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85

1 (a) The total number of participants is at least 30.
The inequality is x + y > 30.
x 0 30
y 30 0
The number of Mathematics participants
is at most twice that of Science.
The inequality is y  2x.
x 0 30
y 0 60
The expenditure for a Science participant
and a Mathematics participant are RM80 and
RM60 respectively. The maximum allocation
is RM3600.
The inequality is 80x + 60y  3600
⇒ 4x + 3y  180.
x 0 45
y 60 0
(b)

y = 2x
4x + 3y = 180
80x + 60y = 480
x + y = 30
60 40 50 30 20 10
6
8
18 36 45 O
20
10
30
40
50
60
x
R
y
min (10, 20)
(c) (i) When y = 12, from the graph,
x
min
= 18 and x
max
= 36.
Hence, when the number of
Mathematics participants is 12, the
minimum and maximum number of
Science participants are 18 and 36
respectively.
(ii) Cost = 80x + 60y
Draw the straight line 80x + 60y = 480
x 0 6
y 8 0
For minimum cost, from the graph,
x
min
= 10 and y
min
= 20.
Hence, the minimum cost
= 80x + 60y
= 80(10) + 60(20)
= RM2000
2 (a) For the constraint “the total number of balls
bought should not be more than 80”, the
inequality is x + y  80.
x 0 80
y 80 0
For the constraint “the number of footballs
bought should not be more than 4 times the
number of volleyballs bought”, the inequality
is y  4x.
x 0 20
y 0 80
For the constraint “the number of footballs
bought should exceed the number of
volleyballs bought by at least 15”, the
inequality is y – x > 15.
x 0 40
y 15 55
Form 5: Chapter 21 (Linear Programming)
SPM Practice
Fully Worked Solutions
Paper 2
86
(b)

y = 4x
max (16, 64)
x + y = 80
6
0
x

+

8
0
y

=

4
8
0
0

y – x = 15
R
60 70 80 40 50 30 20
25
10
O
20
10
15
30
40
50
55
60
80
70
x
y
(c) (i) From the graph, if the number of
volleyballs bought is 25 (x = 25), the
range of the number of footballs bought
is 40  y  55.
(ii) Cost = 60x + 80y
Draw the straight line 60x + 80y = 4800.
x 0 80
y 60 0
From the graph, the optimal point
is (16, 64).
Hence, the maximum cost
= 60(16) + 80(64)
= RM6080
3 (a) The maximum time for the use of machine
P is 12 hours:
60x + 20y  12 × 60
3x + y  36
x 0 12 6
y 36 0 18
(0, 36) is out of the graph paper. So,
another point (6, 18) has to be determined.
The use of machine Q is at least 8 hours:
30x + 40y > 8 × 60
3x + 4y > 48
x 0 16
y 12 0
The ratio of the number of ‘Premier’ pewter
plates produced to the number of ‘Royal’
pewter plates produced is at least 1 : 3.

x
y
>
1
3
3x > y
y  3x
x 0 6
y 0 18
(b)

x
O
y
2
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
max (6, 18)
R
3x + y = 36
y = 3x
3x + 4y = 48
1
0
0
x

+

1
4
0
y
=

1
4
0
0
(c) (i) From the graph, if y =12, x
max
= 8
(ii) Profits = 100x + 140y
Draw the straight line
100x +140y =1400
x 0 14
y 10 0
From the graph, the optimal
point = (6, 18)
Hence, the maximum profit
= 100(6) +140(18)
= RM3120
87
4 (a) I x + y  500
x 0 400
y 500 100
II x  3y
x 0 300
y 0 100
III 5x + 3y > 1500
x 0 300
y 500 0
(b)
R
x +y = 500
x
=
3
y
5
x

+

3
y

=

1
5
0
0
max (375, 125)
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
y
O 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 x
(c) (i) When x = 150, y
min
= 250
(ii) Profits = 5x + 3y
Draw the straight line
5x + 3y = 1500.
Already drawn in (b).
From the graph, the optimal point is
(375, 125).
Hence, the maximum profit
= 5(375) + 3(125)
= RM2250
5 (a) I x + y  7
x 0 7
y 7 0
II x  3y
3y ≥ x
x 0 6
y 0 2
III 700x + 200y  3500
7x + 2y  35
x 0 5 3
y 17.5 0 7
Not usable because the point is out of the
graph paper.
(b)
R
x +y = 7
7x + 2y = 35
4
6
x

+

1
0
y

=

4
6
x = 3y
max (4, 3)
1
2
3
4
5
4.6
6
7
y
O
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x
88
(c) (i) If x = 2, from the graph,
y
min
= 1
(ii) Number of members
= 46x + 10y
Draw the straight line
46x + 10y = 46.
x 0 1
y 4.6 0
Optimal point is (4, 3).
Hence, the maximum number of
members
= 46(4) + 10(3)
= 214
6 (a) I 3x + 4y  2400
x 0 800
y 600 0
II 2x + y  1000
x 0 500
y 1000 0
III y >
1
2

x
x 0 800
y 0 400
(b)
(c) (i) If the number of tables is exactly 200
(x = 200), from the graph, the maximum
number of chairs, y
max
= 450.
(ii) Profits = 7x + 5y
Draw the straight line
7x + 5y = 3500.
x 0 500
y 700 0
The optimal point is (320, 360).
Hence, the maximum profit
= 7(320) + 5(360)
= RM4040
100
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
200 300 400 500 600 700 800
max (320, 360)
O
x
y
7x + 5y = 3500
3x + 4y = 2400
2x + y = 1000
R
1
2
y = x
450