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Caleb Dowdy

Biology of Marine Life


December 10, 2009
Environment Selected: Coast Line

Table of Contents
Sunday, December 06, 2009
2:23 PM

Page Organism
Number Name
1. Angelwing
1. Alphabet Cone Shell
1. Atlantic Giant Cockle
1. Atlantic Kittenpaw
1. Atlantic Slipper Snail
1. Black Mangrove
1. Common Jingle Shell
1. Even Prickly Cockle
1. Florida Spiny Jewelbox
1. Florida Worm Snail
1. Lettered Olive Shell
1. Moon Jellyfish
1. Parchment Tub
1. Shark's Eye
1. Smooth Sea Feather
1. Southern Surfclam
1. Stiff Penshell
1. Tube Sponge
1. Variable Coquina Clam
1. White Baby's Ear

Angelwings
Wednesday, December 09, 2009
4:08 PM
Scientific Name: Cyrtopleura costata
The angelwing belongs to family Pholadidae and are related to shipworms.

Angelwings bore into peat, muddy clay, or rotten wood on the bottoms of open

bays. Angelwings live with much of their soft parts outside their shells. Like other

bivalves the Angelwing is a filter feeder.

http://oceanica.cofc.edu/shellguide/shells/ANGELWING.htm

http://oceanica.cofc.edu/shellguide/shells/ANGELWING.htm
Alphabet Cone Shell
Sunday, November 29, 2009
12:02 PM
Scientific Name: Conus spurius atlanticus

Cone shells belong to the family Conidae, distantly related to olives, volutes, vases,

and marginellas. Cone shells have radular teeth that function like a harpoon. Cone

Shells use a needle-like weapon to inject their prey and enemies with deadly

neurotoxin. The Alphabet Cone Shell lives in shallow to moderately deep sand and

sea grass beds. The alphabet cone shell is a marine predator as it hunts its prey

and immobilizes them with deadly neurotoxin.

http://www.jaxshells.org/1119bc.jpg
Screen clipping taken: 11/29/2009, 12:22 PM

Atlantic Giant Cockle


Sunday, November 29, 2009
11:59 AM

Scientific Name: Dinocardium robustum

Cockles are related to the family Cardiidae. The Atlantic Giant Cockle goes is also

known as the Heart Cockle. The Atlantic Giant Cockle is often separated as a

subspecies known as the Van Hyning's cockle. The Atlantic Giant Cockle lives in

water as deep as 100ft. The Atlantic Giant Cockle spends most of its time using its

strong muscular foot to burry itself in sediments. The Giant Cockle feeds on

plankton by filter feeding using a siphon it extends from its body.

http://www.okeefes.org/Favorite
%20Photos/Favorite_Photos_2/giant_atlantic_cockle_101_7749.jpg
Screen clipping taken: 11/29/2009, 12:31 PM

http://www.jaxshells.org/drs10s.jpg
Screen clipping taken: 11/29/2009, 12:33 PM
Atlantic Kittenpaws
Friday, November 27, 2009
2:01 PM

Scientific Name: Picatula gibosa

The Atlantic Kittenpaw belongs to the family Pectinidae. The Atlantic Kitten paw

has a thick tough shell with 6-10 digit-like ribs. Kitten's Paws are common to find

on beaches due to their toughness. The Atlantic Kittenpaw lives attached to rocks

in waters from intertidal depth to depths of 300ft (91 m).

http://rlv.zcache.com/kittens_paw_seashells_mousepad-
d1447684446815304257pdd_400.jpg Screen clipping taken: 11/27/2009, 2:46 PM
Atlantic Slipper Snail
Friday, November 27, 2009
1:56 PM

Scientific Name: C. fornicata

Slipper Snails belong to the family Calyptraeidae and are distantly related to the

hoofsnails (Family Hipponicidae). Slippersnails begin life as males that grow into

being female. The environmental conditions determine when they strategically

switch sex.

http://shellmuseum.org/imgs/swflshells/48/fornicata2.jpg Screen clipping taken: 11/27/2009,


2:37 PM
Black Mangrove
Friday, November 27, 2009
2:28 PM

Scientific Name: Avicenna germinans

The Black mangrove (family Avicenniaceae) is distantly related to the Red

mangrove(family Rhizophoraceae). The Black mangrove can grow to sizes of 20ft

high. Utilizing the vertical pneumatophores the Black mangrove allows its roots to

breathe. The leaves of the Black mangrove are coated with a layer of excreted salt.

The Black Mangrove plays a vital role in protecting the beach from storms and

erosion.

http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4H/Other_Resources/Contest/Highlighted_Ecosystem/BlackPr
opaguleWeb.jpg Screen clipping taken: 11/27/2009, 3:03 PM
http://www.finexpeditions.com/images/bestblackmangrove.JPG
Screen clipping taken: 11/29/2009, 12:59 PM
Common Jingle Shell
Friday, November 27, 2009
2:00 PM

Scientific Name: Anomia ephippium

The Common Jingle Shell belongs to the family Anomiidae. The Jingle shell comes in

several different colors including silver-gray, white, yellow, and orange. The

common jingle lives attached to rocks, wood, and other shells in shallow marine

waters. Nearly all beached jingle shells have is the unattached left valve. Like

other bivalves the Jingle feeds by filtering the water around it.
http://www.okeefes.org/Mollusks/Common%20Jingle%20Shells%20102_3159.jpg

http://www.mitchellspublications.com/guides/shells/articles/0001/01-image.jpg
Even Prickly Cockle
Friday, November 27, 2009
2:00 PM

Scientific Name: T. isocardia

The even prickly cockle belongs to the family Cardiidae along with other cockles.

The Even Prickly Cockle inhabits the sandy shallows near beaches and out to about

100ft. The prickles on the shell may be used to help anchor the Cockle in place, or

for deterring gastropod predators. The Even Prickly Cockle feeds on plankton and

other organic material by filtering the water around it.


http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/media/spiny_cockle.jpg

http://www.weichtiere.at/images/weichtiere/muscheln/stachlige_herzmuschel.jpg

Florida Spiny Jewelbox


Friday, November 27, 2009
12:14 PM
Scientific Name: Arcinella cornuta

Jewelboxes belong to family Chamidae and are related to clamlike bivalves. The

reason the Florida Spiny jewelbox has spines on its shell is to help the Jewelbox

from being drilled by gastropod predators. Jewelboxes live cemented on reefs and

debris at moderate depths. The Florida Spiny Jewel box detaches during youth to

grow free in the sandy rubble. The spiny jewelbox is a filter feeder like other

bivalves.
http://www.jaxshells.org/spiny.jpg Screen clipping taken: 11/27/2009, 2:34 PM

Florida Worm Snail


Friday, November 27, 2009
2:27 PM

Scientific Name: V. Knorrii

Worm Snails belong with the Turrets in the family Turritellidae. The Florida Worm

Snail grows wormlike after reaching 1/2 inches in length. Worm Snails grow with

sponges on reefs and hardbottom. Wormsnails live attached to the bottom or to

other wormsnails and feed on suspended plankton and detritus. The environment

around them dictates how large and uncoiled they grow.


http://shellmuseum.org/imgs/swflshells/19/knorrii21.jpg

http://www.jaxshells.org/knor.htm
Lettered Olive Shells
Scientific Name: Oliva sayana

Lettered Olives have a wide shell with small pointed spire about 1/9 of the total

length. The habitat of the Lettered Olive is the near shore or on shallow sand flats.

Unfaded shells are covered completely with blurred, brown zigzags. The olive's

glossy shell is covered by the bodies’ mantle and large foot. This large foot is what

allows them to burrow so easily through sand. Lettered olives feed on coquina

clams in the surf zone, and both species scavenge when the opportunity arises.

The Lettered Olive is considered a consumer as it feeds on the coquina clams.


http://www.okeefes.org/Favorite
%20Photos/Favorite_Photos_2/lettered_olive_walking_100b0641.jpg Screen clipping
taken: 11/26/2009, 11:20 AM

Moon Jellyfish
Tuesday, October 27, 2009
11:46 AM
Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita
Also known as: Moon jelly, moon jellyfish, common jellyfish, saucer jelly
Translucent and usually about 25-40 cm across
http://www.freeinfosociety.com/site.php?postnum=2346
The medusa is see-through and generally 25-40 cm in size. The moon jelly fish is

distinguishable by its four horseshoe-shaped gonads that can be seen on top of its

bell. The moon jelly fish is only possible of limited motion; but like the other species of

jelly fish it mainly drifts with the current even while it is swimming. The genus Aurelia is

found in most of the world's oceans. Aureilia feed on planktons, tunicate larvae,

mollusks, crustaceans, fish eggs, rotifers, young polychaetes, diatoms, eggs,

protozoans, and other organisms. Aurelia does not have gills, trachea, lungs, or other

respiratory parts. Aurelia is such a small organism; it respires by diffusing oxygen from

the water through a thin membrane. The basic body structure of the Aurelia is

composed of excretory, respiratory, and circulatory systems. Aurelia aurita is known to

be prey to including the Leatherback Sea Turtle, Ocean Sunfish, and also fed upon by

sea birds.

Parchment Tube Worm


Friday, November 27, 2009
1:58 PM

Scientific Name: Chae topteruscariopedatus


Tube worms are in the phylum Annelida, class Polychaeta, which includes

segmented worms with bristles. Each tube was formerly U-shaped beneath the

sand and was home to a worm with specialized segments using paddle-like flaps,

lobes, and cups. Although the Parchment Tube Worm is blind they can glow in the

dark by emitting a luminous blue cloud of mucous when disturbed. The Parchment

Tube Worm lives near the surf zone.

http://www.frauleindi.com/images/HHNature/ParchmentTubeWorm.jpg

http://candy.brookdale.cc.nj.us/staff/sandyhook/taxonomy/worms/worms.jpg
Shark's Eye
Thursday, November 26, 2009
11:23 AM
Scientific Name: Neverita duplicata

The Shark Eye belongs to family Naticidae and is related to naticas, baby's ears,

and moon snails. Shark's eyes breed in the surf zone. The Shark's eye spends its

life in the sandy shallows and the swash zone. Shark's eyes plow through the surf

zone in search of clams dissolving them alive with digestive enzymes making the

Shark's eye a predatory gastropod.

http://www.pensacolasgreatest.com/SeaShells/SharksEye.jpg Screen clipping taken:


11/26/2009, 11:33 AM

Smooth Sea Feather


Thursday, November 26, 2009
11:31 AM
Scientific Name: Pseudopterogorgia acerosa

Soft Corals belong to the class Anthozoa and are in the order Gorgonacea. Soft

corals are colonies of tiny polyps, each with 8 tentacles making them a member of

the Octocorals. All members of Octocorals have an internal skeleton. These corals

don’t require zooxanthellae to survive, so they can live deeper more turbid areas

with less light. Soft coral are made up of flexible rods made of gorgonin (hornlike

protein) encircled by tiny polyps connected to each other by a matrix of glasslike

spicules. Colonies can reach sizes of 2 meters tall.

http://coris.noaa.gov/about/eco_essays/navassa/media/PSEUDO_400.jpg Screen clipping


taken: 11/27/2009, 2:32 PM
Southern Surfclam
Friday, November 27, 2009
12:15 PM
Scientific Name: Spisula raveneli

Surfclams belong to the family Mactridae. Some species of surfclam are being

commercially harvested for food in the southwest US. Surf Clams live in the sand

as close as just off shore to depths of 165 ft. Surf Clams can live up to 35 years of

age. Surf Clams are filter feeders, straining plankton out of the water. The Surf

Clam serves as prey for several species of shrimp, horseshoe crab, and sea stars.

Southern Surfclams are filter feeders like most bivalves.

http://www.jaxshells.org/1001uu.jpg
Stiff Penshell
Friday, November 27, 2009
12:25 PM
Scientific Name: Atrina rigida

Penshells belong to the family Pinidae and are distantly related to mussels. Pen

shells anchor themselves with golden byssal threads, these lead from their pointed

end to a small pile of rubble beneath the sand. Once attached Penshells live an

almost stationary life style. Penshells are filter feeders like most bivalves.

Penshells live in colonies with individuals buried in the soft sediments out to 20ft.

http://www.okeefes.org/Mollusks/Photos_in_Phylogenetic_Order/Stiff%20Pen
%20Shell%20102_3177.jpg
http://oceanica.cofc.edu/shellguide/shells/shellphotos/stiffpenshell3.jpg

Tube Sponge
Friday, November 27, 2009
2:26 PM

Scientific Name: Callyspongia vaginalis

All sponges belong to the phylum Porifera. Sponges are simple animals that lack

brains or other organs. Sponges have existed for about 500 million years and were

most likely the first multi-celled animals on Earth. Sponges grow in place by

filtering organic particles from the water. Sponges live their lives out growing in

shallow hardbottom or seagrass beds. The tube sponge has individual chimney-like

tubes that are about 2 inches wide.


Top:http://home.nps.gov/ser/customcf/apps/CMS_HandF/GreenBoxPics/BISC_tube_sponge_o
n_reef.jpg
Bottom: http://www.coral.org/files/images/Carib08_2136.jpg
Variable Coquina Clams
Scientific Name: Donax variabilis

Coquina clams (family Donacidae) are related to tellins. Variable coquina clams

have glossy, wedge-shaped shells that have faint riblets and groove-teeth lining

their inner margins. Variable coquinas are one of the most abundant and

ecologically important mollusks on Florida beaches. Coquinas are designed for

living in wave-washed sand, feeding on algae by filtering the bacteria washed on


shore. Coquina's serve as a source of food for many shore birds and fish. Coquina's

feed upon detritus and plant material using short siphons. The coquina clam is

close to the bottom of the food chain but a consumer non-the-less.

http://www.jaxshells.org/taldon13.jpg Screen clipping taken: 11/26/2009, 10:44 AM

White Baby's Ear


Sunday, November 29, 2009
12:01 PM

Scientific Name: Sinum perspectivum

The White Baby's Ear belongs to the family Naticidae with shark's eyes and naticas.

The White Baby's Ear is the equivalent to a moonsnail with an expansive aperture.

All Baby's Ear's have an extended foot that stretches to ten times the shell size.

This enormous foot cannot be retracted into the Baby's Ear shell. The White Baby's
Ear lives in Sandy shallow zones. The White Baby's Ear moves through the sand

with a muscular action with the assistance of a copious secretion mucus. This

species of Baby's Ear is predatory, feeding on buried bivalves.

http://www.mitchellspublications.com/guides/shells/articles/0041/
http://www.jaxshells.org/babylive.htm
Works Cited Page
Thursday, November 05, 2009
9:35 AM

Alphabet Cone shell


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Atlantic Giant Cockle


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

"Untitled Document." Project Oceanica. Web. 04 Dec. 2009.


<http://oceanica.cofc.edu/shellguide/shells/giantcockle.htm>.

Atlantic Kittenpaw
Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Atlantic Slipper Snail


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Black Mangrove
Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Common Jingle shell


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

"Jingle shell clams (Anomiidae) on the Shores of Singapore." Wildsingapore homepage. Web.
06 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.wildsingapore.com/wildfacts/mollusca/bivalvia/anomiidae/anomiidae.htm>.

Even Prickly Cockle


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Florida Spiny Jewel


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Florida Worm Snail


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Lettered Olive Shells


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

"Oliva Sayana, Lettered Olive." Creation vs Evolution / Intelligent Design / Creation Science.
Web. 27 Nov. 2009. <http://www.edwardtbabinski.us/beach_kids/sea_shells/lettered_olive/>.

Moon Jellyfish
"Moon Jellyfish." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 04 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/jellyfish/moon.php>.

Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Parchment Tube Worms


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Shark's Eye
Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Smooth Sea Feather


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

"Coralpedia - Pseudopterogorgia acerosa." Coralpedia - Acropora cervicornis. Web. 04 Dec.


2009. <http://coralpedia.bio.warwick.ac.uk/en/octocorals/pseudopterogorgia_acerosa.html>.

Southern Surfclam
Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Stiff Penshell
Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

"The pen shell (pinna nobilis)." Designboom. Web. 06 Dec. 2009.


<http://www.designboom.com/eng/education/byssus.html>.

Tube Sponge
Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

Variable Coquina Clam


Witherington, Blair & Dawn. Florida's Living Beaches, A guide for the curious beachcomber.
1st ed. Florida: Pineapple, 2007. Print.

"Coquina clam (mollusk) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online


Encyclopedia. Web. 27 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/136997/coquina-clam>.

White Baby's Ear


Rothschild, Susan B. Beachcomber's Guide to Gulf Coast Marine Life, Third Edition Texas,
Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. Grand Rapids: Taylor Trade, 2004. Print.