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**1 (a) The total number of participants is at least 30.
**

The inequality is x + y > 30.

x 0 30

y 30 0

The number of Mathematics participants

is at most twice that of Science.

The inequality is y 2x.

x 0 30

y 0 60

The expenditure for a Science participant

and a Mathematics participant are RM80 and

RM60 respectively. The maximum allocation

is RM3600.

The inequality is 80x + 60y 3600

⇒ 4x + 3y 180.

x 0 45

y 60 0

(b)

y = 2x

4x + 3y = 180

80x + 60y = 480

x + y = 30

60 40 50 30 20 10

6

8

18 36 45 O

20

10

30

40

50

60

x

R

y

min (10, 20)

(c) (i) When y = 12, from the graph,

x

min

= 18 and x

max

= 36.

Hence, when the number of

Mathematics participants is 12, the

minimum and maximum number of

Science participants are 18 and 36

respectively.

(ii) Cost = 80x + 60y

Draw the straight line 80x + 60y = 480

x 0 6

y 8 0

For minimum cost, from the graph,

x

min

= 10 and y

min

= 20.

Hence, the minimum cost

= 80x + 60y

= 80(10) + 60(20)

= RM2000

2 (a) For the constraint “the total number of balls

bought should not be more than 80”, the

inequality is x + y 80.

x 0 80

y 80 0

For the constraint “the number of footballs

bought should not be more than 4 times the

number of volleyballs bought”, the inequality

is y 4x.

x 0 20

y 0 80

For the constraint “the number of footballs

bought should exceed the number of

volleyballs bought by at least 15”, the

inequality is y – x > 15.

x 0 40

y 15 55

Form 5: Chapter 21 (Linear Programming)

SPM Practice

Fully Worked Solutions

Paper 2

86

(b)

y = 4x

max (16, 64)

x + y = 80

6

0

x

+

8

0

y

=

4

8

0

0

y – x = 15

R

60 70 80 40 50 30 20

25

10

O

20

10

15

30

40

50

55

60

80

70

x

y

(c) (i) From the graph, if the number of

volleyballs bought is 25 (x = 25), the

range of the number of footballs bought

is 40 y 55.

(ii) Cost = 60x + 80y

Draw the straight line 60x + 80y = 4800.

x 0 80

y 60 0

From the graph, the optimal point

is (16, 64).

Hence, the maximum cost

= 60(16) + 80(64)

= RM6080

3 (a) The maximum time for the use of machine

P is 12 hours:

60x + 20y 12 × 60

3x + y 36

x 0 12 6

y 36 0 18

(0, 36) is out of the graph paper. So,

another point (6, 18) has to be determined.

The use of machine Q is at least 8 hours:

30x + 40y > 8 × 60

3x + 4y > 48

x 0 16

y 12 0

The ratio of the number of ‘Premier’ pewter

plates produced to the number of ‘Royal’

pewter plates produced is at least 1 : 3.

x

y

>

1

3

3x > y

y 3x

x 0 6

y 0 18

(b)

x

O

y

2

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

max (6, 18)

R

3x + y = 36

y = 3x

3x + 4y = 48

1

0

0

x

+

1

4

0

y

=

1

4

0

0

(c) (i) From the graph, if y =12, x

max

= 8

(ii) Profits = 100x + 140y

Draw the straight line

100x +140y =1400

x 0 14

y 10 0

From the graph, the optimal

point = (6, 18)

Hence, the maximum profit

= 100(6) +140(18)

= RM3120

87

4 (a) I x + y 500

x 0 400

y 500 100

II x 3y

x 0 300

y 0 100

III 5x + 3y > 1500

x 0 300

y 500 0

(b)

R

x +y = 500

x

=

3

y

5

x

+

3

y

=

1

5

0

0

max (375, 125)

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

y

O 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 x

(c) (i) When x = 150, y

min

= 250

(ii) Profits = 5x + 3y

Draw the straight line

5x + 3y = 1500.

Already drawn in (b).

From the graph, the optimal point is

(375, 125).

Hence, the maximum profit

= 5(375) + 3(125)

= RM2250

5 (a) I x + y 7

x 0 7

y 7 0

II x 3y

3y ≥ x

x 0 6

y 0 2

III 700x + 200y 3500

7x + 2y 35

x 0 5 3

y 17.5 0 7

Not usable because the point is out of the

graph paper.

(b)

R

x +y = 7

7x + 2y = 35

4

6

x

+

1

0

y

=

4

6

x = 3y

max (4, 3)

1

2

3

4

5

4.6

6

7

y

O

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x

88

(c) (i) If x = 2, from the graph,

y

min

= 1

(ii) Number of members

= 46x + 10y

Draw the straight line

46x + 10y = 46.

x 0 1

y 4.6 0

Optimal point is (4, 3).

Hence, the maximum number of

members

= 46(4) + 10(3)

= 214

6 (a) I 3x + 4y 2400

x 0 800

y 600 0

II 2x + y 1000

x 0 500

y 1000 0

III y >

1

2

x

x 0 800

y 0 400

(b)

(c) (i) If the number of tables is exactly 200

(x = 200), from the graph, the maximum

number of chairs, y

max

= 450.

(ii) Profits = 7x + 5y

Draw the straight line

7x + 5y = 3500.

x 0 500

y 700 0

The optimal point is (320, 360).

Hence, the maximum profit

= 7(320) + 5(360)

= RM4040

100

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

200 300 400 500 600 700 800

max (320, 360)

O

x

y

7x + 5y = 3500

3x + 4y = 2400

2x + y = 1000

R

1

2

y = x

450

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