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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

a) Earth Disaster Response: Political, Security and Agency Factors, by


MILNE ANTONY (2008) states that:-
“The dependency on energy and water is under threat not only from Natural
disasters

but from unplanned urban growth itself. In 2007 the number of people living in
cities exceeded those living in rural areas for the first time

The UN reckons that only 5% of the building work under way for the
future growth is actually planned ; in many Asian cities 70% of residents live in
urban sprawls with poor access to electricity and drainage & the problem is
worsened by a shortage of competent building & architectural professionals.
Disaster in this emerging urbanized world are often caused by escape of
hazardous substances (Bhopal gas tragedy, 1984), forest fires, Oil spills (Iraq),
industrial & mining accidents, as pointed in a 2004 study by European
Environment Agency (EEA)

He deals with natural disaster emergencies in many parts of the world: and
examines the vulnerability of different communities, especially those is Asia &
America. The enormous cost of the disaster and the way charitable aid money is
handled is discussed. The way NGO operates is undertaken jointly with western
relief agencies and how well the political & security implication in regard to the
most severely affected regions are also examined. It deals in particular cases of
disaster that occurred between 2004 & 2008: a) the Indian Ocean tsunami b)
Kashmir earthquake.

b) Indian famines their historical, financial and other aspects, by CHARLES


BLAIRE (1986), gives a account of Indian famines, details of financial results
in past famines, criticism on the management of famines & conclusion on the
subject with remarks on preventive and mitigative measures”.
c) Women Disability & Identity, edited by ASHA HANS & ANNIE PATRI (2003)
describes “Women’s with disabilities face a triple challenge; as women, as
disabled and as women with disabilities. It highlights not only the
discrimination faced by disabled women but also the transitions made by
them in their search for new worlds”.

d) The State of Panchayats: A Mid Term Review & Appraisal , published


by MINISTRY OF PANCHAYATI RAJ, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA states that
in India “The need for integrated local area plans, based on specific
endowments and needs of each area, was stressed from the beginning of
planned development in 1950s. However despite several reports and studies;
there were only sporadic efforts and isolated cases of such planning.
Development has mostly done through sectoral schemes and programmes of
a uniform nature, resulting in limited outcomes and wastages of resources.”
The constitutional 73rd & 74th amendments mandated local planning at
Panchayat, Panchayat samiti level and district level as well as in urban local
governments and their consolidation into a district plan in each district. And
finally the “district plan process” was made an integral part of the process
from eleventh five year plan (2007-12).onwards.

e) Kerla State Disaster Management Policy published by KERLA STATE DISASTER


MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (2008) emphasis that while disasters cannot be
completely avoided, the vulnerability to various hazards can be Sustain ably
and substantially reduced by planned prevention, mitigation and
preparedness measures. Therefore, the current perceptions of disaster
management that considers disasters as rare occurrences managed by
emergency response services require a paradigm shift. The new approach
views disaster mitigation and preparedness should be built into the
development process and it should be multidisciplinary spanning across all
sectors of development. The need is to have a state Specific policy.
f) Disaster Management: A Development Perspective published by NATIONAL
DISASTR MANAGEMENT DIVISION, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (2002-2007) states
that Five Year Plan documents have, historically, not included consideration
of issues relating to the management and mitigation of natural disasters. The
traditional perception has been limited to the idea of “calamity relief”, which
is non-plan expenditure. However, the impact of major disasters cannot be
mitigated by the provision of immediate relief alone, which is the primary
focus of calamity relief efforts. Disasters can have devastating effects on the
economy; they cause huge human and economic losses, and can significantly
set back development efforts of region or state. The development process
needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention and mitigation aspects.
There is thus need to look at disasters from a development perspective as
well.