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Vallabh Vidyanagar Series : 7
H. E., A. M. T. E.
Professor of Civil Engillferillg
Head of the Dept. of Civil Engineering
B. V. B. College of En/.?ineering and Technology, HUBLI.
First Published: 1958
All rights including those of making the
translation are strictLJ' reserved by the Author.
, H
- .... . t
" L, L
Published by R. C. Pattii, Chal'otar Book Stall, Station Road Tulsi Sada/l,
Arland (W. Rly), India.
Printed by N. Hernandez, .S. J. , a/ the Anand Press, Anand. (W. iVy. ';
.Dedicated sincerely
My students
past and present
It gives me great pleasure to write a foreword to this valua-
ble book which has been written by Professor R. Srinivasan
on the subjects of Harbour, Dock and Tunnel Engineering.
There are a number of books on these subjects which have been
written by many specialists, both on the continent and in the
United States of America. Thes books are more or less reference
books for the us of practising engineers in the profession.
As textbooks for young engineering students, they are of course
very valuable, when the course calls for a study of fewer subjects
and the syllabus demands detail ed study in the subject of specia-
lisation, as in foreign universities. They are also prohibitively
costly for Indian students preparing for the various examinations
of the universities in India. For such students, this book is
a boon.
The section on Harbour and Dock Engineering is well
divided into ten graded chapters and similarly the section on
Tunnel Engineering into nine graded chapters. Both the
sections make good reading and undoubtedly give the reader,
however uninitiated he may be, a grasp of the principles of
these subjects.
I am highly appreclauve of the clear and concise way in
which this volume has been written in respect of the descrip-
tive portions and the fully explanatory way in which many
sketches have been got up and included in spite of their relative
trouble and expense. They are very valuable as they go a long
way to clarify the construction methods in an unmistakable
manner at every stage. I am sure this book wiU soon become .a
popular textbook among the students of the several universities
in India. I take this opportwlity to congratulate Prof. Srinivasan
for bringing out this useful volume. I am indeed very happy
that I have had the opportunity to go through the book and
to write this foreworrl.
Dean, Faculty of Engineering and Technology
M . S. University (Baroda)
A sincere attempt has been made to present the funda-
mentals of this aspect of Engineering, which is rather difficult
to comprehend by a student in engineering and on which text
books as such have not been published. During my long
experience as a teach!"( on this and allied subjects I have con-
stantly felt this handicap and after very earnest deliberation
decided to offer my humble services to fulfil this deficiency.
In making this attempt 1 was greatly encourag d by the express
wish of my students past and present, who constantly urged on
me to bring out a textbook on the subject. To all of them
I am thankful. It will nOl be out of place to mention that
the few books there are deal with thc subject matter with parti-
cular reference to existing works and not on general lines as
would be useful to a student. A valiant attempt has now
been made to generalise and develop the subject matter in a
logical way and at the same time to contain the full aspects of
the syllabus of our Indian Universities. I earnestly hope that
this attempt achieves its objective.
So far the study and practicc of Harbour and Tunnel
engineering ha been based on the practical developments
taking plac!" in the more advanced and maritime countries of
the world ; hut now lh lime has come when our own country
is attempting to develop itself and it is in the fitness of things
that our future Engineers should b gin to understand and
appreciate the importance of thesc branches of engineering
more and more and be able to assist. It is also the aim of this
book to create this incentive in our young engineers and kindle
their enthusiasm, especially when they ' read about the collasal
achievements made by oth('r countries m these branches of
It is my duty to thallk all my good friends who helped
me to pr pare and bring out this hook. J have to specially
thank Shri P. A. Soni of the B. V. Mahavidyalaya, Anand and
Shri. Miskin of the B. V. B. College, Hubli who meticulously
prepared the numerous sketches that adorn the pages of the
book. I am grateful to Prof. B. R. Sali of B. V. B. College, Hubli,
for his immense help m going through the proofs. My
esteemed friend, Shd D. Subba Rao, Dean of the Faculty of
Engineering, and Technology, Baroda, has been good enough to
go through the book and has kindly consented to launch it
forward. For this, as well as for his constant advice and guid-
ance in the preparation of the book I am especially grateful.
I appeal to the readers to send me their constructive
criticisms unhesitatingly. I shall thankfully receive all such
useful suggestions and faithfully apply them to make what I
think is a useful book, more useful.
3- 10- 1957
X. }&
DOCKS. ....---:
V!. _sR"AFTS. ' .
,....VI1. _;FU NEL LINING.
As navigation developed, ships felt the necessity
to find shelter during their cruise and thus arose the
creation of havens, where ships could take in and
discharge, passengers and cargo, under protected
conditions. Such a place of refuge is called a Harbour.
As methods of navigation improved, these vessels
gradually increased in size, number and importance;
then arose the imperative need for providing suitable
and commodious accomodation. Harbours are
broadly classified as: (1 ) Natura! and (2) Artificial.
/ Natural harbour: Natural formations afford- \
ing safe discharge facilities for ships on sea coasts,
in the form of creeks and basins are called Natural
harbours. With the rapid development of navies
engaged either in commerce, or war, improved ac-
commodation and facilities for repairs, storage of
cargo and connected amenities had to be provided in
natural harbours.
4rtificial harbours: Where such natural
facilities are not available, countries having a sea board
had to create or construct such shelters makint use
of en ineering skill and methods and such har ours
are cal e Artificial harbours. J.'
I ..
Thus, a naval vessel could obtain shelter during
bad weather within a tract or area of water close to
the shore, providing a good hold for anchoring,
protecte y-natu(al or artificial harbour walls against
the nry of storms - such goo er mg conaitions
constitute a roadstead. Such roadsteads could be
naturally available or artificially created.
Natural roadsteads: (i) A deep navigab1e
channel with a protective natural bank or shoal
to seaward is a good example of a natural roadstead
as shown in fig. 1.
no.o.o !;Te.6.0
Natural roadstead.
FIG. 1
(ii) A confined area naturally enclosed by islands
as in a creek if available is known .as a circumscribed
natural roadstead (fig. 2).
aturally circumscribed roadstead.
FIG. 2
Artificial roadsteads: (i) These may be
created suitably by constructing a break water or
wall parallel to the coast or curvilinear from the
coast (fig. 3). As an alternative a circumscribed
Artificial roadstead.
FIG. 3
artificial roadstead could be formed by enclosing a
tract providing good anchorage, by projecting solid
walls called jetties from the shore (fig. 4).
5 C A
5 II 0 II.
Artificially circumscribed roadstead.
FIG. 4
(ii) Another method is to create a confined
basin of small area having a narrow entrance and
exit for ships. Such roadsteads with smaller inner
enclosures and wharf and with loading and unloading
facilities are commonly provided for fishing vessels
(fig. 5).
Confined basin.
FIG. 5
From their utility and situation harbours are
further classified into three major types, viz,
(i) Harbours of refuge including Naval bases.
(ii) Commercial harbours, connected with ports.
(iiI ) Fishery harbours:
It is necessary to study the requirements of these
types and provide for them.
Requirements of harbour of refuge:
j (i ) Ready ascessibility.
(ii) Safe and commodious anchorage.
(iii) Facilities obtaining supplies and repairs.
On dangerous coast-lines, disabled or damaged
ships, under stress of weather conditions will need
quick shelter and immediate repairs. All types of
naval craft, small and big will need refuge in an
emergency and hence such refuge harbours should
pro ide commodious accommodation. }V10dern big
ships will require a lot of elbow room for purposes of
manouvering or turning about.
Requirements of commercial harbour:
../ (i) Spacious accommodation for the mercantile
(ii) Ample quay space and facilities for trans-
porting, loading and unloading cargo.
(iii ) Storage sheds for cargo.
(iv) Good and quick repair facilities to avoid
(v) More sheltered conditions as loading and
unloading could be done with advantage in
calmer waters.
Commercial harbours could be situated on coasts
or estuaries of big rivers or even on inland river coasts.
They do not normally have any emergency demand
like a harbour of refuge and practically the size and
number of ships using such harbours are known factors.
;' Requirements of fishing harbour:
(i) Harbour should be constantly open for
departure and arrival of fishing ships.
(ii ) Loading and unloading facilities and quick
despatch facilities for the perishable fish
catch like railway sidings and roads.
(iii ) Refreigerated stores with ample storing space
for preserving the catch.
Accessibility and size of harbours: Accessi-
bility depends on the location of the harbour.
The harbour entrance should be designed and located
for quick easy negotiation by, overtaken by
storms. At the same time, it should be narrow
enough not to expose the harbour to the effects of the
stormy sea. Maximum dimensions up to 600' have
been adopted. The entrance is generally placed to
receive the ship direct from the worst storm affected
part of the sea, with a passage to the interior of the
harbour so arranged to minimise the effect of rough
Size of harbour depends upon the number and
size of ships likely to use the harbour at one time.
Some of the biggest modern ships are 900' to 1000'
long and about a 100' wide and there should be suffi-
cient area to manoeuvring them, without collision. Thus,
the size is determined by,
(i) Accomodation required.
(ii ) Convenience for manoeuvring and naVI-
(iii) Adaptability to natural features.
Regarding the entrance width the narrower the
entrance the better is the interior portected, consistent
with easy and quick entry or exit of the biggest vessel
using the harbour. Even when the break waters are
high enough to protect the harbour, waves from out-
side the harbour, set up diminutive waves inside the
harbour depending on the entrance widths. The
following empirical formula with a limited appli-
cation is sometimes used in the design of entrances.
h = H { t - .02
y'D (1 + V i) }
""here H is the height in feet of unrestricted wave
at the entrance mouth of width 1 feet, h the reduced
height of the diminitive wave inside the harbour at
a distance D' from the mouth and where the harbour
is L feet wide. This formula is applicable to a dis-
tance of 50 feet from the entrance and where the har-
bour is well protected by a vertical sea wall ..
Tides during ebb cause scour in a narrow
entrance, likely to undermine foundations of sea
walls and this factor has also to be considered in the
./fhe harbour engineer has to study certain natural
and meteorological phenomena which primarily affect
the location and design of the harbour. They are:
(i) Coastal currents and evidences of silting,
incluamg Littoral drift or Coast erosion.
(ii ) Tides and tidal range.
(iii) Wind, Wave and their combined effect on
Harbour structures.
-'Littoral drift: On exposed coasts - the shore
line undergoes gradual and continual change. Such
changes consist of erosion or washing away at certain
sections, while in other sections accretlOn or deposi-
tion takes place. This process of carrying away and \
depositing materials, is caused by currentjlow created
by waves impinging on the shore Ime. These waves
are ii\ uced by prevailing winds and tend to stir up
and move the lighter partIc es of sand in suspension.
The general effect of wind is shown in fig. 6. It
Wind effect on shore.
FlO. 6
tends to carry the drifting sand in a zig zag line. The
process of movement and deposition are complex.
Such sand drifts occuring in the proximity of fore-
shores is known as 'littoral drift'. This factor is impor-
tant in choosing proper harbour sites on exposed shores.
Tides: Tides on the coast-line are by
the sun and moon. The effect of tides IS to artI-
ficially raise and lower the mean sea level during
certain stated periods. This apparent variation of
mean sea level is known as the tidal range. Allowance
will have to be made for this variation in designing
and constructing maritime structures; regular tide
charts are prepared for consultation in important
coastal sections.
Spring tides and Neap tides: Tides, are
well known rises and falls of the surface of the sea and
of some rivers caused by attraction of the Sun and
Moon. There are usually two rises or flood tides and
two falls or ebbs or low tides every 24 hrs. 50 min. (Lunar
day). But the intervals of ebb and flow are subject
to great variations, as a]so the height of tides at the
same place. These irregularities are owing to the
shape of coast-line, depth of water, winds and other
Usually at new and full moon or rather a day
or two after (or twice in each lunar month) the tides
rise higher and fall lower than at other times and these
are called S, Also one or two days after
the moon is in1ler-quarte s \twice in a lunar month)
the tides risc and ratl less than at other times and are
then called .Neap (ides. The total height of spring
tides is general y 1 i to 2 times as great as that at
Waves and wind: The 'sea wave' is by far
the most powerful force acting on harbour barriers
./ and against which the engineer has to contend.
This is produced by the joint action of wind and
water and has tremendous damaging power. It will
no be out of place to quote a well-known author
who says, "the wave has the impulse of a huge bat-
tering ram and equipped with the point of a pick axe
and chisel edge". I t is a most inc:omprehensible
natural phenomena. The formation of storm waves
takes place in the due to the action of wind.
Water waves are of two kinds: viz., waves of
oscillation and waves of translation - the former
arestationary, while the latter possess forward motion.
But all translatory waves originally start as waves of
oscillation and become translatory by further wind
action. The Harbour engjneer's main concern is
the translatory wave. The wave movement and its
breaking on the beach or shore is shown in fig. 7.
G.o.lNIN(i ON
Wave moment.
FIG. 7
The movement of a translatory particle of water of
the wave as it nears the shore or obstruction is such
as to make the crest gain on the trough causing a
steeper and steeper crest, which overhangs and falls
down with a bang and breaks into froth. It is in
this phase the wave constitutes a potent disruptive
Any uneveness of the sea bed or natural and
artificial protrusions on it are capable of breaking
up the wave on its travel. Even a current of air
introduced from the bed upwards disperses the wave.
This is done by introducing a perforated pipe along
the bottom of the sea, (when storms are anticipated)
before hand and discharge compressed air just when
the translatory motion commences. Such an arrange-
ment is known as a 'q.i,Lhre
water' and has been tried
with success in the U.S.A, during a storm in Pacific
ocean. The height of waves generated in the area
rose to 15 feet, but when compressed air started
discharging, the air bubbles broke up the waves into
harmless small ripples.
Also islands and jutting pieces of land divert the
direction of waves and deflect them into shallow
ground and so break their power of damage (fig. 8).
Deflection of wave by head land.
FlO. 8
Height and length of waves: Waves being
generated by wind, their development depends upon
the surface area of sea exposed to wind action. The
great length and height attained by waves are largely
based on this effective surface area. Such a surface
giving rise to a wave is called a 'Fetch' and is usually
measured in miles" denoting the length across which
the wave action is generated and is active.
The height of the wave in feet = 15 vF, where
F is the fetch in miles.
This is an empirical formula employed to ass:er-
tain the approximate value of the height of a wave.
Another factor in determining the height is the
location of harbour works in relation to the fetch and
direction of wind. (For example at Karachi harbour
the fetch is nearly 500 miles of open sea, and the depth
is very great. During the peak of south west mon-
soon the highest wave was found to be not more than
15 feet in height. The reason for this is attributable,
to the fetch being probably at right-angles to the direc-
tion of wind.)
Waves cannot attain full height in shallow waters.
No wave can have a height greater than the depth of
water through which it passes. This is the reason
why, intervention of undulations in the bed reduces
the depth of wave at the section.
\c Length of wave: The length could be defined
as the distance between crests of a wave (fig. 9).
The length influences the force of the wave. It is
difficult to estimate the length in open sea and is
generally computed by Bertin's formula, as:
L = 27t . g feet
or L = 5125 /2 feet.
Where L = length in feet and t is the period in
seconds for two successive waves to pass the same
-1-1 E-161lT
Length and height of wave.
FIG. 9
The length of the wave, with the water depth,
determines the velocity of the particles of water in
the wave. Lengths have been known to reach a
maximum of 600 feet to 1000 feet. The height of
storm waves on various important water way" have
been observed to be as follows:
North Sea 12' to IS'
Mediterenean IS' to 20'
Atlantic Ocean 30' to 40'
Pacific Ocean 50' to 60'
Tropical Oceans 50' to 60'
ave section: A sea wave when
against an obstacle or a sea structure gives nse to
various forces, and the more important of these are
as follows:
(i) A direct horizontal force causing compression.
(ii ) A deflected vertical force tending to shear
away any projections on the face of the
(iii) A downward vertical force due to tl'ie collapse
of the wave, which tends the disturb the mound
construction of the foundatiQn and sea bed.
A. u..-llD 'DIKE:'
&. OOWH .... AQO
C. SU<TIOti fORCe-
FIG. lO(a)
Wave impact on sea-wall.
Fro. IO(b)
(iv) A suction due to the return of the water
after striking, which tends to disturb the mounds in
These forces have been diagramatically shown
in fig. 10 acting on a sea wall with a rubble mound
Applying these fundamental forces in designing
sea walls or break waters, they give risc to the follow-
ing phenomena:
"'__( i) A powerful momentary impact combined
with a hydrostatic pressure for a short: period.
(ii) A vibratory effect on the whole structure.
(iii) Impulses imparted to the water contained
in the joints or pore3 producing internal pressures in
various directions.
(iv) Alternate contraction and expansion of the
confined air in the pores and cavities of the structure.
Theoreti al evaluation of these forces or deter-
mination is practically. impossible, but to guide the
Engineer a few factors like (a) dynamic value of
wave action, (b) air compression and (c) water hammer
effect could be studied with advantage.
Dynamical effect of wave action: Based on
the simple principles of dynamics, the reaction
of a surface subjected to continued impacts could
be measured by the rate of destruction of the
momentum. The strike of the wave is sudden and
continuous, and causes a sharp blow of high instant-
aneous intensity, followed by a static pressure for a
very short period. Generally the whole process is
considered as a simple and constant impact.
The mass of water impinging on unit surface
- - ,
where w is the wt. of unit volume of water,
v the velocity of the wave and
g acceleration due to gravity.
The rate of dissipation of momentum = _. X v
Therefore the reaction of the surface on which the
. wv

wave stnkes = - = p the pressure on umt sur-
face ............................... . ...... . . (1)
(a) In deep water.:
When the depth of water is great compared to
the length of wave, velocity is atmost equal to that
caused by a freely falling body through a height
equal to half the radius of the circle the circumference
of which constitutes the length of wave. Thus, velocity
v = 1/ 2g l
r 27t
= 2'25y"l ............................. (2)
Considering the wave as a cycloidal curve,
the height h of the wave = l, where 1 is the length
of the wave
.. v = y4h from equation (2).
Substituting this value in equation (1), we get,
p = 16 wh
wh I
= 2" neary.
(b) In shallow water:
In shallow water, where if depth of water
is d, it has been found the velocity v = 5 73yd
Substituting this value of v in equation (1), we
h ave p= w X 328 X d or wd approximately.
Hence if the depth is taken in terms of height of
wave as equivalent to 31l, 2h or Il, then corresponding
values of p is 3wh, 2wh or wh respectively.
A it compression: !
/' The maximum , internal pressure on an impri-
soned all' column in - the po!,es or crevices of
structures" wili be' equal' to as much 'as 3:5
times the pressure of water on the face of the wall
or structure. In crevices or open joints in maso-
nry structures, this disruptive force, when repeated
constantly, has a powerful damaging effect. But
where such sea walls or break waters are co.n.s.truct.ed
of the mound type the air compression is greatly
reduced, owing to the numerous void s aces in the
through which the pressure re leves itself.
( c) Water hammer:
This hydraulic phenomena produces maxImum
pressures equivalent , to fifteen times the face
on ,enclosed water columns, inside the
joints and pores ' of the masonry struCture" but if
there is sufficient air cushion at the end of the
opening, much of the etlectis;educed. [fig. 11].

Water hammer and air cushion.
A notable example to illustrate the incredjble
-..ana unpredictable damage caused by sea is
that of Genoa harbour, where during a severe storm
considerable damage and destruction was caused.
The harbour at that time had a masonry break
water (fig. 12) roughly of the shape of letter Z in
plan, and a mile and half in length. The 'fetch'
in the ' area is nearly 600 miles and the storm waves
rose nearly 25' high. In the first section the waves
had sucked away the boulder protection for a length
of 800' exposing the foundation completely sweeping
the apron stones each weighing about 40 tons a dis-
tance of 160 feet away from the wall.
BLOCK 5 8. i!oOUI.O""
_ILe- ,r- - -

-01' HOlf.:"
Plan of Genoa harbour.
FIG. 12
In the third section 500 feet length of wall was
split into several sections and bodily thrown into the
harbour, the largest such block weighing nearly 10
to 12 tons.
_./ Break wat er: The protective barrier construged
to enclose harbours, and to keep t e harbour waters \
undisturbed by the effect of heav and tron seas
are called break waters. Such a construction makes
it possible to use the area thus enclosed as a safe
anchorage for ships and to facilitate loading of cargo
in comparatively calm waters.
Sometimes the inner side of a break water is
constructed as a Quay for cargo handling and is
known as a Mole.
"...-elassification of break waters: Break waters
are classified mainly into: (i) heap or mound break
water, (ii) mound with superstructure and (iii) upright
wall break water.
(1) Heap or mound break water is a hctrogeneous
assemblage of natural rubble, undressed stone blocks,
rip rap, supplemented in many cases by artificial
blocks of huge bulk and weight, the whole being
deposited without any regard to bond or bedding.
This is the simplest type and is constructed by tipping
or dumping of rubble stones into the sea till the heap
or mound emerges out of the water, the mound being
consolidated and its side" slopes regulated by the action
of the waves. The quantity of rubble depends upon
the depth, rise of tides and waves and exposure. On
exposed sites the waves gradually drag down the
mound, giving it a flat slope on the sea face. As
far as possible such flattening has to be protected.
The disturbing action of the waves is most
tween the high an ow water levels. Consequently,
all protective methods are adopted above the low
water level. Protection is also very necessary to
the top of the mound and outer, or exposed face.
Methods of protection:
and on
Dumping heavy blocks of concrete on top
front face. This to a great extent resists

Concrete blocks on top and frot face.
FIG. 13
the flattening action of the waves, by sheer weight.
These blocks weigh 25 tons to 30 tons and are either
deposited at random fig. 13 or laid in courses as
shown in fig. 14. These blocks are prepared as
. .
" ' . . ' .

Concrete blocks laid in regular courses.
FIG. 14
rectangular solids and laid with ends towards the
waves. This provides minimum area and maximum
mass against impact or overturning.
(b) Paving -the upper part up to the low water
level by deep granite blocks (fig. 15) is another method
to protect the top and face. Granite paving blocks
set in cement mortar reduc s the erosive action of
the waves.
Top protection by granite paving.
FIG. 15
.......-Mound form.ation: Rubble mounds are
formed using rubble of assorted weights, placed ac-
cording to sizes; the smallest and lightest
constituting the core. The sizes are increased gradu-
ally outwards. This arrangement' is logical, exposing
the bigger sizes to the action of the waves, while the
smaller sizes forming the core are protected (see fig. 16) .

Mound formation.
FIG. 16
Where rubble is difficult to get concrete blocks
have been used to form the mound. Concrete blocks
have the advantage that they could be heaped at a
steeper slope than rubble, economising in space and
material. Also the size of blocks could be controlled
to suit the exposure condition.
(2) (i) Mound with founded at low
A solid superstructure consisting of a Quay
protected by a parapet on the sea face is construc-
ted on top of the rubble mound (fig. 17). Such a con-
struction is founded about low water level. The
of such a construction are,
COIfC. "LOCK covelli'",
Mound with solid superstructure
and concrete block potection.
FIG. 17

(a) It provides a platform for handling cargo.
(b) It protects the top of the mound.
(c) It reduces the mass of rubble required for
the mound in proportion to the depth at
which it is founded.
Unlike the ordinary or plain mound break water,
this type of construction makes it possible for ships
to come close to the break water wall on the inner
or harbourside for loading and unloading cargo.
Heavy concrete blocks are used on the sea face
for protection. The front batter changes from' 28
to 1, abruptly to 1 to 1 in order to provide a sharp
edge to cut the waves on impact.
(ii ) Mound with superstructure founded below L. W.
This type of construction affords the advantage
of founding the superstructure well below the
level of disturbance, the waves having
IUL_oot\:H'bing effect at such low ve s. In deep
waters this type, IS very economical In mound mate-
rial (fig. 18).
l.It', L
1----------191'_0"------___ ...
Mound with superstructure founded below L.W L.
FlG. 18
.,/"Stability of mounds: Mounds lack quality of
permanence in shape and section specially the upper
portions. They stand in ,equilibrium, below - levels
of wave effect at slopes of 45 to 50. The maximum
wave effect and disturbance of the mound is felt bet-
ween H.W.L. and L.W.L. Hence large and bigger
blocks of 30 tons each or more are deposite at a_
slope of I to I in this region. The concrete blocks
are made in -hrrge rectangular blocks and laid as
headers, offering minimum face area and maximum
resistance to overturning. ;\QJIJ (0/0"
Size of material and arrangement: Mounds are
formed in ayers, the smaller sized material
being dispose at the base and the larger at the top
and sides, particularly between the High and Low.
water levels, which region is the worst affected (fig. 16).
Methods of construction:
Mound construction is carried out by anyone
of the following three methods.
(i) Barge method.
(ii) Staging method.
(iii) Low level method.
(1) ( Barge ) method: Special barges with flat
bottoms and .-f1oppers with vertical sides and doors
at the bottom opening outwards are used. The
hoppers are loaded with rubble, and the barge is
adjusted and aligned in position along the line of
construction and the load is discharged by opening
the hopper doors (fig. 19). Rubble should be
evenly distributed over the entire width of base of the
break water mound. The layers are trimmed and
rectified to the correct section by divers.

LoooR llf:'LD tly '
Discharge from hopper barge.
FIG. 19 (b)
When the mound rises up sufficiently high that
hopper barges cannot be used, decked barges (fig. 20)
are resorted to. These are loaded and brought to
the site and slightly canted by flooding compart-
ments on one side, causing a tilt which dislodges the
This method has the advantage of offering the
opportunity for a uniform depositing, simultaneously
over a large area.
A A A A :J
,Decked barge.
FIG. 20.
Staging method,' A series of piles are driven
at regular intervals of 15' to 20' and connected by
longitudinal runners, struts and braces (fig. 21 ) forming
a number of parallel tracks for tipping waggons to
move on rails. These tracks are well above the high
sea level and at 25' to 35' centres. The material is
hauled on this staging and is tipped at the ends and
sides. As work in one section is completed the staging
is removed and re-erected in a forward posi tion to
continue the work. Very heavy and powerful tackle
arrangement is necessary to withdraw the staging piles
from the areas where the mound has been completed.
Cross-section of staging.
FIG. 21
(3) Low level method,' This consists in forming a
length of mound from the shore, well above the
high sea level and using this for laying tracks and
running tipping waggons on this solid break water
structure as it advances. This method naturally
restricts the scope of a multi-section attack, but has
the advantage of consolidating the mound formed, by
the traffic of loaded waggons.
These are regularly designed as structures sub-
jected to forces causing failure in the following ways:
-0 ) By the shearing of bed joints or by sliding
of one block against the other.
1ii ) By overturning as a solid mass.
/ (iii) By the uplifting of horizontal layers.
iiv) By fracture.
I. Shearing of bed joints due to horizontal
pressure of the wave: Thi is prevented by
(a) The resistance of offered by the adhesive
force of the mortar joint. Usually 1 :3 cement mortar
is used, giving a high adhesive strength of 6 to 7 tons
per sq. ft.
b) Frictional resistance to sidillg: In the case of
concrete or stone blocks the coefficient of friction is
7. The resistance will be 7W. But the effective
weight should be calculated after making all owance
for loss of weight due to immersion, equal to the
weight of an equal volume of water.
ll. Overturning: It is another aspect of the
horizontal pressure and the design should provid<; for
this, like ordinary walls, to keep the resultant of the
weight and t he horizontal pressure within the middle
third of the base, to avoid tensional stress in the found-
ation courses. The maximum permissible compres-
sive stress is taken as 12 tons {sq. ft. with concrete on
rock base.
The horizontal force causing shear of the joints
and the overturning has been experimentally deter-
mined in many cases and the maximum value has
been found to be about 28 tons/sq. ft. at mean sea
level, taking the average wave size as 26' (fig. 22).
f. 2-2 TOH3-j
Horizon tal force 011 sea-wall.
FIG. 22
m. Uplifting: It. 1 due to wave action or wave
force underneath a mas. The only opposing force to
eliminate this is the weight of the masonry, which
thus is a simple case of equal and opposite forces.
IV. Fracture: This docs not result directly
from wave action. It may be caused by the dislocated
blocks, knocking against each other, and
loose the joints and such failures are usually avoidec
by proper bonding 11) the masonry, by joggles etc
(see fig. 23) . >-

..J ('I')

Dovetail Masonn'
(a ) .
Joggle joint
(b )
Joints in Blocks.
FIC. 23
Dowel joint.
This type of break water construction is suited to
sheltered site and not reliable for very heavy seas.
When depth is not great and the bottom is firm
upright wall break water could be built.
Advantages: (i)
/' (ii )
Reduces the amount of material.
Avoids dangers of unequal settle-
ment, as in the case of mound.
Disadvantages: (i)
Involves building a good height
of wall under water.
(ii) Calls for special care and costly
methods of construction.
A typical section of upright wall break water is
shown in fig. 24.

Section of upright wall break water.
FIG. 24
Alternate construction: 100 ton concrete bags are
deposited by special hopper barges across the full
width, upto L. W. Level. Above this level solid con-
crete wall is constructed. Jute cloth protects concrete
during passage through water, and the cement mortar
oozing out of the pores of the bags forms the morter
joints (fig. 25).
JUTr:- e,.o.G5 F-ILlt-O WIT-Il CONCRf-Tt-
r:-IG>1ING 50 TONS TO 100 TON:I.
_l!- .
1l-- ---.4""o.()I:-"
Wall on concrete bag foundation.
FIC. 25
The most popular method is the staging system,
though all the methods adopted in the case of the
mound could be made use of with additional lifting
devices, on proper floating arrangements.
Staging jystem: It consists in erecting on either
side a regular staging on piles, bridged over at inter-
vals by braced cross girders. The staging carries over
head moving gantries, with tracks for trucks to carry
huge concrete blocks of const ruction. The blocks are
bodily lifted and placed in position, with due regard
to joints, on a previously prepared firm foundation.
The blocks are sometimes shaped to form a "dovetail
masonry" in plan (fig. 23). Heavy Joggles are
formed to prevent lateral movements of blocks under
the impact of waves. Fig. 26 shows the method of
construction by this method.
a,a\ .: d" T"" ..... "u,a t;,IU.(U)
Cross-section of staging showing construction of wall breakwater.
Fro. 26
Bond : The blocks have to be properly bonded
together and at the same time allow relative
but stop lateral movement. Joggle or Dowel joints as
in masonry could be adopted.
/. Docks arc enclosed areas for berthing ships,
to keep them afloat at a uniform level, to facilitate
loading and unloading cargo.
Harbours are prone to be affected by tides, which
may cause changes in the water level. If at low tides
the level is sufficient as not to ground the ships, the
ships could be berthed in these areas.
Thus, in ports on the open sea coast protected by
an outlyigg_ breakwater, basins are formed within
its sl1eher fig. T. In these basins, quay walls are
projected at right angles to the shore alongside
which vessels can lie and discharge their cargoes.
I '\
I \.
I '
. e, A 5 I '"
oS E- ...
Dock location and basin formation.
FIG. 27
__.apen berths : Where tidal ranges are very
marked and large, docks are formed by enclosures.
The water level in these enclosures should be
maintained at constant level by providing locks
and gates .

Docks or are enclosed and are shut
off by entrances or locks to maintain a fairly uniform
level of water, and basins are partially enclosed areas
of water, which are apprmrched by open entrances
and are subject to fluctuations of levels, due to
tidal variations. These are also known as tidal basins
(e.g. Mediteranean sea) .
The permissible tidal range is about 15'-0".
Advantages of tidal basins:
(1) Vessels can come 1ll and berth or leave at
all times.
(2) Costly arrangements like lock gates are not
Advantages qf wet docks:
../ (1) Uniform level of water is maintained which
is very convenient ' for handling cargo.
(2) Prevents the rubbing of the ships' sides
against the quay walls.
(3) Effect of storms in the outer sea and har-
bour do not obstruct the dock enclosure.
River ports: are formed with quays alongside
the river banks, where the tidal effect is small. ' The
river in this case serves as the basin (fig. 28) .
When tide ranges are large in such rivers, wet
docks are constructed, with locks and entrances, ' which
retain the water level during the fall of level in the
Form and arrangements of basins and docks:
The exact arrangement and form must depend
upon the available site. The object to be aimed at in
the design is to obtain the maximum length of quay
in proportion to the water area of the basin or dock.
Dock location on river side.
FIG. 28
Shape of decks and basins: Should be of
shapes formed by straight lines, as curved
lines arc not suitable for ships to stand alongside.
(i) Rectangular shape: The length and breadth
could be adjusted to give the maximum quayage
(fig. 29) .
. eo ... SIN
r---e,-Q-e--.. -II--- W- .. -T-e:--"'----- TO
\._ _______ --'-____ -'_ SUt"l
Basin with protective breakwater.
FIG. 29
(ii) Diamond shape : For the same perpen-
dicular distance between the long sides, the long
sides could be conveniently extented (fig. 30) .

Diamond shaped basin.
FIG. 30
(iii) Inclined quays type: It consists of a number
of projecting quays into the basin or dock (fig. 31).
Basin with inclined quays.
FIG. 31
Locati on: Docks could be located, on inland
ports of rivers, at estuaries or on open sea coast.
A site on the sea coast is preferable to one up a
river as at Calcutta, where navigation of the Hugli
river is difficult especially as the river is congested
with local traffic. A proper piloting service is
necessary for this purpose. The river to
the dock have to be maintained.
A site on the estuary of a river, if sheltered, broad
and free from storms is very good. (Southampton).
Int ernal arrangetnent: Separate docks are
usually required for different kinds of cargo, as for
example, coal and oil should be dealt with separately,
away from general or food cargo. Flour acquires the
smell of its surroundings and should not be discharged
near cargo, with strong odour like salted fish.

yther aspects:
(1) Availability of fresh water to replace leakage
and fouled water from docks. In inland ports sepa-
rate canal from the rivers will have to be drawn for
this purpose, if alternate sources of supply are not
available. In the case of sea coast docks the sea water
could be used for cleaning and replenishing the dock.
(2) Approaches must be sheltered and of sufficient
depth. In many cases both on the open sea coast
I or in inland docks, the approach channel has to
frequently dredged (fig. 27).
In certain ports, docks could be approched only
at high tides as the approach channel cannot be
navigated at low tides.
Design and construction of basin or dock walls:
Design loads:
IU.TUJU.l f-lU.lNG
Typical section of a dock wall.
FIG. 32
These walls are designed as gravity retaining wall
sections. It should satisfy the following conditions:
(1 )
Dock empty to withstand pressure of back fill.
Dock full with back fill removed.
Thickness at top should be sufficient to resist
the shock of contact with ships.
Dock walls have to carry additional
centrated loads like crane foundations, and
capstans or bollard fixtures for mooring ships.
Surcharge loads in the shape of loaded vehicles
or trains on the quay adjacent to the wall.
(fig. 32).
Other aspects of construction details:
(i) Basin walls have to be of
height than dock walls to allow for the vanatIOn In
water levels due to tides.
Sliding caisson.
FIC. 33
(ii) As the water level has to be kept constant
the sides and bottom should be made impervious and
arrangements must be made to supply any loss of
water by leakage.
(iii ) The front [ace is generally straight or has
a very slight batter for ships to stand close to the wall .
(iv) Thc front face is given a granite fending
surface or timber or steel fender to protect the face
of the wall from abrasion of ships.
(v) lvlaterial for construction: Dock walls are
constructed of m.asonry, brickwork or concrete or a
combination of these materials (with construction
joints as in the case of concrete walls).
Dock entrances: Docks are entered either
directly or through Jocks. In either case gates are
provided for the dock entrances. The types of gates
used are:
(1) Wooden or Iron gates as are adopted for
(2) Caissons.
The former type IS described in detail under
lock gates.
Caissons for dock entrances: Two kinds of
caIssons are ell].ployed:
(1) Sliding caisson.
(2) Ship caisson.
Sliding caisson: It consis ts of a box shaped
steel structure stiffened internally with proper bracing.
It is provided with steel keels sliding on smooth granite
floor. Instead of the keel'l, the caissons could be moved
on rollers and rails. The entrance is opened by hauling
the caisson into a recess provided in the side of the
dock. The caisson also serves as a bridge across the
dock entrance.
Ship caisson: Resembles the outline of a
ship in cross-section and is constructed of steel with
stiffeners at proper intervals. It is floated into position
and sunk into specially prepared grooves in the dock
sides and sill. The sinking and raising of this caisson
is done by ballasting and unballasting respectively.
This type does not require any gate recess or machinery
for moving (fig. 34). .
Ship caIsson.
FIG. 34
Sizes of dock entrances: The width of
entrances depends on the largest ship the dock has to
receive. Modern ships have beam widths upto 100'
nearly, and to accommodate the largest ship the
entrance will have to be ufficiently wide for this
Sectiun of dock showing quay, sheds and other arrangements.
FIG. 35
Fig. 35 illustrates a typical dock and other
apurtenances like crane, sheds etc. in the proximets.
docks are necessary for the execution of
repaIrs, cleaning and painting of ships' bottom.
Hence these docks and docking arrangements should
be such as to expose, the ship's exterior fully and keep
it out of water the progress of repairs or reno-
vation . . There are generally four classes of such
docks viz:
1. Graving or dry dock.
2. Floating dock.
3. Marine railway.
4. Lift docks.
__./Graving or Dry dC!.k: The graving dock,
also known as a dry dock is a long, excavated chamber,
having side walls, a semicircular end wall and a floor.
The open end of the chamber is provided with a gate
and acts as the entrance to the dock. Figs. 36(a) and
(b) show the plan and an enlarged cross-section of a
typical graving dock.
The side walls are formed with a series of steps
known as altar courses to receive the ends of the
------------1. I

Plan of dry dock.
FlO. 36(a)
shores which support the vessel in a vertical pOSItion
while being docked. The dock is constructed of
concrete or masonry and the altar courses and steps
are of granite to withstand heavy wear.. Suitable
culverts are also provided in the side walls for filling
and emptying the dock.
. + 1/
f>oLTS f
Keel block.
Enl arged cross-section .
FIG. 36(b)
The dock floor is finished in concrete and is very
heavy. On the floor are fixed the keel and
blocks on which the ship is brought to rest on the
of the dock. The floor has a. cross fall to
the side ,drains which have a longitudinal slope to
carry away all wash water. The drains are' protected
with proper gratings on top to exclude solids and
scrapings carried by the wash, while cleaning the
ship's bottom.
Other accessories include big capacity pumps,
lifting and hoisting machinery and repair equip-
. ments all suitably housed either on tqp of, or inside
the side walls.
/ Method of Dry docking: The ship enters
the dock on adjusting the water level inside the dock
to that when the entrance gate is closed.
The water inside the dock is now pumped out by
powerful pumps, the ship being kept vertical and
central by the shores between the ship's sides and
alter steps while slowly being lowered on to the keel
and bilge blocks on which it comes to rest.
Size of dock: The size of a dock depends on
the size of the largest ship it has to dry dock. Dry
docks to handle modern big ships have to be 1,000 ft.
in length, with an entrance width of 80 ft. to 100 ft.
The ratio of length to breadth of modern ocean liners
are about 95 to 1. One of the world's biggest dry
docks is built in British Columbi,a. The Esquimalt
dry dock has a length of 1150 ft. and breadth of
135 ft. It is constructed of concrete, with granite
altars. The pumping plant consists of 3 pumps of
60,000 gallons per minute capacity each, which
empties the dock in 4 hours. This would give an
idea of the enormity of the dock size as well as its
pumping equipment.
on a graving dock: The principal
forces to which the dock is subjected are:
i...- Weight of ship resting along the centre line
of dock floor, when dock is empty.
"V2. Weight of water on the floor when dock is
"V 4.
Upward pressure under the floot' when it is
being emptied.
Earth and hydrostatic pressures behind the
side walls.
Load imposed by the shores on tqe inside
face of the side walls.
Surcharge on the side walls due to cranes
and other heavy stationery and movmg
. appliances.
7. In addition to this if there is a strong breeze
blowing during dry docking operations, the
shores on the leeward side of the ship will
be subjected to wind stresses.
For purposes of design the following conditions
of loading are to be investigated.
Dock em.pty: The floor is subjected to heavy
uplift, which will be considerably more than the
weight of the floor itself. This unbalanced excess
load is transmitted to the side walls, by "actual"
or "virtual" inverted arch action, and being resisted
by the weight of the side wall and the horizontal
pressures behind it (fig. 37).
The weight of a ship resting on the empty dock
floor, adds concentrated loads along the centre line
of the floor. Heavy reinforced floor sections may
become necessary if the soil is soft or yielding, as
intensity of this load may reach as high as 75 tons to
90 tons per running foot. It is generally assumed that
5/8 of such loads are borne by the keel block and 3/8
equally divided on the bilge blocks on either side,
at the loaded sections.
,. Scheme of dry dock consrruction.
I FIG. 37 '
Dock filled with water: This condition imposes
the greatest load on the foundation. The horizontal
pressures behind the side wall are moreor less resisted
by the water pressure inside the dock. The inverted
arch action of the floor will be absent under this
condition of loading, and the full weight of the side
wall less loss due to buyoncy along witl;l the surcharge
loads, will have to be taken directly by the foundation.
Scheme of constructing dry docks : Very
careful thought has to be bestowed on the effects of
horizontal eartl;l and hydrostatic pressur s as well
as uplift pressures during the construction of docks.
The sequence of construction should be 0 manipu-
lated as to ensure the stability of the structur during
construction. The following in this respect
is noteworthy: (fig. 37).
(i ) Site is partly excavated and portion marked
a of the side wall is built.
(ii) The core h is excavated to lay the floor in
short lengths and the outer section e
, e
, are laid,
leaving the core in between. By so doing only small
lengths of the side wall are exposed to the lateral soil
and hydrostatic pressure; this pressure being also
sustained by the unexcavated central core e of the
floor and the completed sections of the floor e
, e

(iii) The flooring in the central section is placed
after excavating the core e.
(iv) The upper portion of the side wall marked
d are constructed.
(v) The back fill e is placed to complete the
Desi gn of dry dock fl.oor : The floor of the
dry dock loads both from above and below
under critical conditions like that of the floor of locks,
and floor thickness has to be carefully designed. A
simple numerical example will make this aspect very
clear:. Let us consider the concrete floor of a dry
dock to sustain 40 ft. of water over an entrance width
of 70 ft. Assuming a modulus of rupture of 10 tons per
sq. ft. for cement concrete, a floor thickness of nearly
20 ft . will become necessary, jf the foundation below
the floor sinks and the concrete slab breaks, in conse-
quence. But actually such an extreme condition is
rare. Then consider the same floor to withstand the
upward pressure when the dock is empty, causing
a reversal of the original conditions. Of course this
upward pressure is to be taken up by the virtual invert-
ed arch or actual constructed flat ar<;h_m: _ _the floor.
In practice it has been found quite sufficientiocteSign
the floor thickness, to accommodate an inverted
arch of about 6 ft. thickness and t rise, adding up to
an actual floor thickness of 16 ft. to satisfy all the
afore-mentioned conditions.
It would also be necessary to construct the side
wall and the floor as independent sections considering
the divergent effect of the forces on them. It could
be also noticed that constructing the floor slab in
sections aids in its action as an inverted flat arch to
resist the upward pressure.
Keel and Bilge blocks: Keel block consists
of hard wood blocks of very large dimensions. A
number of blocks are so spaced along the centre line
of the dry dock floor, to afford sufficient bearing to
the ship's keel, without the blocks being crushed.
A typical simple keel block of wood is shown in
fig. 36. The block is made up of 2 or 3 blocks placed
one above the other and is placed at 4 ft. centres
longitudinally. The height of the block is about 4 ft.
to 4! ft., to give enough clearance for workmen to
work under the ship [fig. 36(b)J.
Bilge blocks also consist of two or more thicknesses
of timber and are fixed on both sides of the 'keel blocks,
but at longer intervals apart. The upper part of a
bilge block is slightly wedge shaped, fbr being; ad-
justed under the ship to give a level seating.
Floating dry docks: Floating dock may. be
.......-aefined "as a floating vessel which can lift a ship
out of water and retain it above water by means of
its own buoyancy". I t is a hollow structure of steel,
or concrete consisting of 2 side walls and a floor, with
the ends open. To receive a ship, the structure is
sunk to required by ballasting its interior
chambers with water, the ship is then floated into
position and berthed; the dock is raised bodily with
the berthed ship by unballasting the chambers by
pumping out the water.
Types of floating docks : There are three
important types that have been developed VIZ:
(i) Rigid type or non-self docking.
(ii) Self docking type.
(iii) Self docking offshore type.
Rigid type: In this type the side walls are
rigidly fixed to the pontoon or bottom section (fig.
38). The floor portion is divided into a number of
chambers, so as to assist in canting the dock if neces-
sary to berth listing ships, by partial unballasting
of the chamber.
Rigid type floating dock.
FIG. 38
Self docking type: "Self docking" refers to
a type of floating dock, which is divided into sections
longitudinally, anyone of which is capable of being
lifted and docked on the remainder of the dock for
purposes of, cleaning, painting or repairing. A
typical self docking dry dock, known as Bolted Sec-
tional type is illustrated in fig. 39; firstly the whole
dock (which is in three sections) is shown assembled;
secondly the centre section is shown detached and
about to be docked on the two end sections; and
thirdly an end section is seen being docked on the
other two.
J-----k- - ----l,

Bolted sectional floating dock (self docking).
FIC. 39
This type is usually constructed in" three equal
sections, the two end sections having stepped ends to
form landings during self docking. It combines the
advantage of strength of the rigid type with self dock-
ing facility.
The Offshore type: The offshore dock has no
side wall on the water side and has an 'L' shaped
-- I L ... ,
- ____________ ..i,
1.. _____________ -'
Offshore dock (self docking).
FIG. 40 .
cross-section. The side wall is connected to the shore
by hinged parallel booms capable of lifting 01: lower-
ing the dock. The ship to be docked, could be
brought on to the dock from either end or sideways.
The dock is longitudinally made into two sections,
so as to dock one half on the other. . Th dock and
the self docking operation is illustrated in fig. 40.
This type of dock is convenient in a sheltered situation
and adaptible for being attached to river fJuays.
Design considerations: The design of float-
ing docks has to be considered in respect of two condi-
tions, viz:
(i) When loaded with a ship: The transverse
strength of the structure should be sufficient to
e1'l_flble the buoyancy of the side walls and the side
sections of the pontoon to carry the concentrated
load of the ship along the longitudinal central axis
of the floor.
(ii ) When unloaded and floating: The tr; nsverse
strength should be sufficient to support the weight of
the side walls and other heavy machinery carried by
or on the side walls, like pumping units, cranes, etc.
When a ship is on the dock, and the dock com-
mences to rise, the water ballast from the side walls
is unballasted first. The sheath or skin of the side
walls will thus be exposed to the outside water pres-
sure and has to withstand this pressure. The maxi-
mum pressure will be attained, when the side wall
is fully empty and the dock is still immersed and in
the process of rising. In most floating docks this
pressure is not allowed to exceed 20 ft. head of water.
In order to..get the full lifting effect a floating dry dock
has to }.>e fuIfyunballasted which results in the dock
structure taking all the transverser bending strain.
A correct manipulation of the pumping out of ballast
will ensure avoidance of any undue or excessive strain
on the structure.
.._Advantages of floating dry dock:
( (i)

It is cheaper in initial and working cost!,.
It could be constructed in half the time
it takes to construct a graving dock of the
same capacity.
It has the advantage of mobility and
could be transferred from port to port.
I t could be trimmed to take a damaged
and listing ship, which it could not be
possible to tow through the entrance of a
graving dock.
It has no elaborate entrance or gate ar
}/ Disadvantages of floating dry docks:
./ )i)
The durability or service life is appreciably
Jess. The floating dock being a steel struc-
ture constantly afloat in sea water could
have a life of only about 50 years, like any
other steel structure, whereas a well con-
structed graving dock is practically inde-
/ (ii)
Upkeep and maintenance are more since
a floating dry dock itself is a large floating
vessel and needs dry docking, cleaning,
painting etc.
(iii) The m_anotlv..e.t:ing and towing of a floating
( dry dock needs great skill and care and in
exposed situations it may not be possIble
to use it at all .
Q,lp _/,"Marine railway: Marine railway is an inclined
'f'allway extending from the shore well into the
water as well as the foreshore, to enable a ship to be
drawn up clear out of the water. The. essential parts
are cradle. which moves up and down an inclined
track and the track itself supported on an unyielding
and firm foundation or pile foundations.
The cradle or platform (fig. 41) is constructed
Enlarged mid-section.
FIG. 41
of steel and provided with keel and bilge blocks to
receive the ship. The cradic is mounted on a system
of rollers which move on iron tracks carried by longi-
tudinal timbers, supported on cross tics or beams bearing
on piles or other firm foundations. Strong cables
attached to the shore end of the cradle haul the cradle,
operated by strong mechanical winches built on shore.
The ways consist of h avy rails secured to longi-
tudinal sleepers supported on cross ties, and laid at
an inclination varying from 1 in 15 to 1 in 20. A
rocking device to receive the safety pawls under the
cradle is placed in the centre of the ways, to keep the
cradle from slipping back if the hauling cable breaks.
For dry docking the cradle is slipped down into
deep water and the ship to be docked is towed over
the - cradle1and positioned to rest and moored to the
towers on either side of the cradle. The cradle slowly
emerges above the H. Water level, when hauled up the
ways, permitting the ship to come to rest, on the
cradle floor as the cable reaches the normal docking
The use of this type of dock is no doubt economi-
cal but is limited to vessels of not more than 5000
tons. In modern naval practice this type is yielding
place to graving docks and floating docks which have
become popular.
_/' Lift dry. dock: These are substantially constru-
cted platforms capable of being lowered into and
raised from water. Raising and lowering is accompli-
shed by means of hydraulic power applied through .
cylinders supporting the ends of cross girders
carrying the platform. As modern ships have
considerably grown in tonnage and size, this ancient
method of dry docking had to be discontinued, glvmg
place to more efficient and less cumbersome types.
Locks giving access to docks resemble In prin-
ciple river or canal locks.
The lock consists of a chamber, enclosed by quay
walls on each side and is JJaved at the bottom by f!:. n irlJp-
ted ar}_l flooring, to resist the upward water pressure,
When the lock level is low. This floor abuts against
the side walls, protecting them against sHding due
to earth pressure when lock is empty or has a low
level of water. The gates closing the entranc are
constructed of wood or iron of heavy design to stand
heavy water pressur. These gates close against a
sill provided for the purpose. The sill is rai sed above
the gate floor by 2'.
Sluice ways are formed in the side walls for fIll-
ing and emptymg locks (fig. 42).
Plan of lock.
FIG. 42
Lock foundations: Foundations have to be
carried with special care, so as to secure the Jock
against settlement. Foundations generally adopted are,
(a) on bearing piles protected by sheet piles
alround, or
(b) on hard pan.
Dim.ensions of entrances and l ocks: Depend
on the width, SIze and displacement of the longest
vessel using the lock and dock. Modern locks have
widths varying from 80' and above and depth 25'
to 40' and lengths of 800' and over. Fig. 43 shows
Plan op gate floor .
FrG. 43(a)
Cross-section of lock.
FIG. 43(b)
a typical lock, with an enlarged plCl;n showing the
details of the gate floor.
Construction of Lock Gates:
Material: The gates are made generally In
pairs and are of,
(a) Wood, and
(b) Iron.
Wooden gates: They consist of a series of
horizontal beams of green heart, (plain or fram d)
spaced closer towards the bottom to resist the water
pressure, and joined together by a heel post and meet-
ing post at the two extremities and uprights in th
middle. Over the beams are fixed close sheeting
of boards on the inner face (fig. 44). -

:5IL ..
Wooden lock gates.
FIG. 44
Iron gates: Iron gates consist of plate iron
ribs fixed horizontally and vertically and covered
over with a skin of iron sheeting. The thickness of
plate ribs are increased, and the spacing of the ribs
reduced towards the bottom to withstand the increas-
ing water pressure (fig. 45).
Lock gates.
FIG. 45
Forces on the gates: The stresses, a gate has
to bear are,
(1) a tl"ansverse stress due to the water pressure
against the inner face, increasing with
the depth of water;
a compressive stress along the gate due
to the pressure imposed by the other gate
at the meeting, which is a component of
the water pressure reaction. This compre-
ssive force is equal to the product of half
the water pressure and the tangent of' half
the angle between the closed gates, as
shown below: (fig. 46. )
Consider a pair of lock gates AB, AC, having a
rise n, the width of the lock being S. Let the length
of each gate be equal to L.
Water pressure on AB = wL, if w is the unit
pressure per foot length of gate, and acts at the middle
point of AB.
The reaction at either end of AB =
The reaction at the meeting post will be hori zontal
and in the direction AO.
FlO. 46
Therefore the reaction at the heel post must
pass through 0, the intersection of the other two for c s.
and L OBA = L ABe
tan ABC = S.
The component of heel reaction along AB
= - cot 0:
wL S
= 2" . 2" (Pruduct of half the water pressure
= - -,
. 4n
n and tangent of half the angle
between the gates) .
which is the force
on the gate.
It could thus be seen that the Icompressive force
varies inversely as the 'rise' . Thus, a large rise will
decrease this stress, but by increasing the rise the length
of the gate will be increased, which will increase the
transverse stress due to water pressure on the gate.
This will also increase the length of the lock. A
good compromise is achieved by adopting a rise of
i or i
Shape of gates: The shape of gates in plan
have an important bearing on the strength of gates.
Gates are usually straight or curved.
The straight gate is subjected to forces as discussed
previously and have to be designed accordingly.
The curyed gate is strong against the transverse
water pressure, and on account of the arched shape,
the transverse stress gets decreased as the curvature
increases and the two gates together form a circular
arch, when the transverse stress is completely changed
tol ongitudinal compression. Thus, the stress becomes
wholly compressive. This of course varies with the
depth of the gate, as the section of the gate at the
bottom gets the maximum compressive stress. These
gates are theoretically the best type. But such gates
have the following draw backs. viz.,
(a) They are longer and costlier.
They require large gate recesses.
The gate sils will have to be curved, which
is difficult and costly to construct. So, as a
compromise, gates with a small curvature
on the inside and with a straight sill are
constructed (fig. 43).
Support for dock gates: The gate is fitted
with a pivot cap at the bottom of the heel post, which
rests and revolves on a steel pivot embedded on the
floor. At the top it is fixed by an encircling anchor
strap, which is tied back to the wall. Where the gate
is long and heavy it is provided with castors or, rollers,
under the free end to ease the overhanging weight.

These rollers are provided with roller paths on the
gate floor (fig. 47).
Heel post of gate.
FIG. 47
Working of gates: The gates are usuall y
opened and closed, by two sets of chains, one for
opening and the other for closing and operated
simultaneouslv. These chains are fastened to each
gate at one third its height on both sides, near the
free end. Various mechanical devices have also been
adopted for this purpose.
Platforms or landing places are necessary for
ships to come close enough to the shore, for purposes
of rembarkatiQn;' disembarkation etc., at the same
time. These platform locations should give suffi-
cient depth of water for the ship to float. Such
platforms are called WharVtH. They are built out into
or on to the water. Wharves along and parallel to
the shore are .generally called Quays and their protec-
tion walls are called quay walls (fig. 48. )
Quay walls.
FIG. 48
Those that project into the ship's fairway or basin,
at right angles or oblique from shore are km;>wn as
Design of quay wall : Quay walls are built
to retain and protect the embankment or filling.
Factors affecting the design are:
(1) Character of foundation.
(2) Horizontal pressure to be provided for.
Quay walls are designed _similar to retaining
walls but on the water side they are subject to varying
water pressure (owing to level variations due to tides),
and on the land side, and containe water
with proper allowances for surcharge.
Forces on quay wall: (fig. 49).
t---..L!:oI:.Il....-__ .J....
Forces on quay wall.
FIG. 49
(1) Horizontal pressure: Generally the contained
water on the land side stands at a higher level
especially at low tide. Hence a rapidly falling tide
t;xposes the wall to a combined earth and water pres-
sure from the land side. This is the most critical
condition. Taking unit length of wall,
W h
Water pressure = +
Earth pressure
Combined pressure
where ,Wl = weight of 1 c.ft. of sea water.
= weight of 1 c.ft. of earth behind the wall.
cj> = angle of repose of the earth.
h = height of wall.
(2) Overturning moment: It is caused by the mo-
ment of differential head. Consider a unit length of wall.
Total equivalent liquid pressure (W) acts at a height
i on the shore side and water pressure (w) acts at
a height on the waterside, at low level.
Taking moments about the base,
h wH
The differential moment = W X 3" - "3 ' tending
to overturn.
For equilibrium, this overturning moment has
to be balanced by the weight of wall and the counter
moment. Hence.
p X '!_ = W X Iz _ wH
Construction of quay walls : These walls have
to be founded under water and constructed in water.
The various types of wall construction are as follows:
(i) Solid wall types are founded on
caissons and mounds, and raised above water by
masonry construction or large concrete blocks
(fig. 50 and fig. 51 ).
(ii) Dwarf quO:) wall types founded on piles
are also built. (Piles should be immersed always
under water, if of timber). These are economical
for river ports and ports having very moderate traffic
(fig. 52) .
(iii ) Timber lattice work jetties carried on iron
piles or cylinders provide the cheapest form of
quays, during the initial stages of port development.
Solid quay wall.
FIG. 50
, 01'4 ,,",OUHD
, .
. ' .. .. - '.. . .... .. .
QQCY C:cx a;r j t r-c
Solid quay wall.
FIG. 51
The driest and most durable materials should
be put at the back of the quay walls, such as rubble,
slag, granite to minimise pressure caused by back
filling (fig. 52).
Maritime quay walls must be extended into deep
water for vessels of the largest displacement , such
depths varying from 25' to 36'.
Quay wall on piles.
FIG. 52
In long quay walls expansion joints at every 66'
IS necessary. These are designed to permit irregular
kf:Y 6LOCK. IS
Expansion joints on quay wall.
FIG. 53
movements of adjoining sections but to lock them
to prevent horizontal break (fig. 53) .
Transit sheds : These are the sheds of one
or two storeys in height, the floor area being devoted
to the handling and distribution of incoming and
outgoing cargo requiring protection and used for
storage of cargo for a short time. Hence these
should be capable of affording flood space for
storage of incoming cargo and accumulation of cargo
ready for loading into the vessel (fig. 54) .
Transit shed.
FlO. 54
Construction requirements:
(1) Doors should be provided for ready and
rapid opening and closing (folding or
sliding doors could be employed) .
C nstruction should be ligrt and _fire
resistin (as goo s are on y in transit
ana no need to store in safety for a
long time).
Should have ample lighting provided by
long continued sky lights during day
time and ample artificial lights for
working at night time.
Should have modern fire fighting app-
Other requirements:
(1) Should be adjacent to the quay.
(2) Should have big capacity for storing
incoming and outgoing cargo at the
same time.
(3) Provision of road and rail for quick
transit of cargo.
(4) Equipment like portable cranes for
handling cargo should be adequate.
Fig. 54 shows a typical transit shed constructed
of steel and large dimensions (width 180' inside).
Roadway runs through the shed; and railways lines
run on the quay and behind the shed. The maxi-
mum capacities, floor area and quay space with res-
pect to each running foot length of quay are the prime
factors to be considered. For the shed shown in the
figure we have per running foot length of quay,
Capacity of shed 5012 c. ft.
Floor area of shed 199 sq. yd.
Quay space 40 sq. yd.
Ware houses are permanent structures, usually pro-
vided on shore or directly behind transit sheds for
goods to be stored for a lengthy duration.
When such ware houses are for storing dutiable
cargo remaining under customs authority, until
cleared, they are called Bonded ware houses.
Modern ware houses are built of R.C.C. with
many floors (see fig. 55).
They include buildings, devoted to' special pur-
poses, such as grain storage, meat storage etc., special
types of construction and equipment for each type of
material will be required. Hence in the equipment,
special storing bins and spouts to empty grains at
floor levels refreigeration plants for cold storage etc.,
have to be put in. Loading and unloading arrang -
Ware house.
FIG. 55
ments, like light cranes may have to be put up at
intermediate floor levels so as to reach top floors and
bottom floors a)-ike.
Dredging is defined as "excavating under water".
This excavation is carried out to increase the depth
of waterway to provide sufficient draft for ships, in
harbours, entrances to docks etc. Actions of waves
and tides, tend to deposit sand and silt within mari- I.
time enclosures and navigable rivers. During ebb "-
tides a certain amount of scouring takes place but
stil1 a large deposit remains uncleared reducing the
navigable depths.
Dredge or Dredger is the name applied to the
equipment which carries out this deepening or dredg-
ing work.
Di sposal of the dredged material: Dredged
material is mainly disposed off in the following ways.
(i) Conveyed out to sea and deposited far from
the site of accumulation.
(ii ) Conveyed and deposited in swampy areas
inland or adjacent to the shore for "reclamation"
of land.
In respect of the above, state laws are established
as to the disposal of the dredged material and have
to be followed.

Types of dredging devices: The following
are some of the modern types of mechanical dredges
used in modern marine engineering practice.
(1) Dipper dredge.
(2) Grapple dredge.
(3) Continuous bucket or ladder dredge.
(4) Hydraulic or suction dredge:
A brief description of the working of these dredges
will now be given.
Dipper dredge: It consists of a floating vessel
strongly constructed, carrying an inclined 'A frame
in the bow to hold the boom B by guy wires.
Through the middle of the boom runs a dipper stick,
worked by a rack and pinnion arrangement and to
the end of which is rigidly attached the dipper bucket
K, with a flap. A hoist cable is fixed to the bucket,
to move it up or down. The vessel is fixed to the
bed in position by means of three stakes during the
dredging operations. The boom B could swing
horizontally, at the bow.
Dipper dredge.
FlO. 56
Operation: The hoist cable is released, to
enable the bucket to reach the bed when a crowding
force is applied to the stick, through the rack and
pinion forcing the teeth of the bucket to bite into the
soil. The hoist cable is slowly pulled resulting in a
cut being made in the bed. The hoisting is continued
and the bucket is hauled out of the water, the boom
B is swung round to deposit the material in the
bucket, into any scow alongside or on to any prede-
termined place, by opening the flap. The boom is
swung back, and the dipper lowered, in preparation
for the next cut.
Advantages oj dipper dredge:
")- (1) Easy manouverability and hence suitable
for use in confined spaces around docks and narrow
(2) Very powerful and capable of excavating
in hard soil, for removal of boulders, and breaking
up of heavy objects like old piles, cribs etc. This type
of dredge, can dig in depths upto 50' of water and
the dipper capacity varies from 1 to 5 c. yds. normally.
These types of dredges of heavy capacities of about 15
c. yds. are in use in the Panama canal.
Grapple dredge : It consists of a substantial hull,
to the front of which are fixed an 'A' frame and a
boom B. The 'A' frame is guyed back, by back legs.
A grab bucket K is suspended by two cable lines H,
H' called the opening and closing lines. The
Grapple dredge.
FIG. 57
boom is fixed at the required elevation by means
of a guy wire and arranged to rotate through a hori-
zontal angle on a pivot at the lower end. The bucket
hoisting lines pass over two main sheaves fixed to the
upper end of the boom. The dredge is moored by the
help of stakes fixed fore and aft. f \
Operation: Mter positioning the dredge, a co
is brought along side and tied fast to it, on the right
side. The bucket is lowered to the bottom, where it
bites the bed and fills itself. Then tension is put on
the closing cable, which closes the bucket, hoists the
load and swings the boom horizontally to the right.
When the boom reaches over to the scow, the tension
in the cables are reversed, and this results in the
opening and discharging of the bucket and the boom
swings back to the digging position as before.
The hull is generally 100 ft. to 200 ft. long and
50 ft. across, the booms being 50 ft. long. The capa
city of the grab bucket ranges from 10 c.yds. upto
30 c.yds.
This dredge is very efficient and suitable fo
dredging materials, like sand, clay or mud, but no
good for hard diggings. The bed dredged by a gra
will seldom be even and will exibit pits and high spots.
Continuous bucket Elevator or Ladder
dredge: It consists of an endless chain of buckets,
mounted and running round a ladder L, formed in the
t;niddle of the bow of a floating vessel. The ladder
could be lowered or raised by the line N. The chain
of buckets is operated, manually or mechanically by a
big wheel E. The buckets are provided with pronged
-cutting edges.
Operation: Each bucket cuts and brings up
material to the top of the ladder as the chain moves
round, where each bucket inverts on descent and
discharges its contents into special holds H.H. The
vessel moves forward on completion of work at each
The size of these vessels is about in length
and 50 ft . in width, having a draft of about 8 ft . to
10ft. These can be used for digging depths
to 40 ft. The average digging capacity of such a
Continuous bucket el evator or ladder dredge.
FIG. 58
vessel is about 8000 c.yds. to 10000 c.yds. per day.
This dredger is very suitable for handling coarse
gravel or sand, hard clays and even soft or broken
stone, at fairl y good depths and beyond the reach
f a dipper. The bed dredged is least disturbed.
Hydraulic or suction dredge: It consists of
a suction pipe, carrying at the lower end a cutter
of some sort and having a universal joint at top.
This pipe is supported on a laddq and held in posi-
tion by an A frame mounted on the bow of the dredg-
ing vesseL - The suction pipe is connected to a centri-
fugal pump located amidships having a long
delivery pipe discharging into hopper barges along-
side the vessel itself or on to specially selected spot
on shore, needing reclaiming or filling.
Operation: ' The hull V carries the suction pipe
'S' on ladder, in the bow and the pumping machinery
P is housed in the middle of the ship. with its delivery
pipe D discharging into hopper barges floating be-
hind the dredging vessel. The cutter is suspended
from a frame in front and the vessel is moored by
anchors. The cutter rotates, cuts and loosens the
soil for quick and easy suction by the pump. The
cut up material is well churned in the operation, and
mixed with water to facilitate suction.
FIG. 59
Hydraulic or Suction Dredge.
FIG. 59 (b)
Sea going dredges of this type have a size varying (
from 150 ft. to 450 ft. in length and 30 ft. to 50 ft. in
width. The digging depths vary from 15 to 50 ft.
The machinery is operated either by stearn power or ,'\
electric power. The pump is a special type of centri-
fugal pump capable of handling heavy particles of
dirt and rock brought out in dredging.
This type of dredge is very effective in beds of
sand, silt, mud and clay in open water and is an exce-
llent machine to clear sand bars. If big boulders or
tree stumps are met with, they will have to be lifted
out before putting the cutter to work. Gravel and
soft rock are easily reduced by the cutter.
TUlmel are underground pas age used for
transportation. They ould be used for carrying freights
and passengers, water, sewage gas te. The m thods
involved are underground operations known as Tunnel
driving and the ground surfac is not disturb d.
,)r' Advantages of tunneling : There are rnany
factors that make a tunnel more advantageous than
other means, viz.,
(i) Tunnels are more e onorni al than open
cuts beyond certain depths.
(ii ) Tunnels avoid disturbing or interfering
surface life and traffic during construction.
conomics of tunneling : Thi s is a very
road question and in general depends on the rela-
tive cost of open cut vs tunneling. The following
aspects of the problem are instructive:
(a) Nature of soil , part icularly in deep cutting,
with the consequent side slopes and volume of xca-
vation, will greatly influenc the cost of open cuts .
A tunnel may be comparativel y cheaper and
(b) If the soi l is hard rock, the open cut could
be of steep side slope, ilwolving much less volume
of excavation and may prove ;:: heaper; whereas a
tunnel through the same, though may require little
or no timbering may be very difficult to blast ont.
(c) The requirements of fill in the neighbour-
hood also largely influence the choice. If a large
amount of material is needed for the nearby fill, an
open cut may be justified, though a tunnel may be
comparatively more economical.
Generally when depth of cut IS over 60 feet
tunneling is advisable.
Tunnel approaches: 'Ihese _ a!_e 0 en cuts_at
tither ends. The cost depends on the t opography.
The approach is ver short (see fig. 1) .in case _ of
Short approach
Long approach.
FIG. 1
steep hill slopes and ver Ion when the hill slo e
IS very flat. ver high altitudes t e approac es
. are 1 e y to et snow ound In winter or may get
13loCked by neavy ana slides. These factors may
carr weight in deciding 'tile c Olce of 'cut' or 'tunnel'.
lignlDent and grade: The several points
consideration could be summarised as follows:
(1) Strai ht ali nment an9 economical.
(2) r es in a tunnel should be appreciably
less than that outside; thf: tendency to continue the
maximum grades, of approach . open cuts into the
tunnel should . be checked. In a railway tunnel,
b c

Surfac ealignment and grade for tunnel.
FIG. 1 (a)
ther will be constant wetness of rails .causing.. slip_
of the wheels nef increased atmos heric resis-
tance. These tend to reduce hauling capacity
o ocomotives.
(3) As nearly level as 0'2% gradient may be
given to provide effective drainage in the tunnel.
(4) In Ion tunnels it is better to giv_e t
::ising from each en towards the centre. [se-e- ..... __.,.';-r'
(5) But, ventilation will be more effective if th
grade is all in one lrection:- - .
unnel surveying: A brief description of the
type of survey and the instruments usually used will
be given. Mainl the work nsists qf alignment
of the centre line_ on the surface_, its transfer into th
tunnel and good levelli ng work on tne surface and
inside the tunnel.
(1) First a preliminary location survey is done,
followed by a very precise resurvey of the line on th
(2) As tunnel excavation is carried. out from
each end 'face, . as also from. several intermediate shaft
ces, Q!inute accuracy in the survey of the centre
line is essential; the centre line will have to be carried
forward by prominently marking on each fresh fac
after excavation. When adjacent headings carried
from opposite faces meet, there should be no appreci-
able shifting of the centre line laterally or verticall y.
(3) 'When the tunnel is short, ordinary engineers
transit, properly handled gives close and satisfactory
(4) When the tunnel is very long it is very
necessary to have a . unne nsit which is large, ........
owerful, invertible in the wyes and is fitted with a
stft m level, by which the transverse axis can be
truly horizontal.
(5) These instruments must be frequently tested
and maintained in adjustment.
(6) Levelling work is carried on in the standard
way except for the fact, that where steep slopes are
encountered extra care is necessary to avoid errors.
The practice is to make back sights and, foresight
equal as far as possible to neutralise and minimise
errors due to mal -adjustments of the instrument.
(7) Horizontal distances are measured by:
(i) Stepping or (ii ) inclined sights.
Cumulative errors arc avoided by applying neces-
sary checks and corrections to the steel tapes, for
tension and temperature.
Curved line survey and alignment (see fig. 2)' :

Centre line on
FlO. 2
(1 ) The heading contains short tangents to the
curved line like ab, be, cd etc.,
(2) To locate the centre line offsets from these
tangents are set off.
(3) When heading has proceeded upto x y, align
points like n on the tangents . Set off the calcu-
lated offset n 0 to intersect the centre line at 0, on
the heading.
(4) Centre line has to be transferred thus after
each blasting of the heading face.
_/' Transfering centre line i nto the tunnel:
;Phis is a work needing the utmost care and accuracy
in execution, as the centre line worked
from opposite faces will not meet, and deviations in
the centre line will cause overbreaking and additional
expenditure, especially, when the material tunnelled
through happens to be hard rock.
Elaborate equipment is necessary for the pur-
pose: Initially plumb bobs, weighing 22 lbs. are
lowered into the tunnel shafts from the surface from
Transfer of centre line into the tunnel.
FIG. 3
opposite faces of the shaft, to transfer two points from
the centre line on the surface, vertically down. The
plumb bobs are suspended by piano WIre, passing
over grooves cut on pipes fixed, across the mouth of
the shaft. The wire of each plumb bob is wound
over a reel and released to the required length to the
bottom of the shaft. Once the bottom is reached,
these plumb bobs are replaCtd by a pair of extra
heavy ones made of angle iron, to keep the wires steady.
As a further precaution against the wires oscillating
or vibrating, the heavy plumb bobs are kept immersed
in a pail of oil (fig. 3) placed on the shaft floor. The
line joining these two piano wires is fixed and extended
by a theodolite placed in the shaft (as shown in the
figure) on to a point on the roof of the heading and
indicated on spuds or dogs fixed to the roof. A
corresponding point is similarly located on the roof of
the opposite face. The centre line is then marked on
the floor of the shaft with reference to the roof points
and is extended through the tunnel.
I ransfer of tunnel grade: Grade levels
from tunnel portals are carried into the tunnel in the
ordinary way, but transferring levels from the surface
to the shaft bottom, the same piano wire and plumb bob
equipment is used. wo marks are made on the
wire one at the top and the other below, 5 feet above
the intended springing level of the arch roof. The
R.L. of the top mark is first determined with respect
to a bench mark at the top near the shaft mouth and
the corresponding R.L. of the other mark is obtained.
With this as reference a permanent B.M. is established
on the side wall of the tunnel and the floor levels are
then transferred and continued from this B.M.
'V Design of shape and size: e of tunnel
, ' cross-section is gQV rned by the nature an type of
groun penetrated . wliile size IS argely controlled
by the use to w lch the tunn IS pu .
, the circular tunnel section is the
eit er internal or externa pressures;
and at I he same time rovides the
area Sor the
greatest cross-
But this section
Arch with raight sides. Horse shoe section. Circular section.
Shapes for tunnel cross-sections.
FIG. 4
though ideal has other disadvantages from the engI-
neers' point of view. The curved invert makes it
. difficult 111 ' .carry railway tracks without corisiderable
filling and levelling of the invert. The curved bottom
also makes it_ difficult for placing the! Jjning
of the invert. general _2ractice is to design
in rock with a semicircular arch and vertical side walls.
lunnels in soft soils or ground, are usua ly circular
or horse-shoe -shaped as they have to. withstand hori-
pressures. The horse-shoe shape is a compro-
mise secti.on to minimise the inconvenience of lining
the invert of a circular section. Fig. 4 shows
typical sections in common u e.
Procedure of work: In the wake of driving,
tunnels are lined, with timber, masonry, or concrete
with suitable outlets to let out enclosed sub-soil water
behind the lining. Other items of work including
provision of ventilation during and after construc-
tion, drainage and lighting if necessary, are carried
out to complete the construction of tunnels.
/ Methods employed vary with the kind of soil
penetrated. Mainly soils are classified as (1) hard
rock or fully self supporting and (2) soft soils, requir-
ing temporary supports during and after construction.
The soft soils are further classified as:
(a) Running ground, needing instant support
alround. Water bearing sands and similar
cohesion-less soils come under this
(b) Soft ground needing instant support for roof,
like soft clay soil.
(c) Firm ground wherein the roof will stand
for a few minutes and the sides for a much
longer period. Firm clay, dry earth and
ground are good examples of this class
of soil.
(d) Self-supporting ground, when the soil stands
supported for a short period and for
short lengths of 4 feet to 16 feet .
. of, Methods of tunneling (soft soils): . The
more popular methods are:
..( i ) Forepoling method.
e ) Needle beam method.
(ii Army method.
(i American method.
(v1/ English method.
(. Belgian method.
A brief description of each of these standard
methods will now be given:
I. F orepoling method: This is
only s_yst m which could _pe a v cated
ground and similar soils: The process is slow and
tedious requiring skilled miners. Iunne s 01 small
dimentions, Tor laying sewers, gas pipes etc., at ordinary
depths, could advantageously be constructed by this
method. It is very important that the sequence of
operations has to be strictly adhered to, in the correct
Sequence of operations jor a 5' X 5' tunnel in running
ground (see fig. 5 (a) and (b) :
( 1) A shaft is sunk from surface to the grade
level and properly protected with timber heeting .
Ir-- ,
.. -
. , ., . ..
5P'lf. 7. f( GO It 5-6.



iWii .w
J l
FIG. 5(a)
Forepoling method.
FIG. 5(b)
(2) A wooden bent properly braced is set up
a few inches from the sheeting.
(3) Small holes at close intervals are drilled
through the sheeting to facilitate sections being cut
out later. The pattern of the holes are as shown in
figure, 3 inches apart above the cap, and another
line of holes below the cap.
(4) A piece of sheeting above the cap is cut
out along the top line of holes.
(S) Forepoles or 'spiles' consIstmg of planks
Sf X 6" X 2" with wedge ends are entered one at
a time and driven through the cut, into the ground
for half their lengths with an upward inclination of
2" per foot. This inclination is very important to
prevent fouling of spiles.
A few spiles are also started on the sides,
flaring out with a slope of Ii" per foot.
(6) After all the roof and part of side spiles are
driven to half their lengths, a timber is laid across
the back ends of the spiles and by wedging this down,
the front ends of spiles are cantilevered up.
(7) The face sheeting is now cut across the lower
line of holes, which removes the sheeting between
the two rows of holes and the loose soil is allowed
to run into the tunnel till the face assumes a natural
(8) A 'horse head' is now set as a temporary
support about 2 feet from the sheeting and the spiles
are driven to their full length; the earth beneath the
forward end is scooped out for a depth of 18" ana
the face supported by a breast board, placed under-
neath the point of the spile.
(9) The next cap supported on a bridge is then
set and temporarily supported on a single post.
(10) Meanwhile the side spiles are also driven
for their full lengths.
(11) A heavy horizontal beam 6" X 8" is pushed
forward to support the forward cap. This facilitates
clearing the forward bench, setting the new bent for
the forward cap and relieving the temporary support-
ing beam.
(12) The 18" breast board is now extended to
the grade level by adding new sheets. The side spiles
are secured to this by cleats. This new brest board
acts as the sheeting for the next set of operations.
The sequence of operations are illustrated III
fig. 5.
II. Needle beam method: This method is
suitable for soils, in which the roof could be depended
upon to stand for a few minutes without support.
By this method 10' to 12' length per day could be
The needle beam consists of a stout timber beam
or a composite fEtched beam (see fig. 6) and forms
the main temporary support during the excavation.
f---- ---1tJrf
Needle beam method.
FIG. 6
The sequence of operations is as follows am:\.
diagramatically shown in fig. 6.
( 1 ) A monkey drift for a short distance of 3'
is driven beyond the day's work, on the working face.
(2) The roof of the drift is supported by lagging
carried on wooden segments, which are in turn sup-
ported by two trench jacks set in hitches cut in the
sides of the monkey drift ..
(3) After this drift is completed the needle
beam, which is about 16' long is slowly skidded for-
ward into the monkey drift.
(4) The front end of the needle beam rests on
planks on the floor of the drift, while the rear end
is carried on stout posts resting on the floor lining
of the tunnel. A trench jack is now placed on the
centre line of the needle beam to support the seg-
ment, thus transferring the roof load to the needle
(5) The other trench jacks are removed and
the drift is widened side-ways and supported as before,
by 1 aggings , segments and trench jacks supported on
the sides of the needle beam, as shown in fig. 6.
If necessary compressed air could be used initi-
ally for roof support, at a pressure of 12 lbs. /sq."
III. Army method or Case method: This
method was devised by the United States Army
for constructing small tunnels at fairly shallow
depths. This was mainly used for laying underground
The great advantage of this method lies in its
simplicity and economy as only a few timber planks,
with a trench jack or two form the main equipment.
The operations involved are as follows: (see fig. 7. )
(1) To advance the work the top brest is
removed and the ground excavated for a short distance
of 8" to 10" ahead; the breast board is reset in the new
face and braced back.
(2) The next cap board is set and held in posi-
tion by a 'crutch' or trench jack. 't
(3) The breast boards are removed one at a
time, and reset in a line below the top breast board
after removing the earth behind each breast board,
thus forming a new advanced face.
The sill boards are now advanced after
the grade level.
fixed between the
Case method.
FIG. 7
IV. The American method: This is a method
suitable for large sized railway or highway tunnels.
The operations involved are as follows:
(1) A top drift shown by dotted line in fig. 8
is first driven and supported by 1 aggings , segment
and two posts.
, .,

I , / . /
\ " I
, L .... -'?, I I
I. ..... -"/_j_/
I , - , - /
\\. \.. _____________ I i
-t.. J
American method.
FIG. 8
(2) Sides of the drift are now widened and
supported on shoulder segment timbers and struts
the sill; widening is thus carried upto the spring-
(3) Wall plates of 16 feet lengths are introduced
at the springing, supporting the arch set 'omposed
of the segments, which are connected Sll i Lably by
dowels at their ends.
(4) The wall plates are then under pinned by
introducing props or vertical posts at intervals.
(5) The timber arch segment, and roof load
are thus transferred to the wall plate and posts for
support, relieving the timber support in the top
drift, which are now removed.
(6) Sides and benching are more full y cleared
and the tunnel lined.
V. The English :method: (see fig.
(I) A central top heading about 16 lCet ahead
of the existing arch lining is driven.
(2) This is supported by crown b;'1 rs, which
are supported on posts in front and blochd by the
face of the completed arch ring in the r(';11'.
English method.
FIG. 9
. (3) Widening of the. heading is thcll done as
111 the American method and the sill piece i ' extended
right across the tunnel.
(4) The extended sill is underpinned and sup-
ports are introduced, the entire arch now being carried
on the longitudinal crown bars.
This method involves the use of a lot of timber
and frequent shifting of heavy timber logs back and
forth is the greatest disadvantage of this method.
VI. Belgian method: This is a popular
method and is suitable for all classes of moderately
firm or hard soils. Fig. 10 indicates the sequence of
(1) A top centre heading, for the full rise of the
arch abc d is driven and supported by crown bars,
posts and laggings, similar to the English method. The
posts are supported on sills.
(2) The heading is widened sideways, and suppor-
ted by additional crown bars and posts supported
from the same sills.
(3) The arch lining is then built and a horizontal
brace is fixed between the ends of the arch at the
d C
Belgian method.
FIG. 10
(4) A trench M N 0 P is then excavated to
clear the benching right down to grade level. Pockets
are cut at intervals in the trench sides to insert shores
to underpin the arch.
(5) The alternating spaces between shores are
then cleared and the supporting side masonry is built.
The shoring is now removed, and the space filled
with masonry. The invert is then constructed.
The advantage of this method lies in the use of
lighter sections of timber, as the timber is used closely.
But the disadvantage is due to the system of under-
pinning of the built arch, particularly when the
avoidable subsidence of the soil may take place,
causing settlement and cracks in the arch masonry
Liner plate m.ethod: Standard sized pressed steel
plates, plain or corrugated are used to support the
soil and the work is carried on in short lengths corres-
ponding to the lengths of these plates. The plates
are made with flanges of angle shape on all four sides
[fig. 11]. All the flanges carry holes through which
they are connected together by bolts and nuts, longi-
tudinally and transversely.
Liner plates are generally made 16" by 36" with
a 2" flange on all four sides. Another common size is
16" by 3'- IH-", the latter dimension along the
Do 0 0 oQf
f3jlEu=:"" ,," olF "1
Pressed steel liner plates.
FIG. 11
circumference of the tunnel section. The obvious
advantage of this size is that the number of plates
required are equal to the diameter of the tunnel in feet.
Stiffening ribs: When diameter of tunnel is
10 feet or more stiffening of the liner plates becomes
necessary to withstand pressures. These stiffners consist
of R .S. beam bulkheads, to the web of which the
liner plate flanges are bolted. Such an arrangement is
indicated in fig. 12 (a). The depth of beam is usually}"
to 1 i" per every 3' dia. of tunnel.
The ribs are generally spliced near the crown and
on the flanges as the web connects the liner flanges .
All bolts and nuts, for splicing stiffeners or connecting
liner plates and stiffeners should be made of the same
size for convenience.
Liners with stiffening ribs.
Flo. 12(a)
The thickness of liner plates used are as follows
and vary with the diameter of the tunnel. For 6' to 7'
diameter tunnel, i" thick and used without stiffeners.
For 8' to 10' diameter tunnel, t" thick and used without
stiffeners. For 10' diameter and above, i " thick with
R.S. beams at 16" centres as stiffeners.
Use of liner plates without ribs:
(I) A hole 16/1 in depth is eut out at the crown
section and a crown liner plate is inserted and set
[see fig. 12 (b)].
\ I
\ e.d1"'IIIIf /
"''l" j
::.:..:.::: .: .... ..::: -,-
Tunneling with liner plates.
FlO. l2(b)
(2) Excavation is gradually widened from the
crown sideways and adjacent liner plates (b), (c) are
set. Trench braces may be used if need be for , support
in case soil exerts pressure.
(3) Top drift is extended for a total length of
three liner prates or 48", and widened sideways as
(4) Excavation is continued sideways to the
springing line.
(5) Now, wall plates are carefully introduced
with tightening wedges under the last liner plates,
which are spiked to' the wall plates.
(6) The trench braces if used, are now removed,
leaving the liner plate arch to support the roof.
(7) The bench is then cleared to invert, to place
the bottom liner plate, which is used as sill for support-
ing the top liner plates by braces. The wall plate
is thus underpinned, removed and the lower section
of liner plates are symmetrically built up from either
side of the invert plate and brought up to the springing
(8) After securely joining the bottom and top
half metal plates, the braces are removed.
Use of liner plates with ribs:
(1) The work is carried out one liner plate
length, at a time.
(2) Each ring between ribs is completed before
the succeeding one is projected.
(3) The liner plates are cantilevered out from the
preceeding rib; then the forward rib sections are bolted
to the liners as the widening of tunnel proceeds.
(4) The ribs are brought up to correct levels
by tightening up with wedges from bench blocks.
Grouting the rear of the liner plates: The
area immediately behind the liner plates should be
pressure grouted (25Ib.jsq.") using good cement mortar.
This is accomplished through 1 t" dia. holes tapped in
the liner plates and only semi-dry grout should be used
to minimise leakage through the liner joints and it has
also the advantage of stopping water leaks in the soil.
Shield tunneling: Shield consists of a circular
steel ring with a transverse diaphragm. The essential
parts of a shield are the Hood, Tail, Cutting edges
and Propelling jacks (see fig. 13).
LOH(;lrUDIN"L 5E.CTlO ...
Shield for tunneling.
FIG. 13
(i) Hood is the forward extension of the ring
at the top and affords protection to miners working
III the forward section.
(ii) Tail is the rear section which projects back
a little distance over the completed lining, which is
usually of heavy cast iron rings as shown in fig. 14(a).
(iii) Cutting edges provided with proper stiff-
eners form the forward circular edge of the shield and
cut into the earth to be excavated.
(iv) Propelling jacks are powerful hydraulic
jacks attached principally along the centre line of the
central ring beam of the shield. These jacks are equally
spaced, react against the i'mmediately completed lining
and push the shield forward, cutting the soil.
Port holes are also provided in the diaphragm
which could be opened out to permit the rpuck to flow
into the completed portion, aft of the The
shield is strengthened by a circular box girder carrying
the skin and there are horizontal and vertical box
girders to stiffen this ring beam. Such a heavy con-
struction is very necessary to meet unexpected resistance
from soil, specially when the design data availabl e is
meagre. Precedent in such designs will be a vital
Shields have been mostly used for tunnel work
in France, U.K. and U.S.A. for tunneling under
rivers, for tube railways etc. These tunnels are, through
silt, clay, sand and similar soils, more or less uniform.
The progress has been varying, from as low as 2'
per day to as high as 12' per day. The diameters of
these tunnels vary from 10' upto about 30'.
Rrimary lining: It is the name given to the
heavy cast iron lining that is used in conjunction with
' Cast iron primary lining.
FIG. 14(a)
the shield. This is made up of segments of 5' to 6
lengths, and is of channel section [see fig 14(a)J.
The metal thickness is never less than 1".
Steering the shield: Forward propulsion of
the shield is accomplished by the thrust of the jacks
against the primary lining immediately behind. The
primary lining should be firmly erected and bolted
up, to withstand this thrust initially, when only one
or two primary linings would have been erected. As
the work progresses, more and more number of rings
get added and provide sufficient weight and stability
for the forward reaction of the shield. As the lining is



A , A. f'RI"'I,A,R( L,,. IHCO
Steering the shield.
FIG. 14(b)
built inside the tail section,}' a small annular is
left above the lining where the soil would be
loose and may cause subsidence of the surface of the
overburden, by its settlement. As a precaution against
this, the annular space is pressure grouted with good
cement or rich cement mortar. During prQPulsion
the shield has a natural tendency to rotate, which
though helpful in excavation, may cause shifting of the
centre line.
Plenum process or compressed air method:
The essential principle of this method is the use of
compressed air and is very well suited for soft or water
bearing ground. The use of compressed air for
subaqueous work was first. thought of by a French
inventor M. Triger.
The method consists in forcing air under suitable
pressure into an enclosed space like a tunnel heading,
to force back percolating water or water mixed soil
and thus stabilise the area of excavation.
Equipment: The following equipment IS
necessary for this method:
(i) Air lock and accessories.
(ii ) Bulkhead to fix the air lock.
(iii) Safety measures during emergency.
(iv) Air compressor.
1. Air lock: It is a long air tight cylindrical
steel chamber, with two doors, one at each end and
both opening inwards. These door openings are
provided with gaskets to keep them air tight when
closed. The lock is provided with necessary valves to
adjust the air pressure inside it to atmospheric or
tunnel working pressure. A 4" diameter bulls eye is
provided on the doors for inspection when the doors
are shut tight. Amenities like electric lights, and wooden
benches for seating the miners are also provided inside
the lock. The average size of such locks is 6' dia.
and 30' length. Fig. 15 shows a typical air lock fixed
to a bulkhead ready for use.
Air lock fixed in bulk-head.
FIG. 15
2. Bulkhead : It is the air tight diaphragm in
which the air lock is fixed. It divides the working face
from the completed outside section of the tunnel. This
partition wall experiences very heavy pressure and
has to be designed and constructed strong enough to
resist it. It is generally constructed of thick concrete
or steel, and well keyed into the arch lining of the
tunnel as a protection against slipping. The lock is
fixed with the inner end flush with the bulkhead
face on the working side to avoid compression due
to compressed air pressure inside of the tunnel.
3. Blow line: It consists of a 4" dia. pressure
pipe running from the tunnel-heading to the outside.
It is provided with a valve near the inner end and is
normally used to exaust fouled air from the heading.
In case water collects on the floor of the working face
(due to insufficient air pressure), it could be collected
and blown out, by suitably placed well points connected
to the blow line (see fig. 16).
Well-point blow line arrangement.
FIG. 16
4. Air compressors: They are usually situated
outside the tunnel and are connected to the locks by
proper pipes, control arrangements and pressure indi-
cators. A pressure of about 15 Ib.Jsq". to 20 -lb. Jsq".
may have to be maintained during working periods.
Man locks and material locks: In large
diameter t unnels, separate locks are provided on the
same bulkhead, one to convey the excavated muck
called material lock and the other exclusively for the
passage of labourers, called man lock. The former
should be capable of accommodating trucks and
locos running on track, to assist transport of material
and removal of excavated material from the heading.
The latter is generally made large enough to hold the
passage of one full shift labour in or out of the working
face to conserve the use of compressed air.
Duration of work in compressed air for
labourers: (a) For pressures upto 18 lb./sq". the
working period could be about 8 hours with at least
an hour in free air.
(b) For pressures from 20 lb./sq". to about
30 Ib. /sq". the working period is reduced to 4 hours
with at least 2 hours in free air.
Precautions to be observed are:
(i) The regulation working period based on
the compressed air pressure should never be ex-
(ii ) Decompression back to normal air pressure
should be gradual.
(iii) Suitable refreshments and sufficient rest are
essential to recoup the miner after work.
Compressed air pressure: Theoretically
043Ibs./sq". air pressure is required to support 1 ft.
head of water. In porous soils, there will be
resistance of soil particles to the flow of water,
thus tending to reduce the supporting air pressure,
to an extent of 15% to 25%. But if an impervious
soil overlies a porous soil, it will prevent escape of
air coming through the porous soil and tends to build
a reverse pressure adding to the hydrostatic head.
Under such circumstances the soil surrounding the
tunnel section has to be drained by well points con-
nected to the blow line, in order to reduce the hydro-
static pressure.
In large tunnels, it could be observed (fig. 17)
that if P pressure at the tunnel axis and the air
pressure in;the tunnel is made equal to it, then there


I P. l
I p

I P+l
1- --
I P+z
L _

Pressure distributi on diagram
(showing inadequate pressure on tunnel floor and
excess air pressure on the roof.)
FIG. 17
will be an excess of air pressure over the hydrostatic
head at the crown equal to P- P
and an equivalent
insufficiency of air pressure at the floor. A numerical
. example win make it clear. Consider the diameter
of the tunnel to be 20 ft. and the over burden. at the
crown to be 60 ft., equivalent hydrostatic head. Then
the supporting pressure actually required for this
will be 60 X 43 or 258 lbs.Jsq". Next c'onsider
the tunnel axis, where the head will be 70 ft. and air
pressure required will be 301 lb.Jsq".; similarly the
air pressure required at the floor will be 344 lb. Jsq".
Thus, if the supporting air pressure is made equal
to the pressure at the axis, the crown will have an
excess pressure over the hydrostatic head, causing
loss of air, due to the unbalanced pressure of 43
lb.fsq". and due to a similar excess of the hydrostatic
head or the air pressure at the floor, there will be an
inflow into the tunnel under a head of 1 0 ft. The
main objective is to conserve the air pressure and
generally enough air pressure to support at the crown
is us.ed, while the percolation, due to the unbalanced
pressure is dealt with by well points and other means.
1. Clay: This is an ideal soil for tunneling
by compressed air methods. As the tunnel work
proceeds the lining work should follow in its wake to
minimise the effect of subsidence. For a tunnel
driven at a depth of h ft. below surface level, the crown
pressure will be wh lb./sq. ft. if w is the wt. of the
overburden clay per c.ft. To support this we would
. wh Ib / " . d h I
reqUIre T 44 . sq . aIr pressure IllS I e t e tunne.
But owing to the natural arch of the soil which aids
in supporting and with judicious use of liner plates
the air pressure required may be got reduced to 75 %
of the theoretical pressure. No timbering need be
used (fig. 18).
Compressed air in clay.
FIG. 18
2. Gravel: The worst soil for tunneling by
this method is gravel, as it is very porous and permits
escape of air, and makes it difficult to sustain suffi-
cient working pressure inside the tunnel. _ Good
clay is used fo1' plugging the leaks and liner plates
are used for the face and roof.
3. Sand: Sand is a very pervious material,
but if the grains are small has some cohesion. The
compressed air penetrates a short distance into the
mass, when a point of equilibrium is reached, where
a surface called bulb of support is formed. Breast
boards are used for the face work and liner plates in
conjunction for the crown and floor, while concreting
follows as a permanent lining (fig. 19. )
Compressed air in saturated sand.
FIG. 19
Volume of air required: The actual
volume of air required depends on the quality of
the soil to retain air. A common rule is to
provide 20 c.ft. free air per minute per sq. foot
of face area. This presupposes a perfectly air tight
lining, with joints properly plugged with clay. Air
compressors with a capacity of 40,000 c.ft. free air
per minute at a max. of 50 lbs. per sq. inch pressure
are usually specified for tunnels of ordinary size.
Airholding: Air escapes through porous soils
taking the line of least resistance. One of the best
methods to conserve air is to do the concrete lining
close to the heading. A coat of neat cement wash
applied to the concrete, stops air leaks through the
pores of the fresh concrete lining.
Blows: This is one of the worst dangers that
could happen and occurs when the air creates a direct
escape to the surface. This will cause an instantane-
ous pressure drop within the tunnel, and the whole
atmosphere becomes fogged. This danger is gene-
rally fought both from within and without. In I
subaqueous work, large loads of clay, kept ready in
scows for such emergencies are dumped on the river
bed forming a blanket, about 150 ft. wide and 10 ft.
to 12 ft. thick, over the affected area and some distance
ahead of it. Within the tunnel, ev.ery effort should
be made to concentrate on maintaining full air supply
by directing all supply into the tunnel. The escapes
should then be methodically tackled and plugged
which of course is a very hard and laborious job.
Fire hazard: The excess oxygen in compressed
air greatly increases this danger, which becomes very
difficult to control, once it starts. Inflamable materi-
als going into the tunnel should be a minimum, and
smoking should be strictly prohibited. 'Velding
operations should be well controlled. Proper fire
fighting apparatus should be installed and in sufficient
numbers to meet bad fires.
Pre draining tunnel ground: As air pressure
in the ground region will generally be inadequate to
completely stop ground percolation, drainage of the
ground area by a system of well points will consid-
erably reduce this trouble, if not completely eliminate
it. In compressed air tunneling the well points can
conveniently be connected to the blow line (fig. 16).
This method affords good drainage in porous ground
like gravel and also helps to lower the subsoil water
table in the surrounding area.
Working conditions for labour: The period
of work in compressed air is regulated by law. The
duration of work under different pressures is indi-
cated under the chapter dealing with compressed air
tunneling. The decompressing rate is also . an im-
portant factor and varies with the working pressures.
Safe decompression rates are as follows:
For 15 Ibs. to 20 Ibs. 2 lbs. per minute.
20 Ibs. to 30 lbs. 15 1bs. per minute.
Men having a cold should not be allowed to work
as they are liable to become afflicted by "blocking"
which causes severe pains.
..,.,General: Tunneling in rock is mostly an opera-
tion that has to be carried out at considerable depth
below the natural ground surface, the work being carri-
ed out in hilly tracts. The economics of such a means
of communication is obvious as it greatly reduces
costly rock cutting and reduces distances. Such
tunnels have been constructed with advantage for
carrying railway, water, highway and for diversion
of water from one valley to another across the inter-
vening ridge. Compared to soft soil tunneling, the
operation is very costly and it is imperative that great
care has to be exercised in accurately carrying out the
work. Even the slightest deviation will entail enor-
mous waste of money. Also any over cutting will
entail great expenditure in re-sectioning .
. Rock is a material which is self supporting and
does not require much timbering or other types of
supports of a cumbersome nature, except occasionally
in regions where loose rock is met with. Thus, it
admits of operations in many sections along the
length of the tunnel, which greatly helps to expedite
the work.
/Faces of operation: These faces of operation
or attack are opened up by:
(1) A system of vertical shafts.
(2) A system of pilot tunneling.
A. B. C. D. are additional faces of' attack.
Faces of attack.
FIG. 20
_., (1) System. of vertical shafts:
line at suitable points shafts are sunk
On the tunnel
(see fig. 20).
It could be seen that if n is the number of shafts that
are possible 2n plus 2 faces of attack are available.
/(2) System. of pilot tunnels: Sometimes it
may be found that a lateral or horizontal approach
to the tunnel line may be closer and shorter com-
pared to the deep vertical shafts (fig. 21 ). In such
circumstances a tunnel of small size called a pilot
Pilot tunnel method.
FIG. 21
tunnel is driven parallel and close to the proposed
main tunnel, and short cross connecting tunnels are ./
driven from it to reach the proposed main tunnel
to create operational faces (fig. 21 ).
Methods of tunneling in rock:
/ The popular methods are:
( 1 ) Drift method.
(2) Heading and bench method. '
(3) Full face method .
.fi. Drift m.ethod: It consists in driving a small
sized heading, centrally at top or bottom of the face,
which is later enlarged, by widening and benching.
The top drift method is popular and the main opera-
tions involved are:
(a) Boring or blasting a top centre heading or
drift, end to ' end.
(b) Widening and enlarging the drift.
( c) Benching in stages.
The sequence IS illustrated in fig. 22.
TOP He.AO''':'''1].T
" 2 1 2'0 \
I 1 \
. ' j
, ,
: I
I 3 I
I '
I_ - - - - - - - - - - __ -'
Drift method.
FIG. 22
Briefly described, a drift of 7' X 7' min.) size <2E-
sufficient to accommo ate the tunne mg mac mery
abour, and mucking equipment is first driven end to
of the tunnel. As_ the heading work proceeds, the
_entre line is checked and on iron
ci9gs fixed to- the roof. Once the drift is accurately
r -l
_L ____ _ _______ ____ _
FIG. 23
tunneled out, the widening o_Eeration is commenced
bv blasting tlie SI es 0 t e' art t to the required
This com letes the tQP heading. The
benchin IS carried out in $tages (fig. 23) and lowered
down to grade in a series of ana horizontal
cuts. The disadvantage of this method lies in the

fact that as the enlarging and benching work com-
mences, mucking tracks have to be shifted fre uently
from bench to bench. But the advan ages are tHat
elaborate supporting platforms are not necessary for
drilling operations, and during heading work, muck-
ing work goes on undisturbed. The main feature I
of this method is that a small preliminary section
for the full length has been accurately driven, which
will cOJ?siderably economise the excavation work .
../' 2. Heading and bench tnethod: This
method involves, the driving of the top portion in
advance of the bottom portion as illustrated in fig. 24.
CRoss SfS110N 5ECTIO.K
Heading and Bench method of tunneling.
FIG. 24
If the rock is hard and self supporting the top heading
advances ahead, by one round over the bottom, so
that heading and benching follow each other. But
in case the rock is badly broken, the top heading will
need support, and the bench will afford the platform
for this. In this method also, the advantages and
disadvantages are similar to the Drift method.
_/' 3. Full face tnethod: This method is con-
veniently adopted for tunnels of small cross sectional
area. The full face is opened out once for all and
driven. Tunnels upto 10ft. dia. could be conveniently
handled by i etliod. As the full section has to
be tackled, extra units of tunneling equipment will
become necessary, but the method has the advantage
of expeditious completion. Also mucking tracks
could be laid once for all on the tunnel floor and pro-
gressively extended.
/Mucking: uckin means of the
debris from !he tunnel jnt r' a_gooQ_
distance outside the tunnel ent nee n all ig
tunnel constructions this is to be reckoned as a
item of expenditure ,an ex_peditious and efficient _
remova of muck, considerably minimises the working
Tippmg waggons run on temporary tracks,
carry the blasted material from or near the 'working
face', to the entrance through the formed tunnel.
Loading and unloading these waggons are carried
out by mannual labour. Self tipping waggons, in
conjunction with modern muck handling machinery
like power shovels are also employed in recent practice.
Other aspects.
1. Drilling: Preliminary to
firing the blast for rock excavation,
of blast holes have to be drilled.
depends the yield.
charging and
effective pattern
On this pattern
A drill hole l!_ormal to face will break out gap
inclined a_t to the face (fig. 25). Two adjacent
holes fired simultaneously remove sections A and B.
.& __
Theory of blasting and breaking,
FlO. 25
In order to achieve satisfactory results it is
important to create an opening by a concentrated
blast over a small section and break the surrounding
area in sequence. Such holes which initiate the
process are called 'cut holes'. A good blast with
a good yield results by a cut hole inclined at 45
the face. A pair of such holes act as if actually
grabbing the material in between and pulling
it out. In short the cut holes start the break and
the burden is gradually loosened and breaks up with
the help of other holes, called "easers" and "lifters".
In positioning the holes another important factor to
be borne in mind is that if a charge is placed equi-
distant from two faces at right angles, it will break
out 225 times as much as on a single face. If
three faces are involved the yield will be 3t times
that on one face. The foregoing factors are very
important in devising the pattern for the drill holes.
Two important patterns, based on these facts are
indicated here.
Drill-hole patterns:
(1) Pyramidal cut pattern.
(2) Centre cut pattern.
I. Pyramidal cut: It is shown in fig. 26. The
cut holes (i ) are inclined inwards from the face
roughly forming the side edges of a pyramid. These
are closely assisted immediately by the or
relievers, (ii) spaced between. Further from these
Pyramidal cut method.
FIG. 26
are the "lifi rs" at the bottom and back holes at top,
(iii) both of which are called - On the
sides the "side holes", (iv) assist the break. The se-
quence of firing is denoted by these numbers, the
interval being a few seconds.
2. Centre cut 'V'-type cut pattern: In
this pattern the cut holes are a series of parallel holes
horizontally drilled and slightly inclined (fig. 27).

0 0 0

40 2. a:.":)
01 t 0
.t. 0::"" c::D 2.-
40 a:::> <": :1> 04

0 0
Centre Cut method.
FIG. 27
The other holes are placed as in the pyramidal pattern
to assist in the break.
Depth of bore holes: With the present day
high speed drills, 8' to 10' depth of bore holes is quite
common. Coupled with high explosives this gives
a very good yield.
Precaution in locating drill holes: Drill
holes should not cut through faults or seams in the
rock, as this will cause the gases of explosion to escape
along the least line of resistance viz., through these
joints and cause no breakage of the rock.
Types of drills and their use: The standard
types of 'rock drills are:
(1) The drifter
(2) The jack hammer.
They operate on compressed air at a pressure
of about 60 lb. per sq. inch to 80 lb/sq". The drilling
speed is about 1 ft. per minute. The drill bits, have
cutting edges of tungsten carbide steel, a very hard
metal. '
Support for drills: As these drills are very
heavy and very fast, they need rigid and strong supports,
on which they are mounted and directed. These
columns are fabricated out of telescopic steel tubing
3" to 4t" in diameter and are called 'jumbos' (fig 28).
Use of Jumbos for mounting drills.
FIG. 28
They are fixed in, the tunnel horizontally or vertically
. like tunnel braces and the drills are mounted on them
and worked in any direction conveniently.
The drills are also equipped with devices to work
'dry' or 'wet'. In the wet type water is passed through
the drill to the drill hole, to minimise dust nuisance.
The compressed air used to work the drills helps to
ventilate the tunnel working face as it passes out of
the drill. Compressors used should be capable of
maintaintng an air pressure of 100 IbsJsq". constantly.
Explosives: odem practice 'eli nite' is
the ex losive popularly used. As a measure of safety
electnc blasting is done1_-using caps'
for the cut holes and'CIe a caps' for_Qther_holes. The
avera e ield of blasted- roc per pound of ,explosive
'is 100 c. t. .
- Safety precautions in rock tunneling:
flunneling being an underground operation, is a hazar-
dous one and measures to protect the workers against
accidents, sometime fatal, are essential. In rock
tunnels, blasting leaves loose or shattered rocks not
completely detached. This causes rock falls, during
drilling on account of vibration.
In soft soils, huge earth slides take place without
warning, trapping the workmen. Fire inside the
tunnel is another serious hazard. The principal
measures to increase safety are:
(I ) Removal of rock protrusions by hammering
immediately in the wake of blasting, known as 'scaling'.
The hammer stroke should sound hard and not hollow;
Hollow sound indicates loose rock.
(2) Isolated big blocks, loosened, but tempo-
rarily perched should be promptly propped up, and
afterwards safely cleared.
(3) If soft strata is traversed, the roof should
be supported in the wake of the excavation.
(4) Open flames, electrical short circuiting etc.
should be scrupulously avoided inside the tunnel.
(5) Good first aid equipment should be near
at hand and excellent fire fighting equipment with
adequate water supply if possible should also be made
readily available.
/ Shafts are vertical tunnels, reaching from the
ground surface down to the tunnel roof. They afford
manifold advantages and uses in constructing tunnels.
When the position and course of the tunnel are correctly
aligned and accordingly set out on the surface, shafts
are sunk at suitable points on this tunnel line to aid
tunneling operations.
Advantages of shafts:
(l ) They greatly expedite the work by adding
two faces per shaft for driving.
(2) They afford outlets for excavated material
and means of access into the tunnel for building
(3) They could be used as pumping shafts in
case of large influx of water.
(4) They help correct alignment and help carry
the centre line into the tunnel proper.
(5) In long tunnels they afford ventilation and
are useful for exhausting smoke and foul air out of the
Shafts in rock: The operation consists of
(i) drilling and blasting and (ii) mucking. Themethod
of excavation conforms to that of tunneling in hard
1. DrilliDg: The centre cut or pyramidal cut
pattern of drill holes is adopted. In the case of large
shafts stepping is resorted to, to facilitate mucking
and drilling to go on simultaneously. Fig. 29 indicates
these details.
2. Mucking: Generally done by hand and
loaded into buckets and lifted up. A simple method
is shown in fig. 30. Twin buckets could be used so
that as one rises the other descends. The explosive
Stepping in shafts.
FlO. 29
charge should be so controlled that the blasted pieces
weigh between 20 lb. and 200 Ibs. for easy handling.
Hoisting muck from shaft.
FIG. 30
Timbering: Though there is generally no
horizontal pressure exerted, in rock shafts, timbering is
found necessary, to carry guides for the cages and
support lagging. Lagging is used to prevent small
pieces of rock breaking loose and falling on and
injuring workmen.
'sets' are frames made of two side plates
and a pair of end plates. This is divided into two
compartments, for a ladder way and a hoist way (see
fig. 31). The sets are spaced at 5 ft. centres and each
'set is hung from the one above by means of 'hanging
bolts'. The sets are made about 4" less alround and
fixed to the sides by blocks and wedges.
Pumping: Shafts are usually wet. The wet seams
are sealed off by cement grouting. When pumping
has to be resorted to, "sinking pump" is used, slung
from the lowest timber set. The pump should be
dIsconnected and hoisted up before commencing
11 m mel 11
Iii ,



. I,

Timbering for shafts in rock.
FIG. 31
Raising: If the rock is of a good variety, shafts
are also "raised" from the tunnel heading, instead of
being sunk from above. This has the advantage that
the blasted muck drops into the tunnel and pumping
will not be necessary. Both these make this method
cheaper. The initial size of shaft that is raised is not
more than about 5 ft. diameter. This is subsequently
Shaft sinking in soft ground: The shafts
are not usually very deep, except when driven for
foundations. Broadly these could be divided into
(i) shallow shafts and (ii ) deep shafts.
(i) Shallow shaft: Method of sinking (fig. 32) :
An open excavation to a suitable depth is first made
, 11111111 ,'lijIIlRI

'''CO (,.
ING - -
Shallow shafts in soft soil.
FIG. 32
at the site. In this excavation are placed two "timber
sets" at proper interval and braced with a diagonal
piece of timber.
The sheeting consisting of Ii" to 3" thick board
is placed around the sets and kept in position by the
back filling.
The sheets are driven into the ground and
simultaneously digging below the sheets, is carried
oqt, taking care to see that the sheets are kept vertical.
After this first set of sheeting is fully driven, the
frames are properly strutted and wedged.
A slight benching or margin is given and the
second stage of excavation is commenced and com-
pleted similarly.
As sheets are driven, the timber sets should be
located and fixed at predesigned depths to withstand
the side pressures.
(ii) Deep shafts: Where the depth is great a
modified system of vertical forepolling is resorted to.
Short poling sheets of 5' to 6' are used and driven
flaring out from timber sets and keeping the sheets in
position by double wedges. The arrangement of
sheeting and sets is illustrated in fig. 33.
Deep shaft in soft soil.
FlO. 33
Design of shaft supports: I t is based' on the
horizontal pressure at several depths. This IS gIven
by the formula,
H = K.W.D.
H is the horizontal pressure in lbsJsq. ft.
W is the weight of soil in pounds per cubic ft. and
D is the depth in feet below the surface. K is a
constant depending on the type of soil. The value
of K for different soils is given in the table below:
Soil Value of K
----------- ---- ----
Damp clay.
Moist sand and gravel.
Wet sand.
Coarse gravel.
For deep foundation work, caissons or wells
have to he sunk in situ.
Precautions in shaft sinking work in soft soils:
1. Avoid general movement of earth behind the
. sheeting by keeping sheets tightly against the surface
of the soil.
2. Deflection of sheets should be prevented as
this will tend to cavity formation behind the sheets.
3. Top set near the ground surface should be
strongly strutted and of heavy section, (though
theoretically, such strength is not required) to
withstand, considerable amount of surcharge due to
live loads, like cranes, material heaps and machinery
usually placed at the month of the shaft.
Protection round the shaft opening: I t is
usual to construct a 3' high wall round the edge of
the shaft opening, to form a protective fencing. This
also prevents the surface water flowing down the shaft.
The objects of providing a tunnel with permanent
II mg are manifold.
( ] )
I t gives correct section to the tunnel.
It withstands soil pressure when driven 111
soft soils.
(3) It reduces losses in friction and erosive action,
and ensures stream line motion, when the
tunnel has to carry water by providing a
smooth passage at good velocity, free from
(4) J.t forms a good protective covering to
certain types of rocks prone to air slaking.
(5) It keeps the inside of the tunnel free from
water percolation.
(6) It supports large slabs of rock which might
have become loosened during blasting.
Materials for lining,'
./' Masonry: Brick masonry was the standard
material for tunnel lining, but is now rapidly going
out of use, except in the case of underground sewers,
as bricks are more acid resisting and suitable 'to carry
sewage.\ A great disadvantage in using brick lining is
the difficulty in back packing the space between the
tunnel roof and the extrodas of the arch which at
best has to be hand packed and is imperfect. At a later
stage this may cause uneven pressures on the arch
lining. The packing material employed is usually spalls,
sand and brick bats, well rammed. On account of so
many indeterminate factors in design, a very heavy
section may be necessary the construction of which
becomes cumbersome and costly.
..../'" Stone masonry: It has more or less the same
disadvantages as brick lining and in addition is very
heavy necessitating very strong centres. But is still
used for lining the sides.
Cement concrete has become the standard
material for tunnel lining in both rock and soft soils.
Its main advantage lies in its plasticity which allows
it to be well packed between the form and the soi l.
The waterproof qualities of cement concrete, makes
for a first class watertight lining. It could be used to
form an unbroken ring right round, forming a shell.
If unusual soil pressures have to be reckoned with,
the thickness could be controlled and reinforced,
,_,/' Timber: IS one of the oldest lining materials
l' ough of late, it is slowly yielding place to concrete.
It is used both as a temporary support during construc-
tion and as a permanent support later.
Modern practice is to use either timber for semi-
permanent lining and cement concrete as a standard
practice. An attempt will be made to describe these
two types of linings in detail. Masonry linings more
or less follow the same modus operandi as concrete,
like erection of centring, construction of the arch,
easing of centres etc., except that the material is
Design of thickness of lining: Stresses in
tunnel lining primarily originate in earth pressure.
The laws of action of earth pressures at least are only
approximate and involve indeterminate factors. The
designer is therefore well advised to primarily depend
on judgement and precedent, guided by theoretical
analysis, which may indicate the nature of the stresses.
The empirical formula commonly applied to
obtain a working section is
T = 1)
where T = Thickness of lining in inches
and D = Diameter of tunnel in feet.
But this thickness is restricted to a mInImUm of
9", irrespective of the material used for lining.
Good hard rock is of course self supporting and
needs a nominal lining if properly scaled.
Firm soil is usually considered to exert only a
downward pressure on the arched roof and though
the sides are lined no great consideration is attached
to the side or horizontal pressures in designing. As
a long tunnel generally passes through varied geological
strata, no hard and fast rule could be prescribed. The
nature and geological structure of the soil met with
should be the primary guide in designing the lining
and method of its construction. General practices of
providing linings are indicated in (fig. 34).
General lining practice.
FIG. 34
(a) In firm soil only a roof arch is provided,
resting on benches cut in firm rock at the
(b) If rock is less solid, side walls of" masonry
are also added.
(c) In soft or treacherous soil an invert is added
in addition, to protect the side walls from
moving in as also to resist the upward
pressure of the soil.
J. TiIDber lining: The lining consists of a regular
timber arch, formed of straight segments connected
together, and approximating to the intended curvature.
At the springing the segments are carried on wal
plates of heavy timber, and supporting posts. The
segments are arranged in three, five or seven piece
sets and are spaced about .1 feet centre to centre longi-
tudinally. A timber toggle is used between adjacent
sets as a lateral spacer. The whole arrangement is shown
in fig. 35.
Typical arch set of five piccrs.
FIG. 35
'arts of timber lining: _
(i) Segments: They should not be too long, as it
is safer to carry the roof load under arch action rather
than beam action.
(ii) Wall plate: It supports the arch rib at the
springing line and is the weak link in the lining system
as it has to be bear compressive load across the grains,
the safe load not exceeding about 300 Ibs. per sq. inch.
/ '(iii) Posts: They arc usually set vertical under the
Wall plates one under each arch rib. Their tops are
connected to the wall plate by dowels and at the foot
they arc supported on double wedges on blocks .
../ (iv) Collar braces: These are introduced at
each joint of the arch segment, in the form of toggles
to prevent the segment twisting out of line. The posts
are also provided with horizontal braces, generally in
the centre. The sizes of these braces should not be
less than 4"x6" .
/ (v) Laggings: These are of 3" to 4" thick
planking laid on top of segments. They should be
placed close, to retain the fill .
.../ Packing: As soon as the timber arch is erected,
it is 'blocked' from the roof by using wooden blocks
for the purpose. Then the wedges at the foot of posts
are driven tight. Dry packing with muck, or lean
cemen t concrete ( 1 : 3 : 6) shot in to the space, fills
the gap between lagging and the roof. If concrete is
used, it should be of a stiff consistency.
This type of lining, lasts for about 10 to 15 years,
especially if the tunnel atmosphere has constant
humidity. It is customary to make a thorough inspec-
tion of this construction at least once in six months to
see if the timber has started to decay in any place.
Timber arch is a serious fire hazard and fire fighting
measures become an obligatory equipment ' in such
tunnels. A good principle would be to gradually replace
the timber lining by concrete, as the timber .starts to
decay. Miners, mostly prefer timber lining temporarily
or permanently, on account of the warning the timber
gives by 'groaning' when subjected to unforseen forces,
tending to cause collapse.
Concrete lining:
Work: Concrete lining is done using proper
form-work. The form should show the true outline
of the finished tunnel section .. s tunnel lining work
is divided into three operations corresponding forms
or moulds are used. Thus:
(11 Ground mould is used for Ooor lining or
invert concreting (fig. 36).
Ground mould.
FIG. 36
(2) Leading frame is th name applied to
the side wall form (fig. 37).
/' / f

Leading frame.
FIG. 37
(3) Trusses are used as centres for the roof
arch (fig. 38).
1. Ground :mould: It consists of wooden frame
or pattern exactly the form and dimension of the cross-
section of the floor lining. The frame is made out of
3" thick plank to fit the floor curvature correctly.
The mould is made in two halves joined together during
use by a splice plate. This helps handling the mould
in a restricted space like the tunnel interior.
Types of centres.
FIG. 38
Two moulds are used at a convenient distance
apart and chords are stretched across from one to
the other to give the true profile of floor surface and
to which the concrete is laid. The moulds are placed
exactly at right angles 10 the tunnel axis, the level
and positions properly checked by a transit. Some-
times only one mould may be enough in the forward
position, the finished lining furnishing the back mould.
2. Leading frame: It is made of planks of good
thickness one edge cut to the curve of the side excava-
tion and the other edge to conform to the inper face
of the finished side wall. The frames are set with the
lower end resting on the finished invert or a quoin
provided for the purpose. The top of the frames after
alignment is correctly checked with a spirit level and
adjusted horizontally.
Short heights of the wall section are blocked and
over the sides and brought up to the
3. Centres: These are constructed similar to
the form work used for arches but are so designed as
to leave sufficient head room in the centre for con-
venience of working (fig. 38). Centres may have to
support roof pressures also in addition to the weight
of the lining and are therefore constructed very
systematically, and properly trussed. Any standard
method of easing these centres, could be employed,
the more popular one being the use of double wedges.
The curing period for the arch should never be less
than 7 days to 10 days, and easing should never take
place before this period.
Steel forms and their use:
Two principal types will be explained, VIZ.,
(i) Separate side wall and arch forms.
(ii) Telescoping forms.
(i) Separate side wall and arch forms:
This is a standard arrangement of tunnel forms for
large tunnels. In this method the invert is first laid
(fig. 39). On this is laid a track for carrying form
Use of separate side wall and archform system.
FIG. 39(a)
units for the sides and the arch, one following the
other. Side wall concreting is shown in fig. 39(a) when
from a platform (to which concrete is hoisted by a
ramp) concrete is poured down into the side forms.
As this form unit is moved forward, it is followed by
the arch form unit shown in fig. 39 (b). The arch forms
are filled by concrete placers. The form unit in this
method are of the non-telescopic type.
FIG. 39(b)
(ii) Telescoping forms: The roam ribs are
made up of sections hinged together, so that a back
unit could be collapsed and moved forward under
form units erected and in use, without disturbing,
concreting. This type is very suitable for tunnels upto
20 ft. to 25 ft. diameter. As the tunnel size increases
Telescoping steel form. FIG. 40
the hinged sections become too heavy for handling,
and erecting. The traveller carries jacks for erecting
and collapsing the rib sections. Fig. 40 illustrates the
use of this type of form.
Placing concrete: For small tunnels 4 ft. to
10 ft. in diameter hand placing is quite satisfactory.
The laggings are arranged wais.t high and the sides
are concreted first. Then gradually the concrete is
lifted for the regions near the crown. The gap in the
crown section is concreted in the longitudinal direction
or by pressure method. To assist in this, temporarily
a detachable key plate is inserted at the crown, of
sufficient size, with a knock out block at the bottom
(fig. 41 ).
Hand placing in small tunnels.
FIG. 41
For bigger jobs the modern practice is to place
concrete by the help of pneumatic concrete placers
which force concrete through a pipe into the space
above the centering. The discharge pipe leads to the
far end of the crown, feeding the concrete,
over the crown; the concrete slides down the sides
C' TR I!;S
Placing concrete by a gun.
FIG. 42
of the form. The pipe is gradually withdrawn as
concreting proceeds. The near end is blocked by a bulk
head of steel, through which. the pipe IS passed.
Fig. 42 clearly indicates the process.
Curing concrete: Generally if the humidity
inside the tunnel provides enough moisture for this
purpose, no further curing may be needed. Otherwise
perforated pipes are fixed to the tunnel roof, through
which water under pressure is sprayed on to the con
crete. If water is not easily procurable in the vicinity
owing to arid conditions, the best method is to spray
paint the concrete surface with bituminous paints or
other ready made asphaltic compounds immediately
on stripping.
The sequence of placing the , lining around
depends on various factors . The more popular methods
( I )
Placing the entire lining in one opera-
tion: This method is conveniently adop-
ted in the case of small circular tunnels,
in which concreting is done in short lengths.
Placing the invert first, and the rest of the
lining next: This method provides a rigid
base on which the formwork for the sides
and roof could be supported. A good
procedure would be to commence concret-
ing the invert from the most interior section
towards the portal; this will save the newly
laid concrete from being used as a hauling
floor before it sets.
Placing the invert first, the sides next and
finally the roof: This is especially suitable
for large tunnel sections, where it may be
advisable to separately pour the three
sections as a matter of constructional con-
venience. This is the most convenient
method and is very popular.
In tunnel driving, water comes from two sources;
wash water, used for washing drill holes and ground
water, from the ground through which the tunnel is
driven. Controlling this water consists in preventing
excessive quantities from hindering work and remov-
ing all the water by suitable means, out of the tunnel.
An exploding charge may open up a ground water
source, unexpectedly admitting a very large quantity
of water into the tunnel.
Pre-drainage: Where seepage is small and
comes down from the tunnel roof, it is made to flow
over a temporary pitched roof of corrugated sheets
on to longitudinal side drains and so led out (see
fig. 43) .

Corrugated sheet to drain roof seepage.
FIG. 43
Ground water is subject to great variation and
it would be advisable to drill exploratory holes ahead
of and deeper than the face to be removed, to investi-
gate whether the ground is badly broken up and
estimate the quantity of the ground water ahead.
If this exploration successfully indicates the existence
of ground water, it may be possible to grout off heavy
discharges and stabilise the formation before tunnel-
ing ,approaches this difficult zone.
Removal of water: The quantity of water
that accumulates is collected in sump wells and
pumped out of the tunnel. When the tunuel is long
it may be necessary to have more than one sump well,
so that from the face, the water could be pumped
into sumps of increasing capacities by a system of
"gathering pumps" and ultimately pumped out of
a sump well located near the portal. The sump
wells also help in the settlement of solid materials.
Any type of centrifugal pump could be used,
and stand by pumps may have to be provided to
cope up with unexpectedly large inflows. In design-
ing the pipe line, only, frictional force has to be pro-
vided for. But in the system of gathering pumps,
long delivery lengths are split to suitable or economic
lengths to accommodate normal sizes of pipes. Steel
pipes of diameter varying from 3" to 6" ar.:: generally
used, without sacrificing, floor working space.
Permanent drainage: The completed tunnel
section has to have some kind of permanent drainage
arrangement. A very simple method of drainage is
to construct drainage ditches (fig. 44) longitudinally,
- .
Central drainage duct.
FIG. 44
sloping towards the portals or shafts, from where
they could be pumped out of the tunnel by suitable
lation during
are threefold,
It is necessary to provide proper venti-
tunnel construction; the main objects
( 1 )
To supply fresh air to the working crew.
To remove injurious and obnoxious fumes
and gases of explosion.
To safely remove the dust caused by drill-
ing, blasting and mucking.
Natural and Mechanical ventilation: When
a drift is driven from portal to portal, it provides
fair ventilation during the enlarging operations, parti-
cularly when the tunnel is a short one. In long
tunnels this natural ventilation is inadequate, and
mechanical ventilation becomes necessary.
Volume of air considerations: During work-
ing, each worker should be supplied with 200 c. ft.
to 500 c. ft. of fresh air constantly. Any compressed
air used for the drills is usually contaminated with
oil and dust when released from drills and should not
be expected to be helpful. After each explosion the
air near the face is filled with fumes and dust and is
unfit for breathing. This foul air has to be exhausted
and replaced with fresh air, before the workmen
start removing the debris from the explosion. The
time lapse between exploding the charge and com-
mencing mucking will be about 30 minutes within
which time, the ventilating system, should clear the
tunnel and supply fresh air. Generally the following
conditions determine the form and capacity of the
ventilating system.
(1) Length and size of tunnel.
(2) Amount of explosive and frequency of
(3) Temperature and humidity inside the tunnel.
Mechanical ventilation: Mechanical ventila-
tion is provided by one or more electric fans or
blowers, which may blow fresh air into a tunnel or
exhaust the dust and foul air from the tunnel. There
are three systems of ventilation viz:
(1) Blowing.
(2) Exhausting.
(3) Combination of blowing and exhausting.
Fresh clean air is blown through pipes near to
the working face and as it flows back to the portal
through the tunnel, it moves the dust and gases
with it. This system has the advantage of supplying
fresh air right near the working face, but the
disadvantage lies in that the foul air, smoke and
dust slowly move out, fogging the atmosphere
inside the tunnel , especially in long tunnels.
In this method the foul air and dust, an:! drawn
into an exhausting duct near the working face, there
by creating a flow of fresh air into the tunl)el from
the enterance or portal. This method has the
special advantage of quick removal of dust, and
smoke from the working face.
Combination of blowing o;nd exhausting:
Many recent systems have tried to combine
both blowing and exhausting, utilising the advan-
tages in either system. Immediately after the
blasting operation, the exhausting system is operat-
ed for 15 to 30 minuites, to immediately remove
the objectionable air, after which, the blowing
system operates for the rest of the working period
to supply fresh air. The reversal of operations
can be carried out by a valve and duct arrange-
ment as shown in fig. 45. The fan rotates only
in one direction, but the valves A, Band C could
be so manipu.lated either to exaust from or blow
into the tunnel.
Combination of blowing and exausting.
FIG. 45
Dust prevention: The various operations in-
volved in tunnel excavation, such as drilling, blasting
and handling muck cause dust accumulation in the
tunnel atmosphere. This dust laden air constitutes
a serious health risk, unless the dust concentration is
limited. In rock tunnels particularly, this hazard is
very serious, as extended breathing of the silica dust
causes a dangerous lung decease known is "silicosis",
which often proves fatal.
In fact, state laws control tunneling practices and
are designed to safeguard workers, by permitting a
limited dust concentration inside the tunnel, which
could be safe.
Dust control ntethods: The various methods
used to minimise dust accumulation are:
(1 ) Wet drilling.
(2) Use of vacuum hood.
(3) Use of respirators.
Wet drilling: Modern drilling machines carry
arrangements by which water could be used to wet
and remove the cuttings, from the drilled holes. This
prevents dust flying, to a considerable extent.
Use of vaCUUDl hood: A hood is fitted around
the drill steel at the rock face, which is connected to
an exaust pipe, through which the drilled rock dust
is sucked and removed safely out of the tunel (Fig. 46).
Vacuum hood.
FIG. 46
Use of respirator : Well designed respirators
worn by the miners offer the best and most uptodate
protection against dust inhalation. It is a method
which is becoming increasingly popular in modern
tunneling practice.
Docks and Harbours:
Action of waves and wind, currents, and br akwaters;
construction of docks and quay walls; construction of wet and
dry docks. Lock and Jock gates. Transit shed and ware houses.
Tunnel Engineering:
Excavation for deep trenches in waterlogged soils for pipes and
sewers. Tunneling in rock and soft soils. Shield tunneling;
use of compressed air in tunneling. Shafts and headings. Lining
of Tunnels. Drainage and ventilation of tunnels.
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(Section I)
Advantages of tidal basins 30
Advantages of wet docks 30
Air breakwater 9
Air compression
Artificial harbour
Artificial roadstead
Barge method
Bonded ware house
reak waters
-heap or mound
-method of protection
-method of formation
Commercial harbour
Design and Construction of
Basin or Dockwalls 33
ocks 29,30
Dock entrances 35
-caissons for
-ship caisson
-sliding caisson
-sizes of
Dock floor design
Dredges, types
-continuous bucket or
ladder 66
-hydraulic or suction. 67
Dredging, maintenance 64
Dry docking construction 41
Dry docking 39
Entrance locks
Entrance width of harbour 6
Floating docks, types 42, 43
- advantages and
disadvantages 46
-design consideration of 45
-off shore type 44
- rigid type 43
-self docking type 43
Forces on a graving dock 39
Form and arrangements of
basin and docks 30
Graving or dry dock
Height and length of waves
Keel and bilge blocks 42
Lift dry dock
Littoral drift
Lock foundation
Lock gates
-forces on
-shape of
-working of
Marine railway 46
Mound construction
methods 21
Mound ,,-ith superstructure 19
Natural roadstead
Natural phenomena
Open berths
wall, design 56, 57, 58
-types and construction of
-joints in 60
Repair docks classification 37
Requirements of
commercial harbour 5
Requirement'> of
- fishing harbour
- harbour of refuge
- transit sheds
River ports
Shape of docks and
--diamond shape
- inclined quays
- rectangular shape
basins 31
Stablility of mounds
Staging method
23, 27
Tides, spring and neap 8
Transit sheds 61
\,yalJ breakwater advantages
and disadvantages of 26
- bonds in 28
--forces on 24, 25
Wall on concrete bag
foundation 27
Ware houses 61 , 62
Water hammer 15
"Vater waves
Water action
- dynamical effect of
Waves and wincl
(Section If)
Advantages of tunneling 3
Air holding 31
Air lock 25
Air pressures 27
Alignment and grade 4
American method of driving
Approach 4
Army method of tunneling 14
Bar drill mounting 40
Belgian method of
tunneling I 7
Case method of tuneling 14-
Cast Iron lining 2:1
Centre Cut 39
Cen tre drift 34
Centre line transfer 7
Column drill mounting 40
Compressed air tunneling 24
- in clay 30
- in gravel 30
- in sand 30
Compressor requirement
of air 26,3 I
Concrete lining form work
-hand placing 57
-pumping 57
Cross-sections, shape of 9
Curve, Central line on 6
Design of thickness oflining 49
Ditch for drainage 60
Drainage of tunnels 59
Drift method 34
Drill hole pattern 38
Drill types 39
Drill supports 40
Dust prevention 61
- Respirator 64
- Vacuum hood system 64
- Wet drilling 64
English method of tunneling 16
Economics of tunneling 3
Faces of operation 33
' Fans (see blowers)
Fire hazaards 32
Fiv(; piece timber set 51
Fore poling method 11
Form for concrete lining 53,54
Full face tunneling 36
Head frame in shafts 43
Heading and benching 36
Hydraulic jacks for shield 23
Invert lining and mould 53
Jumbos, for drills 40
Labour in compressed air 27,32
Liner plate method 19,20
Lining of tunnels 48
-Cast iron or primary 23
-Concrete lining 52
-Masonry -48
Rules for design of thickness49
Timber 49,50,51
Lock (see air lock)
Man lock and material lock 26
Methods of tunneling (soft
soils) 10
Mucking 37,42
Needle beam method of
tunneling 13
Pattern for drill holes 38
Pilot tunnel method 34
Plenum process (see compressed
air tunneling) 24
Predraining 32
Primary lining 23
Pyramidal cut 38
Raising shafts
Respirator use of
Rib stiffening 19
Rock tunneling methods 33
Safety precautions 111
tunneling 40
Shaft sinking in rock 42
- in soft ground 45
- raising 44
-Shaft supports design of 46
-construction 22
-steering 24
Size and shape of tunnels 8
Soft ground tunneling 8 to 1 7
Spiles use of in fore poling 11 , 12
Steel liner plates 19
Steel forms for lining 55,56
Surveying tunnel 5
Telescoping form
Timber lining
Top heading
Tunneling methods
-soft ground

Trimsfering centre line
Vacuum hood
Ventilation of tunnel
Water removal (see
Wet drilling 64
26 Well point drainage


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