who does not see very well Ji.e.
very wea: visionK is the same as a blind person. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.(23E

Law: ) 7aasiH JsinnerK should not be followed, e4cept in ;ummah,
because in such a case, one is compelled Jdue to being duty+boundK.
ne should go to another &asBid for the other !alaahs. $f ;ummah is
performed in a few &asBids in the City, then even in this case, do not
Vol.3 pg.20#


280
follow him, but go read in another &asBid. DMhuniyaI 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.(23I 7athul *adeerE

Law: ) -aaligh male Ji.e. adult maleK cannot follow a female, =hunsa
or a child who has not reached puberty Jna+-aalighK in any Namaa3,
even in the ;anaa3ah Namaa3, ,araweeh or in other Nawafil
Joptional prayersK. ) -aaligh male can be $mam for all of them, and if
a female is also following him Ji.e. if she is also a &uHtadiK, then he
should ma:e Niyyat JintentionK for $maamat of female Ji.e. for
leading a female in Namaa3K, with the e4ception of ;ummah and both
"ids, because in these, even if he does not ma:e Niyyat for $maamat
of a female, he can be followed. ) female or a =hunsa may be the
$mam of females, but for a female to be an $mam is absolutely
&a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, be it for 7ard Namaa3 or Nawafil. !till, if a
female does lead the females, she is not permitted to stand in front,
but she should stand in their midst. ?owever, if she stands in front,
it will still not invalidate the Namaa3. )s for the =hunsa, the
condition is that she should be in front of the !affI otherwise, the
Namaa3 will not be valid. ) =hunsa may also not be the $mam of a
=hunsa. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.300I %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.30#I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0#E

Law: $f only females read a ;anaa3ah Namaa3, where a female alone
was the $mam and only other females were &uHtadis, then that
;amaCat is not obBectionable. D)lamgiri, vol.1 pg.0(, %urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.(20E actually even if a female performs a ;anaa3ah Namaa3,
leading males, then in this case the JobligationK of the ;anaa3ah
Namaa3 will be fulfilled, but the Namaa3 of the men will be invalid.

Law: ) &aBnun Jone in a state of insanityK who is not in the
condition of recovery, cannot be an $mam, and when he is in a
Vol.3 pg.201


281
conscious Jin a saneK state, and he is aware of this Ji.e. his stateK as
well, then he may be J$mamK. !imilarly, one who is in the state of
into4ication cannot ma:e $maamatI and a senseless person can lead
one in the same condition as him. ?e cannot be an $mam for others.
D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('1I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.0(E

Law: ne who :nows some verses, even if it were a single verse
J)yatK, is not permitted to follow one who is an F<mmiC Ji.e. one who
does not :now any verseK. ?owever, an <mmi can read behind an
<mmi. ne who :nows some verses but cannot pronounce the
alphabets correctly, and thus causes the meaning to be alteredI is
also in the category of an <mmi. D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.(32E

Law: )n <mmi cannot ma:e $Htida of a person who is mute Ji.e.
cannot spea:K, but a mute may ma:e $Htida Ji.e. followK an <mmi. $f
the <mmi cannot even tie Ji.e. proclaimK the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema
correctly, then in such a case, he is permitted to follow the mute.

Law: $f the <mmi led an <mmi and F*aariC J*aari here refers to one
who is able to read the *urCan, which is in accordance with the
bligatory reHuirementK, then the Namaa3 of none of them is done,
even if the F*aariC only Boined in the duration of the Namaa3. ,his is
even if the *aari made the <mmi the =halifa, even if it were in
,ashahud. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(('6(32 etcE

Law: $t is 9aaBib upon the <mmi to ma:e effort day and night, until
he is able to learn enough *urCan &aBeed which fulfils the 7ard
reHuirement, otherwise by )llah, he will not be regarded as
e4empted. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E

Vol.3 pg.202


282
Law: $t is 9aaBib upon one who is not able to pronounce the
alphabets correctly, to ma:e effort day and night to correct the
pronunciation, and if he is able to follow one who recites correctly,
then to the best of his ability he should attempt to do so, or he
should rather read those verses which he is able to pronounce Ji.e.
reciteK correctly, and if both these are not possible, then in the time
that he is ma:ing effort Jto rectify itK, his Namaa3 will be valid, and
he will also be permitted to lead those who are e4actly in the same
situation as he isI in other words that person as well is not able to
correctly pronounce the alphabet which he is not able to pronounce.
$f the alphabet which he is unable to correctly pronounce, can be
correctly pronounced by the other person, but he is unable to
correctly pronounce some other alphabet, then Jin this caseK each
cannot lead the other, and if he does not even ma:e an attempt Jto
rectify thisK, then even his own Namaa3 is not regarded as being
valid, so how then will the Namaa3 of others behind him be regarded
validO ,oday many laymen are in such a situation that they read
incorrectly, yet they do not even ma:e any effort to rectify
themselves, so their own !alaahs are void, so the issue of $maamat is
something else. ,he ruling regarding one, who stammers, thereby
reciting the alphabets repetitively, is the same. $n other words, if he
is able to perform his Namaa3 behind someone who recites clearly, it
is necessary that he should read behind himI otherwise his own
Namaa3 will be done, and such a person may even lead one who is in
the e4act situation as him, or he may lead one with a wea:er
situation than his. D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('(E
Law: $f a F*aariC was performing his Namaa3 and an <mmi arrived
and did not Boin, but rather he read his Namaa3 alone, then Jin this
caseK his Namaa3 is not valid. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0(E

Vol.3 pg.203


283
Law: $f the F*aariC is performing some other Namaa3 Jof hisK, then
Jin this caseK it is permissible for the <mmi to read his own, and he
should not wait. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E

Law: $f the <mmi is performing his Namaa3 in the &asBid and the
F*aariC is at the door of the &asBid, or ne4t door to the &osHue, then
Jin this caseK the Namaa3 of the <mmi is valid. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E

Law: ne whose F!atrC is opened cannot be the $mam of a person
whose !atr is covered. ?e can be the $mam of those whose F!atrC is
opened. $f some of the &uHtadis are those with covered !atr and
others whose !atr is not covered, then the Namaa3 of the ones whose
!atrs are covered will not be done, and the ones whose !atr is
opened will be done. 7or those who do not have sufficient clothing to
cover their !atr, they should read their Namaa3 individually whilst
sitting, by way of gesturing, and they should sit far away from each
other. $t is &a:ruh for them to read in ;amaCat. ?owever, if they do
read with ;amaCat, the $mam should stand in their midst and not in
front. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('2I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E ?ere those
with opened !atr refer to those who do not have the necessary
amount of clothing to cover themselves. $f he does not cover even
though he has the necessary amount of clothing, then in such a case
neither is his Namaa3, nor that of anyone else, Bust as it has been
e4plained in the Chapter discussion the 1re+2eHuisites of Namaa3.

Law: ne who is unable to ma:e 2u:u or !uBoodI in other words
one who gestures instead of ma:ing the actual 2u:u and !uBood, the
Namaa3 of one who is able to perform 2u:u and !uBood, is invalid. $f
he ma:es 2u:u and !uBood whilst sitting, then the Namaa3 of those
who stand and read will be valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.(22E
Vol.3 pg.20'


284
Law: ,o read 7ard Namaa3 behind a person reading Nafil, and the
Namaa3 of a person reading a particular 7ard, behind someone
reading another 7ard, will not be doneI this applies even whether
both the 7ard be different in nameI for e4ample if one is reading
Luhr and the other is reading )srI or even if the they are different in
characteristics, for e4ample, if one person is reading the Luhr for the
current day and the other is reading the Luhr for the day before.
?owever, if the both their Namaa3 of the same day and same time
becomes *a3a, then each may read behind the other. !imilarly, if the
$mam commenced his Namaa3 before sunset, and he had only
performed two 2a:aCats and the sunset, then another person whoCs
)sr of that day was becoming e4pired, may follow Jthat $mam for
that Namaa3K in the latter 2a:aCats. ?owever, if this &uHtadi was a
&usafir JtravellerK, he is not permitted to follow himI unless he made
intention of residence before the sun had setI then in Jthis caseK, he
may follow him. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1I pg.('2I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.0(605E

Law: $f two people performed Namaa3 together in a manner where
each of them made intention of $maamat, then Jin this caseK the
Namaa3 will be doneI and if each one made Niyyat for $Htida Ji.e. to
followK, then the Namaa3 of neither of them is valid. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.05E

Law: ne who too: a vow J&inCnatK for any Namaa3, may neither
read that Namaa3 behind one who is reading a 7ard Namaa3, nor
behind one who is reading Nafil, or behind one who is reading
Namaa3 to fulfil a &inCnat. ?owever, if after one person too: a
&inCnat, the other person too: his &inCnat in this manner, that $ am
ta:ing the &inCnat of that Namaa3, which that certain person has
Vol.3 pg.20(


285
ta:en, then in this case each may read behind the other. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.('2I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.05E

Law: $f one person swore an oath F*asmC that he will read a Nafil
Namaa3, then one who has ta:en a &inCnat cannot read the Namaa3
Jto fulfil theK &inCnat behind him, and that person who swore the
F*asmC, may read behind one who is reading a 7ard, or one who is
reading a Nafil, or behind one who is reading Jto fulfilK his &inCnat,
or behind another person who has ta:en a F*asmC. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.('36('(E

Law: ) FGaahaHC is neither permitted to follow a F&asbooHC, nor
JanotherK GaahaH. !imilarly, a &asbooH may not follow a GaahaH or
JanotherK &asbooH, and none can follow anyone of these two. D%urr+
e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.('3E

Law: $f two people were performing Nafil together and they caused
it to become invalid, each may read behind the other. $f they were
reading it separately and it became invalid, then Jin this caseK they
cannot ma:e $Htida. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('3E

Law: $n the Namaa3 which has *asr JshortenedK, the &usafir cannot
follow the &uHeem if the time for it has elapsed, even if the &uHeem
commenced it after the time elapsed, or if he started in the
prescribed time, but the time elapsed before he completed the
Namaa3. ?owever, if a &usafir tied his ,ahreema behind a &uHeem,
and after the ,ahreema, the time elapsed then the $Htida is valid.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.('3E

Law: $f a person performs a four 2a:aCat Namaa3 in F&ahal+e+
$HaamatC Ja place of residenceK, in other words in a city or village and
Vol.3 pg.205


286
then he turns !alaam after two 2a:aCat. ,hen it is necessary that the
&uHtadi should :now whether he is a &uHeem or a &usafir. ,his is
whether the &uHtadi is a &uHeem or &usafir. $f the $mam did not
announce before or after the Namaa3 that he is a &usafir, and then
Bust left, leaving his condition un:nown, then Jin this caseK, the
&uHtadi should repeat his Namaa3. ?owever, if he reads two and
then goes away in a non+urban area, or at a travel stop, then their
Namaa3 J&uHtadis Namaa3K will be valid, as it will be understood
that he is a &usafir. D=hania pg.5.I -ahr alal ?indiyaE

Law: ,hat Namaa3 which wherein $Htida is not correct due to pre+
reHuisite Ji.e. missing conditionK, then such a Namaa3 has not even
commenced at allI and if the $Htida is invalid because of it being
differed, then his J&uHtadisK Namaa3 will be counted as Nafil, but by
brea:ing such a Nafil will not ma:e the *a3a for it 9aaBib. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.('(E

Law: ,he one who has performed 9udu JablutionK may ma:e $Htida
of one who has made ,ayammumI and one who washed his feet, may
ma:e $Htida of one who made &asah over the Geather+soc:s, and one
who washed the limbs of 9udu, may ma:e $Htida of one who made
&asah on bandages. D)lamgiri vol.1I pg.0'E

Law: ne, who performs Namaa3 standing, may ma:e $Htida or one
who is sitting, and of one who is humpbac:ed, even though his
hunch is to the level of 2u:u. ne who has such a limp on his foot
that he is not able to firmly place his entire foot on the ground, is
allowed to lead others in Namaa3, but it is <la J-etter and preferredK
for someone else to perform the $maamat. D)lamgiri vol.1I pg.0(E

Vol.3 pg.20/


287
Law: ne, who is reading Nafil, may ma:e $Htida of one who is
reading 7ard, even though the one who is reading 7ard does not
recite *iraCat in the latter 2a:aCats. D)lamgiri vol.2 pg.0(E

Law: $f the one performing Nafil followed the one ma:ing his 7ard,
then bro:e the Namaa3, then in the same Namaa3, he made Niyyat of
*a3a for that which he missed, and made $Htida, it is valid. D)lamgiri
vol.1I pg.0(E

Law: ne who reads JNamaa3K by gesturing Jby ma:ing $shaaraK
may follow one who is e4actly in his situation, e4cept if the $mam is
lying down and reading by gesturing, and the &uHtadi is standing or
sitting, then Jin this caseK it is not valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.((2E

Law: $f a ;in performed $maamat, $Htida Ji.e. to followK is valid if he
appeared in human form. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.(1/E

Law: $f the $mam performed Namaa3 without ,ahaarat Ji.e. without
ablutionK or if any condition or essential act was not fulfilled,
causing his $maamat to be improper, then Jin this caseK as far as
possible, it is necessary upon him that he should inform the
&uHtadis of thisI either by informing them himself, or by having
someone inform them, or by sending a letter to them Jin this
regardK, and the &uHtadis should repeat that Namaa3 Jonce they
become aware of itK. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((3E

Law: $f the $mam claims that he is a :aafir JunbelieverK, then his
statement in regards to anything before that will not be regarded,
and there is no need for repetition of any Namaa3 which was read
Vol.3 pg.200


288
behind him Jbefore his claimK. ?owever, now he is undoubtedly a
F&urtadC JapostateK. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(('E unless he says,
that until now $ was an unbeliever, and only now $ have become a
&uslim.

Law: $f the $mam performed ,ayammum because he was not able to
obtain water and the &uHtadi performed 9udu, and during the
Namaa3, the &uHtadi saw water, then Jin this caseK the Namaa3 of
the $mam is done, but the Namaa3 of the &uHtadi has become
invalid. D!haami vol.1 pg.((#E that is if he is of the view that the
$mam has also become aware of the availability of water. $n most
=itaabs J-oo:sK this rule is absolute, but more evidently, it is
conditional. و ﷲ ¸ﺍﻮﺼﻟﺎﺑ ﻢﻠﻋﺍ













Vol.3 pg.20.


289

Chapter 7

Virtues of Namaaz
In Jama’at


∗ Virtues of Congregational Prayer 290

∗ Harmful Effects of missing the Jama’at 293

∗ Excellence of standing in the first Saff 293

∗ Regarding standing straight in the Saff 296

∗ Regarding standing shoulder to shoulder 298

∗ Warnings regarding leaving Namaaz 300

∗ Laws regarding Congregational Prayer 300

∗ Excuses for missing Jama’at 301

∗ Where should the Muqtadi stand? 302

∗ Condition when the Namaaz of a male
becomes invalid due to attendance of Females 306

∗ The Categories of Muqtadis and Rules related it 308

∗ When is the Muqtadi permitted to follow
the Imam and when he is not? 315



Vol.3 pg.2.#


290
Hadith 1: -u:hari, &uslim, &ali:, ,irmi3i and NasaCi report from
$bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  saysI F,o perform Namaa3 in
;amaCat Jin congregationK is twenty seven times more virtuous than
performing Namaa3 alone.

Hadith 2: &uslim, )bu %awud, NasaCi and $bn &aBah report that
)bdullah ibn &asCud ؓ  says, F$ have seen our own in a condition
where none would not stay away from Namaa3 J;amaCatK, e4cept an
open hypocrite, or one who was illI and the condition of a person
who was ill would be such that he would be brought to Namaa3
wal:ing between two people, Ji.e. supported by two peopleK.C ?e
further said, F2asoolullah  educated us in regards to the F!unan )l
?udaC Ji.e. ,he 2ight 9ay of MuidanceK, and it is !unan )l ?uda to
perform Namaa3 in that &asBid wherein )3aan is called.C

$t is mentioned in one narration, that one who wishes that tomorrow
Jin hereafterK he should go to )llah as a &uslim, then he should
guard all five of his Namaa3 when )3aan for them is called out,
because )lmighty )llah has chosen !unan )l ?uda for your Nabi ,
and this is from !unan )l ?uda, and if you have performed your
Namaa3 in your homes, li:e the one who remains behind, who reads
Namaa3 in his home, then you have left out the !unnat of your Nabi
 and if your leave out the !unnat of your Nabi  Fyou shall go
astrayC.

,he Narration of )bu %awud says, Fyou shall become unbelieversCI
and that person who performs 9udu properly and goes towards the
&asBid, then for every step he ta:es, )llah records reward for him,
elevates him and wipes away his sin.


Vol.3 pg.2.1


291
Hadith 3: NasaCi and $bn =hu3aima in his !ahih report from
<thman ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, Fne who performed =aamil
JfaultlessK 9udu, and then left for the 7ard Namaa3, and read with
the $mam Ji.e. in ;amaCatKI his sins shall be forgiven.C

Hadith 4: ,abrani reported from )bu <maama ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, if the one who stays away from Namaa3 in
;amaCat only :new what is due to him for staying away, then he
would have got there even if he had to drag himself JthereK.

Hadith 5&6: ,irmi3i has reported from )nas ؓ  that 2asoolullah
 said, F,here is freedom from two things for a person who reads
Namaa3 with ;amaCat for )llah Ji.e. for the pleasure of )llahK, without
missing the ,a:beer e <la J7irst ,a:beerKI one is from the fire Jof
hellK and the other is from hypocrisy.C

$n a JsimilarK narration in $bn &aBah from ?a3rat <mar ibn =hattab
ؓ  it is stated that 2asoolullah  said, F)llah will record for a person
who reads "sha with ;amaCat without missing the ,a:beer for forty
nights in the &asBid, with freedom from hell.C

Hadith 7: ,irmi3i reported from $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that ?u3oor
 said that at night from my Creator, came to me one who cameI
and in one narration it mentions that $ saw the &anifestation of my
Creator in a most beautiful &annerI ?e said, F &uhammad > $
answered by saying,
´
Œ,
´
ﺪ.
´
.
´
و
´
Œﻴ
·
,´ ﻟ .C

?e said, F%o you :now what the Close )ngels are in discussion aboutI
so $ said no, JsoK he placed ?is %ast+e+*udrat between my shoulders,
until $ felt its coolness in my chestI so all that which is in the s:ies
and earth, $ became aware of.C
Vol.3 pg.2.2


292
$n one narration it has been mentioned, that $ became aware of all
that which is in the "ast and the 9est. ?e then said, F &uhammad
> $ said
´
Œ,
´
ﺪ.
´
.
´
و
´
Œﻴ
·
,´ ﻟ ?e said, 9hen you JfinishK reading Namaa3, then
say:C


´
:`.¸·
´
•¸دﺎ
´
,¸ .
¸
,
·

´
,´ﺍ ﺍ´ s¸ﺎ´ ·
¸
¸,¸´ﺎ
´

´
ﻤﻟﺍ · ,
´

´
و ¸ :ﺍ
´
´ ¸:
´
ﻤﻟﺍ
´
•ﺮ
´
.
´
و ¸ :ﺍ
´
.,´ •ﻟﺍ
´
¸.¸·
´
Œ
´
ﻟﺎ´ —.´ﺍ ‘‰–
¸
ﺍ · ﻢ
´
,
·
ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
.
ˆ ¸ﻮ´ ﺘ.
´
.
´
.,´.
´
Œﻴ´ ﻟ
¸
ﺍ ¸¸ƒ.
¸
,s
´
ﺎ´ ·

F )llah $ as: of you that $ may be able to do virtues actions, and
abstain from wrongdoingsI and $ should love the needyI and when
Pou will plunge your servants into 7itna, then ta:e me away before
that JhappensK.C

?e said, that e4cellence is in ma:ing conveying of !alaam commonI
feedingI and to pray Namaa3 at night when the people are asleep.

Hadith 8-9: $mam )hmed and ,irmi3i reported from &uCa3 ibn
;abl ؓ  that one morning ?u3oor  was a bit late in arriving, so
much so that it was near that we have seen the sun, when he 
arrived hurriedly. ,he $Haamat was given and he  performed the
Namaa3 not very long. )fter completing his  !alaam, he  said in
a loud voice, all of you should remain where you are, as $ will inform
you what caused me to come in late for Namaa3. $ wo:e at night,
made 9udu and then read as much Namaa3 as was meantI then $ felt
sleepy, Jafter this, he  mentioned similar incidents, and in this
narration it saysKI 9hen ?e placed ?is %ast+e+*udrat, $ felt its
coolness in my chest, then everything became clear to me, and $
recognised everything. $t is also mentioned in this narration that
)llah said, 9hat is F=afaaraatC and $ said, to wal: towards the ;amaCat,
to sit in the &asBid after Namaa3, and in difficulty to ma:e full and
Vol.3 pg.2.3


293
proper 9udu. )t the end, 2asoolullah  said, this is F?aHC J,he
,ruthKI read this and learn it. ,irmi3i has mentioned that this ?adith
is !ahih, and that he as:ed &uhammad bin $smaCeel, in other words
$mam -u:hari about this ?adith, and he mentioned that this ?adith
is !ahih. %aarimi and ,irmi3i have also reported from )bdur
2ahmaan bin )aCish similarly narrations.

Hadith 10: )bu %awud, NasaCi and ?aa:im report from )bu
?urairah ؓthat ?u3oor  said, Fne who ma:es proper 9udu and
goes to the &asBid and there he finds the people have already read
the Namaa3, then )llah will also give him the reward of those who
read Namaa3 in ;amaCatI and his reward will not be less than any of
theirs. ?aa:im has mentioned this ?adith to be !ahih on the
condition of &uslim.C

Hadith 11: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, NasaCi, ?aa:im, $bn
=hu3aima and $bn ?ibCban in their !ahih reported from <bay bin
=aCab ؓ  that one day after performing the &orning 1rayer, ?u3oor
 said, Fcome forth certain person if you are present>C 1eople said,
FNoC Jhe is notKI ?e  said, F$s certain person presentOC ,he people
said, FNoC Jhe is notKI ?e  said, F-oth these Namaa3 are very
difficult for the hypocrites. $f they :new the reward of these Namaa3,
then they would have come dragging themselves on their :neesI and
undoubtedly, the first !aff is li:e the !aff of the )ngelsI and if you
:new what the e4cellence of it Jthe first !affK is, you would rush
towards it. ,he Namaa3 of one man with another man, is better than
Namaa3 alone and with two JpersonsK is better than to read with one,
and the more people there are, the more beloved it is to )llah.C
Pahya bin &uCeen and Lahli say that this ?adith is !ahih.


Vol.3 pg.2.'


294
Hadith 12: $t is in !ahih &uslim from ?a3rat <thman ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who read the "sha Namaa3 with ;amaCat, it
is as if he has remained standing Jin prayerK for half the nightI and
one who performed the 7aBr Namaa3 in ;amaCat Jas wellK, it is as
though he has been standing Jin prayerK for the entire night.C )bu
%awud, ,irmi3i and $bn =hu3aima report similar narrations

Hadith 13: -u:hari and &uslim report from )bu ?urairah ؓ that
?u3oor  said, F,he most uncomfortable for the hypocrites is "sha
and 7aBrI and if they :new what Jbenefit was in itK, they would come
dragging themselves for itI Verily $ intended to command that
Namaa3 should be established, then command someone, to lead the
people in Namaa3I and that $ should then ta:e with me some people
who have bundles of wood with them, and that $ should ta:e this to
those who do not present themselves for Namaa3, and that $ should
burn down their houses on them with fire.C

$mam )hmed reported from him J)bu ?urairah ؓ  K as well, that he
 said, Fthat if it were not for the women and children in the house,
$ would have established "sha Namaa3 and then commanded the
youngsters to burn down whatever is in the houses with fire.C

Hadith 14: $mam &ali: ؓ  reported from )bu -a:r !ulaiman ﷲﺍ ¸:,
ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. that )meer ul &oCmineen 7arooH+e+)3am ؓ  noticed that
!ulayman bin )bi ?uthma ؓ was not present in the &orning
1rayer. ?e JlaterK went to the mar:etplace, and on the way was the
house of !ulayman. ?e went to his mother !hifaC and said, F$ did not
find !ulayman at the morning Namaa3 J7aBrKC. !he said, F?e was
engrossed in Namaa3 at night and then he fell asleep.C ?e then said,
F2ead the Namaa3 of 7aBr with ;amaCat, for according to me, it is
better than standing in prayer for the entire night.C
Vol.3 pg.2.(


295
Hadith 15: )bu %awud, $bn &aBah and $bn ?ibCban report from
)bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, Fne who heard the )3aan
and did not ma:e himself present Jfor Namaa3K, and there is no valid
e4cuse which is hindering him from comingI then that Namaa3 of his
is not accepted Ji.e. which he read aloneKC. ,he people as:ed, F9hat is
a valid e4cuseOC ?e  said, F7ear or illnesses.C )nother narration is
reported by $bn ?ibCban and ?aa:im from his as well, that one who
hears the )3aan and does not present himself Jfor Namaa3K without a
valid e4cuse, has no Namaa3C Ji.e. his Namaa3 is not acceptedK.
?aa:im has mentioned this ?adith to be !ahih.

Hadith 16: )hmed, )bu %awud, NasaCi, $bn =hu3aima, $bn ?ibCban
and ?aa:im report from )bu %ardah ؓthat ?u3oor  said, F$f there
are three persons in any village or rough country, and Namaa3 was
not performedI but shaitaan has overcome themI so regard ;amaCat
JCongregational prayerK as necessary, because a wolf usually attac:s
that goat which is away from the floc:.C

?adith 1/+2#: )bu %awud and NasaCi have reported that )bdullah bin
<mm &a:htoom ؓsaid, FPa 2asoolC)llah , there are many vicious
JharmfulK animals in &adina, and $ am blind, so do $ have special
permission to perform my Namaa3 at homeOC ?e  said, F%o you
hear ?ayya )las !alaah, ?ayya )lal 7alaahOC ?e said, FPesC. ?e 
said, F,hen ma:e yourself present Jfor Namaa3KC. !imilar to this,
&uslim reported from )bu ?urairah ؓ I and ,abrani reported in
=abeer from )bu <maama ؓ I and )hmed and )bu PaCla and ,abrani
reported in )wsatI and $bn ?ibCban reported from ;aabir ؓ

Hadith 21: )bu %awud and ,irmi3i report from )bu !aCeed =hudri
ؓ  that a person arrived in the &asBid at a time when 2asoolullah 
had already performed his Namaa3. 2asoolullah  said, Fcould
Vol.3 pg.2.5


296
someone spend charity for him Ji.e. be generous to him by reading
Namaa3 with him so he gets the reward of ;amaCatK. ne person, Ji.e.
?a3rat )bu -a:r !iddiHue ؓ K read Namaa3 with him.C

Hadith 22: $bn &aBah reports from )bu &usa )shCari ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,wo or more than two JpersonsK ma:e up a
;amaCatC.

Hadith 23: -u:hari and &uslim report from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F$f people :new what Jthe rewardK was in )3aan and
standing in the first !aff, and if they would have not got this without
drawing lots, then they would have drawn lots Jto get this
opportunityK.C

Hadith 24: $mam )hmed and ,abrani report from )bu <maama
ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, F)llah and ?is )ngels send %urood
J-lessingsK on the 7irst !affC. ,he people as:edI F)nd the second !affOC
and ?e  said, F)llah and ?is )ngels send %urood on the 7irst !affC.
)gain people as:ed, and he  said, F)nd upon the second !affC ?e 
then said, F!traighten your !affs and bring your shoulders in line,
and become gently in the hands of your brothersI and close up the
gaps JspacesK, for shaitaan comes between you li:e a baby goat.C

Hadith 25: 9ith the e4ception of -u:hari, the other !ihah !itCta
have reported from NuCman bin -asheer ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah
 would straighten the !affs li:e an arrow, until he would feel that
now we understood. ,hen one day he  arrived and stood up and
was almost about to ma:e ,a:beer, when he noticed the chest of one
person out from the ;amaCat Ji.e. not in lineK. ?e  said, F servant
of )llah> !traighten the !affs, JorK )llah will cause disunity between
youC. -u:hari reported the latter portion of this ?adith.
Vol.3 pg.2./


297
Hadith 26: -u:hari, &uslim and $bn &aBah etc reported from
)nas ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F!traighten your !affs, as to
straighten your !affs, is from the perfection of Namaa3C.

Hadith 27: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, $bn =hu3aima and ?aa:im
reported from <mar $bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that ?u3oor  said, F)llah
will Boin one who Boins the !affs, and )llah will separate one who
separates the !affsC. ?aa:im has mentioned this ?adith to be !ahih
on the order of &uslim.

Hadith 28: &uslim, )bu %awud, NasaCi and $bn &aBah report from
!amurah ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, F9hy donCt you stand in your !affs
li:e how the )ngels ma:e !affs before )llahC. $t was as:ed, FPa
2asoolC)llah  how do the )ngels tie their !affs before )llahOC ?e
 said, F,hey fill the !affs in front and they stand close to each
other in the !affsC.

Hadith 29: $mam )hmed, $bn &aBah, $bn =hu3aima, $bn ?ibCban
and ?aa:im report from <mm ul &oCmineen !iddiHa ﷲﺍ ¸:, ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. that
?u3oor  said, F)llah and ?is )ngels send %urood upon those who
tie their !affs JproperlyKC. ?aa:im has mentioned this ?adith to be
!ahih on the order of &uslim.

Hadith 30: $bn &aBah reports from <mm ul &oCmineen !ayyidah
!iddiHa ¸:, ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ that 2asoolullah  said, F7or the one who closes of
the spaces Jin the !affK, )llah will have a house J&ansion in 1aradiseK
built for himC.

Hadith 31: $t is reported in !unan )bu %awud, NasaCi and !ahih of
$bn =hu3aima from -araC ibn )a3ib ؓ  that 2asoolullah  would
wal: from one end of the !aff to the other end Jof the !affK and he 
Vol.3 pg.2.0


298
would place his hands over our shoulders or chests, and say, F%o not
stand separated JdisunitedK, because your hearts will become
disunited.C

Hadith 32-34: ,abrani reported from $bn <mar and )bu %awud
from -araC ibn )a3ib ﺍ ¸:, ﷲ ﻢ,:ﻋ

‘ﺎ.. that 2asoolullah  said, F,here is no
sawaab for any foot, compared to the foot that went forth to fill a
space in the !affC.

n the merit of it being a ?assan narration, -a3C3a3 reported from
)bu ;uhaifa ؓ  that he who closes the gap JspaceK in a !aff shall
receive &aghfirat Ji.e. he will be pardonedK.

Hadith 35: )bu %awud and $bn &aBah on the merit of it being a
?assan narration, report from <mm ul &oCmineen !iddiHa ¸:, ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ
that 2asoolullah  said, F)llah and ?is 2asool  send %urood upon
those on the right of the !affC.

Hadith 36: ,abrani reported in =abeer from $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,
that ?u3oor  said, F7or the one who fills the left side of the &asBid
because people are less there, then for him there is twofold rewardC.

Hadith 37: &uslim, )bu %awud, ,irmi3i and NasaCi reported from
)bu ?urairah ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F,he best !aff amongst the
!affs of males is the first !aff, and the least is the last !affI and the
best !aff from all the !affs of females is the last !affC.

Hadith 38-39: )bu %awud, $bn &aBah and $bn ?ibCban <mm ul
&oCmineen and &uslim, )bu %awud, NasaCi and $bn &aBah report
from )bu !aCeed =hudri ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F1eople
Vol.3 pg.2..


299
will always stay away from the first !aff, until )llah will :eep them
away from ?is &ercy and enter them into ?ellC.

Hadith 40: )bu %awud reports from )nas ؓ  that 2asoolullah 
said, F7irst fill the first !aff, then the one behind it, if there is some
incompletion, it should be at the last oneC.

Hadith 41: )bu %awud reports from )bdullah ibn &asCud ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, Ffor a female to read her Namaa3 in the veranda,
is better than reading in the !ahn, and inside the JroomK of her
house, is better than reading in the veranda.C

Hadith 42: ,irmi3i reports from )bu &usa )shCari ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, Fevery eye is the committer of adultery Ji.e.
which loo:s towards a strange femaleKI and undoubtedly, if a female
wears F$trC J7ragranceK and goes into a gathering, then she is such
and suchC. $n other words, she is an adulterer Jin the sense that she is
attracting attention to herselfK.

Hadith 43: $t is in !ahih &uslim from )bdullah bin &asCud ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F,hose who are more sensible Jpeople of
understandingK amongst you, should come closer to me, then close
to the youngsters J?e  repeated this thriceKI and protect yourself
from the commotion and clamour of the mar:etplace.







Vol.3 pg.3##


300
Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: ;amaCat Jcongregational prayerK is 9aaBib JcompulsoryK upon a
sane, mature, free, person who has the ability to Boin ;amaCat. ,o
omit the ;amaCat even once without a valid e4cuse Jof !hariahK is
sinful, and deserving of punishmentI $f one omits it on numerous
occasions, then he is a F7aasiHC JtransgressorK and is regarded as
&ardud+ush+!hahaadat Ji.e. if he gives testimony it will not be
acceptedK, and he will be severely punished. $f his neighbours are
silent Ji.e. ignore thisK then they too are sinful. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.(1(I MhuniyaE

Law: ;amaCat is a condition for ;ummah and both the "id prayers,
and for ,araweeh it is !unnat+e+=ifaayahI and if all the people of the
locality omitted it, then all are sinful, and if a few people performed
it, then the responsibility of ;amaCat is discharged from all the others
there. ;amaCat for the 9itr of 2amadaan is &ustahab. 7or Nafils and
with the e4ception of the 9itr in 2amadaan, if to ma:e ;amaCat for
these based on F,adaCiC J,adaCi means having more than three
&uHtadisK, then it is &a:ruh. ;amaCat during the eclipse of the sun is
!unnat, and during eclipse of the moon, it is &a:ruh with ,adaCi.
D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &u:htar vol.1 pg.(1(+51(I )lamgiriE

Law: ,o Boin ;amaCat so that no 2a:aCat of it is missed, is better than
washing each part thrice in 9uduI and to wash each part thrice is
better than getting the ,a:beer+e+<la. $f one feels that by washing
each part thrice in 9udu, he will miss a 2a:aCat of ;amaCat, then it is
better not to wash thrice Jin this instance onlyKI and if he :nows that
he wonCt lose the 2a:aCat, but he will miss the 7irst ,a:beer, then it
is more virtuous to wash each part thrice. D!agheeriE

Vol.3 pg.3#1


301
Law: $n the &asBid of the locality, which has a set $mam, if the $mam
of the locality gave the )3aan and $Haamat and performed the
;amaCat according to the &asnun manner, then to establish ;amaCat
with )3aan and $Haamat according to the first ;amaCat is &a:ruh. $f
the second ;amaCat J;amaCat+e+,haaniyaK was established without
)3aan, there is no obBection, as long as it is performed away from the
&ehraab. ?owever, if the first ;amaCat was performed without
)3aan, or if someone Jother than the $mamK performed ;amaCat
JoutsidersK, then in this case, the ;amaCat must be performed, and
this ;amaCat will now not be regarded as the second ;amaCat. ,o
change the location, it is sufficient for the $mam to stand to the right
or the left of a &ehraab. $n a roadside &asBid, wherein people come
in groups and pray their Namaa3 and leave. $n other words, the
Namaa3is of this &asBid are not set ones, even if the second ;amaCat
is performed at such a &asBid with )3aan and $Haamat, there is no
harmI but this is more virtuous, that every group which comes
should perform with a fresh )3aan and $Haamat. ,he same applies to
the &asBid at a station and temporary abode Jairport etcK. D%urr+e+
&u:htar, 2addul &u:htar vol.1 pg.51(E

Law: 7or the one whose ;amaCat is being missed, it is not 9aaBib
upon him to try and get the ;amaCat at a different &asBid so that he
may read it thereI $t is however &ustahab. ?owever, for the one who
missed ;amaCat in &asBid+e+?araam, &asBid+e+Nabawi or &asBid+e+
)Hsa, it is not &ustahab to try to get ;amaCat somewhere else. D%urr+
e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. (10E

Law: )ll these are valid J!harCiK e4cuses to miss ;amaCat, i.e. these
people are e4empt from ;amaCat: 1. 7or a sic: person who finds much
difficulty in getting to the &asBidI 2. ) CrippleI 3. 9hose legs are cut
offI '. ne affected by stro:eI (. ne who is so old that he cannot go
Vol.3 pg.3#2


302
the &asBidI 5. ) -lind person, even though there maybe someone
who can hold his hand and ta:e him to the &asBidI /. $n e4tremely
heavy rainsI 0. "4treme mud which causes hindranceI .. "4treme
coldI 1#. "4treme dar:nessI 11. !tormy windsI 12. 7ear of loss of
wealth or foodI 13. 7ear of one who you owe money to and you are
poverty stric:enI 1'. 7ear of an oppressorI 1(. ,he need to pass stoolI
15. ,he need to pass urineI 1/. !evere need to pass windI 10. 9hen
food is present and the desire for it is overwhelmingI 1.. ,here is
fear of being left behind by travel groupI 2#. Caring for an ill person,
whereby if you go for ;amaCat he will be in discomfort. )ll these are
valid reasons for omitting ;amaCat. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(1.+
(2#E

Law: 7or females to go to ;amaCat for any Namaa3 is not permissible,
be it a day Namaa3 or night Namaa3I be it for ;ummah or for both
"idsI be she young or old. !imilarly for her to go to sermon
gatherings etc. is not permitted. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(2.E

Law: $n a house where there are only females, for a male to ma:e
their $maamat is not permissibleI ?owever, if those females if there
are genealogical &ahrams, or ones wife is there, or some other males
are also there, then it is permissible. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(2.E

Law: $f there is only a single &uHtadi, even if he is a young boy, he
should stand to the right of the $mam. ,o stand to the left or behind
him is &a:ruh. $f there are two &uHtadis, then they should stand at
the bac:. 7or them to stand ne4t to him is &a:ruh+e+,an3eehi and
for more than two to stand beside the $mam is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(2.+(31E

Vol.3 pg.3#3


303
Law: $f there are two &uHtadisI where one is an adult male and the
other a young boy, then both should stand at the bac:I and if a
female is alone, she should stand at the bac:, and if there are many
females, then they should still stand at the bac:. $f there are two
&uHtadis, i.e. one male and one female, then the male should stand
ne4t to the $mam and the female at the bac:. $f there are two males
and one female, then the males should stand behind the $mam, and
the female should stand behind them. D)lamgiri, vol.1 pg.00I -ahrE

Law: $f one person is standing ne4t to the $mam, even though there
is a !aff at the bac:, then this is &a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(31E

Law: ,o stand ne4t to the $mam means that the foot of the &uHtadi
should not be in front of the $mams, $n other words the an:le of the
&uHtadi should not be in front of the an:le of the $mam. ,here is no
issue in the head being ahead of him or not. $f one is standing ne4t to
the $mam and because the &uHtadi is taller than the $mam, thus in
!aBdah the head of the &uHtadi goes beyond the head of the $mam,
but his an:le does not go beyond the an:le of the $mam, then there is
no obBection. !imilarly, if the &uHtadi has bigger feet and his toes
are beyond those of the $mam, there is still no obBection, as long as
the an:le is not beyond that of the $mam. J!o it means one should
stand slightly bac: so that his an:le is slightly behind the $mamsK.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(3#E

Law: $f one is reading by Mesturing, then the pro4imity of the feet
will not be counted, but the condition is that his head should not be
beyond the head of the $mam, even though Jin this caseK the feet of
the &uHtadi is beyond the feet of the $mam, be this whether the
$mam is reading with JactualK 2u:u or !uBood or if he is reading
Vol.3 pg.3#'


304
whilst sitting, or lying down, with his feet facing *iblaI and if the
$mam is lying on his side, reading by gesturing Jusing signsK, then
the pro4imity of the head is not counted, but the condition is that
the &uHtadi should by lying down behind the $mam. D2addul
&u:htar vol.1 pg.(3#E

Law: $f the &uHtadi is standing on one foot, then with regards to
pro4imity, the one foot will be counted, and if he is standing on both
feet, if one is in line and the other is behind, it is still correctI and if
one foot is ne4t to the $mam and the other is ahead, then the
Namaa3 should not be regarded as being correct. D2addul &u:htar
vol.1 pg.(3#E

Law: $f a single person is standing ne4t to the $mam and another
person arrives, then the $mam should step forward, and the one who
has Bust come should stand ne4t to that &uHtadiI or that initial
&uHtadi should move bac: be this whether the one who Bust came
pulled him bac:, be this before the ,a:beer or after the ,a:beer. )ll
these are permissible. 9hichever can be done should be done. $f all
are possibilities, then one has the choice, and if the &uHtadi is only
one, then for him to step bac: is )fdal, and if there are two Jwho
cameK, then for the $mam to go forward is better. $f the $mam went
forward because the &uHtadi told him to, the Namaa3 is nullifiedI
and if the &uHtadi went bac: with this Niyyat that because he told
him to, so $ should listen, then the Namaa3 is nullifiedI and if it is to
fulfil the command of !hariah, then there is no harm. D2addul
&u:htar vol.1 pg.531E

Law: $f men, women, children, or a =hunsa Ja person with
reproductive organs of both se4esK are all gathered together, then
the arrangement of the !affs is as follows: first should be the mens
Vol.3 pg.3#(


305
!aff, then the !aff of the children, then that of the =hunsa, then the
females. $f the child is alone, he should be put into the !aff of the
males. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(3'E

Law: 9hen standing in the !affs, they should be close, the shoulders
should meet and no space should be left between JpeopleK. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.(31E

Law: ,he $mam should stand in the middle. $f he is standing to the
left or right Jof the ;amaCatK, it is =hilaaf+e+<la. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg../E

Law: ,he !aff of the &ales, as it is closer to the $mam is the most
virtuous, and the second is more virtuous than the third and based
on this view, and so on. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg../E

Law: ,he first !aff being )fdal is for any Namaa3 e4cept ;anaa3ah,
and in ;anaa3ah Namaa3, the last !aff is more virtuous. D)lamgiriE
7or the &uHtadi, the most virtuous place to stand is near the $mam,
and if both sides of the !aff are eHual, then to stand to the right is
virtuous. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: 7or the $mam to stand between the pillars is &a:ruh. D2addul
&u:htar vol.1 pg. (31E

Law: $f there is space in the first !aff and the bac: !aff has become
full, and then one may go through the !aff and stand in the empty
place, because the ?adith has mentioned that one who sees a space
in a !aff and then fills it, he will receive salvation. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg..0E ,his refers to that place where there is no fear of fitna and
arguments by doing this.
Vol.3 pg.3#5


306
Law: ,o stand behind the !affs, if there is still place in the !ahn, is
disallowed. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((3E

Law: $f a female is standing in pro4imity with a male, the Namaa3 of
the male becomes nullified. ,here are few conditions for this:

1. ,he female should be &ushtihaat, i.e. she should be one who
intimacy with is possible, even though she may have not reached the
age of puberty, and in &ushtihaat the age is not counted, be she .
years of age or a bit less, whereby her physical body is capable of
thisI and if it is not capable of this, then the Namaa3 is nullifiedI even
if she :nows how to read Namaa3. "ven an old woman is regarded as
&ushtihaat in this ruling. $f that female is persons wife or from his
&ahrams, the Namaa3 will still be nullified.

2. $f there is nothing that is eHual to the thic:ness of the finger or
one hand length in height that is a partition between them, nor is
there that amount of distance between them, wherein one male can
stand, or if the female is not standing at such a height, where any
limb of the male is in pro4imity with hers

3. ,he pro4imity occurred in a Namaa3 where there is 2u:u and
!uBood. $f this pro4imity occurred in ;anaa3ah Namaa3, then the
Namaa3 is not nullified.

'. ,hat Namaa3 should be Boined by ,ahreema for both, in other
words the female made $Htida of him or both of them made $Htida of
another $mam, even if they did not Boin from the beginningI and if
both of them are each reading their individual Namaa3, it will not
nullify the Namaa3, but this is &a:ruh.

Vol.3 pg.3#/


307
(. $n F)daC they are together, whereby a male is her $mam, or both of
them are being led by another $mam, behind whom they are ma:ing
their Namaa3 F)daC Jfulfilling itK be this in reality or Bust command
wise, for e4ampleI they are both FGaa ?aHC that even after the $mam
has completed, even though they are not behind the $mam but
command wise they are still behind the $mamI and a &asbooH is
neither in reality nor command wise behind the $mam, but he is
actually a &unfarid.

5. -oth are facing the same direction. $f they change direction, such
as on a very dar: night, where it cannot be noticed, and one is facing
the $mam and the other the &uHtadi, of if they read in the =aaba e
&ua33amah and the direction changed, the Namaa3 will be done.

/. $f the female is sane, Namaa3 in pro4imity with an insane person
will not nullify the Namaa3.

0. $f the $mam made Niyyat for $maamat of females Jas wellK, the
Namaa3 is done, even if when ma:ing this Niyyat no females were
present, and if the Niyyat of $maamat is not made, then the Namaa3
of the females is invalid and the males is valid.

.. 7or the pro4imity to be for such duration that one complete 2u:n
is completed, in other words the duration of three ,asbeehs.

1#. -oth :now how to read Namaa3

11. ,he male is sane and mature D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &u:htar
vol.1 pg.(32+(3'I )lamgiri vol.1 pg..0 etcE

Vol.3 pg.3#0


308
Law: $f the $mam started the Namaa3 for males and afterwards a
female came and stood beside him, and he had even made the Niyyat
of $maamat for females, but the moment she Boined he gestured to
her to move bac:, but she too: no heed and did not move, her
Namaa3 is nullified, and not the males. !imilarly, if she stands ne4t
to the &uHtadi, and he gestured to her and she did not move, then
only her Namaa3 is nullified. D2addul &u:htar vol.1 pg.(30E

Law: 7or a =hunsa &ush:il to stand in the pro4imity Jof a maleK
does not nullify the Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: 7or a good loo:ing male Jwho is enticingK to stand ne4t to a
male will not nullify the Namaa3. D2addul &u:htar vol.1 page. (3.E

Law: ,he &uHtadi is of four types:

B" Mudri-
=" Naaha.
D" Masboo.
E" Naaha. Masboo.

1. ) &udri: refers to that person who read with the $mam from the
first 2a:aCat upto the ,ashahud, even if he was not with the $mam in
the 2u:u of the first 2a:aCat.

2. ) Gaa ?aH refers to that person who made $Htida of the $mam in
the first 2a:aCat, but after $Htida, all his 2a:aCats or few of his
2a:aCats were missed, either due to an F<3rC such as due to being
unaware or due to a crowd he was not able to ma:e 2u:u or !uBoodI
or he was affected by a ?adath in Namaa3I or if a &uHeem made
$Htida behind a &usafirI or in Namaa3+e+=hauf, the first group who
Vol.3 pg.3#.


309
did not get that 2a:aCat with the $mamI or even if it was missed
without any valid reasonI such as if he preceded the $mam in 2u:u or
!uBood, and he did not even repeat Ji.e. rectify thisK, then in this case
the second 2a:aCat of the $mam has become his first, and the $mamCs
third, his second, and the $mamCs fourth his third, so he must add
one more 2a:aCat at the end.

3. ) &asbooH refers to that person who Boined after the $mam
already completed a few 2a:aCats, and remained until the end.

'. Gaa ?aH &asbooH refers to that person who did not get the
starting 2a:aCats, and then after Boining he became a Gaa ?aH.
D!haami vol.1 pg. (((+(5.E

Law: ,he ruling regarding the Gaa ?aH is the same as the &udri:,
because when he reads the 2a:aCats he has missed, he will neither
recite *iraCat in them and nor will he ma:e !aBdah+e+!ahw in them
due to any errorI and if he was a &usafir JtravellerK then in Namaa3
by ma:ing intention of being resident, it will not differ the condition
of his 7ard, where it becomes four from two, and he will read the
missed ones firstI this will not happen, but he should follow the
$mam, and when the $mam has finished then he should read his own.
7or e4ample, he was affected by ?adath, and when he returned after
ma:ing 9udu, he found the $mam in *aCda+e+)a:hira Jthe last
sittingK, then he will not Boin the $mam in *aCda, but he will continue
from where he left off, and after this, if he still gets the $mam, then
he may Boin. $f he did not do this, but he Boined the $mam, then after
the $mam turned !alaam, he read the missed ones, even though it is
done but he is sinful. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &u:htar vol.1 pg.((/E

Vol.3 pg.31#


310
Law: $f one fell asleep in the third 2a:aCat and wo:e up in the fourth
2a:aCat, then he is commanded to read the 3
rd
without *iraCat, and if
he finds the $mam in the fourth, then he should Boin, otherwise he
should read that as well alone without *iraCatI and if he did not do
this and read the fourth with the $mam, and then read the 3
rd

thereafter, then it has been done but is sinful to do this. D2addul
&u:htar vol.1 pg.((/E

Law: ,he rulings regarding the &asbooH in these laws differ from
the Gaa ?aHI as he must continue with the $mam and after the $mam
has turned !alaam, he should complete his missed 2a:aCats. ?e will
recite *iraCat in the 2a:aCats, which he missed, and if he ma:es !ahw
JerrorK in this, he will ma:e !aBdah+e+!ahw, and by ma:ing Niyyat of
F$HaamatC JresidencyK the 7ard with be differed. D2addul &u:htar
vol.1 pg.((/E

Law: ,he &asbooH in regards to his missed 2a:aCats is &unfaridI
whereby if he did not read ,hana in the beginning because the $mam
was also already reciting *iraCat aloud, and if the $mam is in 2u:u
and if he reads ,hana he will miss the 2u:uI or if the $mam was in
*aCdaI thus no matter what the reason may have been for not
reading it, he may read it now, and before *iraCat he should recite
the ,aCoo3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1.I 2addul &u:htar vol.1 pg.(//E

Law: $f the &asbooH read his missed 2a:aCats and then followed the
$mam, his Namaa3 is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((0E

Law: $f the &asbooH found the $mam in *aCda, ?e should stand
straight and say the ,a:beer+e+,ahreema, then saying the second
,a:beer he should go into *aCda. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1.E $f he finds the
$mam in 2u:u or !uBood, he should do the same. $f he said the 7irst
Vol.3 pg.311


311
,a:beer, bent and reached the position of 2u:u, then in all cases the
Namaa3 is not valid.

Law: 9hen the &asbooH started his 2a:aCats after the $mam
completed, then in regards to *iraCat, this will be counted as the first
2a:aCat, but in regards to ,ashahud, it will not be regarded as the
first, but it will be regarded as the third, fourth or fifth. 7or e4ampleI
$n a 3 or ' 2a:aCat Namaa3 if he only got one 2a:aCat, then with
regards to ,ashahud, this which he is reading now is his second, so
he should read one 2a:aCat with !urah 7aateha and !urah, and then
ma:e *aCdaI and if he omits the 9aaBib, i.e. the !urah 7aateha and
*iraCat, then if it is deliberately, then to repeat the Namaa3 is 9aaBibI
and if was done in error, then he should ma:e !aBdah+e+!ahwI then
in the one after this, he should also read !urah 7aateha an !urah, but
he should not sit in thisI then in the one after this, he should recite
!urah 7aateha and ma:e 2u:u and recite the ,ashahud etc and
complete the Namaa3. $f he got two 2a:aCats and he missed two
2a:aCats, then he should ma:e *iraCat in both those 2a:aCats. $f he
leaves out the 7ard of *iraCat in even one, the Namaa3 will be
nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((0E

Law: ,here are four issues wherein the &asbooH is within the
2uling of a &uHtadi:

1. ne cannot ma:e his $Htida, but the $mam can nominate him Jput
him forwardK as his =halifa Jin Namaa3KI ?owever, after becoming
=halifa Jin Namaa3K, he will not turn the !alaam Jfor that Namaa3K.
?e will nominate another person as =halifa for that purpose.

2. )ccording to consensus, he will proclaim the ,a:beers of ,ashreeH

Vol.3 pg.312


312
3. $f he wishes to read Namaa3 afresh and he ma:es ,a:beer with
Niyyat of ending that Namaa3, then it will be terminated, contrary to
the ruling of a &unfarid, whereas his Namaa3 will not be terminated.

'. $f he stood up to read his missed 2a:aCats, and the $mam has to
ma:e !aBdah+e+!ahw, even though a 9aaBib was omitted before he
made $Htida Jof the $mamK, he is commanded to return if he has not
as yet made the !aBdah of his 2a:aCatI and if he does not return, then
at the end he should ma:e these two !aBdahs of !ahw. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.((06((.E

Law: ,he &asbooH should not stand immediately after the $mam
has turned !alaam, but he should wait for at least the amount of time
that he can confirm that the $mam is not going to ma:e !aBdah+e+
!ahwI unless the time Jfor that !alaahK is very little. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.((.E

Law: $f the &asbooH stood before the $mam turned his !alaam, then
if he stood before the $mam sat as per ,ashahud, then this *iraCat is
not sufficient, and the Namaa3 is not validI and afterwards, if he read
as per what is necessary, it will be validI and if he stood up after the
$mam sat as per ,ashahud and before the !alaam, then the )r:aan
which he has already performed will be countedI but to stand before
!alaam without need is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. $f he completed his
missed 2a:aCats before the $mam turned !alaam, and still Boined in
the !alaam, it will still be regarded as correctI and if he follows in
*aCda and ,ashahud, then the Namaa3 will be nullified. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.((.E

Law: $f the &asbooH stood up due to some F<3rC before the $mamI for
e4ample, he fears being affected by ?adath whilst waiting for !alam,
Vol.3 pg.313


313
or there is fear of the time of 7aBr, ;ummah, or "id 1rayers being
e4piredI or if the &asbooH is &aC3oorI and if there is fear of the time
of Namaa3 e4piringI or if he made &asah on the leather soc:s and
the duration for this is e4piringI then in all such situations there is
no F=arahatC D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((.E

Law: $f the $mam left out any !aBdah of Namaa3, and he
remembered after the &asbooH has already stood up, then it is 7ard
for the &asbooH to follow the $mam in this. $f he does not return, he
Namaa3 is not validI and if in this situation the &asbooH completed
the 2a:aCat already and even made the !aBdah, then Namaa3 will not
be valid absolutely, even if he follows the $mam. $f the $mam has to
perform !aBdah+e+!ahw or recitation, and he has already made the
!aBdah of his 2a:aCat, then if he follows, it will be nullified, otherwise
not. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((.6(5#E

Law: $f the &asbooH intentionally turned !alaam with the $mam,
thin:ing that he too has to turn !alaam with the $mam, the Namaa3
is nullifiedI and if he forgetfully turned !alaam after the !alaam of
the $mam, then !aBdah+e+!ahw is essentialI and if he turned it with
him together, then there is nothing. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.(5#E

Law: $f he forgetfully turned !alaam with the $mam, and then
assumed that his Namaa3 is nullified Jdue to thisK, then he said )llah
):bar with the Niyyat to start the Namaa3 afresh, then the Namaa3
has been nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1.E

Law: $f the $mam after *aCda+e+)a:hira forgetfully got up for a fifth
2a:aCatI then if the &asbooH deliberately follows the $mam, his
Namaa3 is NullifiedI then if the $mam has not made *aCda+e+)a:hira,
Vol.3 pg.31'


314
then until such time that he does not ma:e the !aBdah of the fifth
2a:aCat, it will not be nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(5#E

Law: $f the $mam performed !aBdah+e+!ahw and the &asbooH
followed him, Bust as he has been commanded toI then he reali3ed
that there was no need for the $mam to ma:e !aBdah+e+!ahw, the
Namaa3 of the &asbooH is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(5#E

Law: $f two &asbooHs made $Htida of the $mam in the same 2a:aCat,
but then when they began to read, if one could not remember how
many 2a:aCats and he observed how many the other person read,
and he read the same by observing himI then if he did not ma:e
Niyyat of following him, the Namaa3 is valid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.((0E

Law: ,he ruling with regards to the Gaa ?aH &asbooH is that in the
2a:aCats in which he is a Gaa ?aH, he should read it in the seHuence
of the $mam, and in them the rules pertaining to a Gaa ?aH should be
applied. )fter them, when the $mam has completed Jhis Namaa3K,
wherein he is now regarded as &asbooH, he should read according to
the rules pertaining to a &asbooH. $n other words, if he got Boined in
the second 2a:aCat of a four 2a:aCat Namaa3, and he fell asleep in
two 2a:aCats, then he should first read those 2a:aCats in which he fell
asleep, without *iraCat, by remaining silent for the duration of !urah
7aateha, then whatever he gets with the $mam, he should follow in
itI thereafter he should read the missed 2a:aCats with *iraCat. D%urr+
e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.((/, 2addul &uhtarE

Law: $f he remained asleep in two 2a:aCat and has doubt regarding
one, that whether he read with the $mam or notI then in this case he
should read it at the end of the Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..2E
Vol.3 pg.31(


315
Law: $f the $mam read the ,ashahud in the *aCda+e+<la and stood
up, and some of the &uHtadis forgot to read the ,ashahud, and they
too stood up with the $mam, then those who did not read ,ashahud
should sit down, and only continue following the $mam after reading
the ,ashahudI even if a 2a:aCat is missed. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: $f the &uHtadi pic:ed up his head from !aBdah or 2u:u before
the $mam, then for him to return is 9aaBibI and this will not be
counted as two JseparateK 2u:us or !aBdahs but will be counted as
one. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: $f the $mam made a lengthy !aBdah and the &uHtadi pic:ed up
his head, and he thought that the $mam is in the second !aBdahI and
he too made !aBdah with him, then if he made the intention of the
first !aBdah, or he did not intend anything, or he made for the
second, and he made this with the intention of following, then it will
be counted as the first, and if he only intended for the second, then
the second has been done, then if he was still in the same !aBdah and
the $mam too made !aBdahI and it combined, then it is permissibleI
and if he pic:ed up his head before the $mam made the second
!aBdah, then it is not permittedI and he has to repeat that !aBdah. $f
he does not repeat that !aBdah, the Namaa3 will be nullified.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: ,he &uHtadi lengthened the !aBdah to the e4tent that the
$mam pic:ed up his head from the first !aBdah and went into the
second !aBdah. Now the &uHtadi pic:ed up his head and assumed
that the $mam was still in the first !aBdah, and he made !aBdah again
Jon this assumptionK, it will be counted as the second !aBdah, even
though he had only intended the first !aBdah. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E
Vol.3 pg.315


316
Law: ,here are ( things that if the $mam leaves it out, the &uHtadi
too should not do and he should follow the $mam. ,hey are:

B" 2he 2a-beers of the Lid 6rayers

=" Qa!da-e-'la (<irst ,itting+

D" ,a4dah-e-2ilaaat

E" ,a4dah-e-,ah

(. *unoot, when there is no fear of missing the 2u:uI otherwise,
2ead *unoot and then go into 2u:u D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#I !agheeriE
if he has not made the *aCda+e+<la and has not stood up straight as
yet, but even in this, the &uHtadi should not follow the $mam, but he
should inform him, so that he should return. $f he returns, then fineI
but if he already stood straight up, then do not point it out to him,
otherwise the Namaa3 will be nullifiedI but the &uHtadi too should
leave the *aCda and stand Jwith the $mamK.

Law: ,here are ' things which if the $mam does, the &uHtadi should
not follow:

1. $f he made an e4tra !aBdah in Namaa3
2. $f in the ,a:beers of "id 1rayer, he e4ceeded it as stipulated by the
!ahaba
3. $f he said ( ,a:beers in ;anaa3ah Namaa3
'. $f he forgetfully stands for the fifth 2a:aCat, and in this situation
where he has done *aCda+e+)a:hira, then the &uHtadi should wait
for himI $f he returns before ma:ing !aBdah of the fifth 2a:aCat then
the &uHtadi should follow him as well, and turn !alaam with him,
Vol.3 pg.31/


317
and ma:e !aBdah+e+!ahw with himI and if he has already made
!aBdah of the fifth 2a:aCat, the &uHtadi should turn !alaam aloneI
and if he did not ma:e the *aCda+e+)a:hira and he made the !aBdah
of the fifth 2a:aCat, then everyoneCs, Namaa3 is nullifiedI even if the
&uHtadi read ,ashahud and turned !alaam. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: ,here are . things that if the $mam does not do it, the &uHtadi
should not follow him, but he should fulfil these:

B" Raising the hands in 2a-beer-e-2ahreema
=" 2o re&ite 2hana, if the 3mam is in <aateha, and he is reading softly
D" 2a-beer of Ru-u
E" 2a-beer of ,u4ood
>" 2asbeehs
5" 2asmi!
7" Re&iting the 2ashahud
I" 2o turn ,alaam
J" 2a-beers of 2ashree. 0Alamgiri vol"B $g"J@( ,agheeri1

Law: $f the &uHtadi made 2u:u and !uBood in all the 2a:aCats before
the $mam, he should read one more 2a:aCat at the end without
*iraCat. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: $f he made !aBdah before the $mam, but before lifting his head
from !aBdah, the $mam too went into !aBdahI the !aBdah is valid, but
for the &uHtadi to do this Ji.e. precede the $mamK is ?araam.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..#E

Law: $f there was a difference JdisagreementK between the $mam
and &uHtadisI the &uHtadis say he read 3 2a:aCats and he claims he
read ' 2a:aCats, the word of the $mam will be ta:en and Namaa3 will
Vol.3 pg.310


318
not be repeated. $f there is disagreement amongst &uHtadis Ji.e. they
differ with each other on how many 2a:aCats were readK, then they
should go with that which the $mam claims. $f one person is
confident that it is 3 2a:aCats and one is confident that it was '
2a:aCats, whilst the $mam and other &uHtadis are in doubt, then in
this case, then there is no ruling on them J$mam and othersK, and
those who have confidence in regards to the 2a:aCats having been
less, they should repeat their Namaa3. $f the $mam is confident he
read 3 2a:aCats and one person has confidence that the entire JfourK
was read, then the $mam and the people should repeat itI and there
is no need for the one who is confident to repeat. ne person is
confident that 2a:aCats are less, whereas the $mam and the rest of
the ;amaCat are in doubt, then in this, if time is still permitting, it
should be repeatedI otherwise they are not liable for anything.
?owever, if two F)adilC J;ustK persons say this with full conviction,
then it should be repeated. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..3E















Vol.3 pg.31.


319










CHAPTER 8

PERFORMING
NAMAAZ WITHOUT
WUDU












Vol.3 pg.32#


320
)bu %awud reports from <mm ul &oCmineen ?a3rat )Cisha !iddiHa
ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that 2asoolullah  said, F9hen a person in Namaa3 ends
up without 9udu Ji.e. his 9udu brea:sK he should hold his nose and
leave.C

$bn &aBah and %arHutni is also from her, that 2asoolullah  said,
7or the one who vomits, or if he has a nose bleed, or if he Fma3eeC
Jpre+eBaculation fluidK is released, then one should wal: out, and
after ma:ing 9udu, he may ma:e F-inaC Ji.e. continue from where he
left offK on condition that he did not spea: in+between. ,his is also
the statement Ji.e. viewK of numerous other !ahaba+e+=iraam, such
as !iddiHue+e+):bar, 7arooH+e+)3am, &aula )li, )bdullah ibn <mar,
!alman 7arsiI and it is also the view of numerous ,aabiCeen such as
)lHama, ,aCus, !aalim bin )bdullah, !aCeed bin ;ubair, !huCba,
$brahim Na:hiCi, )ta, &a:hool, !aCeed ibn )l &usayCyab
ﺍ ¸ﺍﻮ,, ﷲ ¸,.ﻤ,ﺍ

‘ﺎ..

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: $f the 9udu of a person who is in Namaa3 brea:sI then even
though he is in the *aCda+e+)a:hira Jlast sittingK, after completion of
,ashahud and before !alaam, he may perform 9udu and continue
from that point forward Ji.e. where his 9udu bro:eK. ,his is :nown
as F-inaC. ?owever, it is )fdal Jmore virtuousK to commence the
Namaa3 afresh. ,his is :nown as F$stinaafC. ,he ruling in regards to
males and females is the same in this. DMeneral -oo:s of 7iHhI
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.3.E

Law: ?e should repeat the F2u:nC Ji.e. elemental 1arts of Namaa3K in
which the hadath occurred. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.3.E

Vol.3 pg.321


321
Law: ,here are 13 conditions of F-inaC. $f even one of the 13
conditions is ine4istent, F-inaC will not be permissible. ,he 13
conditions are:

1. ,he ?adath should be the cause of 9udu Ji.e. it should necessitate
9uduK.

2. $ts e4istence not being Huestionable.

3. ,he hadath should be F!amaawiC Ji.e. natural occurrenceK, in other
words neither is it from within the control of the servant Jof )llahK,
nor its means.

'. ,he ?adath JimpurityK should be from his body.

(. ?e did not complete any 2u:n with this ?adath.

5. Nor did he delay without any valid reason more than it ta:es to
complete a 2u:n.

/. Nor did he complete the 2u:n whilst wal:ing.

0. ?e did not do any action which is not permitted in Namaa3, and
which is different to Namaa3.

.. ?e did such an action, which is permitted, but unnecessarily he
did not do it to the e4tent of it becoming contrary.

1#. )fter the ?adath+e+!amaawi, a ?adath+e+!aabiH did not occur.

Vol.3 pg.322


322
11. )fter the ?adath+e+!aabiH, if a !aahib+e+,arteeb did not
remember a *a3a.

12. $f he is a &uHtadi, then he should not have completed somewhere
else before the $mam had finished.

13. $f he was the $mam, he did not ma:e such a person =halifa who is
not capable of $maamat. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.15(I )lamgiri
pg.3.+'.E

Explanation of the aforementioned
Conditions

Law: $n Namaa3 the need for Mhusl became compulsory, for
e4ample, due to reflecting etc. one had seminal discharge, then in
such a case, F-inaC will not be valid. $t is necessary to commence the
Namaa3 afresh Jafter MhuslK. D)lamgiri vol.2 pg. '.E

Law: $f that ?adath JimpurityK is something infreHuent, such as
laughing aloud, unconsciousness and insanity, then one cannot
apply F-inaC.

Law: $f it is not F?adath+e+!amaawiC, whether it was caused by the
&usalCli himself, whereby he intentionally bro:e his 9udu Jsuch as if
he vomited out a mouthful, or if he pressed a boil which caused fluid
to flow from it, or if he had a sore JboilK on his :nee and he pressed it
hard on the ground causing it to oo3eKI or whether it was caused
through someone else Jdoing somethingK, such as if someone struc:
his head with a stone, causing blood to oo3e, or if someone else
pressed his boil causing blood to oo3e out, or if a stone Jbric: etcK fell
on his head from the roof causing blood to flow from his body, even
Vol.3 pg.323


323
if the stone fell by itself or by someone wal:ing there, then in all the
aforementioned cases, he must read the Namaa3 afresh. ?e cannot
ma:e F-inaC. !imilarly, if a fruit fell from a tree causing him inBury
and blood oo3ed due to this, or if a thorn pierced his foot, or it
pierced the forehead when he went into !aBdah, and blood oo3ed
outI or if a hornet stung him, causing blood to oo3eI then in these as
well F-inaC cannot be made. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.3.+'.I 2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.15(E

Law: $f one vomited a mouthful uncontrollably, then he may ma:e
F-inaC, but if he did so intentionally, then he cannot. $f a person fell
asleep in Namaa3 and ?adath occurred, and he wo:e after some
time, he can ma:e F-inaCI and it was whilst awa:e and he delayed,
then the Namaa3 has been nullified Jbro:enK. $f he passed air
JflatulenceK due to coughing or snee3ing, or if droplets of urine were
released, then F-inaC cannot be done. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.3.+'.E

Law: $f someone put some impurity on his body, of through some
way his clothing or body became polluted with impurity more than
one dirham, then after cleansing the impurity, he cannot ma:e
F-inaCI but if he became impure due to the same ?adath, then he may
ma:e F-inaCI and if it is due to both =hariB and ?adath, then he
cannot ma:e F-inaC. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: $f ones clothing becomes impure and other JcleanK pure
clothing is available, whereby he can immediately change into it,
then if he changed into it immediately, the F-inaC is done. $f there is
no other clothing available, into which he can change, or he
completed one 2u:n in this condition, or he delayed, then Jin all
these casesK the Namaa3 has been nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.1E

Vol.3 pg.32'


324
Law: $f ?adath occurred in 2u:u or !aBdah, and if he raised his head
with the intention of completing the 2u:nI in other words, ?e said
´ﷲﺍ ´ ‚
¸

´
. :
´

¸

´
ﺣﻦ
´
ﻤ¸ﻟ F when coming up from 2u:u, or ﺍ ﷲ .,´ as he came up from
!aBdahI or when going to ma:e 9udu or when returning he recited
*iraCat, the Namaa3 is nullified and he cannot ma:e F-inaC. $f he said
¸ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´
ﺤ,
´
.or ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸

´
.


¸
ﺍ ´ · there is no problem in ma:ing F-inaC. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.'.I 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.2/(E

Law: $f after ?adath+e+!amaawi, he intentionally caused a ?adath,
then now F-inaC cannot be made. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.15(I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.'.E

Law: ?adath occurred, and there is sufficient water to perform
9udu, and he left that water and went somewhere further away,
F-inaC cannot be made. !imilarly, after hadath, if he spo:e, ate or
dran: anything, F-inaC cannot be made. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.'.I 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.15(E

Law: $f there was a need to fill water for 9udu from a well, then
F-inaC can be made, and if it is done without reason, then it cannot be
done. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.'.E

Law: $f the F!atrC Jna:ednessK was opened during 9udu, in other
words if the F!atrC is opened due to necessity, such as if a female
opened her wrist for 9udu, the Namaa3 will not be nullifiedI and if
the F!atrC was opened without need, the Namaa3 is nullified, such as
if a female opened both wrists at once to ma:e 9udu, the Namaa3
will be invalidated. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.'.E


Vol.3 pg.32(


325
Law: ,he well is close, but there will be a need to fill the water, and
the available water is :ept far away, then if he filled the water and
made 9udu, he must perform the Namaa3 afresh. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.'.E

Law: $f ?adath occurred in Namaa3, and his house is closer to the
F1ondC and there is water available in the house, he still went to the
F?audhC JpondK for 9udu, and there is a distance of less than two !aff
space between the ?audh and the house, then in this case the
Namaa3 will not be nullified, and if the distance is more than this,
then the Namaa3 will be nullifiedI and if did not remember that
there was water available at his house, and if it is his habit to ma:e
9udu at the ?audh, then in this case, he can ma:e F-inaC D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.'.+(.E

Law: if after the ?adath occurred, he went home to ma:e 9udu,
and he found the door closed, so he opened the door and then made
9uduI then when returning, if there is a fear of thieves, he should
close the doorI otherwise he should leave it opened. D)lamgiri, vol.1
pg.(.E

Law: 9hen ma:ing 9udu, he should fulfil the !unan and the
&ustahabs. ?owever, instead of washing each part thrice, if he
washed it four times, then he must start the Namaa3 afresh.
D)lamgiri, vol.1 pg.'.E

Law: ?e should ma:e 9udu from the portion of the ?audh, which is
closest to him. 9ithout reason, he should not leave that place and go
to a different part of the ?audhI if he left this place and went to a
place at the ?audh which is further than the distance of two !affs,
the Namaa3 is nullifiedI and if there were too many people there
Vol.3 pg.325


326
JnearbyK, then Jgoing to the further endK wont nullify the Namaa3.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: $f he forgot to ma:e F&asahC during 9udu, then as long as he
did not stand in Namaa3, he may go bac: and ma:e &asah and then
returnI and if he remembered after standing in Namaa3, then he
should start the Namaa3 afreshI and if he forgot some clothing there,
and went bac: to fetch it, then he must commence the Namaa3
afresh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg. (.E

Law: $f there is water in the &asBid, and if he made 9udu with it,
and with one hand he carried the vessel and brought it to place of
Namaa3, he is permitted to ma:e F-inaC. $f he used both hands to
carry it, he cannot ma:e F-inaC. !imilarly, if he brought water from
the vessel in a Bug and brought it carrying it with one, hand, he may
ma:e F-inaC and if he brought it by carrying it with both hands, he
cannot. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: $f he had performed &asah on the leather soc: and hadath
occurred in Namaa3, and he went to ma:e 9udu, but whilst ma:ing
9udu, the duration for wearing the leather soc: e4piredI or if he was
performing Namaa3 after ma:ing ,ayammum, and then found waterI
or if he had made &asah on a bandage, and after the ?adath, the
wound had healed and the bandage came off, then in all these
situations, he cannot ma:e F-inaC. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: $f he assume that his 9udu has bro:en, and thus left the
&asBid, but now realises that the 9udu did not brea:, then he should
read the Namaa3 afreshI and if he has not come out of the &asBid as
yet, then he should read what is remaining. D?idayaE
Vol.3 pg.32/


327
$f a woman has such an assumption, then the moment she moves
from the &usalCla, the Namaa3 is nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./.E

Law: $f one has the assumption that he commenced Jthe Namaa3K
without 9uduI or if one had made &asah on the leather soc: and
one assumed that the durations has e4piredI or if a !aahib+e+,arteeb
was in Luhr Namaa3 and he assumed that he had not read the 7aBr
Namaa3I or if he had performed ,ayammum, and his sight fell upon
alcohol and he assumed it was waterI or if he saw colour Ja stainK on
the clothing and assumed it was an impurityI then in all these cases,
if he Bust moved, with the thought of leaving the Namaa3, but then
he realised that his assumption was incorrect, the Namaa3 is
nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg./.E

Law: $f the ?adath occurred in 2u:u or !aBdah, then if he raised his
head with intention of F)daC i.e. of completing Jthat 2u:nK, the
Namaa3 is invalidated. ?e cannot ma:e F-inaC on this basis. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.2/(E













Vol.3 pg.320


328



























Vol.3 pg.32.


329






CHAPTER 9

NOMINATING A
KHALIFA
(SUCCESSOR)
IN NAMAAZ










Vol.3 pg.33#


330
Law: $f the $mam faces any ?adath Joccurrence that nullifies 9udu,
i.e. passing impurity etcK in Namaa3, then based on the
aforementioned conditions, he may nominate another as =halifa Ji.e.
to complete the Namaa3K. J,his is :nown as $sti:hlaf i.e. leaving
someone as oneCs !uccessorK. ?e may even do this in ;anaa3ah
Namaa3 as well. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 25(E

Law: $n a case where F-inaC is regarded as being permissible,
F$sti:hlafC in such a situation is regarded as correct, and where F-inaC
is not valid, there $sti:hlaf is not correct. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: ,hat person who can be the $mam of that F&uhaddathC Ji.e. one
affected by ?adathK can also be the =halifa Jsuccessor for thisKI and
the one who cannot be an $mam Jfor thisK cannot be a =halifa as well.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: 9hen an $mam is affected by a ?adath, he should bloc: his
nose and bend his bac: and wal: bac:wards Jso that people thin: he
has a nosebleedK, and by gesturing J$shaaraK, he may put someone
forward as the =halifa Ji.e. as the person who will complete the
;amaCatK. ?e should not tal: when ma:ing someone =halifa.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.I 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. 25(E

Law: $f the Namaa3 is being held in an open field, then as long as he
does not come out of the !affs, he may nominate someone as his
=halifaI and if he is in the &asBid, then as long as he does not come
out of the &asBid, $sti:hlaf can be done. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.E

Law: $f there are !affs continuously even outside the &asBid, and the
$mam did not nominate anyone as =halifa inside the &asBid, but he
made someone from the outside a =halifaI then in this case, this
Vol.3 pg.331


331
$sti:hlaf is not proper. ,he Namaa3 of the people and the $mam has
been nullified. $f he went forward, then he can ma:e someone
=halifa as long as he does not go beyond the F!utrahC JpartitionK or
the area of !aBdah. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 25(I )lamgiri vol.1
pg.(.E

Law: ) house and a small "id Mah is in the ruling of a &asBid. ) big
&asBid, big house and big "id Mah is within the ruling of an open
field. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.35(E

Law: $f the $mam did not nominate someone as the =halifa, but the
people nominated someone, or if someone stood in the place of the
$mam himself, ma:ing Niyyat of being $mam, then this =halifa has
become the $mam.

?owever, he will not be regarded as being the $mam if here merely
goes forth and stands in the place of the $mam without ma:ing the
intention of $maamat Ji.e. of leading the ;amaCatK. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.25(635(E

Law: $f he did not as yet go beyond the boundary that has been
stipulated to nominate a =halifa, in a &asBid or in an open fieldI and
neither did anyone else step forward as the =halifaI nor did the
;amaCat nominate someone as the =halifa, then in this case the
$maamat of the $mam is still established, to the e4tent that even if
someone ma:es his $Htida at that time as well, it can be done.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. 35(E

Law: $f the $mam was affected by a ?adath and he nominated
someone from the bac: !aff, and then left the &asBid, then if the
=halifa immediately made the Niyyat of $maamat Jbeing $mamK, then
Vol.3 pg.332


332
all those who are in front of that $mam, their Namaa3 is nullified. )ll
those that are in the same !aff Jwith himK to his right and left, and all
those at the bac:, their Namaa3 will not be nullifiedI but if the
=halifa made this Niyyat that on reaching the place of the $mam, $
will become $mam, and the $mam left before he Jthe =halifaK reached
the place of the $mam, then the Namaa3 of everyone is nullified.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $t is F<laC Jmore virtuousK for the $mam not to nominate a
F&asbooHC as the =halifa, but he should nominate someone elseI and
if he does nominate the &asbooH as the =halifa, then he Jthe
&asbooHK should not accept. ?owever, if he does accept, the Namaa3
will be valid. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $f he did ma:e a &asbooH the =halifa, then the &asbooH
should continue from where the $mam stopped. )s for the issue of
how the &asbooH will :now how many 2a:aCats are remainingI then
in this regard, the $mam should inform him of this by gesturing.

7or e4ample, if only one 2a:aCat is remaining, he should gesture to
him with one finger, if two are remaining, he should do so with two
finger, if he needs to go into 2u:u, he Jthe $mamK should Jgesture byK
placing his hand on his :nees, if he needs to go into !aBdah, he Jthe
$mamK should put his hand on his forehead, for *iraCat, he should
:eep it on his mouth, for !aBdah+e+,ilaawat, he should :eep it on his
forehead and tongue, and to gesture !aBdah+e+!ahw, he should :eep
it on his chest.

$f the &asbooH is aware Jof how what needs to be doneK, then there
is no need to gesture. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.52(I )lamgiri vol.1
pg.5.E
Vol.3 pg.333


333
Law: $f a person made $Htida Jfollowed the $mamK in a four 2a:aCat
Namaa3 and the $mam was affected by ?adath, and the $mam
nominated him as the =halifa, but he does not :now how many
2a:aCats the $mam has already performed and how many are left,
then Jin this caseK he should perform four 2a:aCats and ma:e *aCda
in every 2a:aCat. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $f a &asbooH was nominated as the =halifa, then after the
$mam completes the Namaa3, he should put a &udri: forward, so
that he may turn the !alaam. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $n a four or three 2a:aCat Namaa3 if a &asbooH who did not get
two 2a:aCats was made the =halifa, then two J2K *aCdas JsittingK are
7ard upon that =halifa. ne being the *aCda+e+)a:hira of the $mam
an done being his ownI and if the $mam gestured to him that he had
not recited *iraCat in the first two 2a:aCats, then in a four 2a:aCat
Namaa3, *iraCat is 7ard upon him in all four 2a:aCats. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg. 1/(E

Law: $f after the $mam completed his Namaa3, the &asbooH laughed
aloudI or if he intentionally caused a ?adathI or if he went out of the
&asBid, then his own Namaa3 is nullified, and the peoples are done.
)s for the initial $mamI then if he has completed the F)r:aanC
J"lemental 1artsK of Namaa3, even his JNamaa3K is doneI otherwise
not. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $f a GaahaH is nominated as the =halifa, the ruling is that he
should gesture to the ;amaCat that all of them should remain as they
are, until such time that he completes what is his responsibility, and
then completes the Namaa3 of the $mamI and if he completed the
Namaa3 of the $mam first, then when the time comes for turning
Vol.3 pg.33'


334
!alaam, he should nominate someone as =halifa to turn the !alaam,
and he should then complete his own. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $f the $mam nominated a person as the =halifa and he then
nominated some other person as the =halifa, then if this happened
before the $mam left the &asBid, and before the =halifa reached the
place of the $mam, it is permissible, otherwise not. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.5.E

Law: $f one was reading Namaa3 alone and a ?adath occurred, and
he had not left the &asBid yet, when someone made $Htida of him Ji.e.
followed him in Namaa3K, then this &uHtadi JfollowerK has become
the =halifa. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.5.E

Law: $f &usafirs JtravellersK made $Htida of a &usafir, and the $mam
was affected by a ?adath and he nominated a &uHeem JresidentK as
=halifa, then Jin this caseK it is not necessary for the &usafirs to
complete four 2a:aCats, and the =halifa should actually put forth one
of the &usafirs, so that he may offer the !alaam.

$f there were other &uHeems amongst the &uHtadis as well, then
they should each complete 2 2a:aCats individually, without reciting
any *iraCat in this. Now, if they ma:e $Htida of the =halifa, then all
their Namaa3 will be invalidated. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. 1/(E

Law: $f the $mam became insane, or if he became unconscious or if
he laughed aloud, or if something which necessitates Mhusl occurred,
for e4ampleI if he fell asleep and had nocturnal emission Jwet
dreamK, or due to reflecting Jthin:ingK or due to loo:ing with lust or
touching, seminal was dischargedI then in all these situations, the
Namaa3 is nullified. ?e must start afresh.
Vol.3 pg.33(


335
Law: $f one felt the urgent need of passing urine or stool, and he
:nows that he will not be able to complete the Namaa3, then in this
situation $sti:hlaf is permissible. !imilarly, if he suffered severe
stomach pain that he cannot remain standing, he should read whilst
sitting, as $sti:hlaf will not be permissible. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg. (5(E

Law: $f due to bashfulness or awe, he is not able to recite the *iraCat,
then in such a case $sti:hlaf is permissibleI and he has had complete
forgetfulness, then it is impermissible. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(5(E

Law: $f the $mam was affected by ?adath and he appointed someone
as =halifa, and the =halifa has not yet completed the Namaa3, and
the $mam has completed his 9udu, then it is 9aaBib JcompulsoryK
upon him to return.

$n other words he should come so close that he is able to ma:e
$HtidaI and if the =halifa has already completed Jthe Namaa3K, then
he has the choice of either completing his Namaa3 where he is or to
return to the area of $Htida. !imilarly, the &unfarid has the choice. $f
a &uHtadi is affected by ?adath, it is 9aaBib for him to return. D%urr+
e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5/(E

Law: $f the $mam passed away JdiedK in Namaa3, even if it is in the
*aCda )a:hira, the Namaa3 of the &uHtadis has been invalidated. $t is
necessary to start the Namaa3 afresh. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.'5(E





Vol.3 pg.335


336


























Vol.3 pg.33/


337





Chapter 10

Factors Which
Nullify Namaaz


∗ Hadith 338

∗ Rules regarding giving Luqma 338

∗ Forbiddance of passing from in front 355
of a Namaazi









Vol.3 pg.330


338
Hadith 1: $t is in &uslim !hareef from &uCawiyah bin )l ?a:m
that ?u3oor  said, F$n Namaa3, the words of any human is not
possible, it should not be, but ,asbeeh, ,a:beer and *iraCat of the
*urCan.C

Hadith 2: $n !ahih -u:hari it is narrated from )bdullah ibn
&asCud ؓ  that ?u3oor  used to be in Namaa3 and we would
convey !alaam to ?u3oor  and ?u3oor  used to reply to our
!alaam. 9hen we returned from NaBashiCs place Ji.e. after migration
to )byssinia6"thiopiaK, we conveyed !alaam, but he  did not reply.
9e said, FPa 2asoolC)llah  we used to convey !alaam and ?u3oor
 used to reply to our !alaam Jwhat has happened that we did not
get a reply to our !alaamKOC ?e  said, F%ue to being engrossed in
Namaa3C.

$n the narration of )bu %awud that he  said, F)llah ma:es evident
whatever Command of ?is, ?e 9ills, and from this, is not to convey
!alaam in Namaa3C. nly thereafter, did he  reply to their !alaam.
?e  further said, FNamaa3 is for *iraCat of the *urCan and the Li:r
of )llah, so when in Namaa3, this should be your status.C

Hadith 3: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, ,irmi3i and NasaCi have
reported from )bu ?urairah ؓ that ?u3oor  said, F,wo blac:
things, JnamelyK sna:es and scorpions should be :illed in Namaa3C.

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: ,al:ing nullifies Namaa3, be this F)mdanC JdeliberatelyK,
F=hatCanC Jdue to errorK, or F!ahwanC Joversight i.e. through
forgetfulnessKI be it whilst asleep or when awa:eI whether you
willingly spo:e or you were compelled to spea: by someone elseI or
Vol.3 pg.33.


339
if he did not :now that tal:ing causes the Namaa3 to be invalidated.
F=hataC Jdue to oversightK means that he intended to recite *iraCat or
the )3:aar of Namaa3 Ji.e. ,asbeehs etc of Namaa3K, but by error
something was uttered from the mouth, and F!ahwC means that he
did not remember being in Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(/(6(/5E

Law: ,here is no distinction of a little or a lot in regards to tal:ing,
and there is even no distinction whether one spo:e with aim of
rectifying the Namaa3 or not. 7or e4ample, if the $mam was meant to
sit but he stood up, and the &uHtadi said F!it downC in order to
inform him Jof his errorK or if he said F?ooC the Namaa3 is nullified.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(/'I )lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $ntentionally tal:ing causes the Namaa3 to be nullified if he
did not sit upto the time of ,ashahud, and if he sat upto the time of
,ashahud, then the Namaa3 is completed, but this is &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemi. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(/3E

Law: nly that :ind of tal:ing nullifies the Namaa3, which is loud
enough at least he can hear himself, if there is no hindranceI and if it
is not as loud, and is only correction of the alphabets, it will not
nullify the Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f before completing the Namaa3, one forgetfully turned
!alaam, there is no harm. ?owever, if he did so with intent, the
Namaa3 is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. (/( etcE

Law: $f one made !alaam to anyone, be it deliberately or due to
oversight, the Namaa3 is regarded as invalid, even if he made !alaam
Vol.3 pg.3'#


340
forgetfully, and then remembered that he should not ma:e !alaam
and then remained silent. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f the &asbooH turned !alaam with the $mam, thin:ing that he
should turn !alaam with the $mam, the Namaa3 is nullified.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f in "sha, thin:ing that it was ,araweeh, he turned !alaam at
two 2a:aCatsI if thin:ing Luhr was ;ummah he turned !alaam at two
2a:aCats, or if a &uHeem though he was a &usafir and turned !alaam
at two 2a:aCats, the Namaa3 has been nullified. ,o even ma:e F-inaC
on this Namaa3 is not permitted. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: ,hin:ing of the second 2a:aCat as the fourth, if one turned
!alaam, and then on remembering, complete the Namaa3 and ma:e
!aBdah+e+!ahw at the end. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: 2eplying to the !alaam by tongue Ji.e. audiblyK also nullifies
the Namaa3, and if one replies by gesturing with the hand, then this
is &a:ruhI ,o ma:e F&usafahaC J!ha:e handsK with the intention of
!alaam, also nullifies the Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(/5I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f one as:ed the &usalCli for something or about something
and he merely gestured a yes or a no by moving the head or hand,
the Namaa3 will not be nullified, but to do this is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f someone snee3ed and the Namaa3i said
´
, ﷲﺍ
´
Œ
´

´

`
ﺮ in reply Jto
his snee3ingK, the Namaa3 is nullifiedI and if he snee3ed, and
addressing himself, if he said ﷲﺍ
´
Œ
´

´

`

´
, the Namaa3 will not be nullifiedI
Vol.3 pg.3'1


341
and if someone else snee3ed and that &usalCli said ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ • ﻠ¸ﻟ . the Namaa3
is done, but if he said this with the intention of answering, then the
Namaa3 is nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f in Namaa3 he snee3ed and someone else said
´
Œ
´

´

`

´
, ﷲﺍ and in
reply to this he said F)ameenC, the Namaa3 has been nullified.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f in Namaa3 one snee3es, one should remain silent, and if one
does say .• ﻠ¸ﻟ ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ then too there will be no harm to the Namaa3I and if
he did not proclaim the F?umdC at that time, he should say if after
the completing Jthe Namaa3K. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg..0E

Law: $f on hearing good news, if one said .• ﻠ¸ﻟ ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ the Namaa3 is
nullified. ?owever, if he did not say it with the Niyyat JintentionK of
replying, but he did it to show that he is in Namaa3, then it will not
be nullified. !imilarly, if he hears some ama3ing news and with the
aim of giving a response to it, he pronounced the words ﷲﺍ
´
¸ﺎ
´

`
,
´
. or


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
´
.
´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸
ﺍ , ´ﷲ´ﺍ ﺎ .
´
,
`
´
´
the Namaa3 has been nullifiedI otherwise not. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg...E

Law: $f someone reHuested permission to enter, and with the aim of
showing that he is in Namaa3, he loudly said, .• ﻠ¸ﻟ ´ ﺪ
`

´
ﺤ` ﻟ´ﺍ or ﺍ ﷲ .,´ or if he
read ﺍ ¸ﺎﺤ,. ﷲ the Namaa3 will not be nullified. DMhuniyaE

Law: $f on hearing some bad news, if one said, Š ﺎ
·

¸
ﺍ ´ ﻟ
¸
ﺍ ﺎ
·

¸

´
و ¸.ﻴ
´
¸
`

´
.
¸
,ﺍ
´
, or if he
replied by using *urCanic 9ords, the Namaa3 will be nullified. 7or
e4ampleI if someone as:ed, F$s there another Creator, e4cept the
CreatorOC and he then responded by saying


¸
ﺍ ´ ·
´
. ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸
ﺍ or if they as:ed
Vol.3 pg.3'2


342
F9hat are the types of belongings you haveO ?e responded saying,

¸

´
ﺤ` ﻟﺍ
´
و
´
_ﺎ
´

¸
,` ﻟﺍ
´
و
´
¸
`
,´ •` ﻟ´ﺍ `,
´
. or if he was as:ed, F7rom where did you comeC and he
then responded with ` —
¸

´
و ˆ ﺪ
`
ﻴ ¸ :
·
. ˆ
`
•´ s · و
ˆ
.´ ﻠ
·
.
´
.

. ˆ ﺮ !imilarly, if he addressed
someone using the *urCanic words. 7or e4ample, if the personCs
name is Pahya and he said,
´
, ﺎ
´
,
`

¸
ˆ
ة· ﻮ
´
t
¸
,
´
,

ﺘ¸ .` .ﺍ ¸ ;´ : ¸ or if his name is &usa and
he said to him,
¸

´
Œ` ﻠ¸. ﺎ
´
.
´
و
´

¸

`

´
Œ¸:
´
, ¸

.
`

´
. ﺎ J$n all these casesK, the Namaa3 will be
nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(0#6(01E

Law: n hearing the ?oly Name of )llah, if he said ﻟ·, ¸, . and on
hearing the -lessed Name of Nabi  if he recited %urood+e+1aa:, or
on hearing the *iraCat of the $mam if he said, ´ﷲﺍ ´ š
´

´
, ´ ﻟ
`

´
.
´
, ´ š
´

´
,
´
و . then in
all these situations, the Namaa3 will be nullified, whereas he said
these with the aim of giving answerI and if he did not say these as a
reply, then there is no harm Jto the Namaa3K. !imilarly, if he replies
to the )3aan, the Namaa3 will be nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.(01E

Law: $f on hearing about shaitaan, if one cursed him, the Namaa3
will be nullified. $f one, reads FGa ?owlC with the aim of dispelling evil
whispering Jof shaitaanK. $f it is for worldly matter then the Namaa3
will be nullified, and if it is for matter of the hereafter, it will not be
nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg...61##E

Law: $f on seeing the moon one said ﷲﺍ
´
Œ


´
,
´
و ‘

¸
´
, or because of having
fever etc if one read something from the *urCan and blew it over, the
Namaa3 has been nullified. $f a sic: person, when getting up and
sitting proclaimed ﺍ ﻢﺴ, ﷲ due to the discomfort and pain, the Namaa3
has not been nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg...E

Vol.3 pg.3'3


343
Law: !ome te4t in the ?oly *urCan is found arranged on the
measure of a 1oetic !tan3a. $f this is read with the Niyyat of a poetic
verse, the Namaa3 if nullified, such as ﺎ´ .
`

´
ﻋ ¸ . . ¸ ﺼ

.` ﻟﺎ´ · ﺎ´ ·
`
´
¸ ¸ .


´
.
`

´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´
و and if in
Namaa3, one composed a poetic stan3a, but did not bring it onto the
tongue Ji.e. did not say it audiblyK, without saying anything, then
even though the Namaa3 will not be nullified, but this is sinful.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1##E

Law: $f during Namaa3, the words FNaCamC JPesK or F)rCreC JhK, or
F?aaC JPesKI and if one is in the habit of saying these words, then the
Namaa3 has been nullifiedI otherwise not. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(05 etcE

Law: $f the &usalCli gave FGuHmaC to another person, other than his
$mam Jin that Namaa3K, his Namaa3 is nullified, be this whether the
person whom he gave GuHma to, is in Namaa3 or notI and be he a
&uHtadi or a &unfarid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(01E

Law: $f he read with the Niyyat of ,ilaawat and not with the Niyyat
of GuHma, there is no hindrance. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(01E

Law: J7or the $mamK to accept the GuHma of anyone else e4cept his
own &uHtadi, nullifies the Namaa3I ?owever, if when that person
was informing him, he himself had already remembered at that
particular moment, and not because he was told Jby the one giving
GuHmaK, and if he had not been informed by him, he would have still
remembered it, and there the Jother personsK informing him has not
interference in this, then him Jthe $mamK reciting this, would not
nullify the Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(01+
(03E

Vol.3 pg.3''


344
Law: ,o give your $mam GuHma, and for him to accept that GuHma
does not nullify the Namaa3. ?owever, if the &uHtadi heard from
someone else who is not part of the Namaa3, and then gave GuHma,
and the $mam accepted the GuHma, then the Namaa3 of everyone has
been nullifiedI and if the $mam did not accept it, then only the
Namaa3 of the &uHtadi is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(02E

Law: ,he one, who is giving GuHma, should not ma:e Niyyat
JintentionK of *iraCat, but he should JmerelyK say the words with the
intention of giving GuHma. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg...E

Law: ,o immediately give Jthe $mamK GuHma is &a:ruh. ,here
should be a slight delay Jwaiting before giving GuHmaK, on the basis
that possibly the $mam will himself rememberI unless he :nows his
habit that when he stops, he recites some such alphabets that cause
the Namaa3 to be nullified, then in this case he should immediately
inform him. !imilarly, it is &a:ruh for the $mam to compel Ji.e.
forceK the &uHtadis to give him GuHmaI he should rather move to
some other !urah, or he should commence some other )yat JverseK,
on condition that his Boining to that is not something that will nullify
the !alaah. $f he has already recited upto the necessity, he should go
into 2u:u. ,he meaning of ma:ing the &uHtadi feel FcompelledC
J&aBburK, means to continue reading the same thing Jwhen he is
stuc:K or to stand silently. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg...I 2addul &uhtar
vol.1, p.g(02E $f the error was such that it changes the meaning, then
to rectify that Namaa3, it is necessary to repeat the entire Namaa3,
and if he cannot remember, then he will compel the &uHtadi to
inform him, and even if he is not able to inform him, then the
Namaa3 is nullified.

Vol.3 pg.3'(


345
Law: $t is not a condition for the person giving GuHma Jinforming in
Namaa3 for rectificationK to be -aaligh Jhave reached the age of
pubertyK, ) &araahiH Jsomeone near maturityK is also allowed to
give GuHma. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg...E ,his is on condition that he :nows
how to read Namaa3 and he is part of the Namaa3.

Law: ) %ua which cannot be as:ed from the servants Jof )llahK is
permissible, for e4ampleI • ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
, • ﻠﻟ´ﺍ ¸¸ƒ¸·ﺎ
´
ﻋ · ﻢ
´
,
`

¸

`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ · ﻢ and that which can be used
to as: from servants nullifies the Namaa3, for e4ample • ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
,
`
¸¸ƒ
`
ﻤ¸ .`.´ﺍ · ﻢ or • ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
, · ﻢ

`
¸¸ƒ
`
, و ´ ; D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1##E

Law: $f the words, F)hC FhC F<fC F,afC etc were mentioned due to
pain, or some difficulty, of if one cried aloud causing some alphabets
to emanate, then in all these situations the Namaa3 is nullifiedI and if
whilst crying only tears dropped and no sound or formation of
alphabets emanated, there is no harm. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1##61#1I
%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. (/.E

Law: $f the sound of F)hC was uttered by an ill person without
control, or if he uttered the words FhC, the Namaa3 will not be
nullified. !imilarly, whilst snee3ing, coughing, yawning and burping,
all the alphabets that emanate without control, they are e4cused.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(/0E

Law: $f whilst thin:ing of ;annat and ;ahanum, one utters these
words, the Namaa3 will not be nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(/.E

Law: $f the recitation of the $mam pleased you and causing you to
cry, and the words F)rCreC, FNaCamC and F?aaC etc emanated through
the tongue, there is no harm in this, as this is due to humilityI and if
Vol.3 pg.3'5


346
he uttered this due to the melodiousness Jin the recitationK, then the
Namaa3 is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(/.E

Law: $f blowing does not cause any noise to emanate, then it is
regarded as being the same as breathing and does not nullify the
Namaa3I but to intentionally do this is &a:ruhI and if two alphabets
emanate Jwhen blowingK such as F<fC or F,afC then it will nullify the
Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#1I MhuniyaE

Law: $n clearing the throat when two alphabets emanate, such as
F):hC it nullifies the Namaa3, whereas there is not real reason or
proper e4cuseI $f it is due to some F<3rC, for e4ampleI it is the demand
of oneCs conditionI or if it is for some proper reason, for e4ample to
clear ones voiceI or one is clearing the throat because the $mam
made an error, so that some other person may recognise that he is in
Namaa3I then in all these cases, the Namaa3 is not nullified. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.(/0 etcE

Law: ,o loo: into the &ushaf !hareef and recite the ?oly *urCan
absolutely nullifies the Namaa3. ?owever, if he is reading from his
memory and his vision is only on the &ushaf or the &ehraab, there
is no harm. D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(03E

Law: if he saw a piece of paper with *urCan JversesK written on it,
and he noticed it and understood Jwhat is written on itK, there is no
harm to the Namaa3. !imilarly, if his eyes fell on a 7iHh =itaab and he
understood Jwhat he sawK, the Namaa3 will not be nullified, even if
he loo:ed at it so that he may understand it. ?owever, if he
intentionally loo:ed at it, and intentionally made effort to
understand it, then this is &a:ruh, and this happened without
Vol.3 pg.3'/


347
intent, then it is not even regarded as being &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#1E

Law: ,he same ruling applies to any writing, and if it is something
that is not of a %eeni nature, then the disapproval is even more
severe. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#1E

Law: $f one only recited the F,aurahC or the F$nBeelC in Namaa3, the
Namaa3 is not valid, be this whether he :nows how to recite the
*urCan or not. D)lamgiriE $f he recited the amount of the *urCan
!hareef which is sufficient to fulfil the reHuirement of recitation, and
then he read few verses of the F,aurahC or F$nBeelC which discusses the
remembrance of )llah, there is no obBection Ji.e. ?arBK but he should
not do this. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#1E

Law: )mal+e+=atheer, which is Jan actionK which is neither from
amongst the actions of Namaa3, nor is it done to rectify or correct
the Namaa3I nullifies the Namaa3. )mal+e+*aleel, does not nullify the
Namaa3. ,he one who is doing such an action, which when seen by
someone from far, not only does he doubt that he is not in Namaa3,
but he pre+dominantly assumes JMumaan MhalibK that the person is
not in Namaa3, then that action is :nown as F)mal+e+=atheerC
J"4cessive movementK. $f a person loo:ing from far away had doubt
as to whether the person is really in Namaa3 or not, then this
JactionK of the Jperson in Namaa3K is F)mal+e+*aleelC Jlimited
movementK. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(036(0' etcE

Law: $f Jin Namaa3K one wore a =urta Jupper garmentK or 1aBaama
JtrouserK, or if he tied a tahband JwaistclothK, the Namaa3 is nullified.
DMhuniyaE

Vol.3 pg.3'0


348
Law: $f one made !aBdah on a Na+1aa: JimpureK place without
anything Jseparating it from himK, the Namaa3 is nullified, even if he
repeats that !aBdah on a pure place. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(0(E
!imilarly, if one :eeps the :nees or the hand on an impure place, the
Namaa3 is nullified. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(0(E

Law: $f one completed an entire 2u:n with the F!atrC opened, or
with impurity, which is the disallowed amount, or two for the
duration of three tasbeehs to pass Jin this conditionK, nullifies the
Namaa3. !imilarly, due to the crowd, if one ended up in the !aff of
females for that duration of timeI or if he ended up in front of the
$mam, the Namaa3 is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(0( etcE ,o
intentionally open the F!atrC J1rivate area, which needs to be
coveredK is absolutely a nullifying factor of Namaa3, even if he
immediately covers up again. ,here is even no rule of duration or
delay in this Ji.e. the moment he does this the Namaa3 will be
nullifiedK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(0(E

Law: $f a cloth Jsheet etcK has been sewn Boined together and in it,
the lining is impure, but the outer fold is paa: JpureK, then Namaa3
on the side of the outer fold is also invalid, when the prohibited
amount of impurity is on the areas of !uBoodI and if it is not sewn,
then to read on the outer fold is permissible, as long as it is not so
thin that the lining can be seen through. D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.(0(6(05E

Law: $f lime, and sand was used to properly cover an impure piece
of ground, Namaa3 can now be read on itI and if one simply scattered
some dust over it, whereby the odour is still evident, then it is
impermissible, if the impurity is on the areas of !uBood. D&uniya
!haami vol.1 pg.(05E
Vol.3 pg.3'.


349
Law: ,o eat or drin: whilst in Namaa3 absolutely nullifies Namaa3,
be it with intent or without intent, or be it a little or a lot, to the
e4tent that if he chews a sesame seed and swallows it, or if a drop fell
into his mouth and he swallowed it, the Namaa3 will be nullified.
D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(02E

Law: $f some food particles are left between the teeth, and one
swallowed it, then if it is small than a JgrainK of gram Ji.e. chanaK the
Namaa3 will not be nullified, but it is &a:ruhI and if it is eHuivalent
to a JgrainK of gram, it will nullify the Namaa3. $f the teeth bled, then
if the saliva is more, then swallowing it wonCt nullify the Namaa3I
otherwise it will nullify it Jif the blood is moreK D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.(02I )lamgiri vol.1 pg. 1#2E ,he sign of it being more, is that
the taste of the blood must be felt from the throat. $n Namaa3, the
nullification is dependent on the taste and in 9udu it is dependent
on the colour.

Law: $f before Namaa3 a person ate something sweet and its
particles where already swallowed, but only its sweet sensation
remained in the saliva of the mouth, then by swallowing this saliva,
the Namaa3 will not be nullified. $f one put sugar into the mouth Jin
Namaa3K which melted and reached the throat, the Namaa3 has been
nullified. $f there is gum in the mouth, and if one chewed on it and
particles of it entered into the throat, the Namaa3 becomes nullified.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#2E

Law: ,o turn away the chest from the *ibla nullifies the Namaa3, if
there is no valid reason for doing this. $n other words, one turned to
such an e4tent that the chest is diverted '( degrees away from the
actual direction of the =aabaI and if this is due to an F<3rC, then it is
not a nullifying factor of Namaa3. 7or e4ample if he thought he was
Vol.3 pg.3(#


350
affected by hadath, and he had Bust turned his face, when he realised
his assumption was wrongI then in this case, if he has not left the
&asBid yet, the Namaa3 is not nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(05E

Law: $f he wal:ed towards the direction of *ibla eHual to the
distance of one !aff, then if he stopped for the amount of duration it
ta:es to complete one 2u:n, then he wal:ed again and then stopped,
even if this happens on numerous occasions, until he does not
change the location, the Namaa3 will not be nullified. 7or e4ampleI if
he comes out of the &asBid, or if the Namaa3 was ta:ing place in an
open field and this person went ahead of the !affs, as both these are
regarded as changing the location, and in both instances, the
Namaa3 will be nullified. !imilarly, if at once, he wal:ed the distance
of two !affs !pace, the Namaa3 is nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htarI 2addul
&uhtar vol.1I pg.(05E

Law: $f he is in the wilderness Jor desertK and there are no !affs in
front of him, but in the case where he is the $mam, if he went beyond
the area of !uBood, then if he went so far ahead that the amount of
space is eHual to distance which was between him and the closest
!aff to him, then the Namaa3 is not nullifiedI but if he moved further
ahead than this, the Namaa3 is nullifiedI and if he is a &unfarid, then
the ruling in regards to the area of !uBood. $n other words, if he
moves front, bac:, left or right more than the space upto the area of
!uBood, the Namaa3 will be nullified. D!haami vol.1 pg.(05E

Law: $f an animal dragged a person in one pull, for a distance of
three foot+spaces, or if it pushed him that distance away, the Namaa3
has been nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(0/E

Vol.3 pg.3(1


351
Law: $f a person said the ,a:beer and moved from one Namaa3 into
another Namaa3, the first Namaa3 has been nullified. 7or e4ample, if
he was reading Luhr, and then with the Niyyat of JcommencingK )sr
of Nafil if he said F)llahu ):barC, the Luhr Namaa3 has been nullified.
,hen, if he is !aahib+e+,arteeb, and there is sufficient time, then
even the )sr will not be valid, but in both cases it will be regarded as
Nafil. $f he intends )sr, then it is )sr and if he intends Nafil, it is
Nafil. !imilarly, if he was performing his Namaa3 alone, and now he
said F)llahu ):barC with the Niyyat of $Htida Ji.e. following the
$mamKI of if he was a &uHtadi and he said F)llahu ):barC with the
intention of reading alone, then the Namaa3 has been nullified.
!imilarly, if he was reading Namaa3+e+;anaa3ah and then another
;anaa3ah was brought, so he said )llah ):bar with the Niyyat of both
the ;anaa3ahs or with the Niyyat for the second ;anaa3ah, then the
;anaa3ah Namaa3 of the second one has commenced, and the
Namaa3 he was reading for the first ;anaa3ah, has been nullified.
D%urr+e+&u:htar, !haami vol.1 pg.(03E

Law: ) female was reading her Namaa3 and a child suc:led on her
breast, then if mil: is released, the Namaa3 is nullified. D!haami vol.1
pg.(0/E

Law: $f a female was in Namaa3 and the man :issed her or touched
her body with lust JdesireK, the Namaa3 has been nullified. $f he had
oil on his hands and he wiped it on her head or on some part of her
body, then in this case the Namaa3 will not be nullified. D&uniyaI
MhuniyaI !haami vol.1 pg.(0/6(00E

Law: $f whilst in Namaa3 one slapped or hit with a whip JetcK a
person, the Namaa3 is nullifiedI if he is reading Namaa3 whilst riding
an animal, and with his heel of hand he urged the animal on, once or
Vol.3 pg.3(2


352
twice, it will not nullify the Namaa3. $f he does this thrice
continuously, it will nullify the Namaa3. $f he urged it with the heel
of one foot, continuously thrice, the Namaa3 will be nullified,
otherwise notI and if he urged it with the heels of both feet it will
nullify the Namaa3, but if he only sha:es the feet gently, that
another person will only ta:e notice if he loo:s very carefully, then
in this case, the Namaa3 is not nullified. D&uniyaI MhuniyaI )lamgiri
vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: $f one pointed out the road to the horse by using a whip and he
hit it as well, the Namaa3 has been nullified. $f in the midst of
reading Namaa3, he mounted the horse, the Namaa3 is nullifiedI and
if he was reading on a conveyance and he got off, it will not nullify
the Namaa3. D&uniyaI *adi =hanI )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: J9hilst in Namaa3K to write three words in such a manner that
the alphabets are clearly visible, nullifies the Namaa3. $f the
alphabets were not clearly writtenI for e4ample, if he wrote them on
water, or in the air, then it is in vain, and the Namaa3 has become
&a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. DMhuniyaI )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: $f a person carried a person who is reading Namaa3 and then
put him bac: down on the same place, then if his chest did not turn
away from the *ibla, the Namaa3 has not been nullifiedI and if he
carried him and put him onto a conveyance Jhorse etcK, the Namaa3
is nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: Namaa3 is nullified by death, insanity and unconsciousnessI $f
one Jwho is unconscious etcK comes through within the prescribed
time Jof that Namaa3K, he should read it, otherwise he should ma:e
Vol.3 pg.3(3


353
*a3a of it, on condition that it does not e4ceed one day and night.
D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(0.E

Law: $f one intentionally bro:e his 9udu or something which
necessitates Mhusl occurredI or if he left out any 2u:n, whereas he
has not fulfilled it in that particular Namaa3I or if he left out any pre+
reHuisite without an F<3rCI or if the &uHtadi superseded the $mam in
any 2u:n Ji.e. completed it before the $mamK, and if he did not do it
again, either with the $mam or afterwards, until such time that he
made !alaam with the $mamI or if the &asbooH fulfilled his missed
!aBdah and Boined the $mam in !aBdah+e+!ahwI or if after the *aCda+e+
)a:hira, one remembered the !aBdah of Namaa3 or !aBdah+e+
,ilaawat and after fulfilling it, he did not ma:e *aCda againI or if he
performed any 2u:n whilst asleep and did not repeat itI then in all
these cases the Namaa3 has been nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.(0.E

Law: ,he Namaa3 is not nullified by :illing a sna:e or scorpion Ji.e.
venomous and harmful creaturesK, as long as one does not have to
wal: more than three steps or stri:e it more than thriceI otherwise
the Namaa3 will be nullified Ji.e. become 7aasidK. ne is permitted to
:ill these, even if the Namaa3 becomes nullified. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#3I MhuniyaE

Law: $t is only F&ubahC in Namaa3 to :ill a sna:e or scorpion, when
it passes in front of you, and there is a fear of it harming you. $f there
is no fear of it causing any harm, then to do so is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: ne after the other, if one removes three strands of hair, or if
he :ills three liceI or if he hit one lice thrice, the Namaa3 will be
Vol.3 pg.3('


354
nullifiedI and if he does not do this one after the other
JcontinuouslyK, then it will not nullify the Namaa3, but it is &a:ruh
to do so. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: $f one is wearing a broad JlooseK soc:, then removing it will not
nullify the Namaa3, but by wearing the leather soc: will nullify the
Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#3E

Law: $f one put Jor chec:edK the bridle in the mouth of the horse or
if he saddled it, or unsaddled it, the Namaa3 will be nullified.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg../E

Law: ,o scratch thrice in one 2u:n nullifies the Namaa3. $n other
words, in this manner that if one scratched once and then move the
hand away, then scratched again and lifted the hand, and so onI but
if one :ept the hand once on an area and moved the hand on that
area few times Ji.e. scratched few times without lifting the handK, it
is counted as scratching once. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#'I MhuniyaE

Law: $n the ,a:beeraat+e+$ntiHaal Ji.e. ,a:beers which ta:e one
from one 2u:n to the ne4tK, if one lengthened the )lif of ﺍ ﷲ or .,´
F)llahC or F):barC proclaimed it as ¯ ﷲ or .,´¯ or after the FbeC if one
added an )lif and said ﺍ ﷲ ,ﺎ,´ the Namaa3 will be nullifiedI and if this
happened in the ,ahreema Ji.e. in the first ,a:beer pronounced to
commence !alaahK, then in this case the Namaa3 has not even
commenced. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(0.E !uch an error in *iraCat
or in the )3:aar JwordsK of Namaa3, which caused the meaning to be
changed then this, causes the Namaa3 to be nullified. ) detailed
e4planation in this regard has already gone by.

Vol.3 pg.3((


355
Law: Wal:ing in front of the Namaa3i Jthe worshipperK, or for
anyone to pass in the area of !uBood, does not nullify the Namaa3.
,his is the rule no matter who or what passes, be it a male, female, or
a dog, or a mule. DMeneral boo:sI !haami vol.1 pg.(.3I )lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#'E

Law: ,o pass in front of a &usalCli Jone in Namaa3K is a serious sin. $t
has been mentioned in the ?adith !hareef that if the one who passes
in front of a &usalCli :new the severity of the sin, he would regard it
better to stand for forty years instead of passing in front of him. ,he
narrator says that he is not sure whether it was said for '# days, '#
months, or '# years. ,his ?adith has been reported in !ihah !itCta
from )bu ;uhaim ؓ  and in the narration of -a3C3a3, '# years has
been stipulated. ,he narration of $bn &aBah from )bu ?urairah ؓ
mentions that 2asoolullah  said that if a person :new what it
meant to pass in front of him brother in Namaa3 as a hindrance, he
would prefer to stand waiting for 1## years instead of ta:ing that
one step. $mam &aali: ؓ  reported that =aCab )hbaar says, that if the
one who passes in front of a Namaa3i :new the sin he will get for
doing this, he would prefer to sin: into the earth, rather than
passing. $t is in !ahih -u:hari and &uslim from )bu ;uhaifa ؓ 
wherein he says, $ saw 2asoolullah  in &a::ah. ?u3oor was seated
in a valley inside a red leather tent. ?a3rat -ilal ؓ  too: the 9udu
water of 2asoolullah  and the people JcompanionsK were ta:ing it
very Huic:ly. 9hoever got anything from it, rubbed it on his face and
chest, and the one who did not manage to get some, wiped the
wetness of the hands of another person. -ilal ؓthen planted a spear
Jinto the groundK and 2asoolullah  emerged wearing a red striped
outfit. ?u3oor  then faced the direction of the spear and led 2
2a:aCats of Namaa3, and $ noticed people and animals passing on the
other side of the spear.C
Vol.3 pg.3(5


356
Law: $n an open field and in a F-ig &osHueC to pass between the feet
of the &usalCli upto the area of !uBood is impermissible. ,he F)rea of
!uBoodC or FGine of !uBoodC refers to this: 9hilst in *iyaam Jstanding
positionK when loo:ing at the place where you will ma:e !aBdah,
then for as far as the sight spread Jwhilst loo:ing at thatK that is
regarded as the F)rea of !uBoodC J&awdiC !uBoodK. ,o pass through it
is impermissible. $n a house or F!mall &asBidC to pass anywhere
between the feet to the wall of the *ibla, is impermissible, if there is
no F!utrahC D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#'I %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(.3E

Law: $f someone is reading JNamaa3K on a height, to even pass under
him is also not permissible, when some part of the person passing is
in front of the Namaa3i. ,he same rule applies to passing in front of a
person reading on a roof or on a platform. $f these things are so high,
that no part of the body will come in front, then there is no harm.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. (.36(.'E

Law: $f one passed in front of a &usalCli whilst riding on a horse etcI
if the feet or the lower part of the passer+byCs body is in front of the
&usalClis head, then it is disallowed Jto do thisK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.(.'E

Law: $f there is a F!utrahC in front of a &usalCli, in other words
something is placed there as a partition, then there is no harm in
passing beyond the !utrah. DMeneral -oo:sI )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#'E
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

Note: ,hat which the 7uHaha+e+=iraam have referred to as a F-ig &asBidC here there are none.
&asBid+e+=hwar3im one fourth of which consists of '### pillars, is regarded as a F-ig &osHueC
J&alfoo3at+e+)ala ?a3rat vol.1K

Note: !utrah refers to some sort of legal partition, which is placed in front of the &usalCli.

Vol.3 pg.3(/


357
Law: ,he F!utrahC should be one had length in height and as thic: as
a finger, and should be a ma4imum or 3 hand lengths in height.
D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. (.(6(.5E

Law: $f the $mam and &unfarid are reading Namaa3 in the
wilderness or in such a place where there is a possibility of people
passing, then it is &ustahab JdesirableK to fi4 Jin the groundK a
partition, and the !utrah should be close. ,he !utrah should not be
directly in line with the nose, but it should be either to the right or
left, in line with the eyebrows, and for it to be in line with the right
eyebrow is more virtuous. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(.56(./E

Law: $f it is no possible to plant it Jinto the groundK, then :eep it
straight Ji.e. flatK, and if there is no such thing which can be :ept li:e
this, then draw a line, be it lengthwise or li:e a &ehraab. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.(.5I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#'E

Law: $f there is nothing that can be used as a !utrah, and if he has a
=itaab Jboo:K or cloth with him, then he should :eep this in front of
him. D2addul &uhtar, vol.1 pg.(.5E

Note: ,his obBective of doing this is also the same Jas
aforementionedK, in other words it is done so that the attention of
the Namaa3i does not drift Ji.e. he is not distractedK, because by
:eeping the =itaab or cloth in front of him will not ma:e it
permissible to pass in front of him. ?owever, if it reaches a height
which is stipulated for a F!utrahC then to pass beyond that will also
be permissible.

Law: ,he !utrah of the $mam is the !utrah of the followers Ji.e. ,he
!utrah of the $mam is the !utrah of everyone behind himK. ,here is
Vol.3 pg.3(0


358
no need for a new JseparateK !utrah for the &uHtadis, so in a F!mall
&asBidC even if you pass in front of a &uHtadi, as long as you do not
pass in front of the $mamI there is no harm. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.(./ etcE

Law: ) tree, animal or person can also act as a !utrah, that in this
case there is no harm in passing beyond them. DMhuniyaE ) man
should be used to act as a !utrah, when his bac: is facing the
&usalCli, because to face the &usalCli is disallowed.

Law: $f one on a conveyance Jhorse etcK wishes to pass in front of a
&usalCli, the valid way of doing this is to put the animal in front of
the &usalCli and then pass beyond that D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#'E Ji.e. on
the other side of the animal and then pull the animal awayK.

Law: $f two people together Jwal:ing ne4t to each otherK passed in
front of the $mam, then the one who is closest to the &usalCli is
sinful, and he has become the !utrah for the other person. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.1#'E

Law: $f one wishes to pass in front of the &usalCli, then if he has
something, which can be used as a !utrah, then he should :eep it in
front of him and pass, and then pic: it up Jafter passingK. $f two
people wish to pass and they have nothing to use as a !utrah, then
one from amongst them should stand in front of the Namaa3i with
his bac: facing him, and the other should use him as a partition and
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

Note: $n the two situations, it does not mean that passing is permissible, but it is so that the
attention of the Namaa3i does not drift.

Vol.3 pg.3(.


359
pass, then the other should stand behind him, facing his bac: to the
Namaa3i, and this person should now pass, then the second should
move away to the side now, from where he came at this time.
D)lamgiriI 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(.(E

Law: $f he has an F)saaC J!taff6!tic:K but he is not able to plant it
Jinto the groundK, he may ma:e it stand and pass in front of the
&usalCli Jbeyond itK as to do so is permissible, on condition that he
must be able to pass before it falls after he leaves it with his hand.
D!haami vol.1 pg.(.(E

Law: $f there was place in the front !aff, but one left it empty and
stood in the bac: !aff, then the one who comes later is permitted to
wal: over his shoulder and go into that empty space, because he has
himself lost his dignity. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(.(E

Law: $f there is no possibility of people passing by in front of you,
and if there is no pathway in front, then there is no harm in not
establishing a !utrah. ?owever, it is still better to establish a !utrah.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(./E

Law: $f there is no !utrah in front of the Namaa3i and someone
wishes to pass by, or if there is a !utrah but the person wishes to
pass between the &usalCli and the !utrah, then the &usalCli is given
F2u:hsatC Jpermission6leaveK to stop him from passing, either by
saying F!ubhaanC)llahC or by reciting the *iraCat with ;ahr Ji.e.
audiblyK, or to stop him by gesturing to him by way of hand, head or
eyes. ne is not permitted to do more than this. 7or e4ample Jit is
not allowedK to grab his clothing and tug at it, or to hit himI actually
if it becomes )mal+e+=atheer, the Namaa3 will be nullified. D2addul
&uhtarI %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(.56(./E
Vol.3 pg.35#


360
Law: ,o gather together ,asbeeh and gesturing without need, is
&a:ruh, $f someone passes in front of a female, she should stop them
by means of F,asfeeHC in other words, she should hit the fingers of
her right hand onto the bac: of the left handI and if a man used
F,asfeeHC and a female used F,asbeehC, then to the Namaa3 will not be
nullifiedI but it is contrary to the !unnat J=hilaaf+e+!unnatK. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.(./E

Law: $f a person is performing his Namaa3 in ,he &asBid )l ?araam
!hareef, then people may pass in front of him whilst ma:ing ,awaaf.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.(.'E




















Vol.3 pg.351


361





Chapter 11

Makruh Actions
In Namaaz



∗ Hadith 362

∗ Laws of Jurisprudence 369










Vol.3 pg.352


362
Hadith 1: -u:hari and &uslim report from )bu ?urairah ؓ that
2asoolullah  forbade :eeping the hands on the waist in Namaa3.

Hadith 2: $t is in !harh us !unnah from $bn <mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that
?u3oor  said, F,o :eep the hands on the waist in Namaa3 is the
comfort of the hell+dwellers.C

Hadith 3: -u:hari, &uslim, )bu %awud and NasaCi report that
<mmul &oCmineen !iddiHa ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, states, F$ as:ed 2asoolullah 
about loo:ing around whilst in Namaa3, and he said that this is to
carry away, for shaitaan carries away from the Namaa3 of a servant
Jof )llahK.C

Hadith 4: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, NasaCi, and $bn =hu3aima
and ?aa:im on the note of correctness report from )bu Lirr ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F,hat a person who is in Namaa3, is within the
!pecial &ercy of )llah as long as he does not loo: around Jin
Namaa3K, and when he turns he his face JawayK, ?is J)llahCsK 2ahmat
also turns away.C

Hadith 5: $mam )hmed reports on the merit of a ?assan
narration from )bu PaCla that ?a3rat )bu ?urairah ؓ  says, F&y
-eloved  forbade us from three thingsI from pec:ing li:e a birdI
from sitting li:e a dog and from loo:ing around Jin Namaa3K.C

Hadith 6: -a3C3a3 reported from ;abir bin )bdullah ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, F9hen a person stands up for Namaa3, )lmighty
)llah places ?is !pecial &ercy upon him, and when he starts to loo:
aroundI he says, F -ani )dam> ,o where are you diverting your
attention. $s there anyone better than me towards whom you are
directing your attentionOC ,hen when he diverts his attention, )gain
Vol.3 pg.353


363
?e J)llahK says this to him, and when he diverts his attention Jfrom
)llahCs remembranceK for the third timeI )lmighty )llah moves ?is
!pecial &ercy away from him.C

Hadith 7: ,irmi3i narrated a ?assan narration wherein it is
mentioned that ?u3oor  said to )nas bin &aali: ؓ  , F lad> Muard
yourself from diverting your attention in Namaa3, for diverting
attention in Namaa3 is Jcause forK destruction.

?adith .+12: -u:hari, )bu %awud, $bn &aBah and NasaCi report from
)nas bin &aali: ؓ  that he  said, F9hat is the position of those
who whilst in Namaa3 raise their eyes to the s:y. ,hey should
abstain from this, or their eyesight will be ta:en awayC. ,here are
narrations in the boo:s of ?adith from $bn <mar, )bu ?urairah, )bu
!aCeed =hudri and ;abir ﺍ¸:, ﷲ ﻢ,:ﻋ

‘ﺎ.. which are very similar to this.

Hadith 13: $mam )hmed )bu %awud and ,irmi3i on the benefit of
soundnessI and $bn &aBah, $bn ?ibCban and $bn =hu3aima report
from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, F9hen anyone from
amongst you stands for Namaa3, then do not touch pebbles Ji.e. play
with pebblesK, for the &ercy is directed Jto himK.C

Hadith 14: $t is in !ihah !itCta from &uayHeeb ؓ  I %o not touch
Ji.e. moveK pebbles and if you are helpless to do it, then only once.

Hadith 15: $t is reported in the !ahih of $bn =hu3aima that ;a3ar
ؓ  says, $ as:ed ?u3oor  about touching pebbles in Namaa3, and he
said, Fonly once, but if you abstain from this, then it is better than
Jbeing rewardedK with 1## she+camels with blac: eyes.C

Vol.3 pg.35'


364
Hadith 16-17: $t is reported in &uslim from )bu !aCeed =hudri ؓ
that ?u3oor  said, F9hen a person feels the need to yawn in
Namaa3, he should try his best to stop it, as shaitaan enters the
mouth Jwhen yawningK.C

,he Narration of !ahih -u:hari is from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that ?e 
said, Fwhen a person feels the need to yawn in Namaa3, he should try
to hold it bac: as much as possible. 9hen saying F?aaC Jthe sound
when yawning with mouth openK, this is from shaitaan. !haitaan
laughs through this.C ,he Narration of ,irmi3i and $bn &aBah is from
him J)bu ?urairah as wellK and in that after what has been
aforementioned, he  said, F=eep your hand on your mouthC Ji.e.
when you yawnK.

Hadith 18-19: $mam )hmed, )bu %awud, ,irmi3i, NasaCi and
%aarimi report from =aCab bin <Brah ؓ  that 2asoolullah  saidI
F9hen a person ma:es 9udu properly and leaves with the aim of
going to the &asBid, he should not put the fingers of one hand into
the fingers of the other hand, as he is in Namaa3C. Ji.e. he is going
towards $baadat so he is in $baadatK. ) similar ?adith is narrated by
)bu ?urairah ؓ

Hadith 20: $t is reported in !ahih -u:hari and !hafeeH that
?u3aifa ؓ  noticed a person who was not completing his 2u:u and
!uBood correctly. 9hen he had finished, he called him and said,
FPour Namaa3 is not doneC. ,he Narrator says, F$t is my assumption
that he also said Jto himK, that if you die Jin this conditionK, you will
die distant from the way of &uhammad .C


Vol.3 pg.35(


365
Hadith 21-24: -u:hari reported in his ,aari:h and $bn =hu3aima
etc reported from =halid bin 9aleed, )mr bin )Cas, Pa3eed bin )bi
!ufyaan and !harBeel bin ?usna ﺍ ¸:, ﷲ ﻢ,:ﻋ

‘ﺎ.. that ?u3oor  observed a
person reading Namaa3, that he does not complete his 2u:u
properly and pec:s Jli:e a birdK in !aBdah, ?e  commanded him to
complete his 2u:u correctly, he  said, Fthat if he dies in this
condition, he will not die on the faith Ji.e. wayK of &uhammad .C
?e  then said, Fne who does not do his 2u:u in full and who
pec:s, is li:e that hungry person, who eats only one or two dates,
which are of no use to him.C

Hadith 25: $mam )hmed reports from )bu *atadah ؓ that
?u3oor  said, F,he worst thief is the one who steals from his JownK
Namaa3C. ,he !ahaba as:ed, FPa 2asoolC)llah , how does he steal
from Namaa3OC ?e  said, Fby not ma:ing his 2u:u and !uBood in
fullC. Ji.e. not completing it correctlyK.

Hadith 26: $mam &aali: and )hmed report from NuCman bin
&urCrah ؓ  that before the command of ?udood JClass of
1unishment fi4 for crimesK was revealed, 2asoolullah  whilst
addressing the !ahaba+e+=iraam said, F9hat are your thoughts about
those who consume alcohol, adulterers and thievesOC ,hey all said,
F)llah and ?is 2asool  :now bestC ?e  said, F,hese are e4tremely
even doings, and there is punishment for them, and the more severe
theft, is to steal from your JownK Namaa3.C ,hey as:ed, F?ow will one
still from his Namaa3OC ?e  said, F-y not fulfilling his 2u:u and
!uBood in fullC. ) similar narration is present in %aarimi as well.



Vol.3 pg.355


366
Hadith 27: $mam )hmed reported from ,alH bin )li ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F)llah does not loo: towards the Namaa3 of a
servant wherein he does not straighten his bac: between 2u:u and
!uBoodC.

Hadith 28: )bu %awud and ,irmi3i report on merit of ?assan that
)nas ؓ  says that during the time of 2asoolullah  we would
abstain from standing in a doorwayC. )nother narration says that we
would be bumped pushed out.

Hadith 29: ,irmi3i reported that <mm ul &oCmineen !alma
ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, says that one of our bondsman by the name of )flah
JalwaysK blew when he made !aBdah. ?e  said, F)flah> 2ub your
face in dustC. Ji.e. do not try to blow away the dustK

Hadith 30: $bn &aBah reported from )meer ul &oCmineen ?a3rat
)li ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, F9hen you are in Namaa3, do not
intertwine your fingersC. )ctually, in one narration it is mentioned
that he  forbade intertwining the fingers whilst waiting in the
&asBid for Namaa3.

Hadith 31: $t is reported in !ihah !itCta that ?u3oor  said, F$
have been commanded to perform !aBdah on seven parts and not to
gather JfoldK the clothing or the hair.C J$n Namaa3K

Hadith 32: $t is reported in !ahihain from $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,
that 2asoolullah  said, F$ have been commanded to perform !aBdah
on seven bonesI the face, both hands, both :nees both feet. Ji.e. toes
of the feetK, and we have been commanded not to gather our
clothing and hairC.

Vol.3 pg.35/


367
Hadith 33: )bu %awud, NasaCi and %aarimi reports from )bdur
2ahmaan bin !hubl, that 2asoolullah  forbade us from pec:ing
li:e a crow and spreading our legs li:e wild beastsI and he forbade us
from fi4ing a set place in the &asBid Jfor yourselfK, li:e a camel fi4es
a place Jfor itselfK.

Hadith 34: ,irmi3i reported from ?a3rat )li ؓ that 2asoolullah
 said, F )li> 9hat $ love for me, $ love for you, and what $ regard
as &a:ruh for me, $ regard as &a:ruh Jdisli:edK for you. %o not sit
between both !aBdahs in $HCa Ja manner whereby your rear is on the
ground and the heels are raisedK.

Hadith 35: )bu %awud has reported it and ?aa:im in &ustadra:,
from -uraidah ؓ  that 2asoolullah  forbade that a man should
only wear a trouser and read his Namaa3 without covering with a
sheet.

Hadith 36: $t is in !ahihain from )bu ?urairah ؓthat ?u3oor 
said, FNone from amongst you should read Namaa3 in only one cloth
Jsheet etcK whereby there is nothing on your shoulders.C

Hadith 37: $t is reported in !ahih -u:hari from )bu ?urairah ؓ  ,
that he  said that, Fif a person reads Namaa3 in only one sheet, Jin
other words, it is that which suffices as a sheet and as a waist clothK,
,hen he should throw this end over on that side and that end over to
this side.C

Hadith 38: )bdur 2a3C3aH reported in JhisK &usannaf that $bn
<mar ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, gave NaafCi two pieces of clothing to wear, and he
was a young lad at that time. Gater when he went to the &asBid, he
found him there reading Namaa3 wrapped in one sheet. n seeing
Vol.3 pg.350


368
this he said, F%o you not have two sheets that you could have wornOC
?e said, FPesCI F$f $ send you out of the house JbuildingK will you wear
bothOC he said, FPesC ?e said, F$s adornment more appropriate when
standing in the Court of )llah Ji.e. in $baadatK, or for the peopleOC.

Hadith 39: $mam )hmed reports that <bay bin =aCab ؓ said that
FNamaa3 in one sheet JclothK is !unnat Ji.e. permissibleK, because in
the "ra of 2asoolullah , we used to do this, and we were not
faulted for doing this.C )bdullah ibn &asCud ؓ  has mentioned that
this is only in the case when one has a shortage of clothes, and for
the one whom )llah has blessed with abundance, he should wear two
pieces of clothes in Namaa3, ,his is more tidy.

Hadith 40: )bu %awud reports from )bdullah ibn &asCud ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F7or that person who trails his waist cloth with
pride, he is completely deprived of )llahCs &ercy.C

Hadith 41: )bu %awud reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that a
person was reading Jhis Namaa3K whilst his waist cloth was trailing
Jhanging lowK. ?e  said, FMo and ma:e 9uduC ?e went, made 9udu
and returned. !omeone as:ed, FPa 2asoolC)llah , what happened,
that ?u3oor  commanded him to perform 9udu JagainKOC
2asoolullah  said, F?e was reading Namaa3 with his waist cloth
hanging low, and verily )llah does not accept the Namaa3 of a
person who lets his waist cloth hangC Jin other words so low that it
hide his an:lesK. !hay:h &uhaHHiH &uhadith %ehlwi ﻤﺣ, . ﺍ ﷲ

‘ﺎ.. states in
GamCaatI F?e was commanded to perform 9udu so that he
understands that this is a sin, and that 9udu is a :afaara
JatonementK for sins, and it is that which removes the means to sin.C

Vol.3 pg.35.


369
Hadith 42: )bu %awud reports from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that ?u3oor
 said, F9hen one reads Namaa3, he should not :eep his shoes to
his right, and he should not :eep it to his left as well, as it would be
to the right of another personI e4cept when there is no one to his
leftI but the shoes should be :ept between both the legs J7eetK.C

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: ,o play with the clothing, beard or bodyI or to gather the
clothing, for e4ample when going into !aBdah, to lift the clothing
from behind or at the front, even if it is to save it from dust JetcK, and
if it is without reason, then it is more &a:ruh. ,o hang the clothing
JoverK, for e4ample to put it over the head or shoulders in a manner
whereby both the ends are hanging, are all &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi Ji.e.
all the aforementioned actions are &a:ruh+e+,ahreemiK. DMeneral
-oo:sI !haami vol.1 pg. (./+(..E

Law: $f one does not put the hands into the sleeves of the F:urtaC
Jupper garmentK etc, but merely throws it over towards the bac:,
then to, the ruling is same.

Law: $f the ends of a nec: shawl, shawl, or blan:et are hanging from
both shoulders, it is disallowed and &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. $f one end
is put over the shoulder and the other is hanging Jto the frontK, there
is no harm. $f has been thrown over one shoulder in a manner
whereby one end is hanging on the bac: and the other on the
stomach, li:e it is the common way of :eeping a shawl over the
shoulder todayI then this is also &a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.(.0E

Vol.3 pg.3/#


370
Law: ,o wear the sleeves folded half way the wrist up, or if one
gathers the lower end of the upper garment, then to read Namaa3 in
this manner is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemiI whether this was folded before
the Namaa3 commenced or whilst in Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg. (.0E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 when one severely needs to pass urine or
stool, or when one is overcome with the need to pass air JflatulenceK,
is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. $t has been mentioned in the ?adith !hareef
that if the ;amaCat has begun and if one needs to go to the toilet, he
should first got to the toilet. ,his ?adith has been reported by
,irmi3i from )bdullah ibn )rHam ؓ  and )bu %awud, NasaCi and
&aali: have reported similarly narrations. D!haami vol.1 pg.5##E

Law: $f before commencing Namaa3, if there is sufficient time
remaining Jfor that Namaa3K, and one is overcome by these things,
then to even start Jin this conditionK is disallowed and a sin. ,o
answer the call of nature is primary, even if one fears that he will not
be able to get the ;amaCat. $f however, he feels that after answering
the call of nature and ma:ing 9udu, the time Jfor that Namaa3K will
e4pire Ji.e. the Namaa3 will become *a3aK, then in this case, he
should give preference to the time, and he should thus read the
Namaa3. $f this condition occurs whilst in Namaa3, and there is time
remaining, then to brea: the Namaa3 is 9aaBib JcompulsoryKI and if
one read in this condition, then one is sinful. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.5##E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 with a bac:+:not Jin the hairK is &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemi, and if one tied a bac:+:not in Namaa3, the Namaa3 is
nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar &u:htar vol.1 pg.5##E

Vol.3 pg.3/1


371
Law: ,o move pebbles JstonesK away in Namaa3 is &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemi unless if you are not able to properly fulfil the !unnat
method of !aBdah. ne is allowed to do this once, but to avoid it is
better. $f the 9aaBib cannot be fulfilled without moving them away,
then it is 9aaBib to move them, even if it has to be done more than
once. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5##E

Law: ,o interlin: the fingers, i.e. to put the fingers of one hand into
the fingers of the other hand, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.5## etcE

Law: ,o do this Jinterlin: fingersK when going for Namaa3, or when
waiting for Namaa3, are both &a:ruhI and if one is neither in
Namaa3, nor waiting for Namaa3, then there is no obBection, if it is
done for a reason. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 5##65#1 etcE

Law: ,o :eep the hand on the waist Jin Namaa3K is &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemiI and one should not :eep the hand on the waist Jhip etcK
outside of Namaa3 as well. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 5#1E

Law: ,o turn the face, loo:ing around is also &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.
,his applies whether one turns the entire face or part of it. $f the
face did not turn, but one Bust peers around then it is &a:ruh+e+
,an3eehi, and if it is done infreHuently for some proper reason, then
there is no harm at all. ,o loo: up towards the s:y is also &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemi. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#5E

Law: ,o sit li:e a dog in ,ashahud, or between the !aBdahs, in other
words, sitting by Boining the :nees to the chest JleaningK and placing
both the hands JflatK on the ground, on the edge of the rear end. 7or
a male to spread out the wrists Jflat on the groundK in !aBdah, or to
Vol.3 pg.3/2


372
read Namaa3 facing someone Ji.e. facing him front in+frontK is
&a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. !imilarly, for someone else to face a &usalCli is
also impermissible and sinful. $f this is caused by Jthe actionK of the
&usalCli then the &usalCli is at fault and not the other person. D%urr+
e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#165#2E

Law: $f there is a space Jsome distanceK between the &usalCli and the
person who is facing the &usalCli, it is still obBectionableI unless
there is something separating in+between, whereas even in *iyaam
J!tandingK you are not facing him directlyI in this case it is fine. $f it
is such that in *uCood J9hen sittingK one is not facing and in *iyaam
one is facing, for e4ample if between both persons, a person sat with
his bac: facing the &usalCli, that in this way when the &usalCli is
sitting you are not facing him, and in *iyaam you are, then it is still
obBectionable Ji.e. disli:edK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#2E

Law: ,o wrap oneself in a sheet Jor clothing etc.K to the e4tent that
the hands are also not outside Ji.e. hiddenK, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.
"ven outside Namaa3, one should avoid covering oneself in a sheet
li:e this, and in a place where there is fear, it is disallowed
absolutely. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.51#E

Law: $CtiBaar, in other words to tie the turban in such a manner that
it is not on the head in the middle, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. ,o tie an
)maama in this way, even out of Namaa3 is &a:ruh. !imilarly, to
cover the nose and face, and to clear the throat without reason, are
all &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 51#6511E

Law: ,o intentionally yawn in Namaa3 is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, but if
it comes by itself, there is no problem, but to try to stop it is
&ustahab JdesirableK. $f when trying to stop it, it does not, then
Vol.3 pg.3/3


373
press the lips with the teeth, and if even this does not stop it, then
:eep the right or left hand over the mouth, or cover the mouth with
a your sleeve. $n *iyaam, cover with the right hand, and in the rest,
with the left hand. D)lamgiri, vol.1 pg.1#/I %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.''5I &araHi )l 7alaahE

Beneficial Note: ,he )mbia ,ﻴﻠﻋ .·

ﺴﻟ ﺍو ةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍ ﻢ are protected from this,
as this is caused through interference by shaitaan. Nabi  said that,
FPawning is from shaitaan. 9hen any from amongst you feels the
need to yawn, then Jtry toK stop it.C $mam -u:hari and &uslim in
!ahihain have reported this ?adith. )ctually, it is mentioned in
certain narrations that shaitaan enters the mouth. $n some it is
mentioned that shaitaan laughs when he sees this happening, and
the F*ah *ahC sound which is made JwhenK yawning, is the laughing
of shaitaanI because he laughs when he sees how it causes the face
Je4pressionK to loo: badI and JsometimesK the moistness which
comes Jwith yawningK, is the saliva of shaitaan. ,he best way to stop
this, is that when you feel it coming, then in your heart thin: this,
that the )mbia .·

ﺴﻟ ﺍو ةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍ ﻢ,ﻴﻠﻋ are protected from this, and it will stop
immediately. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. ''5+5#3E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 wearing clothing which has pictures Jphotos
etcK of living things, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi. ,o wear such clothing
even outside Namaa3 is impermissible. !imilarly, if these JpicturesK
are above the head of the &usalCli, in other words on the roofI or
suspendedI or in the area of the !aBdah, whereby !aBdah will be made
on it, then Jin this case as wellK Namaa3 is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.
!imilarly, for there to be pictures to the front or right or left of the
&usalCli is also &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, and for it to be behind him is
&a:ruh. "ven though in all three cases the =arahat
JreprehensibilityK is when the picture which is at the front, bac:,
Vol.3 pg.3/'


374
right or left, is either suspended, or fitted, or a wall, or engraved into
the wall etc. $f it is on the ground and one is not ma:ing !aBdah on it,
there is no harm to the Namaa3. $f there is some picture of a non+
living thing, such as that of the sea, or mountains etc, then there is
no obBection. DMeneral boo:sI %urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#(+5#0I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E

Law: $f the picture is :ept in a place of disrepute, for e4ample if it is
:ept where shoes are removed, or on some other place on the
ground where people wal: over it Jtrample itK, or on a pillow etc
which is :ept under the thigh etc, then by such a picture being in the
house, there is no reprehensibility, and it will also not harm the
Namaa3, as long as !aBdah is not made on it. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1
pg.5#5 etcE

Law: ) pillow, which has a picture on it, place it and not leave lying
around, is to honour it, and this too will cause the Namaa3 to be
&a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#5E

Law: $f there is a picture on the hand or anywhere else on the body,
but it has been hidden by clothing, or if there is a small picture on
the ring. $f there is a very small picture at the front, bac:, right or
left, top or bottom, and it is so small that if you :eep it on the ground
and then stand up loo:ing at it, you will not be able to see the detail
of the body partsI or if it is under the foot or on the sitting areaI then
in all these cases the Namaa3 will not be &a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg. 5#565#/E

Beneficial Note: ,his however does not mean that pictures on
the bodyI or on a ring etc is permissible. ,his is simply e4plaining a
rule that if this is the case then the rule will apply as mentioned.
Vol.3 pg.3/(


375
Law: ) picture without a head, or one where the face is rubbed out,
for e4ample if it is on a paper, on clothing or on a wall and in: was
used to cover itI or its head or face was scratched outI or washed out,
will not be obBectionable Jin Namaa3K. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#/E

Law: $f the head of the picture was cut out, but the head is still in its
place, in other words, it did not separate from there, it is
obBectionableI for e4ample, if there was a picture on a cloth and one
sew across the nec:, whereby it loo:s li:e a noose. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.5#/E

Law: $n erasing, Bust to erase the face is sufficient to be safe from the
F=arahatC. $f the eyes or eyebrows, or hands, or feet are separated, it
will not remove the F=arahatC. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#/E

Law: $f a picture is printed on the pouch or inside of the poc:et, it
will not harm the Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#/E

Law: $f one is wearing clothing, which has a picture on it, and one
then wears some other clothes over it, which causes the picture to
be hidden, then the Namaa3 is now not &a:ruh. D2addul &uhtar
vol.1 pg.5#/E

Law: 9hen a picture is not very small, and not in a place of
disrepute, and it is not covered with a sheet etc. then in every
condition, Namaa3 is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi because of it, but the most
severe F=arahatC is when the picture is in front of the &usalCli on the
*ibla JdirectionK. ,hereafter, the severity is of that which is above
his head, then that which is on the right wall, then on the left wall,
then that, which is on the bac: wall or on a curtain Jetc.K at the bac:.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#5E
Vol.3 pg.3/5


376
Law: ,hese aforementioned rulings are with regards to Namaa3. )s
for the issue of :eeping JsuchK pictures, then in this regards it has
been mentioned in !ahih ?adith that, F)ngels of &ercy do not enter
that house in which there are dogs and picturesC Jof living thingsKI
unless they are :ept with disrepute, or if they are not as small Jas
mentionedK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#0E

Law: 9hether pictures on money and coins etc. are also things that
stop the )ngels from entering or notI then in this regard $mam *adi
$yaa3 ﺍ .ﻤﺣ, ﷲ .ﻴﻠﻋ

‘ﺎ.. says, no, it doesnCtI and the same is evident from the
state statements of our <lama+e+=iraam as well. D%urr+e+&u:htar,
2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#0E

Law: ,hese laws are related to :eeping pictures where the condition
of contempt and necessity etc. is e4empted. )s for the issue of
ma:ing pictures or having it made, then this is ?araam in any case.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#0E 9hether it is handmade or a copy, the
ruling regarding both is the same.

Law: ,o read the *urCan bac:wards or to omit any 9aaBib is
&a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, for e4ampleI not to straight the bac: in 2u:u or
!aBdahI similarly to go into !aBdah without straightening the bac: in
F*aumaC JstandingK or F;alsaC JsittingKI to read *urCan at any other
time Jin Namaa3K e4cept in *iyaamI or to complete the *iraCat in
2u:uI and for the &uHtadi to go into 2u:u or !uBood etc before the
$mamI or to pic: up the head Jfrom !aBdah etcK before him Jthe
$mamK. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg. 1#5+1#.E

Law: $f one read Namaa3 whilst only wearing a trouser or waist+
cloth whereas as a F:urtaC or sheet was availableI then it is &a:ruh+e+
Vol.3 pg.3//


377
,ahreemiI and if other clothes was not available, then it is e4empt.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.(.I MhuniyaE

Law: 7or the $mam to lengthen the Namaa3 because of the arrival of
someone, is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi if he recognises him and his aim is
to please himI and if it is to assist him Namaa3, then to lengthen it by
one or two ,asbeeh JdurationKI there is no F=arahatC. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#0E

Law: $f in a rush, one said F)llahu ):barC from behind the !aff and
Boined, and thereafter came into the !aff, then to do this is &a:ruh+
e+,ahreemi. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg. 1#0E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 on a usurped land, or on a field belonging to
someone else, which has fruits in it, or on a tilled land, is &a:ruh+e+
,ahreemi. $f there is a grave in front and there is no partition
between the &usalCli and the grave, then it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.3(263('I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/+1#.E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 in the places of worship of the :ufaar
JunbelieversK is &a:ruh, as it is the place of shaitaan, and the evident
=arahat is that of it being &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi, and to even enter
there is disallowed. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.3(3E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 wearing upside down clothes or to throw
cover with something on its wrong side is &a:ruh, and evidently, it
is ,ahreemi. !imilarly, not to close the front of the coat, and not to
put the buttons of the F)ch:anC Jlong coats etcK if there is no :urta
etc underneath and the chest is showing, then it is evident regarded
as a &a:ruh+e+,ahreemiI and if there is a =urta etc underneath,,
then it is &a:ruh+e+,an3eehi.
Vol.3 pg.3/0


378
<pto this stage, we have mentioned those &a:ruh actions, which are
evident as being &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi from the authentic =itaabs, but
reliable is on this basis. Now some other &a:ruh actions are being
presented, that most of them are clarified as being &a:ruh+e+
,an3eehi, and there is F$:htilaafC Jdifference of opinion in this
regardK, but the predominant and preferred J2aaBihK view, is that
they are ,an3eehi. ,o proclaim less than 3 ,asbeehs in 2u:u and
!uBood without reason Jis &a:ruh ,an3eehiK. $n the ?adith, this has
been referred to as: pec:ing li:e a bird Jcrow etcK. ?owever, if there
is shortage of time or there is fear that the train Jor other modes of
transportK will leave you behind, then there is no harm. $f the
&uHtadi was not able to say 3 ,asbeehs and the $mam already raised
his head, the &uHtadi should follow the $mam.

Law: ,o read Namaa3 with ones wor: clothing Jli:e uniform, overall
etcK is &a:ruh+e+,an3eehi, if he has some other clothingI otherwise,
it is not &a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(..E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 with something in the mouth is &a:ruh if it is
not hindering the *iraCatI and if it hinders the *iraCat, or if such type
of words are recited which are not of the *urCan, then the Namaa3
will be nullified. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.(..E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 without a FtopiC Jproper $slamic hatK out of
sheer la3inessI in other words to regard wearing the FtopiC is
regarded a burden, or if one says he feels hot, then it is &a:ruh+e+
,an3eehiI and if one does this in a demeaning mannerI for e4ample,
one does not regard Namaa3 as something which is of such
e4cellence and status that one needs to wear a FtopiC or F)maamaC
J,urbanK, then this is regarded as =ufr. $f one reads Namaa3 without
Vol.3 pg.3/.


379
a hat out of humility, then this is &ustahab JdesirableK. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.(..E

Law: $f the FtopiC falls of in Namaa3, it is more virtuous to pic: it up,
as long as there is no need to do something, which is F)mal+e+
=atheerCI otherwise it will nullify the Namaa3. $f one has to pic: it up
several times, then it should be left Jwithout pic:ingKI and if one
does not pic: it up due to humility, then to not pic: it up Jin this
instanceK is more virtuous J)fdalK. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5##E

Law: ,o clear grass or dust from the forehead is &a:ruh, on
condition that this does not cause any an4iety in Namaa3. $f this is
done due to pride, then it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemiI and if it is causing
discomfort and it is interfering with oneCs attention, then there is no
harm Jin dusting itKI and to dust it off after Namaa3 has absolutely no
conseHuences, and one should do this, to avoid boastfulness.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#(E

Law: !imilarly, when there is a need to, it is also allowed to wipe
perspiration from the forehead, or to do any such F)mal+e+*aleelC,
which benefits the &usalCliI and to do that which is not beneficial, it
is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#(E

Law: $f the nose drips in Namaa3, to wipe it is better than allowing it
to fall onto the groundI and if one is in the &asBid, then to do this is
necessary. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#(E

Law: ,o use the fingers to count the verses, !urahs and ,asbeehs
whilst in Namaa3 is &a:ruh, be this in 7ard or Nafil Namaa3. ,here is
not harm to :eep count in the heart, to :eep the amount JreadK
intact by pressing the FphalangesC and to have all the fingers JstillK in
Vol.3 pg.30#


380
place as per the !unnahI but it is =hilaaf+e+<la Jcontrary to that
which is betterK, as the heart will divert to something else. ,o count
with the tongue will nullify the Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.
0#' etcE

Law: ,here is no obBection in using the fingers to count JtasbeehsK
etc, outside Namaa3, but the ?adith has commanded this, that the
fingers will be Huestioned Jon the last dayK and they will answer.
D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#065#.E

Law: ,here is no harm in :eeping a ,asbeeh Jwith youK as long as
the aim is not to show+off. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#.E

Law: ,o reply to the !alaam by gesturing with the hand or head is
&a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#2E

Law: ,o sit crossed legged without reason in Namaa3 is &a:ruhI and
if one has an F<3rC, then there is no obBectionI and to sit in any other
place e4cept in Namaa3, in this manner is not obBectionable. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#3E

Law: ,o fan yourself with the lower end of the upper garment or
with the sleeves is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E if this is done
once D&araHi )l 7alaahE ,his is on the basis that in one 2u:n if one
moved thrice Jthe hand etcK it will nullify the Namaa3.I and to use a
fan Jhand fanK will nullify the Namaa3, for one who sees you from a
distance will thin: you are not in Namaa3. D&antaHi La:hira &uheet
2a3viI ,ahtawi ala &araHi al 7alaahE


Vol.3 pg.301


381
Law: F)sbaalC in other words, the wearing of clothes trailing Jon the
groundK is not allowed. Nabi  said, F9hen you read Namaa3, then
raise up clothes that are hanging, because the part that reaches the
ground, is in the fireC. ,his ?adith has been Huoted by -u:hari in his
,aari:h, and ,abrani in his =abeer, from $bn )bCbas ؓ  %o not ma:e
)sbaal in your lower end of the upper garments, and in your trouser
legs. )sbaal is when it is below your an:leI and for the sleeves to be
longer than the sleeves, and in the )maama, it is when you sit and it
presses Junder youK.

Law: ,o yawn and to intentionally cough or clear the throat is
&a:ruhI and if nature is repulsing, then there is no harmI and to spit
in Namaa3 is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg. 1#/E $n ,ahtawi ala &araHi
)l 7alaah it has mentioned that evidently to yawn is &a:ruh+e+
,an3eehi.

Law: 7or one who is a F&unfaridC to stand in a !aff, is &a:ruh, as he
will perform *iyaam and *uCood etc actions contrary to those Jin
;amaCatK. !imilarly, for the &uHtadi to alone behind the !aff is
&a:ruh, when there is space in the !aff. $f there is no space in the
!aff, then there is no obBection. $t is better to pull someone bac:
from the !aff and to stand with them, but it is important to note that
if the person whom you are pulling bac:, :nows the &asCala JrulingK,
and one should be careful that by pulling him, he does not brea: his
Namaa3. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E ,his person should gesture to
someone, and he in+turn should not move bac:I in this way there
=arahat is moved away from him. D7athul *adeerE

Law: ,o repetitively read the same verse in a one 2a:aCat of 7ard
JrepeatedlyK, in a normal controlled condition, is &a:ruhI and if this
is done due to some F<3rC Jvalid reasonK, then there is no harm in it.
Vol.3 pg.302


382
!imilarly, to recite one !urah repetitively is also &a:ruh. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.1#/I MhuniyaE

Law: 9ithout reason to place the hands on the ground before the
:nees when going into !aBdah and when coming up from !aBdah to
lift the :nees before the hands is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E

Law: ,o have the head higher or lower than the bac: in 2u:u is
&a:ruh D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E J$n other words the head should be in
line with the bac:K.

Law: ,o recite the F-ismillahC, ,aCoo3, ,hana and )ameen aloud, and
to read the )3:aar Jtasbeehs etc.K different from where they ought to
be read, is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/I MhuniyaE

Law: 9ithout any valid reason, to lean against a wall or )asa
Jstic:6staffK is &a:ruhI and if there is an F<3rC there is no harmI
actually in the 7ard and 9aaBib J!alaahsK and in the *iyaam of the
!unnat of 7aBr, to stand whilst leaning against it Jin case of <3rK is
7ard, if *iyaam J!tandingK without it will not be possible, Bust as this
has already been e4plained on the discussion on *iyaam Jduring
Namaa3K. DMhuniyaI !haami vol.1 pg.512 etcE

Law: Not to :eep the hands on the :nees during 2u:u, and not to
:eep the hands on the ground during !aBdah, is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.1#.E

Law: ,o remove the )maama J,urbanK and :eep it on the ground, or
to pic: it up from the ground and :eep it on the head, does not
nullify the Namaa3, but it is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E

Vol.3 pg.303


383
Law: ,o lay the sleeve down and ma:e !aBdah on it, so that dust
does not get onto the face, is &a:ruhI and if this is done due to
,a:abCbur J1rideK then it is ,ahreemiI and if one made !aBdah on a
cloth to avoid the heat, then there is no harm. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#0E

Law: 7or a &unfarid Jone who is reading Namaa3 aloneK, it is
permissible to as: J%uaK when reciting a Verse depicting &ercy, and
to as: protection when reciting a Verse depicting 1unishment. $t is
&a:ruh for the $mam and &uHtadi to do this. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#0E
and if this is a means of heaviness upon the &uHtadis, then for the
$mam it is &a:ruh+e+,ahreemi.

Law: ,o sha:e to the left and right Jin Namaa3K is &a:ruhI and
F,arawahC in other words to sometimes put weight on one foot and
to sometimes put weight on the other foot, is !unnat. D?ilyaE

Law: 9hen wa:ing up, to move the feet bac: and forth is &a:ruhI
and when going into !aBdah, to put some press down on the right
foot and when getting up Jfrom !aBdahK to press down on the left
foot, is &ustahab. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#0E

Law: ,o :eep the eyes closed in Namaa3 is &a:ruh, e4cept if there is
no concentration when :eeping them opened. $n this case, one may
close them. ,here is no harm in this, but it is better. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#3E

Law: ,o turn the toes away from the *ibla in !aBdah etc is &a:ruh
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#0 etcE

Vol.3 pg.30'


384
Law: $f lice or mosHuitoes cause harm, there is no harm in catching
and :illing them. DMhuniyaI !haami vol.1 pg.511E $n other words as
long as there is no F)mal+e+=atheerC

Law: 7or the $mam to stand alone, in the &ehraab is &a:ruhI and if
he is standing outside the &ehraab and made !aBdah inside the
&ehraab, or if he is not alone, and some &uHtadis are with him
inside the &ehraab, then there is no harm. !imilarly, if the space has
become less for the &uHtadis, then in this case it is not &a:ruh for
him to stand in the &ehraab. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#'65#(I
)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#0E

Law: 7or the $mam to stand in the doorways is also &a:ruh.
!imilarly for the $mam of the first ;amaCat, to stand in the corner or
side of the &asBid is &a:ruh. $t is !unnat for him to stand in the
middle. ,his middle JareaK is called the &ehraab, whether the well+
:nown niche in the wall is there or not. $f he leaves the middle and
stands anywhere else, then even if the !affs to both sides of him are
eHual, it is still &a:ruh. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5#2E

Law: 7or the $mam alone to stand on a high place Jraised areaK is
&a:ruh. ,he height means that when loo:ing at him, it is evident
that he is distinctly high. $f the height Jraised areaK is small, then it is
,an3eehi, otherwise ,ahreemi. $t is also &a:ruh for the $mam to be
down and the &usalClis to be on a higher area. $t is =hilaaf+e+!unnat.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.5#'E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 on the ?oly =aaba and on the roof of a &asBid
is &a:ruh, as this is failing to show respect. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#0E
Vol.3 pg.30(


385
Law: ,o have a special area set aside for yourself in the &asBid,
whereby you only read Namaa3 there is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#0 etcE

Law: $f a person is tal:ing whilst standing or sitting, there is no
hindrance in reading Namaa3 behind him, if you are sure that your
heart will not drift due their discussion. ,o read Namaa3 behind the
&ushaf !hareef, behind a !word, and behind a person who is asleep,
is &a:ruh. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.51#E

Law: ,o use a !word or -ow etc. as a partition when reading is
&a:ruh if its movement distracts the heartI otherwise, there is no
harm. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#.E

Law: 7or a fire to be burning in front of a Namaa3i is cause for
F=arahatC. ,here is no harm in a lamp or candle burning. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.1#0E

Law: $f there is such a valuable in your hand that needs to be held,
then to read Namaa3 whilst holding it is &a:ruhI unless one is at
such a place that without doing this, protecting it is not possible. $f
there are faeces etc impurities in front of you, or to read at such a
place that is a place of impurity, is also &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#/61#0I 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.512E

Law: ,o touch the thighs to the stomach and to chase away flies
and fleas with the hand is &a:ruh. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#.E ) female
will however Boin her thighs to the stomach in !aBdah.

Law: ,here is no harm in reading Namaa3 on a carpet or on
bedding, on condition that it is not so soft or thin: the forehead
Vol.3 pg.305


386
cannot be firmly planted on itI otherwise the Namaa3 will not be
done. DMhuniyaE

Law: ,o read Namaa3 in front of something that diverts the heart is
&a:ruh, such as something beautiful, or games and entertainment
etc. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.512E

Law: ,o run for Namaa3 is &a:ruh. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.512E

Law: Namaa3 is &a:ruh on a public pathway JroadK, at dumpsite for
dirt, in a slaughter house, grave+yard, bathroom, -arbershop, cattle
:raal, especially where camels are tied, stables, the roof of a toilet,
and in the wilderness, without a F!utrahC i.e. partition, when there is
a ris: of people passing in front. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.3(2+3('E

Law: $n a F&aHbaraC, in an area which is set aside for Namaa3, and if
there is no grave in that area, then there is no harm in Namaa3
there. ,he F=arahatC is only if there is a grave there, in the sense
where the grave is in front of the &usalCli and there is no partition as
per a F!utrahC between the &usalCli and the grave. ,hus, if the grave
is at the right, left or behind Jthe &usalCliK or if there is something
there fulfilling the obBective of the !utrah, then there is F=arahatC.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#/E

Law: $f there, is a land JpropertyK belonging to a &uslim, and one
belonging to an unbelieverI then Namaa3 should be read on the
property of the &uslim, if it is not cultivated. $f it is cultivated, then
one should read on the road JpathwayK. ne should not read on the
property of the unbeliever. $f there is cultivation JfruitsK etc on the
land Jof the &uslimK, and he has a friendly relationship with the
Vol.3 pg.30/


387
owner, and Jhe :nowsK that the owner will not be offendedI then in
this case he may read in his property. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.3('E

Law: ,o brea: Namaa3 to :ill a sna:e if there is real fear of harm
being caused, or to catch an animal that has run away, or if there is
fear that a wolf will attach his sheep, is permissible. !imilarly, if one
fears your own loss or loss of a someone else, which will cause a loss
of one dirham Jor moreK, for e4ample, if one fears that the mil: will
boil over, or meat, curry or roti JbreadK etc. will burn, or a thief will
steal and run away with something to the value of a dirhamI then in
all these circumstances, one is permitted to brea: the Namaa3.
D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1, (12I )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#.E

Law: $f one feels the urge to pass urine or still, or if one saw that
there is an amount of NaBaasat on the clothing or body which does
not hinder Namaa3I or if some strange female touched him, then in
this case it is &ustahab to brea: the Namaa3I on condition that the
time of ;amaCat does not lapseI and if the urge to pass urine or stool
is intense, then one should not even worry about the ;amaCat time
lapsingI however attention will be given to the e4piration of time of
that Namaa3. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.5126513E

Law: $f someone who is in distress is as:ing for assistance, and he is
calling out to the particular &usalCli or absolutely to someoneI or if
someone is drowningI or there is ris: of him being burnt by a fireI or
a blind person is about to fall into a wellI then in all these
circumstances, to brea: the Namaa3 is 9aaBib, if one has the ability
to save him. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.513E


Vol.3 pg.300


388
Law: $f ones father, mother, paternal grandfather J%adaK, or
paternal grandmother J%aadiK call for you, Bust on the basis of
principal, then it is not permissible for one to brea: the Namaa3 for
this. ?owever, if they calling you because of some serious difficulty
or calamity, as mentioned above, then one should brea: the Namaa3.
,his is the ruling if you are in 7ard JNamaa3K. $f you are reading Nafil
and they are aware that you are in Namaa3, but they are calling you
for some simple thing, then you should not brea: the Namaa3I and if
they are not aware that he is in Namaa3, and they called, then one
should brea: the Namaa3 and reply to them, even if they are calling
lightly. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.513E




















Vol.3 pg.30.


389










Chapter 12

Rules Regarding
The Masjid














Vol.3 pg.3.#


390
)llah )lmighty says:


´

·

¸

´
_` •
´
,
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ
´
و ´ ة

ﻮ´
·
,ﻟﺍ ‘´
´
و ´ ةﻮ

ﻠ · ﺼﻟﺍ
´
.ﺎ´ s´ﺍ
´
و
¸
¸
¸
` ·ﺍ ¸.
`

´
ﻴ` ﻟﺍ
´
و ¸ﷲﺎﺑ
´

´
.
`

´
. ¸ﷲﺍ
´

¸
,ﺎ
´

´
.
´

´

`
.´ , ´ﷲﺍ
·
·
¸


´

`
,
¸ ﺪ
´

`
,
´
ﻤ` ﻟﺍ
´

¸
. ﺍ
`
ﻮ´ﻧ
`

´
.
·
,
`
¸´ﺍ
´
Œ
¸
,

ﻟو´ﺍ

¸•
´
.´ ·

‘)nly they (truly+ fill the Mos.ues, ho believe in Allah and in the last day,
and ho establish Namaaz, and give Aa-aat, and ho fear none but Allah"
Verily, they are of those ho ill find the $ath (of guidan&e+! D!urah .I 10E

Hadith 1-4: -u:hari, &uslim, )bu %awud, ,irmi3i and $bn &aBah
report from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that ?u3oor+e+)Hdas  said, F,he
Namaa3 of a man in a &asBid is twenty times more virtuous, than
reading in JhisK home or in the mar:etplace Ji.e. his wor:placeK. $t is
in this manner, that when he performs 9udu properly and then
leaves for the &asBid, then for every step he ta:es, his status is
elevated, and a sin is forgiven. 9hen he starts reading his Namaa3,
the )ngels continuously send %urood JblessingsK upon him, for as
long as he remains on his &usalCla J1rayer matKI and he is regarded
as being in Namaa3, for as long as he is in waiting for Namaa3.C

,he Narration of $mam )hmed and )bu PaCla etc. is reported from
<Hba bin )amir ؓ that ?u3oor  saysI Fhe receives ten good deeds
for every step he ta:esI and when from the time he leaves home
until the time he returns, he is counted amongst those who are in
Namaa3.C ther narrations of $bn+e+<mar and $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,
are similar in nature.

Hadith 5: NasaCi reported from ?a3rat <thman ؓ  that ?u3oor 
said, Fne who performed thorough 9udu and then went for
Vol.3 pg.3.1


391
Namaa3, and performed his Namaa3 in the &asBid, is pardoned Ji.e.
granted forgivenessK.

Hadith 6: &uslim etc. have reported that ;aabir ؓ  said, there was
some land which became vacant near &asBid+e+Nabawi  so -ani
!alma wished to move closer to the &asBid. ,his news reached Nabi
, so he  said, F$ have received information, that you wish to
move close to the &asBid.C ,hey said, FPa 2asoolullah > $t is correct,
as that is what we are intending Jto doKC ?e  said, F -ani !alma>
2emain in your homes Ji.e. do not shift near the &asBidK, the steps
which you ta:e will be recorded.C ?e  then repeated this, so -ani
!alma said, F9e JnowK did not prefer to change our houseC Ji.e. we did
not wish to shift any longerK.

Hadith 7: $bn &aBah reported that $bn )bCbas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, says that
the homes of the )nsaar were distant from the &asBid, so they
wished to move closer, and on the basis of this, this verse was
revealed:


´
,ﺎ
´
.
´
و ﺍ
`

´
.
·
ﺪ´ s ﺎ
´
.
´
,´ ﺘ
`
.
´

´
و
`
ﻢ´.

‘2hose virtuous deeds hi&h they sent forth and their foot$rints (ste$s+
e re&ord!

Hadith 8: -u:hari and &uslim have reported from )bu &usa
)shCari ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F,he most sawaab is to the one
who wal:s the furthest Jto the &osHueK Ji.e. one who comes from the
furthest distanceK.C

Hadith 9: &uslim etc report that )bi bin =aCab ؓ  says that an
)nsaariCs house was the furthest away from the &asBid, and he never
Vol.3 pg.3.2


392
used to miss any Namaa3 Jat the &asBidK. $t was mentioned to him
about how good it would be if he could purchase a mode of
conveyance Jhorse, camel etc.K so that he could ride on it at night
and in hot weather whilst coming Jto the &asBidK. ?e replied to this
by saying, F$ wish that my wal:ing to the &asBid and then returning,
be recordedC. n JhearingK this, Nabi  saidI F)llah has gathered all
of this and given it to you.C

Hadith 10: -a3C3a3 and )bu PaCla narrate a narration on the merit
of it being F?assanC, from ?a3rat )li ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, F,o
ma:e the complete 9udu in spite of a difficulty and to then wal:
towards the &asBid, and to wait Jin anticipationK for Namaa3 after a
Namaa3, washes away the sins nicely.C

Hadith 11: ,abrani reports from )bu <maama ؓ  that ?u3oor 
said, F,o go to the &asBid in the morning and evening, is from the
types of F;ihadC Ji.e. striving in )llahCs wayK.C

Hadith 12: $t is in !ahihain etc. on the authority of )bu ?urairah
ؓ  that 2asoolullah  said, Fne who goes in the morning or
evening Jfor Namaa3 to the &asBidK, )llah taCaala arranges a place for
him in ;annat, for as many times as he goesC.

Hadith 13-23: )bu %awud and ,irmi3i report from -uraida ؓ 
and $bn &aBah reports from )nas ؓ  , that ?u3oor  said, F7or those
who go towards the &asBid in the dar:ness, give them glad+tidings of
a full light on the day of *iyaamat.C



Vol.3 pg.3.3


393
,here are also narrations very similar to this from )bu %ardah, )bu
?urairah, )bu <maama and !ahl bin !aCad !aCadi, $bn )bCbas, $bn
)mr, )bu !aCeed =hudri, Laid ibn ?aarith, and <mmul &oCmineen
!iddiHa ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:,

Hadith 24: )bu %awud and $bn ?ibCban report from )bu <maama
ؓ  that ?u3oor  said Fthat are three persons are in the divine care
of )llahI that if they are alive, he blesses them with sustenance,
which is sufficient, and if they die, ?e will enter them into ;annat. J1K
,hat person who on entering his home conveys salaam to those in
his house is in the %ivine Care of )llah. J2K ,hat person who goes to
the &asBid is in the %ivine Care of )llah. J3K ne who has gone out in
the way of )llah is in the %ivine Care of )llahC.

Hadith 25: $t is in ,abrani =abeer on the Jmerit of it being ;ayFadK
and in -aihaHi on the merit of it being sound J!ahihK, a &auHuf
narration is reported from !alman+e+7arsi ؓ  that he  said, Fne
who made proper 9udu in his home and then came to the &asBid, he
is the pilgrim Ji.e. guestK of )llahI and one who is given the position
of this pilgrimage, it is ?is 2ight, to honour the pilgrim.C

Hadith 26: $bn &aBah reported from )bu !aCeed =hudri ؓ  that
2asoolullah  said, Fne who leaves his home for Namaa3 and
Jwhen doing soK recites this %ua:



ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
, ﺎ
·
ﺴﻟﺍ j
´

¸

´
Œ´ ﻠ´ —
`
.´ﺍ · ﻢ ¸.
¸
ﻠ `, ´ ﻠ
´

´
¸
`

´
“ﺎ ´ :
`

´
. j
´

¸

´
و
´
Œ

. ¸, ´ ·· و ﺍ
´ `

´
, ´ ·· و ﺍ
´
¸
,´ﺍ
`

´
` ¸´ﺍ
`
ﻢ´ ﻟ ‘‰– ¸ﺎ´ · ﺍ ´ ;
´
, ´ ·· و
´
·ﺎ

´
.
`

´
. ´ . ´ .
`
,
´
´
¸
´
و ¸ .
´
.
`
¸´ﺍ
´
Œ´ ﻠ´—
`
.
´
ﺎ´ ·
´
Œ¸.ﺎ
´
,
`

´
.
´
·.
´
‹¸ﺘ
`
ﺑﺍ
´
و
´
Œ
¸
.´ •
´
.
´
·ﺎ
´
t¸.
¸

`

`

¸
¸
`
ﻮ´ﻧ´s
`

¸

`
¸ ¸
`

´
.
`
¸´ﺍ
´
و ¸,ﺎ
·
:ﻟﺍ
´

¸
.
`

¸
– ´ ;

·

¸
ﺍ . F ´ · ´ ,
´
.`ﻧ´ﺍ
·
·
¸

´
¸
`
ﻮ´ﻧ ;ﻟﺍ
´
¸ ¸
`


Vol.3 pg.3.'


394
‘) AllahQ 3 as- of Fou ith virtue of the right, hi&h is u$on Fou for the ho
as-, and for the right of my al-ing (my $a&es+, be&ause 3 did not leave my
home ith $ride and arrogan&e, and nor did 3 leave to be boastful or to let it
be heard off" 3 have &ome out to be $rote&ted from dis$leasing Fou, and for
the sa-e of attaining Four 6leasure( ,o 3 am as-ing (begging+ of Fou, to save
me from fire of hell, and to forgive my sins" 2here is none ho $ardons sins,
but Fou!

J!o when a servant as:s thisK, then )llah turns ?is !pecial %ivine
Compassionate attention towards him, and seventy thousand )ngels
ma:e $stighfar for himC.

Hadith 27-29: $t is in !ahih &uslim from )bu !aCeed ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F9hen a person enters the &asBid, he should sayC:



ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
, Œ¸ﺘ
´

`

´
,
´
¸ﺍ
´

`
ﺑ´ﺍ
`

¸
` ˜
´
ﺘ` ·ﺍ · ﻢ

‘) Allah, )$en for me Four ?oors of Mer&y!

9hen leaving the &asBid, he should say:



ﻠﻟ´ﺍ
´
,
´
Œ
¸

`
.´ ·
`

¸
.
´
Œ´ ﻠ´ —
`
.´ﺍ ‘‰–
¸
ﺍ · ﻢ

‘) Allah, 3 as- of Fou, Four ,$e&ial *lessing!

$t is mentioned in the narration of ?a3rat )bdullah bin )mr ibn )l
)Cas ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that when 2asoolullah  would enter the &asBid, he
 would say:

¸ﷲﺎ
¸
ﺑ ´s
`

´
ﻋ´ﺍ ¸ .
´
.` ﻟﺍ
`

`
,
´

¸

´
و
¸

¸
, ¸.
¸
´ ¸` .ﺍ
`
, ¸ﻧﺎ
´
.` ﻠ
´
.
´
و
¸
ﻢ ¸. ¸ ﺪ
´
t` ﻟﺍ
`
,
·
:ﻟﺍ
´

¸
.
¸

`

¸
,· ﺮﻟﺍ ¸ ¸ﺎ
´
.
`

¸

Vol.3 pg.3.(


395
‘3 see- $rote&tion in Allah, 2he Magnifi&ent( and by 9is #a4h-e-Gareem( and
9im being ,ultaan-e-Qadeem, from shaitaan the &ursed" #hen one says this,
shaitaan say, ‘9e is safe from me for the entire day!"

$t is in the narration of ,irmi3i from ?a3rat !ayyidah 7aatima Lahra
ﺎ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, that when Nabi  would enter the &asBid, he would recite
%urood and say:


´
Œ¸ﺘ
´

`

´
,
´
¸ﺍ
´

`
ﺑ´ﺍ
`

¸
` ˜
´
ﺘ` ·ﺍ
´
و
`

¸
¸
`
ﻮ´ﻧ´s
`

¸

`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ ¸
´
,

) My RubQ <orgive my sins, and o$en for me the ?oors of!
Four Mer&y!

9hen he would leave the &asBid, he would do so saying:


`

¸
¸
`
ﻮ´ﻧ´s
`

¸

`
¸ ¸`.ﺍ ¸
´
,
´
Œ
¸

`
.´ ·
´
¸ﺍ
´

`
ﺑ´ﺍ
`

¸
` ˜
´
ﺘ` ·ﺍ
´
و

) my RubQ <orgive my sins, and o$en for me, ‘
the ?oors of Four *lessing (<adl+!

$mam )hmed and $bn &aBah have reported that on entering and
when leaving ?e  would say:

¸ﷲﺍ
¸

`

¸
, ¸ﷲﺍ
¸
_
`

´
.
´
,

‘.
´

´
.´·

ﺴﻟﺍ
´
و

,hereafter he  would recite the %ua.


Vol.3 pg.3.5


396
Hadith 30-33: $n !ahih &uslim !hareef it was narrated from )bu
?urairah ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, F&ost beloved to )llah than all
places, are the &asBid, and the place most disli:ed is the
mar:etplace.C

!imilar narration is evident from ;ubair bin &utCim and )bdullah bin
)mr and )nas bin &aali: ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ..ﷲﺍ ¸:, and some narrations say that this
is statement is that of )llah )lmighty.

Hadith 34: -u:hari and &uslim etc report from him as well, that
?u3oor  said, F,here are seven people who )lmighty )llah will
shade JprotectK, on that day when there will be no shade JprotectionK
e4cept ?is: J1K ) ;ust $mam JGeaderKI J2K that young person whose
development was through the virtue of the $baadat of )llah
)lmightyI J3K ,hat person whose heart is attached to the &asBidI J'K
,hose two people who love each other for the sa:e of )llah, who
came together because of this and separate because of thisI J(K ,hat
person who is invited by a woman of status and wealth Jin an
enticing mannerK, and he says, F$ fear )llahCI J5K ,hat person who
gave some !adHa JcharityK and concealed it to the e4tent that his left
does not :now that his right has spentI J/K ,hat person who
remembered )llah in private JaloneK, and tears flowed from his
eyes.C

Hadith 35: ,irmi3i, $bn &aBah, $bn =hu3aima and $bn ?ibCban and
?aa:im reported from )bu !aCeed =hudri ؓ  that ?u3oor  said,
F9hen you see a person who is habitual of Jbeing atK the &asBid, then
become a witness to his $maan J7aithKI because )lmighty )llah says
that Fnly they JtrulyK fill the &osHues, who believe in )llah and in
the last dayC ,irmi3i has mentioned that this ?adith is ?assan
Mhareeb and ?aa:im has mentioned that it is !ahih J!oundK in merit.
Vol.3 pg.3./


397
Hadith 36: $t is in !ahihain from )nas ؓ that ?u3oor  said, F,o
spit in the &asBid is wrongful, and the :afaara Je4piationK is to
conceal it.C

Hadith 37: $t is in !ahih &uslim from )bu Lirr ؓ  that ?u3oor 
said, F)ll the deeds of my <mmah, both good and bad have been
presented before meI $ found amongst the virtuous deeds, to remove
a harmful obBect from the pathway JroadKI and J$ foundK that from
amongst the bad deeds, is to spit in the &asBid, without concealing
it.C

Hadith 38-39: )bu %awud, ,irmi3i and $bn &aBah report from
)nas ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, F,he rewards of my <mmah were
presented to me, upto the blade of straw JgrassK which a person
removes from the &asBidI and their sins were presented Jbefore meK
and $ did not see any sin therein, more severe than a person who has
been blessed with a verse of !urah of the *urCan and he caused it to
be forgotten.C

$bn &aBah also reports a narration from )bu !aCeed =hudri ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F7or the one who removes some harmful thing from
the &asBid, )llah will have a &ansion built in ;annatC.

Hadith 40-42: $bn &aBah reports from 9aathila ibn )sHaC and
,abrani reported from him, and )bu %awud reported from ?a3rat
)bu <maama ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:, that ?u3oor  said, F!afeguard the &asBids
from children, insane people, trade, mischief and s:irmishing, and
from raising your voices, and from creating limitations, and from
drawing swords.C

Vol.3 pg.3.0


398
Hadith 43: ,irmi3i and %aarimi report from )bu ?urairah ؓ  that
?u3oor  said, F9hen you see anyone trading Jbuying or sellingK in
the &asBid, then say, &ay )llah not give profit in your trade.C

Hadith 44: -aihaHi reports in !haCbul $maan from ?assan -asri ؓ
Jon the merit of it being mursalK that ?u3oor  said, F) time when
come when worldly discussions will ta:e place in the &asBid. %o not
sit with them, as they have nothing to do with )llahC.

Hadith 45: $bn =hu3aima reports from )bu !aCeed =hudri ؓ  that
once 2asoolullah  saw spit JphlegmK in the direction of the *ibla.
?e  cleaned it Ji.e. scraped it offK then directed his holy attention
towards the people and said, F%oes anyone from amongst you li:e for
someone to stand in front of you, and then spit towards your face>C

Hadith 46-47: )bu %awud, $bn =hu3aima and $bn ?ibCban report
from )bu !aCeed =hudri ؓ  that ?u3oor  said, Fne who spits in the
direction of the *ibla, will come forth on the day of *iyaamat in a
state, whereby his spit will be between both his eyes.C

,he Narration of $mam )hmed is on the authority of )bu <maama
ؓ  wherein it is mentioned that 2asoolullah  said that to spit
towards the *ibla is a sinful act.

Hadith 48: $t is in !ahih -u:hari that !aaCib bin Pa3eed ﺎﻤ,:ﻋ _ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ ¸:,
?e says, $ was asleep in the &asBid and someone threw stones
JpebblesK at me. $ loo:ed and noticed that it was 7arooH+e+)3am ؓ  .
?e said, FMo and bring those two people to meC JsoK $ brought both of
them to him. ?e ؓ  JeitherK as:ed, F9hich clan JtribeK do you belong
toOC JorK F9here do you liveOC ,hey answered by saying that they
were from ,aCif. ?e ؓ  said, F$f you were residents of &adinah, then $
Vol.3 pg.3..


399
would have reprimanded you Jas those from &adina were aware of
the etiHuettesK. JforK Pou are raising your voices in the &asBid of
2asoolullah >C

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: ,o stretch the feet JlegsK towards the direction of *ibla
without any valid reason, is &a:ruh, be this whilst awa:e or whilst
asleep. !imilarly, to face the feet towards the &ushaf !hareef
J*urCanK and other boo:s of !hariah is also regarded as &a:ruh.
?owever, if the =itaabs J-oo:sK are on a high place, whereby the line
of the feet is not in its direction, then there is no harm in thisI or if it
is so far away from the feet, that it will not be really regarded as
stretching the feet in its direction, JthenK this too is e4empt. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg.513+51'E

Law: $f one put a Na+-aaligh Jchild who has not reached pubertyK to
lie down with his feet in the direction of *ibla, then this too is
&a:ruh, and the one who put the child to lie down is liable for the
disapproved action. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.513E

Law: ,o close the door of the &asBid is &a:ruh. ?owever if there is
the ris: of the belongings of the &asBid going missing, then with the
e4ception of the Namaa3 times, closing it is permitted. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg. 512, )lamgiri vol.1 pg. 1#.E

Law: ,o be intimate and to pass urine or stool on the roof of the
&asBid, is ?araam. $t is also ?araam for a ;unub Jone in impure stateK,
or a woman who is menstruating Ji.e. in ?aidhK or one who is in
Nifaas, to go there, as that Jthe roofK is also within the ruling of the
Vol.3 pg.'##


400
&asBid. ,o unnecessarily climb onto the roof of the &asBid is &a:ruh.
D%urr+e+&u:htar N 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.51'E

Law: ,o use the &asBid as a pathwayI in other words to wal:
through the &asBid is impermissible. $f one ma:es a habit of this, he
is regarded as a F7aasiHC. $f a person entered the &asBid with this
intention Ji.e. of using it as a pathway or shortcutK, then as he got
into the &asBid, he realised this and decided against it, then he
should not e4it from the door through which he intended to e4it, but
he should e4it through some other doorI or he should perform
Namaa3 there and then e4it. $f he has not 9udu, then he should e4it
from the door through which he entered. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul
&uhtar vol.1 pg.51'E

Law: ,o ta:e an impurity Jor impure substanceK into the &asBid,
even though it may not soil the &asBid, is disallowed. ,he same
applies to one who has impurity on his body. D2addul &uhtar vol.1
pg.51'E

Law: ,o burn impure oil or to use impure mud Jor clayK etc in the
&asBid is disallowed. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.51'E

Law: ,o urinate into a utensil Jpot etcK or to draw blood JetcK in the
&asBid is also impermissible. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg. 51'E

Law: ,o ta:e children and insane people into the &asBid regarding
whom there is a fear that they will Jcause the &asBid to be soiledK by
impurities, is ?araam, and otherwise it is regarded as &a:ruh. ,hose
who ta:e their shoes into the &asBids should ta:e careful heed to
this, so if they is any impurity on it Jthe shoeK they should first clean
Vol.3 pg.'#1


401
it out, and to wal: into the &asBid whilst wearing shoes is impudence
Ji.e. it is disrespectfulK. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. 51(E

Law: ,he "id Mah or that place which has been made for performing
;anaa3ah Namaa3, in the rules of $Htida JfollowingK is same as the
rules, which apply in the &asBidI Jin other wordsK no matter how
much of !aff space is between the $mam and the &uHtadis, the
Namaa3 will be valid. ,he remaining 2ules of the &asBid do not apply
to it. ,his however does not mean that to pass urine or stool there is
permissible, but it means that for a F;unubC, and for a woman in
?aidh or Nifaas, to come and go there is permissible. ,he rule in
regards to the platforms etc. that are built for the purpose of Namaa3
in the F7ina+e+&asBidC and at &adrassas, =hanHahs, ponds and la:es,
are the same as that which apply to the "id Mah. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.51(E

Law: ,o embellish of Ji.e. to engrave and use calligraphy etcK or
paint with Fgold waterC the walls of the &asBid is not disallowed, as
long as this is done with the intention of respect for the &asBid.
?owever, this :ind of engraving etc on the *ibla wall is ?araam. $f
the trustee had this done or had it whitewashed, then he should pay
the compensation Ji.e. e4pensesK for it. ?owever, if the 9aaHif Ji.e.
the person who made it 9aHfK himself did this or if he gave the
trustee permission to have this done, then e4penditure will be given
for this from the 9aHf 7und. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.515E

Law: $f the &asBid has a substantial amount of funds and there is
fear that unBust people will waste it Jor sHuander itK, then in such a
situation, one can use it for the embellishment of the &asBid.
D!haami vol.1 pg.515, )lamgiri vol.1 pg.1#.E

Vol.3 pg.'#2


402
Law: ,o write the ?oly *urCan on the &ehraab or the 9alls of the
&asBid is not advisable, as there is a ris: of it falling off and then
being trampled by the feet. ,he same applies to the walls of the
house, because there are common grounds Jfor thisK. !imilarly, to
use bedding or a &usalCla, which has the names of )llah written on
it, for any other JsuchK use is impermissible. $t is also disallowed Ji.e.
not approvedK for one to remove it from ones belongings, because
there is no guarantee that another person will not use it. ,hus, since
one already has it in oneCs possession, then one should :eep it in
such a high place, that nothing else is :ept on it. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.1#.611#E !imilarly, there are some eating mats which have poetic
stan3as JetcK written on them. ,o eat on this or spread them is
F&umnooC JdisallowedK

Law: ,o ma:e 9udu inside the JactualK &asBid, gargle Jand spitK
therein, and to spit on the walls or under the mats of the &asBid or to
clean blow ones nose out, are all FdisallowedC. ,o rub this under the
prayer mats is worse than doing so on the prayer mats. $f there is
need to blow the nose or spit Jwhilst in the &asBidK, then do so in
clothing Ji.e. hand:erchief or shawl etcK. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: $f the founder of the &asBid built a 9udu area, in the &asBid
from the beginning, before the completion of the &asBid, wherein
Namaa3 is not performedI then to ma:e 9udu there, is permitted.
!imilarly, one may also ma:e 9udu in a dish Jdeep tray, buc:et etcK
or any such vessel, but the condition is that he should ta:e particular
and special care not to allow a single drop to fall in the &asBid.
D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E )ctually, it is necessary to safeguard the
&asBid from every such thing, which is nauseating. ,oday we often
see that after 9udu, many people dust off the water from their
hands and face, in the &asBid. ,his is impermissible.
Vol.3 pg.'#3


403
Law: $f the feet are messed with mud JetcK, to rub it on the wall of
the &asBid or pillar is not allowed. !imilarly, to wipe it with dust that
is spread out Jin the &asBidK is also impermissible. ?owever, if some
sweepings are :ept gathered together, then to wipe them with this is
permitted. !imilarly, if a stic: or wood is laying in the &asBid and is
not part of the &asBid building, then even that can be used for this
purpose. ne may also use for this purpose, the wasted section of a
mat on which Namaa3 is not read, and which is not being used but is
merely :ept there, but to abstain from this is F)fdalC Ji.e. more
virtuousK. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg. 11#I !agheeri vol.1 pg.3#1E

Law: )fter sweeping, the sweepings of the &asBid should not be
thrown in a place, which causes disrespect. D%urr+e+&u:htarE

Law: ) well cannot be dug inside the &asBid, but if the well was
there before the &asBid Jwas builtK and now it has been included into
the &asBid, then in this case, it will remain as is. D)lamgiri vol.1
pg.11#E

Law: ,o grow a tree inside the &asBid is not permitted. ?owever, if
there is a need for it, such as in the case where the ground is wet and
the pillars do not remain in place, then in order to soa: up that
wetness, a tree can be grown. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: -efore the &asBid has been completed, it is permitted to build
a room JetcK therein, to :eep the belongings of the &asBid. D)lamgiri
vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: ,o beg inside the &asBid is ?araam, and to give to such a
beggar is also not allowed. ,o search for a lost item inside the &asBid
is also not allowed. $t is mentioned in the ?adith, that when you see
Vol.3 pg.'#'


404
a person searching for some lost thing in the &asBid then say to him,
F&ay )llah not return that item to youC as &asBids were not built for
this reason. ,his ?adith has been reported in &uslim on the
authority of )bu ?urairah ؓ . D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.51/E

Law: ,o read poetry in the &asBid is not allowed. ?owever, if that
poetic stan3a is ?amd, Naat, &anHabat or something pertaining to
J%eeniK advice and wisdom, then it is permissible. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg. 51/E

Law: ,o eat, drin: and sleep in the &asBid is impermissible, e4cept
for a &uCta:if Jone in $Cte:aafK and for one from a foreign place. ,hus,
if you intend to eat, drin: or do any such thing, then first ma:e
intention of $Cte:aaf and then enter the &asBid. Pou should then
engross yourself in some Li:r J2emembrance of )llahK, perform
some Namaa3, and thereafter you may eat and drin: JetcK. !ome
JscholarsK have only made e4ception for a &uCta:if, and this is the
stronger view, so one who is from a foreign place Ji.e. one away from
homeK, should also ma:e the intention of $Cte:aaf, so that he may be
safe from that which is contrary. D%urr+e+&u:htar vol.1 pg.51.I
!agheeri vol.1 pg.3#2E

Law: ,o enter into the &asBid after eating raw garlic or raw onions
is impermissible for as long as the odour remains, as the )ngels feel
discomfort due to this JodourK. ?u3oor+e+)Hdas  said, Fone who
eats from that found smelling tree JplantK should not come near our
&asBid, as the )ngels feel discomfort due to it, Bust as people feel
JdiscomfortK due to it.C ,his ?adith has been reported in -u:hari and
&uslim from ;aabir ؓ . ,he same ruling applies to every such thing
which has a foul odour, such as lee:s, radish, raw meat, paraffin,
match stic:s which give off an odour when rubbed, passing wind
Vol.3 pg.'#(


405
Jflatulence with odourK etc. ne who has a disease of foul breath, or
one who has a wound or sore which gives out a foul odour, or one
who has applied something with a foul odour, then until such time
that the odour Bust not go away, he is not allowed to enter the
&asBid. !imilarly, the rule applies to one who sells meat and fish Ji.e.
he should not enter with the foul smell on him or his clothesK, and
one with leprosy or leucoderma, and that person who causes harm
to be people by his words, will also be stopped from entering the
&asBid. D%urr+e+&u:htar, 2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg.51. etcE

Law: )ll business transactions, including every such business
e4change JtradeK is disallowed in the &asBid. nly a &uCta:if has the
permission to do a transaction, on condition that it is not as a
business, but to fulfil his and his familyCs needs, and that item which
is being purchased or sold should not be in the &asBid. D%urr+e+
&u:htar vol.1 pg. 51.E

Law: "ven F&ubahC discussions are not permitted in the &asBid. ,o
raise the voice in the &asBid is also not permitted. D%urr+e+&u:htar
vol.1 pg.510651.I !agheeri pg.3#2E !adly in this time, people have
turned the &asBids into village pavilions, whereas some have even
been seen swearing Jbeing vulgarK inside the &asBid ﺎﺑ sﺎﻴ.ﻟﺍو ﷲ ‘ﺎ..

Law: ) tailor is not permitted to sit in the &asBid and sew clothing.
$f he is seated there to stop children from entering Jand being a
nuisanceK and to protect the JsanctityK of the &asBid, then there is no
harm. ) =aatib Jscribe6typist etcK is not permitted to sit in the
&asBid and write, if he is doing this for payment. $f he is writing
without ta:ing payment, then he is permitted, as long as the boo:
that he is writing Jor typingK is not an appalling one.
Vol.3 pg.'#5


406
!imilarly, a teacher who ta:es payment Jfor teachingK is not
permitted to sit in the &asBid and teach, and if he does not ta:e
payment, then he is permitted to do so. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: ne is not permitted to ta:e the lamp JetcK from the &asBid to
his home. ne is allowed to let the lamp JlightsK on in the &asBid
upto one third of the night, even if the ;amaCat has ended. ,o do so
for longer than this, is not permitted. ?owever, if the 9aaHif has
given permission, or if it is common practice there to leave it on for
longer periods than a third of the night, then it is permitted, even
for the entire night. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: ,o study =itaabs and to teach etc. using the JlampsK, light of
the &asBid is absolutely permitted for upto a third of the night, even
though the ;amaCat is over. ,hereafter, it is not permitted, e4cept in
a place where it is common practice for it to remain on for longer
periods. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: ,here is no harm in pulling the nests of bats and pigeons from
the &asBid, in order to clean the &asBid. D%urr+e+&u:htar vo.1
pg.52#E

Law: ,he right of repairs and restoration, and the responsibility of
sorting out the Bugs, mats, lamps etc is upon the one who built the
&asBid. $f he is capable of calling out the )3aan and $Haamat, then he
is also rightful of this duty as well, otherwise it should be sorted
after ta:ing his opinion. )fter him, his children and people of his
clan have more right than outsiders. D)lamgiri vol.1 pg.11#E

Law: $f the founder of the &asBid appointed the $mam and &uCa33in,
but the people of the locality have appointed some other person,
Vol.3 pg.'#/


407
then if the one appointed by the locals is F)fdalC Jmore virtuousK,
then he is better suited. $f they are both the same Ji.e. eHualK then
the one who the founder has appointed will be appointed. DMhuniyaE

Law: ,he most e4alted of all &asBids is &asBid+e+?araam !hareef,
followed by &asBid+e+Nabawi !hareef, then &asBid+e+*uds, then
&asBid+e+*uba, then all the ;aame &asBids, then the local &asBid,
followed by the roadside &asBid. D2addul &uhtar vol.1 pg. 515651/E

Law: ,o read Namaa3 in your local &asBid is more )fdal J&ore
virtuousK than reading at the ;aame &asBid even though the local
&asBid has ;amaCat+e+*aleel, i.e. a smaller ;amaCat compared to the
;aame &asBid. )ctually even if ;amaCat has not ta:en place at the
local &asBid, you should go alone and say )3aan and $Haamat and
perform your Namaa3 therein, as JevenK that is more virtuous than
the ;amaCat at the ;aame &asBid. D!agheeri vol.1 pg.3#2E

Law: 9hen there are many &asBids that are of the same nature,
then go that the &asBid where the $mam has the more :nowledge
and goodness. D!agheeri vol.1 pg.3#2E

$f they are all same in this regard, go the one that is oldestI and some
have said that you should go to the one that is closest, and this seems
to be the stronger view. D!agheeri vol.1 pg.3#2E

Important Translator’s Note: wherever the discussion of
Namaa3 in a &asBid or behind an $mam is discussed, this means a
!unni &asBid and $mam means a !unni !ahihul )Hida $mam, i.e. not a
budma3hab or 9ahabi, %eobandi, !hia, ,aahiri etc.

Vol.3 pg.'#0


408
Law: $f one missed the &asBid in the local &asBid, then it is more
virtuous to read with ;amaCat in another &asBidI and if one does not
get the ;amaCat in the other &asBid as well, then it is better to read in
the local &asBid. $f one missed ,a:beer+e+<la or one or two 2a:aCats
have been missed in the local &asBid and if by going to another
&asBid, a person will get these as well, then do not go the other
&asBid for this purpose. !imilarly, if the )3aan is given and there is
no one else for ;amaCat, the &uCa33in Ji.e. the one who called out the
)3aanK should read the Namaa3 alone. ?e should not go to another
&asBid. D!agheeri vol.1 pg.3#2E

Law: ,he respect that is afforded to the roof of the &asBid is the
same, which is afforded to the &asBid. DMhuniyaE

Law: $f the $mam of local &asBid ﺍ sﺎ.. ﷲ is an adulterer or one who
deals in usury JinterestK or if he has any other such fault, which
causes Namaa3 to be disallowed behind him, then in this case one
should leave that &asBid and read Namaa3 somewhere else. D!agheeri
vol.1 pg.3#2E

$f it is possible then he Jsuch an $mamK should be relieved Jof his
dutiesK.

Law: $t is not permitted to leave the &osHue after the )3aan. $t has
been mentioned in the ?adith that, none but a munafiH JhypocriteK
leaves the &asBid after the )3aan, e4cept for that person who went
out for some chore and intends to return. $n other words, before the
;amaCat commences. !imilarly, if a person is responsible to the
;amaCat at another &asBid, he should leave. DMeneral -oo:sI !agheeri
vol.1 pg.3#3E

Vol.3 pg.'#.


409
Law: $f a person has already performed his Namaa3 for that
particular time, then he is permitted to leave the &asBid after the
)3aan has been called, but for Luhr and "sha, if the $Haamat has
already been pronounced, he should not leave, but he should Boin
with the intention of Nafil. DMeneral -oo:sI !agheeri vol.1 pg.3#3E $n
the remaining three Namaa3 Ji.e. 7aBr, )sr and &aghribK if the
,a:beer has been pronounced and he has already performed his
Namaa3 individually, then in this case, it is 9aaBib JcompulsoryK for
him to step outside.

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Vol.3 pg.'1#


410

Endorsement by Imam Ahl-e-Sunnat Aala Hazrat
Ash Shah Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Qaadiri Barakaati ؓ 

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦ

ﻤﺣ

ﺮﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ, _.ﻋ

¸. · _

·.,ﺍ
ﻦ,
; ﻟﺍ :دﺎ,ﻋ _

.ﻋ ﻢ

ﻠ. و _·´ و ﷲ ﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ ,,ﺎ :ﻟﺍ
_وﺍ ,,ﺎ:ﻤﻟﺍ _ .ﻴ.ﺘt. و _

·.ﺼﻤﻟﺍ šﺪ

ﺼﻟﺍ ﺎ.

ﺼﻟﺍو

2his humble servant ﻪﻟﺮﻔﻏ ﱃﻮﳌﺍ ﺮﻳﺪﻘﻟﺍ $erused the blessed boo- *ahaar e ,hariat
Volume D hi&h is the su$erb &om$ilation by my brother in the ?een of
Allah( the honourable, dignified, $leasant in nature, sound thin-er, e%alted
and highly a&&laimed Maulana Abul 'laa Maulvi 9a-eem Muhammad
Am4ad Ali Qaadiri *ar-aati Aazmi ﻪﻗﺯﺭ ﷲﺍ ﰱ ﻦﻳﺭﺍﺪﻟﺍ ﻰٰﻨﺴﳊﺍ

Alhamdulillah, 3 have found the boo- to &om$rise &orre&t, sound, ell
resear&hed and ell &larified rulings" Noadays, there as a need for su&h a
boo-, so that our brothers in the general $ubli& may obtain the &orre&t las
in sim$le 'rdu language, thereby $rote&ting themselves from being misled
and dran into error by raising their sights to loo- in the dire&tion of fa-e
and gilded ornaments" 3 $ray that Allah blesses the author ill abundan&e
in his age, deeds and blessings, affording him the guidan&e to &om$ile a
&om$lete boo- of this nature dis&ussing every regarding all the essential
bran&hes of Religion hi&h ill serve as a suffi&ient &ontribution and hi&h
ill be effi&a&ious, ade.uate and a &leanser"

3 $ray that Allah $ubli&ises him amongst the Ahle ,unnat, ma-ing him
benefi&ial and ell a&&e$ted in this orld and in the hereafter"

ﻤﺤ. ﺎ:

ﻟﻮ. و ﺎ
´
ﻧﺪ

ﻴ. _

.ﻋ _

ﺎ.. ﷲﺍ _., و ¸,ﻤﻠ

.ﻟﺍ ¸, ﷲ ﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍو .ﺑ,ﺣ و .:ﺑﺍو .,ﺤ, و .ﻟ و
¸,. ¸,.ﻤ,ﺍ . ۱۲ ﻢ..ﻤﻟﺍ ¸ﺎ,.: ۱۳۳٧ .,ﺮ,.