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Biological Bases of Behavior:

The Biology of Mind


Chapter 3A, 3B
Heres a preview of what we will
be studying
Whats this?
How big is the brain?
How do we look at our brain?
Its kind of stuck in our skull
Phrenology
(Franz Gall) Do
the bumps on
your head mean
anything? NO!
Neural Communication
The bodys information system is built from
billions of interconnected cells called neurons.
Neural Communication
Note the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all
engaged in information processing.
Neurobiologists and other investigators
understand that humans and animals operate
similarly when processing information.
Neuron
A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many
different parts.
Parts of a Neuron
Cell Body: Life support center of the neuron.

Dendrites: Branching extensions at the cell body.
Receive messages from other neurons.

Axon: Long single extension of a neuron, covered with
myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath to insulate and speed up
messages through neurons.

Terminal Branches of axon: Branched endings of an
axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
Neurons

Neurons

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Dendrites
(detect messages; listen)
z Information
collectors (what is
new?)
z Receive inputs from
neighboring neurons
z Inputs may number
in thousands
z If enough inputs
(electrical signals)
the cells AXON may
generate an output
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Dendritic Growth
z Mature neurons
generally cant
divide
z But new dendrites
can grow (learn)
z Provides room for
more connections
to other neurons
z New connections
are basis for
learning
Dendrites grow and can
reach more neurons
Neurons

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Axon (receives messages)
z The cells output
structure
z One axon per cell,
2 distinct parts
y tubelike structure
branches at end
that connect to
dendrites of other
cells

Branching axon
terminals/buttons
Neurons

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Myelin sheath
z White fatty casing
on axon
z Acts as an electrical
insulator
z Not present on all
cells
z When present
increases the speed
of neural signals
down the axon.
Myelin Sheath
Neurons

????
What are systems of someone with MS
What is the issue with their with Mylein
Sheath?
Answer less of Myelin is being created
Neurons

Neurons

How Neurons Work video clip
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Neurons and Synapses
Types of Neurons
(involved in Neurotransmission)
Sensory
(Afferent)
Motor
(Efferent)
Interneurons
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Spinal
Cord
Brain
Sensory
Neuron
Sensory Neurons
(Afferent Neurons)
INPUT: From sensory organs to the
brain and spinal cord. (CNS)
Drawing shows a
somatosensory neuron

Vision, hearing, taste
and smell nerves are
cranial, not spinal

Touch -- spinal

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Spinal
Cord
Brain
Sensory
Neuron
Motor
Neuron
Motor Neurons
(Efferent Neurons)
OUTPUT From the brain and spinal
cord To the muscles and glands.

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Spinal
Cord
Brain
Sensory
Neuron
Motor
Neuron
Interneurons
(between brain & spine)
Interneurons
carry
information
between other
neurons only
found in the
brain and
spinal cord.
Most complex

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Discuss with your neighbor.
The 3 main
types of
neurons..
Mirror Neurons
An area just forward of the primary motor
cortex is where mirror neurons were first
discovered accidentally in the mid-1990s.
May play a role in the acquisition of new
motor skills,
the imitation of others,
the ability to feel empathy for others,
and dysfunctions in mirror neuron
circuits may underlie the social deficits
seen in autistic disorders.
Clip 1 Animated Autism
NEURAL COMMUNICATION:

ITS THE BASIS OF
EVERYTHING!!!
TODAY YOU WILL UNDERSTAND HOW YOU:
WALK,
TALK,
THINK

HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE
Neurons communicate by means of an electrical
signal called the Action Potential
Action Potentials are based on movements of ions
between the outside and inside of the cell
When an Action Potential occurs a molecular
message is sent to neighboring neurons
RESTING POTENTIAL
Neurons normal state
Polarized neuron
Chillin out, maxin, relaxin all cool (and all shootin some
b-ball outside of the school..no??)
THRESHOLD
Each neuron receives excitatory
and inhibitory signals from many
neurons.



When the excitatory signals minus
the inhibitory signals exceed a
minimum intensity (threshold) the
neuron fires an action potential.
DEPOLARIZATION
Positive ions flood axon, open channels in axon to
send message
ACTION POTENTIAL
A neural impulse!
A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and
out of channels in the axons membrane.
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
A gate/pump
Allows Sodium (Na++) ions to pass through permeable axon
wall
Allows Potassium (K+) ions out of axon
Action Potential

Action Potential

Action Potential

Action Potential

ALL-OR-NONE RESPONSE
An action potential will happen, or it wont.
Intensity of an action potential remains the same
throughout the length of the axon.


A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to
fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect
the action potentials strength or speed.

REFRACTORY PERIOD
Period of time where axon cannot fire
Axon is re-polarizing or returning to resting potential

SYNAPSE
A junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the
dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
Neurotransmitters, chemicals, travel across Synapse & bind to
receiving neuron
This tiny gap is also called the synaptic gap or cleft.
How Neurons Communicate

How Neurons Communicate

How Neurons Communicate

How Neurons Communicate

DEEP QUESTION:
Is there any other mechanical or engineering
process like this in the world? Or, How does this
compare to how a computer works or
communicates?

Toilet??? HUH???

This is a neural network seen with
staining technology
Electrical activity in a neuron before,
during and after an action potential
Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
(chemicals) released from
the sending neuron travel
across the synapse and
bind to receptor sites on
the receiving neuron,
thereby influencing it to
generate an action
potential.

*Just one diagram; neural
communication is
intensely complex (occurs
multiple times)
Reuptake
Excess neurotransmitters in
the synapse are reabsorbed
into the sending neurons
through the process of
reuptake.

This process applies the
brakes on
neurotransmitter action.
How Neurotransmitters Influence Us
Serotonin pathways are
involved with mood
regulation.

*mood, hunger, sleep,
arousal
From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, 1989
University of California Press
Dopamine Pathways
Dopamine pathways
are involved with
diseases such as
schizophrenia and
Parkinsons disease.

*movement, learning,
attention, emotion
NTs Perform
different functions in
different parts of the
brain!!!
From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, 1989
University of California Press

Lock & Key Mechanism
Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the
receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism.
Agonists
Antagonists
Nervous Systemshow many?
The Nervous System
Nervous System: Consists of all the nerve cells. It
is the bodys speedy, electrochemical
communication system.

Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and
spinal cord.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory and
motor neurons that connect the central nervous
system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
Nervous System
Central
Nervous
System
(CNS)
Peripheral
Nervous
System
(PNS)
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System: The division of the
peripheral nervous system that controls the bodys
skeletal muscles.
(ex. Voluntary control of skeletal muscles. Bell
rings at end of class, somatic NS reports to brain
your current state of skeletal muscles, carries
instruction back and triggers body to rise)
Remember volunteer is done by choice, so the
bodys (somas) voluntary actions are controlled
by nervous system

Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System:
Part of the PNS that controls the
glands and other muscles.

Autonomic sounds similar to
automatic and the bodys
automatic actions (breathing,
heartbeat) are controlled by
this nervous system.
(Can be overridden, but
usually on its own)

The Nerves
Nerves consist of neural cables containing many
axons. They are part of the peripheral nervous
system and connect muscles, glands, and sense
organs to the central nervous system.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Two parts
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
1.) Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of
the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its
energy in stressful situations. (i.e., heartbeat,
digestion)trys to help and gets us ready for
actionto ACE the final! (AP Psych test! )

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
2.) Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division
of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its
energy.
Good news Stress ends (test will be okay)
as parasympathetic produces opposite
effects. Every day situations work together to
keep you in a steady state! YEAH!
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Sympathetic NS
Arouses
(fight-or-flight)


Parasympathetic NS
Calms
(rest and digest)
Central Nervous System
The Brain and Neural Networks
Complex Neural Network
Interconnected neurons form networks in the
brain. Theses networks are complex and modify
with growth and experience.
Reflex Arc (Neural Chain)
The brain
processes the
sensory info and
decides what to
do
Motor nerves receive
commands from the
brain and react.
Sensory
information enters
the body through
receptor cells.
A Simple Reflex

A Simple Reflex

A Simple Reflex

Spinal Cord CAN make this
decision!
(Assistant Manager to Brain)
Pathway from Sensory Neurons (in finger
tips to the Interneurons in your Spinal
Cord Interneurons have ability to
activated Motor neuron to muscles in your
arm for you to pull away BEFORE feeling
the pain
Pain is when it gets to your brain,
happens quickly after
Figure 3.6 Organization of the human nervous system
The Endocrine System
The Endocrine
System is the bodys
slow chemical
communication
system.
Communication is
carried out by
hormones
synthesized by a set
of glands.
Hormones
Hormones are chemicals synthesized by the
endocrine glands that are secreted in the
bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and many
other tissues of the body.

For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases
heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and
feelings of excitement during emergency
situations.
Pituitary Gland


Is called the master gland. The anterior pituitary
lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands.
The posterior lobe regulates water and salt
balance.
Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands
Regulate metabolic and calcium rate.
Adrenal Glands


Adrenal glands consist of the adrenal medulla and
the cortex. The medulla secretes hormones
(epinephrine and norepinephrine) during stressful
and emotional situations, while the adrenal cortex
regulates salt and carbohydrate metabolism.
Gonads
Sex glands are located in different places in men
and women. They regulate bodily development
and maintain reproductive organs in adults.
The Brain
Techniques to Study the Brain
A brain lesion
experimentally
destroys brain tissue to
study animal behaviors
after such destruction.
Hubel (1990)
Clinical Observation
Clinical observations have shed light on a
number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain
morphology due to neurological and
psychiatric diseases are now being catalogued.
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Electroencephalogram (EEG)
An amplified recording of the electrical waves
sweeping across the brains surface, measured
by electrodes placed on the scalp.
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PET Scan
PET (positron emission
tomography) Scan is a
visual display of brain
activity that detects a
radioactive form of
glucose while the brain
performs a given task.
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PET Scan of a person speaking-what
brain parts would be involved?
CT Scans of Stroke Victims. What happens
in a stroke?
MRI Scan
MRI (magnetic resonance
imaging) uses magnetic
fields and radio waves to
produce computer-
generated images that
distinguish among
different types of brain
tissue. Top images show
ventricular enlargement in
a schizophrenic patient.
Bottom image shows brain
regions when a
participants lies.
Both photos from Daniel Weinberger, M.D., CBDB, NIMH
James Salzano/ Salzano Photo Lucy Reading/ Lucy Illustrations
Fig. 1.5 Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
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24
25
26
27
Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd
M.R.I.
Section at the level of the
III Ventricle
Answers
23. Occipital Lobe
24. III Ventricle
25. Frontal Lobe
26. Temporal Lobe
27. Sylvian Fissure
Fig. 1.8 Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
42
43
44
Post Contrast sagittal T1 Wtd
M.R.I.
Section at the level of Body of
Corpus Callosum
Answers
42. Parietal Lobe
43. Body of the Corpus Callosum
44. Frontal Lobe
Fig. 1.9 Post Contrast Axial MR Image of the brain
45
46
Post Contrast sagittal T1
Wtd M.R.I.
Section above the Corpus
Callosum
Answers
45. Parietal Lobe
46. Frontal Lobe
Brain Scan as Art
Artist: Elizabeth Jameson
fMRI scan combines which two
other scanning technologies?
fMRI shows the brain in action
The Human Brain
Master Watermark Image: http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif
Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is
divided into two hemispheres, each of which is
divided into four lobes.
Cerebrum
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Cortex - The intricate fabric of
interconnected neural cells that covers the
cerebral hemispheres. It is the bodys ultimate
control and information processing center.
http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-6.tif.jpg
The Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that
covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the bodys ultimate
control and information processing center.
Functions of the Cortex
The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the
frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives
information from skin surface and sense organs.
Motor & Sensory Cortex
Structure of the Cortex
Each brain hemisphere is
divided into four lobes that
are separated by prominent
fissures.
These lobes are:
frontal lobe (forehead)
parietal lobe (top to rear head)
occipital lobe (back head)
temporal lobe (side of head).
Lobes of the Brain (4)
Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
Motor Cortex: controls muscular movement
Sensory Cortex: receives all bodily
sensory signals
Brocas Area: speech
production
Wernickes Area:
language
comprehension
Prefrontal
Cortex:
working
memory
and
rational
thought
(very
front of
brain) Visual Cortex
Auditory Cortex
Lobes of the Brain - Frontal
The Frontal Lobes of the brain are located deep to the
Frontal Bone of the skull.
Play an integral role in the following functions/actions:
- Memory Formation
- Emotions
- Decision Making/
Reasoning/Thinking/
Judgment
- Personality
Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
TAP YOUR FOREHEAD;
THINK REALLY HARD!!!
Frontal Lobes - Continued

Primary Motor Cortex Cortical site (dealing with
cerebral cortex) involved with controlling movements of
the body.
Brocas Area Controls facial neurons, speech, and
language comprehension. Located on Left Frontal Lobe.
Brocas Aphasia Results in the ability to comprehend speech, but
the decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak and form words.
Olfactory Bulb - Cranial Nerve responsible for sensation of Smell
Primary Motor
Cortex
Brocas Area
Olfactory Bulb
Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
Investigation: Phineas Gage
(Large deep groove that
separates the parietal and
frontal lobes)
Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe
The Parietal Lobes of the brain are located under the
Parietal Bone of the skull.
They play a major role in the following
functions/actions:
- Senses and integrates sensation(s)
- Spatial awareness and perception

Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
- Touch/Sensory info.
(pressure, texture, pain, etc.)
WASH YOUR HAIR!!
Parietal Lobe - Continued
Primary Sensory Cortex Site involved with
processing of tactile (touch) information

- Did someone
touch you?

Primary Sensory
Cortex
Modified from:
http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/
1-8.tif.jpg
The Brain/3
Forebrain
Limbic
System
(emotional
center)



Midbrain
Hindbrain
Structures
in top of
Spine
Medulla
Pons
Cerebellu
m
Lobes of the Brain Occipital Lobe
The Occipital Lobe of the
Brain is located deep to the
Occipital Bone of the Skull
(back of your head).
Its primary function is the
processing, integration,
interpretation, etc. of VISION and
visual stimuli.
Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
If hit on back of head, you see stars
(blurred vision)!
Occipital Lobe Continued
Primary Visual Cortex This is the primary
area of the brain responsible for sight -
recognition of size, color, light, motion,
dimensions, etc.
Primary Visual
Cortex
Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
Lobes of the Brain Temporal Lobe
The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the
brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull.
They play an integral role
in the following functions:
- Hearing
- Organization/Comprehension
of language
- Information Retrieval
(Memory and Memory Formation)
Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
REACH FOR & Cover your
EARS!
Temporal Lobes Continued
Primary Auditory Cortex Responsible for hearing
Primary Olfactory Cortex Interprets the sense of
smell once it reaches the cortex via the olfactory
bulbs. (Not visible on the superficial cortex; it is deep)
Wernickes Area Language comprehension
Located on the Left Temporal Lobe.
* Wernickes Aphasia Language comprehension is
inhibited.
-Words and sentences not clearly understood
-Sentence formation may be inhibited or non-
sensical.
Primary
Auditory Cortex
Wernikes Area
Primary Olfactory
Cortex (Deep)
Conducted from Olfactory Bulb
Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
LOBE PROBE.LETS
PRACTICE!!!
Choose a partner you will work
with to complete this worksheet

Further Investigation: Phineas Gage
Frontal
19
th
century railroad worker
in Vermont
Set off explosives in large
rock to break rock into
smaller pieces
Detonation occurred prior to
his expectations!

Result: 42 inch long, 1.2
inch wide, metal rod was
blown up through skull and
out the top!!!
Rod entered skull below left
cheek bone
Exited after passing through
the anterior frontal lobe of
his brain

Remarkably, Gage never lost
consciousness, or quickly regained it
(there is still some debate),
suffered little to no pain, WHY?
and was awake and alert when he
reached a doctor approximately 45
minutes later.
He had a normal pulse and normal
vision,
and following a short period of rest,
returned to work several days later.
However, he was not unaffected by
this accident.
How do you
predict his
behavior will
change?
http://www.sruweb.com/~walsh/gage5.jpg
Q: Recalling what you have just learned regarding the frontal lobe, what
possible problems or abnormalities may Gage have presented with
subsequent to this type of injury (remember the precise location of the rod
through his brain)?
A: Gages personality, reasoning, and capacity to understand and follow social
norms had been diminished or destroyed. He illustrated little to no interest in
hobbies or other involvements that at one time he cared for greatly. After the
accident, Gage became a nasty, vulgar, irresponsible vagrant. His former
employer, who regarded him as "the most efficient and capable foreman in
their employ previous to his injury," refused to rehire him because he was so
different.
Q: It is suggested that Gages injury inspired the development of what at one
time was a widely used medical procedure. What might this procedure be, and
how does it relate to Gages injury?
A: The frontal lobotomy. This has been used with the intention to diminish
aggression and rage in mental patients, but generally results in drastic
personality changes, and an inability to relate socially. This procedure is
largely frowned upon today, with the development of neurological drugs as
treatments.
Frontal
Exit Slipplease answer:
Explain Gages changed behavior and its
connection to the Frontal Lobe, using at least
two examples from the video.
Assuming the iron rod had entered through the
Temporal Lobe & exited through the Parietal
Lobe, propose at least two
impairments/problems/changes Gage would
have displayed.
Feel good/Questions??
Lobes and Structures of the Brain
B.
A.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif
Cortical Regions
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif
Cortical Regions
A.
B.
C.
D.
E. F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
A. Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus
B. Brocas Area
C. Orbitofrontal Cortex
K. Primary Sensory Cortex
I. Primary Gustatory Cortex
J. Somatosensory
Association Cortex
G. Primary Visual Cortex
H. Visual
Association Area
E. Primary Auditory Cortex
F. Wernikes Area
D. Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep)
http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif
Visual Function
The functional MRI scan
shows the visual cortex
is active as the subject
looks at faces.
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Auditory Function
The functional MRI scan
shows the auditory
cortex is active in
patients who hallucinate.
Unit 3B: The Brain
Older Brain Structures
The Brainstem is the oldest part of the brain, beginning
where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. It is
responsible for automatic survival functions.
MIDBRAIN
Pons: sleep,
arousal, sensory
analysis
Medulla: regulates
unconscious
functions; breathing,
circulation, heart
rate
Reticular Formation:
carries sleep and
arousal messages
through the brainstem
Spinal Cord: transmits
info from the brain to the
rest of the body
Brain
Stem
Brainstem
The Medulla
[muh-DUL-uh] is
the base of the
brainstem that
controls heartbeat
and breathing.

Brainstem
Reticular Formation is a
nerve network in the
brainstem that plays an
important role in
controlling arousal.
(States of Consciousness)
The Thalamus
[THAL-uh-muss] is the
brains sensory
switchboard, located on top
of the brainstem. It directs
messages to the sensory
areas in the cortex and
transmits replies to the
cerebellum (little brain)
and medulla (controls heart
beat & breathing).
Directs
Messages
The little brain
attached to the rear of
the brainstem.
It helps coordinate
voluntary movements
and balance.
Cerebellum
Injuries to this area
issues walking, keeping balance,
shaking hands.
Movements are jerky and
exaggerated
Cerebellum
Older brain is without any conscious
effort
Our brain process most of our information
outside of our awareness!!
Aware of results but not process!
The Limbic System is a
doughnut-shaped system
of neural structures at the
border of the brainstem
and cerebrum,
associated with emotions
such as fear,
aggression and drives for
food and sex.
It includes the
hippocampus, amygdala,
and hypothalamus.
The Limbic System
Regulates basic biological
needs; hunger thirst, body
temperature
Controls aggression &
emotional impulses
Learning & memory;
formation of NEW
memories
Limbic
System
Master gland that
regulates other
endocrine glands
Amygdala
Amygdala
The Amygdala
[ah-MIG-dah-la]
consists of two lima
bean-sized neural
clusters linked to the
emotions of fear and
anger.
Hypothalamus
The Hypothalamus lies
below (hypo) the
thalamus.
It directs several
maintenance activities
like eating, drinking,
body temperature, and
control of emotions. It
helps govern the
endocrine system via
the pituitary gland.
Figure 2.19 The hypothalamus
Myers: Psychology, Ninth Edition
Copyright 2010 by Worth Publishers
Rats cross an electrified
grid for self-stimulation
when electrodes are
placed in the reward
(hypothalamus) center
(top picture). When the
limbic system is
manipulated, a rat will
navigate fields or climb
up a tree (bottom
picture).
Reward Center-James Olds 1954
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Thalamus: relay
center for all
incoming sensory
messages except
smell
Cerebellum:
motor movement,
balance, muscle
tone, posture
Corpus Callosum:
bridge of fibers
passing info. b/t 2
hemispheres
Basal Ganglia: fine
motor & voluntary
movements
More Interior Structures
Your brain decides to move your
pinkiewhat happens up there?
Pinkie &
the Brain
brain
song
More intelligent animals have increased
uncommitted or association areas of the
cortex.
Association Areas
Language
Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually
caused by left hemisphere damage either to Brocas
area (impaired speaking) or to Wernickes area
(impaired understanding).
Language

Language

Language

Language

Language

Language

Specialization & Integration
Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and
speaking words
The Plasticity of the Brain
The brain is more plastic or malleable than
widely assumed
Aspects of experience can sculpt features
of brain structure
Damage to incoming sensory pathways or
tissue can lead to neural reorganization
Adult brain can generate new neurons -
neurogenesis
Our Divided Brain
Our brain is divided into two hemispheres.

The left hemisphere processes reading, writing,
speaking, mathematics, and comprehension
skills. In the 1960s, it was termed as the
dominant brain.
Right-Left Differences in the Intact
Brain
People with intact brains also show left-right
hemispheric differences in mental abilities.

A number of brain scan studies show normal
individuals engage their right brain when
completing a perceptual task and their left brain
when carrying out a linguistic task.
Split BrainSevered Corpus Callosum
Video Clip
Hemispheric Specialization
Splitting the Brain
A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the
brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers
(mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
Corpus Callosum
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Try This!
Try drawing one shape with your left hand and
one with your right hand, simultaneously.
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Divided Consciousness
* Person is
focused on
dot and
QUICK
picture of
words!!

No chance
to see
both!
ART
Seen
By left side
Controlling
language
Divided Consciousness
Try This!
Try drawing one shape with your left hand and
one with your right hand, simultaneously.
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Split Brain Patients
With the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple)
presented in the right visual field ______ be
named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field
___________.
CAN
CANNOT
THINK & DISCUSS
If you flashed a picture of a spoon to the left
visual field of a split brain patient (so it was
transmitted to her right hemisphere) she
would be able to draw a spoon with her left
hand but would not be able to say she had
seen a spoon.
TEST Thursday,
September 26
th

Study Guide 3A, 3B, 3C DUE Thursday
Checks for Understanding DUE Thursday
TEST on Thursday!
193
Unit 3C: Biological
Bases of Behavior:
Genetics,
Evolutionary
Psychology, and
Behavior

Behavior Genetics: Predicting
Individual Differences
Behavior Geneticists study our differences and
weigh the relative effects of
heredity (nature=genes)
and
environment (nurture=environment).
Genes: Our Codes for Life
Chromosomes containing DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) are situated in the nucleus of a cell.
Genes: Our Codes for Life
Segments within DNA consist of genes that
make proteins to determine our development.
Genome
Genome is the set of complete instructions for
making an organism, containing all the genes in
that organism.
Thus, the human genome makes us human, and
the genome for drosophila makes it a common
house fly.





Human genome project was completed in 2003.

Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin
2004 Prentice Hall
Genes
What Genes Are and How They Work
Genetic Building Blocks
Figure 3.27
Genetic
relatedness
Twin and Adoption Studies
Studying the effects of heredity and
environment on two sets of twins, identical and
fraternal, has come in handy.
201
Why does studying Identical
twins produce unique data?
A number of studies compared identical twins
reared separately from birth, or close thereafter,
and found numerous similarities.
Separated Twins
Personality, Intelligence
Abilities, Attitudes
Interests, Fears
Brain Waves, Heart Rate
Separated Twins
Critics of separated twin studies note that such
similarities can be found between strangers.
Researchers point out that differences between
fraternal twins are greater than identical twins.
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THINK & DECIDE
Every night after a long day of work, Hank
drank 3 bottles of beer. He felt it helped him
relax & unwind. His son, Bob, now 28, has a
serious drinking problem.

Is Bobs alcoholism a result of
NATURE OR NURTURE??
TEST Thursday,
September 26
th

Study Guide 3A, 3B, 3C DUE Thursday
Checks for Understanding DUE Thursday
Review Sessions, Room 117
Wed 2:20-2:50pm
Thurs 6:45-7:15am

Biological vs.
Adoptive Relatives
Adoption studies, as opposed to twin studies,
suggest that adoptees
(who may be biologically unrelated) tend to be
different from their adoptive parents and
siblings.
Adoptive Studies
Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple
fact that biologically related children turn out to
be different in a family. So investigators ask:
Do siblings have differing experiences?
Do siblings, despite sharing half of their genes, have
different combinations of the other half of their genes?
Ultimate question: Does parenting have an effect?

Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin
2004 Prentice Hall
The Nature-Nurture Debates
The Pursuit of Heritability
Measuring the Effects of Nature and Nurture
Parenting
Parenting does have an effect on biologically
related and unrelated children.
Parenting Influences
Childrens
Attitudes, Values
Manners, Beliefs
Faith, Politics
Temperament and Heredity
Temperament refers to a persons stable
emotional reactivity and intensity. Identical
twins express similar temperaments, suggesting
heredity predisposes temperament.
Heritability

Variation among people due to
differing genes
differences due to genes
Group variation in trait explained
by genetics
Heritability
Group Differences
Heritable differences between
individuals does not imply
heritable group differences
Nature and Nurture
Some human traits are fixed,
such as having two eyes.
However, most psychological
traits are liable to change with
environmental experience.
Genes provide choices for the
organism to change its form
or traits when environmental
variables change.
Therefore, genes are pliable or
self-regulating.
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genes can influence traits which affect
responses, and environment can affect gene
activity. (Reciprocal effects)
A genetic predisposition that makes a child
restless and hyperactive evokes an angry
response from his parents. A stressful
environment can trigger genes to manufacture
neurotransmitters leading to depression.
Will living in a box change you?
You are an outgoing kid that is always
chatting
Your parents are tired of hearing all the
noise and put you in a box from when you
get home till bed
How will this change you?
This is nature vs. nurture interacting
215
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genes and environment affect our traits
individually, but more important are their
interactive effects.
People respond differently to
Rowan Atkinson (Mr. Bean) than Orlando bloom.
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Evolutionary Psychology:
Understanding Human Nature
Evolutionary psychology
studies why we as humans are
alike.
In particular, it studies the
evolution of behavior and
mind using principles of
natural selection.
In other words
Evolutionary psychology is the science
that seeks to explain through universal
mechanisms of behavior why humans act
the way they.
The goal is to understand human behavior
that is universally aimed at the passing of
one's genes into the next generation.
Natural Selection
Natural selection is an evolutionary process
through which adaptive traits are passed on to
ongoing generations because these traits help
animals survive and reproduce.
Human Sexuality
Males and females, to a large extent, behave
and think similarly. Differences in sexes arise in
regards to reproductive behaviors.
Gender Differences in Sexuality
Question (summarized) Male Female
Casual sex 58% 34%
Sex for affection 25% 48%
Think about sex everyday 54% 19%
Natural Selection & Mating
Preferences
Natural selection has caused
males to send their genes into
the future by mating with
multiple females since males
have lower costs involved.
However, females select one mature
and caring male because of the
higher costs involved with
pregnancy and nursing.
Mating Preferences
Males look for youthful appearing females in
order to pass their genes into the future. Females,
on the other hand, look for maturity, dominance,
affluence and boldness in males.
Data based on 37 cultures.
Artificial Selection
Biologists like Belyaev and Trut (1999) were able
to artificially rear and domesticate wild foxes,
selecting them for friendly traits.
Any trait that is favored naturally or artificially
spreads to future generations.
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Human Traits
A number of human traits have been identified
as a result of pressures afforded by natural
selection.
Why do infants fear strangers when they become
mobile?
Why do people fear spiders and snakes and not
electricity and guns?
How are men and women alike? How and why do
mens and womens sexuality differ?
228
Critiquing the Evolutionary
Perspective
Evolutionary psychologists take a behavior and work
backward to explain it in terms of natural selection.
Evolutionary psychology proposes genetic determinism
and undercuts morality in establishing society.
Where genders are unequal, gender preferences are
wide, but when they are closely equal, preferences
narrow down.
Evolutionary Psychologists Reply
Evolutionary psychologists argue that we need to test
behaviors that expound evolutionary principles.
Evolutionary psychologists remind us how we have
adapted, but do not dictate how we ought to be.
Males and females are more alike than different, and if
we study these differences we can establish their
causes.
Parents and Peers
We have looked at how genes influence our
developmental differences. What about the
environment?
How do our early experiences, our family, our
community and our culture affects these
differences?
Parents and Early Experiences
Experience and Brain Development
Early postnatal experiences affect brain
development. Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed
that rats raised in enriched environments
developed thicker cortices than those in
impoverished environment.
How Much Credit (or Blame) Do
Parents Deserve?
Parental influence is largely genetic. This support
is essential in nurturing children. However, other
socializing factors also play an important role.
Although raised in the same family,
some children are greater risk takers.
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Reflections on Nature and Nurture