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Quantum Physics

Classical theory
to
Quantum theory
to
Quantum mechanics
Reference Books
1. Modern Physics: K.S. Krane; John
Wiley 1998 2
nd
Edition
2. Introduction to Modern Physics: F.K.
Richtmyer, E.H. Kennard, John N.
Cooper (Tata Mc Graw Hill) 1976 6
th
edition
3. Quantum Physics: R. Eisberg and R.
Resnik John Wiley 2002 2
nd
Edition
4. Concepts of Modern Physics: Arthur
Beiser 4
th
Ed.
5. Introduction to Modern Physics: Mani
and Mehta
6. Elements of Modern Physics: S. H.
Patil
Clouds on Classical Physics
The beauty and clearness of the
dynamical theory, which asserts light and
heat to be modes of motion is at present
obscured by two clouds-Lord Kelvin in
1900
Cloud1: The motion of Earth in Ether
Cloud2: Failure of Maxwell-Boltzmann
doctrine regarding Equipartition of Energy
The Second Cloud
Required a development in many more
areas of Physics, especially Statistical
Mechanics.
We first look at the old problem itself.
The Second Cloud
Then we discuss various developments
which took place in around 25 years
after the first light was seen at the end of
the tunnel.
Finally we discuss the formal theory.
Basic questions about radiation
and matter
Is electromagnetic wave quantized?
Is electron a wave?
Dual nature of matter and radiation!!!
Some hints about the new Physics
Temperature dependence of heat
capacity of atoms/molecules/solids
Black body spectrum
Photoelectric effect
Compton effect
Electron diffraction
Equipartition Law of Energy (Clausius,
1857)
Was being used almost as a doctrine
in late 19
th
century.
Related to distribution of energy
mainly heat amongst various
particles.
We are interested in distribution or
average behavior.
Equipartition Law of Energy
Involves the concept of degrees of
freedom.
The degree of freedom can be
translational, rotational or vibrational.
Degrees of Freedom (3N)
Monatomic molecule (3)
All translational
Diatomic rigid molecule (6)
3 translational
2 rotational
Diatomic weakly bonded (6)
3 translational
2 rotational
1 vibrational
Distribution of Energy
At a finite temperature T, the energy is
distributed as follows, where k
B
is
Boltzmann Constant (1.38x10
-23
J/molecule
K)
For each translational and
rotational degree of freedom
For each vibrational degree
of freedom (KE+PE)
T TT T k kk k
2 22 2
1 11 1
B BB B
T TT T k kk k
B BB B
Classical Specific Heat of Gases
Specific Heat deals with the increase of
temperature as heat is being consumed
by the system. We deal with Molar
Specific Heat at constant volume C
v
.
v
V
C
T


=


Monatomic Gases
Consider 1 mole of a monatomic gases like
inert gases. Only translation of molecules is
possible.
. . 3
1
3
2
3 3
2 2
A
A
v A
d f N
N kT
C N k R

=
=
= =
R is gas constant. R= 8.31 J/
o
K mole
Diatomic Gases
Rigid Molecule
1
5
2
5 5
2 2
A
v A
N kT
C N k R
=
= =
Flexible
Molecule
1
5
2
7 7
2 2
A A
v A
N kT N kT
C N k R
= +
= =
Experimental Data
A good agreement for monatomic gases.
For diatomic gases one gets a value of
2.5 R at RT. But tends to increase with T
approaching a value of 3.5 R for many
molecules.
Experimental Data
Hydrogen gas shows 1.5 R around 100K
and ~2.5 R around room temperature.
Increases and tends to 3.5 R around
1000K, before dissociating.
Cannot understand the temperature
dependence of specific heat.
Dulong and Petit law
The specific heat of all solids is 3R.
Can be derived on the basis of
equipartition law.
3
3 3
A
v A
N kT
d
C N k R
dT

=
= = =
Experiment
Good agreement at RT for a very large
number of solids.
At low temperature approaches zero.
At high temperature approaches 3R.
A low temperature .
Some excitations other than vibration
can also contribute in some specific
solids.
3
v
C T
Temperature variation of C
v
of solids
Dulong and Petit
Black Body Radiation
Notorious Problem
Any body, when heated radiates. The
frequency of the radiation varies over a
large range and may depend on many
factors, most important of which is
temperature.
Black Body Radiation
Black body is an idealized body which
absorbs all the radiation which is incident
on it. In this case the radiation does not
depend on the material and has a
universal character.
Interest in studying the spectral
distribution of BBR.
Emission from a BB
Emission of electromagnetic waves from a BB can
be assumed to be the result of classical (?) atomic
harmonic oscillators of the walls of the BB.
Standing waves are produced because of
reflections inside.
Wavelength or the frequency of the standing
waves is dictated by the dimensions of the BB.
BBR in general consists of a large number of wave
lengths with varying inetensities.
Contd.
Emission of a particular or the intensity of a
particular is dependent on the number of modes
of vibration having wavelengths in the
neighbourhood of that particular .
The intensity is also determined by the average
energy associated with the oscillator at that
temperature.
i.e., intensity (density of modes)x Average
energy of one mode.
Features of BBR
e d (the emissive power : total power
emitted per unit area of BB in the wave
length range and +d) when plotted
against T shows a maximum at
m
.

m
T= Constant=2.898x10
-3
m
o
K.
(Wiens displacement law).
Stefans Law
4
0
ed T

Universal BBR Curve


5
e
T
T
1D in ] )d [g( modes of density the is This
4
L
ons, polarizati two Taking
) and of interval wavelength
e within th modes of no. the is (n 2
) n reduces in increase ( ) /( 2
/ 2
integer). (n /2 n L is waves (em) standing the
for condition the dimension, one In
2
x
2
x
x x

=
+ =
=
= =
x
x
x x
x
n
L
n
L n n
L n
Q
Calculation of density of modes
L
Density of modes in 3D


d
c
d g
d d g
3
2
4
8
) (
, c/ Since
8
) (
=
=
=
Density of modes is proportional to the square of frequency
( ) T k
c
d
B
=
=
3
2
8
)d u( i.e,
mode one of energy
modes)x of (density density Energy


Energy density diverges (tends to infinity)
as frequency increases. This is against the
experimental data.
Partial success of Rayleigh - Jeans law
Ultraviolet catastrophe!
Rayleigh- Jeans

e()
Plancks Law (quantum oscillator in place
of classical oscillator)
Electric oscillators in the wall lead to
emission and absorption of
electromagnetic waves.
Wall contains oscillators of all the
frequencies.
Energy of these oscillators are
quantized.
Plancks Law (Max Planck, 1900)
Energy transfer is possible only as a
multiple of a minimum called quantum
This quantum was postulated to be
proportional to the frequency.
Birth of the PHOTON!!
(particle like nature of em waves)
h is the Plancks constant, 6.56x10
-34
J.s and (=h/2)
h n nh
n
= =
Energy levels of a quantum harmonic oscillator
( ) ( )
T k nh
n
T k nh
n
T k nh
B
B
B
e
e
e nh
p p
p h p
/ T /k -
n
0
/
0
/
1 0
1 0
B n
e p
levels, the occupying of ies probabilit the are s p'
) (
.....
.......... 0
energy Average

=
=
+ +
+ +
=

n=0
n=1
n=2
E=0
E=h
E=2h
E=3h
n=3
Classical vs. Quantum (Planck) oscillator
/
0
/
0


kT
kT
e d
kT
e d

= =

/
0
/
0


1
nh kT
n
h
nh kT
kT
n
nh e
h
e
e

=
= =

Clausius
Planck
Plancks BBR formula
2
5 5
( )
2 1
( )
1
hc
k T
e c h
T T
e

First explanation of BBR curve and the


birth of Quantum Mechanics
Comments
Reduces to the classical value in the
limit of low
h
kT

1 ... 1
1
h
kT
h h
kT
h
e
kT

=

+ +



Actual quantization law is slightly
different.
1
2
n h

= +


The Planck Average Energy
Used the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann
(MB) Distribution.
Was re-derived later by Bose and
Einstein without using MB distribution
and with a new interpretation.
The Planck Average Energy
g()d represents number of photon
levels in the range and +d called
density of states.
The following gives the numbers of
photons expected to occupy an energy
state with energy at temp T.
/
1
1
kT
e

Specific Heat of solids: Einstein model


3
1
E
E
A
h
kT
h
N
e

2
/
v
2
3
( 1)
E
E
h kT
E
h
kT
h d e
C R
dT kT
e



= =



Total internal energy of a solid,
As T tends to zero, C
v
tends to zero, but exponentially,
and not in a cubic manner.
Summary: Duality of radiation
X-ray diffraction
X-RAYS AS WAVES
EM waves as particles
BBR
Bragg and Laue
Planck