Fatigue g
Fatigue is a form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic and
fluctuating stresses (e.g., bridges, aircraft, and machine components). Under these g ( g , g , , p )
circumstances it is possible for failure to occur at a stress level considerably lower
than the tensile or yield strength for a static load The term fatigue is used than the tensile or yield strength for a static load. The term fatigue is used
because this type of failure normally occurs after a lengthy period of repeated
stress or strain cycling Fatigue is important inasmuch as it is the single largest stress or strain cycling. Fatigue is important inasmuch as it is the single largest
cause of failure in metals, estimated to comprise approximately 90% of all
t lli f il l d i ( t f l ) l tibl metallic failures; polymer and sceramics (except for glasses) are also susceptible
to this type of failure
Cyclic Loading
o
mean
=
o
max
+ o
min
2
o o o o
range
= o
max
o
min
o
amplitude
=
o
max
o
min
2
Rotating Machinery
p
2
Stress Ratio, R =
o
min
o
max
o
max
Airframes, Bridges, Tanks, etc,
Fatigue Test Fatigue Test
Schematic diagram of fatiguetesting apparatus for
making rotating bending tests.
Fatigue Test Fatigue Test
SN curve
The SN curve for an aluminum alloy,
7075 T6. Note that there is no true
fatigue limit
The SN curve for annealed 4340 steel.
Typically the break in the curve for a
material with fatigue limit occurs at about
fatigue limit.
material with fatigue limit occurs at about
106 cycles. The points with arrows are
for tests stopped before failure.
Goodman: Goodman:
Soderberg:
Gerber:
Fatigue Crack Propagation Fatigue Crack Propagation
Driving Force for Crack Growth Driving Force for Crack Growth
The driving force for crack growth is the The driving force for crack growth is the
range in the stress intensity factor during
cycling cycling.
( /W) K f A A
0 R for
a (a/W) K
> =
= f
o o o A
t o A A
0 R for
0 R for
< =
> =
max
min max
o o A
o o o A
max
Model for
Crack Growth
4 6
1
2
5
7
Crack Growth Mechanisms
No Load
L d d d Load reduced
Slip
Loaded No Load
Max Load
Loaded again
Crack Propagation Life, N
p
Total fatigue life is the sum of the crack initiation life and the
crack propagation (growth) life. crack propagation (growth) life.
p i f
N N N + =
For some components, where stress levels are high and/or the critical
crack size is small, the crack propagation life is neglected in design.
For other structures, including pressure vessels, ship structures,
transport aircraft, etc. the crack growth life may be a substantial
component of total life. component of total life.
N =
da
a
c
}
N
p
A(AK)
m
a
o
}
Crack Growth Rate, da/dN
Ao
1
Ao
1
<Ao
2
X
X
n
g
t
h
,
a
Ao
2
Ao
1
Ao
1
Ao
2
a
c1
X
a
c
k
L
e
n
a
c2
da/dN
2
/
C
r
a
a
o
da/dN
1
Cycles, N
a
o
Cycles, N
Paris Law
Paris Region
Stable Growth
R
e
g
i
o
n
w
t
h
nw
t
h
N
)
da
dN
= A(AK)
m
r
e
s
h
o
l
d
R
w
G
r
o
w
e
R
e
g
i
o
n
b
l
e
G
r
o
w
l
o
g
(
d
a
/
d
N
m
T
h
r
S
l
o
F
r
a
c
t
u
r
e
d

u
n
s
t
a
b
l
F
a
s
t
R
a
p
i
A
log(AK)
Crack Growth Rates and
Microstructural Features Microstructural Features
Fractographic Evidence of Crack Growth
fatigue
striations
10 m
Fatigue Striations in Alalloy:
5 small cycles between overloads
Crack Growth
direction
Procedure for Constant Amplitude
Crack Growth life Calculation
Obtain appropriate crack growth rate data Obtain appropriate crack growth rate data
for material, environment and stress ratio
Determine starting crack size a Determine starting crack size, a
o
Determine critical crack size, a
c
Determine K for starting crack size, a
o
. If
DK< K
th
then crack will not grow
If DK> K
th
then integrate to get crack
growth life. (Can conservatively use Paris g ( y
Law, if appropriate)
FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE
Stress concentration: Stress concentrators reduce fatigue
strengths Therefore avoidance of such stress raisers greatly lowers strengths. Therefore avoidance of such stress raisers greatly lowers
the likelihood of fatigue failure. The theoretical stress
concentration factor, K
t
, is the ratio of the maximum local stress to f ,
t
,
the nominal stress.
The role of the material can be accounted for by a notchsensitivity
f d fi d factor, q, defined as
where Kf is the notch fatigue factor, defined as K
f
=unnotched
fatigue strength/notched fatigue strength. If a notch causes no g g g g
reduction in fatigue strength, K
f
=1, and q=0
Theoretical stress concentration factors.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE
Surfaces:
Fatigue cracks usually start on the surface This is Fatigue cracks usually start on the surface. This is
because most forms of loading involve some bending
or torsion, so the stresses are highest at the surface. or torsion, so the stresses are highest at the surface.
Surface defects also play a role. Therefore, the nature
of the surface strongly affects fatigue behavior. There g y g
are three important aspects of the surface: hardness,
roughness, and residual stresses.
In general, increased surface hardness increases fatigue
limits
FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE
Surfaces:
Increased surface hardness increases fatigue limits.
C b i i it idi d fl d i d ti h d i Carburizing, nitriding, and flame and induction hardening are
used to harden surfaces and increase fatigue strengths.
Fatigue strength decreases with surface roughness. g g g
Surfaces produced by machining are generally smoother than
cast or forged surfaces. Grinding and polishing further
i th Th f li h d f t i increase smoothness. The use of polished surfaces to improve
fatigue behavior
Residual stresses play an important role in fatigue. When a es dua s esses p ay a po a o e a gue. W e a
part is subjected to a load, as in fatigue, the stress at any
location is the sum of the residual stress at that point and the
stress resulting from the external load stress resulting from the external load
Effect of surface finish on fatigue.
S h ti d i h i th ff t f id l t With id l Schematic drawing showing the effect of residual stresses. With residual
compression in the surface, a larger tensile stress can be applied by bending
before there is tension in the surface
FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE
Mean Stress
I i h l l l d d i Increasing the mean stress level leads to a decrease in
fatigue life.
Demonstration of the influence
of mean stress on S N fatigue of mean stress on SN fatigue
Try it!
A fatigue crack 1.5 mm long has been discovered in a
main wing spar of a CC130 Hercules undergoing main wing spar of a CC130 Hercules undergoing
structural tear down and inspection. Given the loading,
material and geometry shown, estimate the number of g y ,
flying hours to fracture, and comment on the results.
7075 T73511 l ll 7075T73511 al alloy
K
c
(6mm) = 40 MPa\m
S
y
= 455 MPa
y
A = 1.3x10
10
m/cycle
m = 3
Y = 1 27 (assume constant) Y = 1.27 (assume constant)
Loading
133 0
10
R = =
75
P
a
)
133 0
75
. R = =
75
s
s
(
M
P
10
S
t
r
e
s
0
time
100 cycles=1 flying hour
0
100 cycles=1 flying hour
OK...
c
a
d
=
c
a
m
p
a Y A
da
N
) ( t o A
a
o
= 1.5 mm, find a
o
o
a
a Y A ) ( t o A
40 1 K 1
2
2






(56.1mm) 0.0561m
75 27 1
40 1
YS
K 1
a
c
c
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
) ( .
max
t t
Stress Range, Ao = o
max
o
min
= (75  10) MPa = 65 MPa
For m=3, Y constant:
1 1 2
(
a
1
a
1
Y A
2
N
c o
3 3 2 3
p
(
(
=
) (
/
o A t
1 056 0
1
0015 0
1
27 1 65 10 x 3 1
2
N
3 3 2 3 10
p
(
=
. .
) . ( ) ( .
/
t
h fli h 1060
hr 1
l 106000
cycles 106000 =
hrs flight 1060
cycles 100
hr 1
cycles 106000 = =
Crack Growth Curve
0.035
0.025
0.030
0.015
0.020
95000 cycles
0.005
0.010
5 mm at half life!
a/ac =15%
at half length!
N/Np =89%
0.000
0.005
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000
Cycles
Comments & Observations Comments & Observations
There is a substantial period of crack
th f thi t Th f ti growth for this component. The fatigue
crack can be monitored, inspected, and the
t b l d i d ft component can be replaced or repaired after
500 more hours of operation.
Halflife (factor of safety on life) is a safer
criterion than length, because cracks grow
too rapidly as they become longer.