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Anatomy and Physiology

Lecturer: Hans Kristian O. Lorenzana, RN

The Human Body – An Orientation


• Anatomy – study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts
• Physiology – study of how the body and its parts work or function

Anatomy – Levels of Study


• Gross Anatomy
• Large structures
• Easily observable

• Microscopic Anatomy
• Very small structures
• Can only be viewed with a microscope

Organ System Overview


• Integumentary
• Forms the external body covering
• Protects deeper tissue from injury
• Synthesizes vitamin D
• Location of cutaneous nerve receptors
• Skeletal
• Protects and supports body organs
• Provides muscle attachment for movement
• Site of blood cell formation
• Stores minerals
• Muscular
• Allows locomotion
• Maintains posture
• Produces heat
• Nervous
• Fast-acting control system
• Responds to internal and external change
• Activates muscles and glands
• Endocrine
• Secretes regulatory hormones
• Growth
• Reproduction
• Metabolism
• Cardiovascular
• Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart
• Oxygen
• Carbon dioxide
• Nutrients
• Wastes
• Lymphatic
• Returns fluids to blood vessels
• Disposes of debris
• Involved in immunity
• Reproductive
• Production
of offspring
Basic Chemistry
Biochemistry: Essentials for Life
• Organic compounds
• Contain carbon
• Most are covalently bonded
• Example: C6H12O6 (glucose)
• Inorganic compounds
• Lack carbon
• Tend to be simpler compounds
• Example: H2O (water)

Important Inorganic Compounds


• Water
• Most abundant inorganic compounds
• Vital properties
• High heat capacity
• Polarity/solvent properties
• Chemical reactivity
• Cushioning
• Salts
• Easily dissociate into ions in the presence of water
• Vital to many body functions
• Include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents
• Acids
• Can release detectable hydrogen ions
• Bases
• Proton acceptors
• Neutralization reaction
• Acids and bases react to form water and a salt
pH
• Measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions
• pH 7 = neutral
• pH below 7 = acidic
• pH above 7 = basic
• Buffers
• Chemicals that can regulate pH change
• Carbohydrates
• Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
• Include sugars and starches
• Classified according to size
• Monosaccharides – simple sugars
• Disaccharides – two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
• Polysaccharides – long branching chains of linked simple sugars
• Lipids
• Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
• Carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen
• Insoluble in water
• Proteins
• Made of amino acids
• Contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
• Account for over half of the body’s organic matter
• Provides for construction materials for body tissues
• Plays a vital role in cell function
• Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
Enzymes
• Act as biological catalysts
• Increase the rate of chemical reactions
Nucleic Acids
• Provide blueprint of life
• Nucleotide bases
• A = Adenine
• G = Guanine
• C = Cytosine
• T = Thymine
• U = Uracil
• Make DNA and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
• Organized by complimentary bases to form double helix
• Replicates before cell division
• Provides instruction for every protein in the body
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
• Chemical energy used by all cells
• Energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond
• ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels

Cells and Tissues

• Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life


• Cells are the building blocks of all living things
• Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
Anatomy of the Cell
• Cells are not all the same
• All cells share general structures
• Cells are organized into three main regions
• Nucleus
• Cytoplasm
• Plasma membrane

The Nucleus
• Control center of the cell
• Contains genetic material (DNA)
• Three regions
• Nuclear membrane
• Nucleolus
• Chromatin

Cellular Physiology:
• Membrane Transport
• Membrane Transport – movement of substance into and out of the cell
• Transport is by two basic methods
• Passive transport
• No energy is required
• Active transport
• The cell must provide metabolic energy
• Solutions and Transport
• Solution – homogeneous mixture of two or more components
• Solvent – dissolving medium
• Solutes – components in smaller quantities within a solution
• Intracellular fluid – nucleoplasm and cytosol
• Interstitial fluid – fluid on the exterior of the cell
Selective Permeability
• The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others
• This permeability includes movement into and out of the cell
Passive Transport Processes
• Diffusion
• Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution
• Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a
concentration gradient
• Types of diffusion
• Simple diffusion
• Unassisted process
• Solutes are lipid-soluble materials or small enough to pass through membrane
pores
• Types of diffusion
• Osmosis – simple diffusion of water
• Highly polar water easily crosses the plasma membrane
• Facilitated diffusion
• Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport
• Filtration
• Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic
pressure
• A pressure gradient must exist
• Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high pressure area to a lower
pressure area
Active Transport Processes
• Transport substances that are unable to pass by diffusion
• They may be too large
• They may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane
• They may have to move against a concentration gradient
• Two common forms of active transport
• Solute pumping
• Bulk transport
• Solute pumping
• Amino acids, some sugars and ions are transported by solute pumps
• ATP energizes protein carriers, and in most cases, moves substances against
concentration gradients
• Bulk transport
• Exocytosis
• Moves materials out of the cell
• Material is carried in a membranous vesicle
• Vesicle migrates to plasma membrane
• Vesicle combines with plasma membrane
• Material is emptied to the outside
• Bulk transport
• Endocytosis
• Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous
vescicle
• Types of endocytosis
• Phagocytosis – cell eating
• Pinocytosis – cell drinking

Cell Life Cycle


• Cells have two major periods
• Interphase
• Cell grows
• Cell carries on metabolic processes
• Cell division
• Cell replicates itself
• Function is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes
Events of Cell Division
• Mitosis
• Division of the nucleus
• Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei
• Cytokinesis
• Division of the cytoplasm
• Begins when mitosis is near completion
• Results in the formation of two daughter cells

Stages of Mitosis
• Interphase
• No cell division occurs
• The cell carries out normal metabolic activity and growth
• Prophase
• First part of cell division
• Centromeres migrate to the poles
• Metaphase
• Spindle from centromeres are attached to chromosomes that are aligned in the
center of the cell

• Anaphase
• Daughter chromosomes are pulled toward the poles
• The cell begins to elongate
• Telophase
• Daughter nuclei begin forming
• A cleavage furrow (for cell division) begins to form

Organization of the body

Sagittal Plane
 Extends from front to back and top to bottom dividing the body into the
left and right portions.
Frontal Plane
 This Plane also called a coronal plane, divides the body into front and back
portions
Horizontal Plane
 Also called a transverse plane
 Divides the body into top and bottom portions
Anatomical Directions
 Left – To the left of the body ( not your Left, the subject’s)
 Right – to the right of the body or structure being studied
 Lateral – Towards the side, away from the midsagittal plane
 Medial – Towards the mid sagittal plane, away from the side
 Anterior – Toward the front of the body
 Posterior – toward the back
 Superior - toward the top of the body
 Inferior – toward the bottom of the body
 Dorsal – Along ( or toward the vertebral surface of the body
 Ventral – Along or toward the belly surface of the body
 Caudad (Caudal) – toward the tail
 Cephalad – toward the head
 Proximal – toward the trunk (describe relative portion in a limb or other
appendage).
 Distal – Away from the trunk or point of attachment.
 Visceral – Toward the internal organ, away from the outer wall
 Parietal – Toward the wall, away from internal structures.
 Deep – Toward the inside of a part, away from the surface
 Superficial – towards the surface of a part, away from the inside
 Medullary – refers to an inner region, or medulla
 Cortical – refers to an outer region, or cortex

Body cavities and regions


 Cranial cavity – within the skull
 Organ: brain
 Spinal cavity – within the vertebral column
 Organ: spinal cord
 Thoracic cavity – within the ribcage
 Plerual cavities – left one third and right one third of the thoracic cavity
 Organ: Lung
 Mediastinum – middle one third of the thorax
 Organs – heart, trachea, esophagus
 Abdominopelvic cavity – from the diaphragm to the bottom of the trunk.
 Abdominal cavity – From the diaphragm to the rim of the pelvic bones
 Organs: stomach, liver, most of the intestines, pancreas, spleen kidneys
 Pelvic cavity – from the pelvic rim to the floor of the trunk
 Organs: portions of the intestines, ovaries, uterus, urinary bladder

The 9 abdominopelvic regions


right hypochondriac region
epigastric region
left hypochondriac region
right lumbar region
umbilical region
left lumbar region
right (iliac) inguinal region
hypogastric region
left (iliac) inguinal region

The Integumentary System

 The integumentary system is composed of the:


 Skin
 Appendages
 Largest organ of the body

Functions of the Integumentary system


 Gives shape to the body
 Protects the body from injury
 Serves as a barrier to infection
 Sensory reception
 Thermoregulation
 Maintenance of water balance

The EPIDERMIS
 Composed mainly of 4 layers:
> stratum corneum: outermost
> stratum granulosum: lucidum in thick skin
> stratum spinosum
> stratum basale
 Nerves: found in the epidermis, which function for pain and temperature
sensation
 Blood vessels: Avascular

Epidermal Cell Types (4)


 1 – Keratinocytes
 2 – Melanocytes
 3 – Langerhans
 4 - Merckel

Keratinocytes

 most numerous (85%)


 secrete keratin
 provides the barrier function of the epidermis

Melanocytes
 found in the dermis and basal layer of the epidermis
 produce melanin
 protect from UV
Langerhans cells
 members of the immune system, and functioning as antigen-presenting cells.
Found in stratum spinosum.

Merckel cells
 found in the basal layer and appear associated with sensory nerve fibers,
functioning as mechanoreceptors.

The DERMIS
 layer beneath or internal to the epidermis
 thicker than the epidermis
 loose connective tissue, mainly collagen and elastic and reticular fibers
 blood vessels
 nerves

Subcutaneous Tissue
 Consists mostly of adipose tissue
 Contains larger blood vessels and nerves
 May contain the base of hair follicles and sweat glands
 Functions: caloric reserve, heat insulator, shock absorber

Sweat glands – 2 types


 Eccrine: < 0.5mm diameter
 found anywhere except penis
 secretion contains protein,
NaCl, urea, NH3, uric acid
 Function in thermoregulation
 Apocrine: 3-5mm in diameter
 Modified sweat gland
 found in the axillary, areolar, anal regions
 open up into hair follicles
 secrete odor-producing discharges called “pheromones”
 functional at puberty

Sebaceous or Oil glands


 secrete sebum
 anywhere except on the palms and soles
 lubricate hair follicles & skin surface and prevent dessication
 functional at puberty
 accumulation & obstruction of sebum à whitehead (comedo) & blackhead (dead
cells with melanin)
 rupture of sebaceous gland duct + sebum + bacteria à red papules (pimples)
and pustules (lesions with pus)

Hair
 arises from hair follicles which are epidermal invaginations
 Associated arrector pili muscleà causes “goosebumps”
Nails
 like hair, are modified stratum corneum
 keratin of nails is harder than that of hair
 stratum basale of the nail area continuously proliferates and rapidly
keratinizes
 white cuticle of nails is called eponychium

Musculoskeletal System

 206 bones
 Axial skeleton= 80
 Appendicular skeletons= 126
upper limbs= 64
lower limbs= 62

Functions

 Supportive framework
 Protect vital organs
 Hemopoiesis or blood cell formation
 Storage of minerals
 Act as biomechanical levers
Types of Bone
 According to location:
 Axial – found along our midline axis
 Appendicular – found in our extremities
 According to shape:
 flat & irregular bones – many axial bones
 long and short bones – in our limbs
 pneumatic bones – have air spaces, e.g., skull
 sesamoid – in tendons, e.g., patella

classification
 Based on dev’t.
1. Membranous
2. Cartilaginous
 Based on histology
1. Compact
2. Spongy

Types of cells
 Osteoblast- precursor cells
 Osteoclast- bone destroyers
 Osteocytes- mature cells

Classification of joints
 Synarthroses- barely movable or nonmovable
 Amphiarthroses- slightly movable
 Diarthroses- freely movable

TYPES OF MOVEMENT
*origin – immovable
*insertion – movable
 flexion - bending, decreasing the angle between 2 bones
 extension - straightening out, increasing the angle between 2 bones
 abduction - moving the bone away from the midline
 adduction - moving the bone toward the midline
 rotation - moving the bone around central axis
 circumduction - moving the bone so that the end of it describes a circle

 supination - moving the bones of the forearm so that the radius and ulna are
parallel, posterior to anterior
 pronation - moving the bones of the forearm so that the radius and ulna are
not
parallel, anterior to posterior position
 eversion - moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle and intertarsal
joints
 inversion - moving the sole of the foot inward at the ankle and intertarsal
joints
 protraction - moving a part of the body forward on a plane parallel to the
ground
 retraction - moving a part of the body backward on a plane parallel to the
ground
 elevation - raising a part of the body
 depression - lowering a part of the body
 plantar flexion - pointing toes (as a ballerina) away from the body
 dorsiflexion - pointing toes toward the body
 apposition – move thumb to touch fingertips

 Bone maintenance
1. Local stress-stimulates bone formation
2. Vit. D- inc Ca by increasing GIT absorption
3. Calcitonin- inhibits bone resorption

Bone repair
 Hematoma & inflammation (TGF-B,PDGF)
 Angiogenesis and cartilage formation
 Cartilage calcification
 Cartilage removal
 Bone formation(3-4 mos.)
 Remodeling( mos.-yrs)
Muscles
- tissue composed of fibers or
cells
- able to contract causing
movements
- Maintains posture
- Stabilizes joints
- Generates heat
- highly vascular, excitable,
conductive and elastic

TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION


tension develops in the muscles accdg to the sliding filament model
1. isotonic - muscle shortens during contraction ie smiling, bending the knee
- successful sliding of myofilaments
2.isometric - muscle does not shorten during contraction ie lifting a 400 pound
dresser, pushing against the wall with bent elbows
- muscle unable to slide because pushed against immovable
object

Tendon

- attaches muscle to bone


- provide durability and conservation of space
- made up of tough collagenic fiber
- cross rough bony projections which could tear more delicate muscle tissue

Ligament

– binds joints together, connects articular bones and cartilage

Cartilage
- non vascular tissue
- can be permanent or temporary
- found chiefly in the joints, thorax, larynx and trachea
Bursae
- Sac containing fluid that are located around the joints to prevent friction

The Skull

Neurocranium

 Frontal
 Parietal
 Occipital
 Ethmoid
 Sphenoid
 Temporal

Viscerocranium
 Maxilla
 Nasal
 Zygomatic
 Mandible
 Vomer
 Lacrimal
 Palatine
 Inferior nasal concha

Sutures
 Coronal- bet. Parietal & frontal bones
 Sagittal- bet. 2 parietal bones
 Lambdoid- bet. Parietal & occipital
 Bregma- intersection of coronal & sagittal- ant. Fontanel
 Pterion- where sphenoid, parietal, forntal & temporal bones converge
 TMJ
Fontanelles or soft spots
 Fibrous connective tissue or cartilage that occur at the angles of the
parietal bone
 Anterior – closes at 12-18 months
 Posterior – closes at 3-4 months
The Auditory Ossicles
 sense vibration
 3 inner ear bones:
 malleus or hammer –
articulates with
eardrum
 incus or anvil – articulates
with malleus & stapes
 stapes or stirrup –
articulates with oval
window
Face
 Scalp- frontalis & occipitalis
 Ear- auricular
 Orbital rim- orbicularis oculi
 Nose- nasalis
 Neck-platysma
 Lips- labii superioris, zygomaticusdepressor labii/angularis, buccinator,
orbicularis oris

Neck
Bones
 Cervical vertebrae- atlas,axis & C3-C7
 hyoid-
 Larynx
 cricoid

The Vertebral Column or Spine


 Supports the body & bears its weight
 Regions:
 7 cervical
 12 thoracic
 5 lumbar
 Sacrum
 Coccygeal
 S-shaped
 Vertebrae are attached to each other via synovial joints & by intervertebral
discs

The Normal Spine


 Has normal curves:
 lordosis – cervical, lumbar concaving
 kyphosis – thoracic convexity
 intervertebral discs – maintain flexibility, absorb shock; outer annulus
fibrosis, inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus
 With age, loss of H2O content causes decrease in disc height
Thorax
 ribs
1-7= true
8-10= false
11-12= floating
 Sternum
Manubrium
Sternal angle of louis
Body of sternum

 Muscles
 Internal intercostals- ant, inf
 External intercoastals- post, inf
 Subcostalis
 Transversus thoracis

The upper extremities


 Consists of 30 bones:
 Humerus – upper arm
 Ulna - forearm
 Radius - forearm
 Carpal bones - wrist
 Metacarpals - palm
 Phalanges - fingers

The Lower Extremity


 Consists of 30 bones:
 Femur – upper leg or thigh
 Patella – or kneecap
 Tibia & fibula – lower leg or shin
 Tarsal bones – back part of foot & heel
 Metatarsals – main part of the foot
 Phalanges - toes