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You are on page 1of 43

Classical theory

to

Quantum theory

to

Quantum mechanics

Reference Books

1. Modern Physics: K.S. Krane; John

Wiley 1998 2

nd

Edition

2. Introduction to Modern Physics: F.K.

Richtmyer, E.H. Kennard, John N.

Cooper (Tata Mc Graw Hill) 1976 6

th

edition

3. Quantum Physics: R. Eisberg and R.

Resnik John Wiley 2002 2

nd

Edition

4. Concepts of Modern Physics: Arthur

Beiser 4

th

Ed.

5. Introduction to Modern Physics: Mani

and Mehta

6. Elements of Modern Physics: S. H.

Patil

Clouds on Classical Physics

The beauty and clearness of the

dynamical theory, which asserts light and

heat to be modes of motion is at present

obscured by two clouds-Lord Kelvin in

1900

Cloud1: The motion of Earth in Ether

Cloud2: Failure of Maxwell-Boltzmann

doctrine regarding Equipartition of Energy

The Second Cloud

Required a development in many more

areas of Physics, especially Statistical

Mechanics.

We first look at the old problem itself.

The Second Cloud

Then we discuss various developments

which took place in around 25 years

after the first light was seen at the end of

the tunnel.

Finally we discuss the formal theory.

Basic questions about radiation

and matter

Is electromagnetic wave quantized?

Is electron a wave?

Dual nature of matter and radiation!!!

Some hints about the new Physics

Temperature dependence of heat

capacity of atoms/molecules/solids

Black body spectrum

Photoelectric effect

Compton effect

Electron diffraction

Equipartition Law of Energy (Clausius,

1857)

Was being used almost as a doctrine

in late 19

th

century.

Related to distribution of energy

mainly heat amongst various

particles.

We are interested in distribution or

average behavior.

Equipartition Law of Energy

Involves the concept of degrees of

freedom.

The degree of freedom can be

translational, rotational or vibrational.

Degrees of Freedom (3N)

Monatomic molecule (3)

All translational

Diatomic rigid molecule (6)

3 translational

2 rotational

Diatomic weakly bonded (6)

3 translational

2 rotational

1 vibrational

Distribution of Energy

At a finite temperature T, the energy is

distributed as follows, where k

B

is

Boltzmann Constant (1.38x10

-23

J/molecule

K)

For each translational and

rotational degree of freedom

For each vibrational degree

of freedom (KE+PE)

T TT T k kk k

2 22 2

1 11 1

B BB B

T TT T k kk k

B BB B

Classical Specific Heat of Gases

Specific Heat deals with the increase of

temperature as heat is being consumed

by the system. We deal with Molar

Specific Heat at constant volume C

v

.

v

V

C

T

=

Monatomic Gases

Consider 1 mole of a monatomic gases like

inert gases. Only translation of molecules is

possible.

. . 3

1

3

2

3 3

2 2

A

A

v A

d f N

N kT

C N k R

=

=

= =

R is gas constant. R= 8.31 J/

o

K mole

Diatomic Gases

Rigid Molecule

1

5

2

5 5

2 2

A

v A

N kT

C N k R

=

= =

Flexible

Molecule

1

5

2

7 7

2 2

A A

v A

N kT N kT

C N k R

= +

= =

Experimental Data

A good agreement for monatomic gases.

For diatomic gases one gets a value of

2.5 R at RT. But tends to increase with T

approaching a value of 3.5 R for many

molecules.

Experimental Data

Hydrogen gas shows 1.5 R around 100K

and ~2.5 R around room temperature.

Increases and tends to 3.5 R around

1000K, before dissociating.

Cannot understand the temperature

dependence of specific heat.

Dulong and Petit law

The specific heat of all solids is 3R.

Can be derived on the basis of

equipartition law.

3

3 3

A

v A

N kT

d

C N k R

dT

=

= = =

Experiment

Good agreement at RT for a very large

number of solids.

At low temperature approaches zero.

At high temperature approaches 3R.

A low temperature .

Some excitations other than vibration

can also contribute in some specific

solids.

3

v

C T

Temperature variation of C

v

of solids

Dulong and Petit

Black Body Radiation

Notorious Problem

Any body, when heated radiates. The

frequency of the radiation varies over a

large range and may depend on many

factors, most important of which is

temperature.

Black Body Radiation

Black body is an idealized body which

absorbs all the radiation which is incident

on it. In this case the radiation does not

depend on the material and has a

universal character.

Interest in studying the spectral

distribution of BBR.

Emission from a BB

Emission of electromagnetic waves from a BB can

be assumed to be the result of classical (?) atomic

harmonic oscillators of the walls of the BB.

Standing waves are produced because of

reflections inside.

Wavelength or the frequency of the standing

waves is dictated by the dimensions of the BB.

BBR in general consists of a large number of wave

lengths with varying inetensities.

Contd.

Emission of a particular or the intensity of a

particular is dependent on the number of modes

of vibration having wavelengths in the

neighbourhood of that particular .

The intensity is also determined by the average

energy associated with the oscillator at that

temperature.

i.e., intensity (density of modes)x Average

energy of one mode.

Features of BBR

e d (the emissive power : total power

emitted per unit area of BB in the wave

length range and +d) when plotted

against T shows a maximum at

m

.

m

T= Constant=2.898x10

-3

m

o

K.

(Wiens displacement law).

Stefans Law

4

0

ed T

5

e

T

T

1D in ] )d [g( modes of density the is This

4

L

ons, polarizati two Taking

) and of interval wavelength

e within th modes of no. the is (n 2

) n reduces in increase ( ) /( 2

/ 2

integer). (n /2 n L is waves (em) standing the

for condition the dimension, one In

2

x

2

x

x x

=

+ =

=

= =

x

x

x x

x

n

L

n

L n n

L n

Q

Calculation of density of modes

L

Density of modes in 3D

d

c

d g

d d g

3

2

4

8

) (

, c/ Since

8

) (

=

=

=

Density of modes is proportional to the square of frequency

( ) T k

c

d

B

=

=

3

2

8

)d u( i.e,

mode one of energy

modes)x of (density density Energy

Energy density diverges (tends to infinity)

as frequency increases. This is against the

experimental data.

Partial success of Rayleigh - Jeans law

Ultraviolet catastrophe!

Rayleigh- Jeans

e()

Plancks Law (quantum oscillator in place

of classical oscillator)

Electric oscillators in the wall lead to

emission and absorption of

electromagnetic waves.

Wall contains oscillators of all the

frequencies.

Energy of these oscillators are

quantized.

Plancks Law (Max Planck, 1900)

Energy transfer is possible only as a

multiple of a minimum called quantum

This quantum was postulated to be

proportional to the frequency.

Birth of the PHOTON!!

(particle like nature of em waves)

h is the Plancks constant, 6.56x10

-34

J.s and (=h/2)

h n nh

n

= =

Energy levels of a quantum harmonic oscillator

( ) ( )

T k nh

n

T k nh

n

T k nh

B

B

B

e

e

e nh

p p

p h p

/ T /k -

n

0

/

0

/

1 0

1 0

B n

e p

levels, the occupying of ies probabilit the are s p'

) (

.....

.......... 0

energy Average

=

=

+ +

+ +

=

n=0

n=1

n=2

E=0

E=h

E=2h

E=3h

n=3

Classical vs. Quantum (Planck) oscillator

/

0

/

0

kT

kT

e d

kT

e d

= =

/

0

/

0

1

nh kT

n

h

nh kT

kT

n

nh e

h

e

e

=

= =

Clausius

Planck

Plancks BBR formula

2

5 5

( )

2 1

( )

1

hc

k T

e c h

T T

e

birth of Quantum Mechanics

Comments

Reduces to the classical value in the

limit of low

h

kT

1 ... 1

1

h

kT

h h

kT

h

e

kT

=

+ +

Actual quantization law is slightly

different.

1

2

n h

= +

The Planck Average Energy

Used the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann

(MB) Distribution.

Was re-derived later by Bose and

Einstein without using MB distribution

and with a new interpretation.

The Planck Average Energy

g()d represents number of photon

levels in the range and +d called

density of states.

The following gives the numbers of

photons expected to occupy an energy

state with energy at temp T.

/

1

1

kT

e

3

1

E

E

A

h

kT

h

N

e

2

/

v

2

3

( 1)

E

E

h kT

E

h

kT

h d e

C R

dT kT

e

= =

Total internal energy of a solid,

As T tends to zero, C

v

tends to zero, but exponentially,

and not in a cubic manner.

Summary: Duality of radiation

X-ray diffraction

X-RAYS AS WAVES

EM waves as particles

BBR

Bragg and Laue

Planck

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