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TERM PAPER OF- Marketing


TOPIC:- Identify two products in each stage of

the product life cycle and suggest strategies which can
be adopted by them.



Jaspreet Kaur
OLL NO:-1903B43



Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the

entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and
manufacture, to service and disposal. PLM integrates people, data, processes
and business systems and provides a product information backbone for
companies and their extended enterprise.
Product lifecycle management is more to do with managing descriptions
and properties of a product through its development and useful life, mainly
from a business/engineering point of view; whereas product life cycle
management is to do with the life of a product in the market with respect to
business/commercial costs and sales measures.
Product lifecycle management is one of the four cornerstones of a
corporation's information technology structure. All companies need to
manage communications and information with their customers (CRM-
Customer Relationship Management), their suppliers (SCM-Supply Chain
Management), their resources within the enterprise (ERP-Enterprise
Resource Planning) and their planning (SDLC-Systems Development Life
Cycle). In addition, manufacturing engineering companies must also
develop, describe, manage and communicate information about their
A form of PLM called people-centric PLM. While traditional PLM tools
have been deployed only on release or during the release phase, people-
centric PLM targets the design phase.
Recent ICT development (EU funded PROMISE project 2004-2008) has
allowed PLM to extend beyond traditional PLM and integrate sensor data
and real time 'lifecycle event data' into PLM, as well as allowing this
information to be made available to different players in the total lifecycle of
an individual product . This has resulted in the extension of PLM into
Closed Loop Lifecycle Management
Documented benefits of product lifecycle management include:

 Reduced time to market

 Improved product quality
 Reduced prototyping costs
 Savings through the re-use of original data
 A framework for product optimization
 Reduced waste
 Savings through the complete integration of engineering workflows

Areas of PLM
Within PLM there are five primary areas;

1. Systems Engineering
2. Product and Portfolio Management.
3. Product Design
4. Manufacturing Process Management
5. Product Data Management

Note: While application software is not required for PLM processes, the
business complexity and rate of change requires organizations execute as
rapidly as possible.
Systems engineering is focused on meeting all requirements, primary
meeting customer needs, and coordinating the Systems Design process by
involving all relevant disciplines. Product and Portfolio Management is
focused on managing resource allocation, tracking progress vs. plan for
projects in the new product development projects that are in process .
Portfolio management is a tool that assists management in tracking progress
on new products and making trade-off decisions when allocating scarce
resources. Product Data Management is focused on capturing and
maintaining information on products and/or services through their
development and useful life.
Introduction to development process
The core of PLM (product lifecycle management) is in the creations and
central management of all product data and the technology used to access
this information and knowledge. PLM as a discipline emerged from tools
such as CAD, CAM and PDM, but can be viewed as the integration of these
tools with methods, people and the processes through all stages of a
product’s life. It is not just about software technology but is also a business

For simplicity the stages described are shown in a traditional sequential

engineering workflow. The exact order of event and tasks will vary
according to the product and industry in question but the main processes are:

 Conceive
 Specification
 Concept design
 Design
 Detailed design
 Validation and analysis
 Tool design
 Realize
 Plan manufacturing
 Manufacture
 Build/Assemble
 Test (quality check)
 Service
 Sell and Deliver
 Use
 Maintain and Support
 Dispose

The major key point events are:

 Order
 Idea
 Kick-off
 Design freeze
 Launch

The reality is however more complex, people and departments cannot

perform their tasks in isolation and one activity cannot simply finish and the
next activity start. Design is an iterative process, often designs need to be
modified due to manufacturing constraints or conflicting requirements.
Where exactly a customer order fits into the time line depends on the
industry type, whether the products are for example Build to Order, Engineer
to Order, or Assemble to Order.
The Product Life Cycle (PLC)
is based upon the biological life cycle. For
example, a seed is planted (introduction); it
begins to sprout (growth); it shoots out leaves
and puts down roots as it becomes an adult
(maturity); after a long period as an adult the
plant begins to shrink and die out (decline).
In theory it's the same for a product. After a
period of development it is introduced or
launched into the market; it gains more and
more customers as it grows; eventually the
market stabilizes and the product becomes
mature; then after a period of time the
product is overtaken by development and the
introduction of superior competitors, it goes
into decline and is eventually withdrawn.
However, most products fail in the
introduction phase. Others have very cyclical
maturity phases where declines see the
product promoted to regain customers.

Strategies for the

differing stages of the
Product Life Cycle.

The need for immediate profit is not a
pressure. The product is promoted to create
awareness. If the product has no or few
competitors, a skimming price strategy is
employed. Limited numbers of product are
available in few channels of distribution.

Competitors are attracted into the market

with very similar offerings. Products become
more profitable and companies form
alliances, joint ventures and take each other
over. Advertising spend is high and focuses
upon building brand. Market share tends to

Those products that survive the earlier stages

tend to spend longest in this phase. Sales
grow at a decreasing rate and then stabilizes.
Producers attempt to differentiate products
and brands are key to this. Price wars and
intense competition occur. At this point the
market reaches saturation. Producers begin to
leave the market due to poor margins.
Promotion becomes more widespread and
use a greater variety of media.

At this point there is a downturn in the

market. For example more innovative
products are introduced or consumer tastes
have changed. There is intense price-cutting
and many more products are withdrawn from
the market. Profits can be improved by
reducing marketing spend and cost cutting.

Problems with Product Life Cycle.

In reality very few products follow such a

prescriptive cycle. The length of each stage
varies enormously. The decisions of
marketers can change the stage, for example
from maturity to decline by price-cutting.
Not all products go through each stage. Some
go from introduction to decline. It is not easy
to tell which stage the product is in.
Remember that PLC is like all other tools.
Use it to inform your gut
Product life cycle of

Life Cycle Analysis

In an effort to reduce the impacts of cars on the environment and society,

Toyota has developed ‘Eco-Vehicle Assessment Systems’ (Eco-VAS) to
evaluate performance.
Eco-VAS is a comprehensive design tool, which Toyota’s engineers use to
measure vehicle impacts through their ‘life cycle’ (LCA) - during their
design and production, distribution, use and disposal.

>> Design and production

>> Distribution
>> Driving
>> Disposal

Design and production

Development and design greatly affect the overall environmental impact of a

vehicle. Fuel efficiency, exhaust emissions, the use of hazardous substances
and raw materials are all assessed. Engineers use data from the Eco-VAS
design tool to explore every potential impact and ways to overcome them
prior to sending a single new car into production.

Production. All Toyota manufacturing facilities are accredited to ISO14001

environmental management system, and work to aggressive targets to reduce
energy and natural resource use, as well as waste and emissions. A range of
other ‘sustainable plant’ activities are also adopted.


In New Zealand, our Thames plant is ISO14001 accredited – a world first

for a used vehicle facility.

Green Purchasing Guidelines. Toyota uses its considerable

purchasing power to encourage suppliers to develop more sustainable
products, materials and operating practices. Vehicle parts suppliers are
required to achieve ISO14001 as well as introduce other voluntary actions to
reduce their environmental footprint – such as reduce CO2 emissions from
their activities, and harmful substances from their products.


within Japan, Toyota measures its environmental impact from the

distribution of vehicles and vehicle parts throughout Japan and overseas.

Vehicles are imported into NZ on the Toy Fuji shipping line, owned by
Toyota. The modern fleet is specifically designed as car carriers and
incorporates the latest fuel-saving technologies for sea freighting, saving a
third of the fuel compared to conventional shipping.

Toyota has set reduction targets for fuel and CO2 emissions, and waste from
wrapping and packaging and is implementing them through improved
loading rates and package containers, shifting to more efficient modes of
transportation and increasing fuel efficiency.

Within NZ, Toyota measures the CO2 emissions from our vehicle
distribution and works with freight providers to reduce the environmental
impact from our distribution network. We are reducing costs and improving
freight efficiencies after completing a review of how vehicles are moved
around NZ.

We reduce waste packaging from our parts distribution by sending

returnable containers to our dealer network. Parts are packaged with 100%
recycled cardboard and protected from damage with shredded recycled paper
from our office.


Though this cost less than a Civic, has a very good crash test rating, and is
loaded with safety features, you might pay MORE to insure the Elantra. I
was flabbergasted. Resale isn't as good, but I don't intend to sell this car too
soon, so it is a non-issue with me. I rather save $3000 at purchase time than
hope to get it back later.


As well as leading the way with hybrid technology, Toyota is constantly

improving conventional petrol and diesel engines to increase fuel efficiency
and reduce emissions.

In NZ we have the widest range of vehicles available including compact fuel

efficient vehicles and commercial vehicles which feature the latest ‘common
rail’ clean diesel technology. Our models are amongst the most fuel efficient
in the market and the average fuel economy of all the vehicles we sell in NZ
has improved by 13% since 2002.

The maintenance and servicing of vehicles also has an environmental

impact. To reduce the volume of waste generated during the driving stage,
Toyota has extended service intervals, developed long-life fluids and funded
equipment to recycle and recover materials at dealerships. In addition, all
Toyota dealers follow a comprehensive environmental management
programmed which goes beyond local authority requirements.

>> Average fuel economy

>> Dealer Environmental Management

End of Life Vehicles are cars which have come to the end of their lives.
They are usually sent to dismantling companies where a number of parts are
removed and reused. Toyota’s Eco-VAS design approach aims to improve
the dismantling, resource recovery and recycling of materials at the end of
the vehicles life. This approach has led to the development of a number of
innovative technologies and processes, which reduces the demand on natural
resources and the volume of waste to landfill.

Toyota began recycling vehicle parts in 1970 and, since then, has been
progressively implementing numerous recovery and recycling measures – in
some cases creating new products for ‘wastes’ discarded by society.

These include:

• Innovative materials – Toyota uses plastic bottle waste as insulation

materials, converting them into car parts such as engine covers and
floor mats.
• Recycled and easy-to-recycle plastics – Toyota developed the Toyota
Super Olefin Polymer in 1991 which does not deteriorate even after
repeated recycling and Thermo Plastic Olefin (TPO).
• Bioplastics - Toyota uses recycled plastic in many car parts and is a
leader in the development and use of bio-plastics, which don’t contain
harmful chemicals and petroleum used in conventional plastics. These
are being used in a number of car parts including spare wheel covers
and floor mats, and have the potential for much wider application as
an everyday plastic. In 2000 Toyota also began the use of knead fibers
in the Corolla, and in 2006 expanded its use in the package tray and
door trim of the Lexus LS460.
• Auto Shredder Residue – Toyota diverts old car waste away from
landfill and into a raw material for sound proofing new cars. The
shredded material has excellent sound absorbing qualities and is used
in doors, floors and dashboards.
• Improved dismantling – Toyota has incorporated a range of easy-to-
dismantle features into its new vehicles since 2003. Toyota’s
Automobile Recycle Technical Centre researches tools and designs
for improved dismantling.
• Reduction of harmful substances – Today many thousands of
chemical substances are manufactured for a wide range of products,
and the effects on human health and the environment are not always
clearly known. Toyota is voluntarily working towards the early
elimination of the use of four substances of concern. In addition,
Toyota is reducing the amount of PVC resin used, as well as toluene
and xylem in thinning and cleaning solvents.
• Collection and recycling of hybrid batteries. Toyota hybrid batteries
have a warranty of 8 years or 160,000kms and last for the life time of
the vehicle. We have a programmed in place for nationwide
collection and recycling of HV batteries. Batteries are transported
overseas for disassembly and component parts from electrode plates,
casing, cables etc., are recycled or reprocessed.

The whole package

The coming together of multiple Eco-VAS technologies result in vehicles

with a smaller environmental footprint. For example, the current Pries
combines innovations in design, materials and recycling with the
outstanding fuel economy and low emissions from the Hybrid Synergy
Drive system.
End of Life Vehicle Research

Motor vehicles contain hazardous fluids, gases and heavy metals, posing a
potential risk to the environment at disposal, and a cost to society –
especially for the 25,000 vehicles which are abandoned or illegally dumped
each year.

A further 170,000 used vehicles enter NZ ever year. As these cars have an
average age of seven years, they are closer to the end of their life which
creates disposal problems here. At best NZ has an ‘average’ infrastructure to
deal with cars, and only around 75% of a vehicle by weight, is recycled.

In addition to its own research, Toyota invested in a major study by Massey

University that investigated this issue and presented recommendations for
improving the manufacture, dealer, customer and governmental response.
Product life cycle of Hyundai

Santro is a fine example of successful branding. It is a classic example of

successful marketing in Indian context. Santro was launched in India in
1998. When Hyundai was contemplating its foray into the Indian market, it
was planning to launch a C segment car (Accent) . But however, Hyundai

changed its strategy and launched Santro in the

tough small car market.

Santro is the Indian version of the successful Hyundai model Atos. Hyundai
was faced with lot of perception issues prior to the launch of Santro. The
issue was with regard to the country of origin. Indians were unsure about
Korean products especially automobiles. Hence the first task was t o ensure
that Indian consumers develop a positive association with Korean car
Second issue was developing a corporate image for Hyundai. Since cars are
high involvement product, customers will make a choice looking on the
maker, service support, spares availability, quality etc. Hence the launch of
Santro should also launch the corporate brand Hyundai.
Third issue was about the design of Santro. Santro was designed to be a tall
boy car and initial product testing revealed that Indians did not liked the tall
boy design. So the unenviable task for Hyundai was to make Indian
consumers like Santro.

The fourth issue was the grip of Maruti on the Indian car market. The B
segment was dominated by Zen which has proved itself to be a reliable
workhorse. Zen was the preferred and logical upgrade to 800 and the car was
considered to be the most reliable and powerful in that segment. To convert
the potential Zen users to Santro was really a nightmare for any marketer.
Hyundai marketers had a tough task ahead. A lot was dependent on Santro's
success. For the brand launch, Hyundai roped in Saatchi & Saatchi as the ad
Thus came the first commercial: Watch the first Santro commercial here:
Santro 1
The ad introduced Kim and Shah Rukh and a glimpse of the car. Kim was
the Hyundai official who wanted SRK to be the brand ambassador for
Santro. The name Kim was chosen wisely because the only familiar Korean
name known to Indians was KIM .The ad introduced the brand and the
company with a subtle statement from Kim: We settle only for the best.
The first ad was followed by teaser ads where Kim tries to convince SRK
that Hyundai is serious about India, the quality issue and the brand Santro.
Watch the two launch ads: Here & Here
These ads really created a hype in the market about Santro. Teaser ads are
dangerous and expensive. Dangerous because if the teaser failed to click, the
entire product launch will land up in trouble . Another issue is that the brand
should follow up the hype built by teaser ads. In the case of Santro, the
teasers were intelligently made and clicked.
Finally came the launch ad which showed Shah Rukh who represented the
Indian consumer saying " I am Convinced" to Kim. Shah Rukh fitted
perfectly to the promotional scheme of Santro.
Along with the launch came the criticism. Understandably the criticism was
towards the tall boy design of Santro . There were reports which called

Santro the Ugly car. Santro answered that through

h its performance. Indian consumers experienced a new way of driving
comfort. More than the campaigns, it was the performance that made Santro
a runaway success.
With in 4 years of launch, Santro became the second largest selling car in
India displacing Zen. Those who wrote bad about the tall boy design began
to write about the advantages of this tall boy design.
Santro was initially positioned on the design aspect. It turned its biggest
disadvantage into an advantage. But later, Santro was positioned itself as a
complete family car. The brand was targeting those 800 users who wanted to
upgrade into the B segment. The target market was the 35-45 yrs
middleclass Indians.
All through these years, Hyundai also came out with product improvements
and upgrades. Santro Zipplus was launched focusing more on the zippy
nature of the car. But then came the competition. Maruthi launched Alto and
Wagon R and came Indica which displaced Santro from the second position.
The brand was also facing the issue of looking dated. It was time for
Hyundai to reposition the brand.
Hyundai changed Santro completely in 2003. The entire design was changed
and new Santro was launched as Santro Xing. Santro Xing launch ad also
featured SRK and Kim. Santro Xing gave a new life to Santro. The car
looked more spacious and the look was contemporary.
Santro along with the new looks also changed its TG from 35- 45 to 25 -30.
The brand felt that Santro should be considered as the first car rather than
the upgrade. The brand wanted to appeal to the first time car buyers. To
catch the young buyers, the brand was positioned as "Sunshine car’. Santro
roped in Priety Zinta also as the brand ambassador.
Watch the commercial here: Sunshine car
Sunshine was communicating two intangibles: Freshness and youthful
attitude. The brand was moving to a “Change your life “positioning. Priety
was the sunshine girl. The big idea was that Santro will bring sunshine to
your life. A car that can change the life of a young Indian.
As usual the campaign and the new Santro was a big hit. Along with these
campaigns, Santro also ran some ads focusing on promoting the brand as the
first choice rather than as an upgrade.
The last campaign of Santro was highlighting the virtues of a Santro user.
Watch the campaign here: Santro wale
The campaign was to portray Santro users as smart and intelligent and the ad
was pitted against a similar campaign of Wagon R

after nine years of launch, Santro is facing its maturity stage in its PLC. The
sales have stagnated and price war from Maruti and a slew of launches like
Chevy Spark, have hurt the sales of Santro. Santro is also banking on price
cuts and sales promotions to stay afloat. Hyundai has recently launched a
new brand i10 to take the place of Santro. With the imminent launch of
Tata's 1 lakh car in 2009, Santro may be used as a low priced flanking brand
for i10 in future.
Santro is the best example of managing a product lifecycle. Santro has
managed to keep its market position by regular upgrades, product changes,
relaunches and repositioning. It has been consistent in delivering excellent
quality and functional performance through out its life. The brand is still a
preferred upgrade for many middleclass car users.
On this context, I wish to cite a personal experience at the dealership
experience I had while choosing my car. I inquired about Santro aweless
Alto at respective dealers in Cochin. While the Maruti dealers were
constantly following up with offers and schemes, I was surprised to find that
Santro dealer was least interested in making a sale. Complacency has
already crept in at the dealer points (my perception). Understandably so
because sales were happening without much effort. As a marketing
professional, I feel that Santro is losing some 10 % sale because of this
laidback approach of its dealers.

Santro still has lot of fuel to keep it going. But for that Hyundai may have to
keep the price down so that potential Alto users can stretch a bit and buy
Santro. There is a chance that with the launch of i10, the focus on Santro
will slowly decrease

Accent is one of the highly successful long serving car brands in India.
Launched in 1999, this brand is now on its 10 th year in India. The simple
fact that this brand has survived the highly competitive market in India
speaks volume about the success of this brand.
Accent, when launched competed with the highly successful Maruti Esteem
in luxury sedan market. While Esteem perished, Hyundai Accent is still
managing its product lifecycle.

Accent is a brand which has survived only because of the product

performance and quality. Frankly there is nothing to write about the
marketing or branding strategy for this brand. Accent was a highly
performing work-horse which was well designed quality product that offered
excellent value for money. The company was able to make enough changes
in the price which enabled the brand to ride the PLC effectively.

Accent now belongs to the entry level sedan market. When launched it was a
premium car. Accent was an instant success because of its product quality
and the rub-off from the success of Santro.

The company managed the product lifecycle of Accent using variants.

Hyundai regularly updated Accent by launching different variants in line
with the changing consumer expectations. There were four variants for
Accent in 2002 which were GLS,GLX,GVS Tornado and Viva.

One of the most successful variants was the Accent Viva. VIVA launched in
2002 was positioned as a sporty sedan. The engine was tweaked to give
more power and the variant was styled to give it a sporty look. Accent Viva
was priced at a premium and was a successful niche variant.

In 2002 , the company launched the first diesel variant of Accent. The brand
was the first one to launch the CRDI Diesel engine . Although the CRDI
gained lot of interest, there was lot of problems for the diesel variants.
Ultimately the diesel version was phased out in 2007.

Accent started losing in the segment when Ford launched Ikon . Later the
segment became crowded with lot of product launches by the competitors.

At the branding front, except for the marketing of Santro, Hyundai in my

opinion is a lousy advertiser. I don't remember any highly creative
campaigns from them for any of their products be it i10, Verne or Terracan.
The quality of creatives for Santro also has come down drastically. They
have always built their brands on the product performance.

For Accent also I don't remember any highly creative or good campaigns.
But I remember some lousy ads of Accent trying to position it as a asp
rational product. In those campaigns Accent had the tagline “Respect comes
naturally ".

Accent had tried out different taglines during its different stages. The
frequent changes in the tagline have really messed up the positioning of the
brand. Accent is confused about whether it should focus on performance or
image. The taglines of Accents were

Sheer Pleasure
Expect More
The Next Step
The Power to Excite
What dreams drive

Although the taglines were more performance oriented, the ads especially
the television commercials was unfocused. The agency failed to understand
that the core brand value for Accent was its product performance and value
for money proposition.

Even in 2008, Accent topped the segment in customer satisfaction in a

survey done by TNS.
There were many rumors about the phasing out of Accent. But like Maruthi,
Hyundai also does not believe in phasing out old brands. Auto an analyst
was predicting the phase out primarily because the brand was considered
dated. It has been around for 10 years and consumers have become bored by
the brand.
The rumor was further fueled with the launch of another mid size sedan
Verna. In global markets Verna is sold as the new generation Accent. And in
USA, Accent (Verna) is one of the largest selling economy sedans.

With the launch of Verna, Hyundai reduced the number of variants for
Accent. Now Accent has only one variant.

But Hyundai had other plans for Accent. In 2008 Accent was launched in
CNG version. The CNG version is expected to boost the sagging sales of
this brand. The launch also is an indication that Hyundai is not going to
phase out this brand. This year, Accent was relaunched as Accent Executive
with spruced up interiors.

One of the strong points for Accent is its design. Accent is still looking
great. If Hyundai plans to keep this brand alive, it should focus on the
design. Accent can ride the PLC by positioning itself as a stylish brand. It
should experiment with colors and graphics. The product quality is already
established, what the brand needs is excitement.

At this stage of the PLC, Accent will get a boost if the brand is endorsed by
a celebrity. A high profile young film star can rejuvenate the brand.

Hyundai :-

Hyundai's done a fantastic job at coming up with a Corolla competitor.

Except with fuel economy, it is as good or better in all respects that matter.
If you want a practical, reliable, family-friendly compact, but don't want to
be the 3rd Corolla or Civic owner on your block, the Elantra is a worthy
It is all you have ever wanted in a small car. High performance coupled with
spacious and comforting interior, this small size car definitely deserves

While Hyundai sells it automotive products in over 80 countries throughout

the world it is committed to retaining North America as its major marketing
area. To do so it is continually updating its production facilities to produce
safe, top quality automobiles

Toyota Conclusion:-

Toyota is making a product that is both good for the society/environment

and practical at the same time. It is practical in that there is a demand for it
and that Toyota presumably is making money or will make money on the
product. Toyota is also looking towards further development of the engine,
possibly combining an alternate fuel source other that gasoline with the
electric component.
I believe that Toyota is acting as a social entrepreneur with these lines
of cars. They are providing a service to humanity and the environment while
also presumably sustaining a business. According to James Brook of the
New York Times, Toyota has claimed that it reached the break-even point
for its profitability on its hybrid models, but industry experts in Tokyo find it
impossible to know exactly how profitable these cars have been for Toyota
so far. i Even if they are losing money, I think in the long run it will be
where all auto production is headed, evidenced by the fact that oil is a
limited resource and by the increased competition in the hybrid sector (while
Toyota and its competitors do not disclose how much they put into research
and development of these cars, Toyota, Nissan, and Honda all raised their
budgets for R&D by ten percent). Toyota was the one to first mass-market
and produce these cars with the Prius and deserves much of the credit for
leading the way.