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Study Guide CH 3 Part B Anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

End of the chapter questions and critical thinking questions for chapter 3 at the end
Define features of prokaryotic cells
Define features of eukaryotic cells
Features common to all cells
Basic shapes of bacteria
Monomorphic
Average size range of Prokaryotes
Shapes of Archaea
Pleomorphic
Examples of arrangements
External structures of bacteria some
!lycocalyx
Flagella
Axial filaments
Pili
Fimbriae
External structures of bacteria most
"ell #all
Pepti$oglycan
!ram positive cell #all
!ram negative cell #all
!ram stain mechanism
Atypical cell #alls
Mycobacterium
Archaea
Mycoplasma
%nternal structures of bacteriaall
Plasma membrane
Permeability
"hromatophore
Simple $iffusion
Facilitative $iffusion
&smosis
'ypertonic
'ypotonic
%sotonic
%nternal structures (ransport systems cont)
Facilitate$
Active
!roup translocation
%nternal structures* cytoplasm
+uclear area
Plasmi$
,ibosomes
"ytoskeleton
Storage granules
!as vesicles
En$ospores
(ypes of Eukaryotic cells
Structures uni-ue to plant cells
Flagella
"ilia
"ell #alls of eukaryotes
Plasma membrane
En$ocytosis
Phagocytosis
Pinocytosis
Exocytosis
&rganelles
+ucleus
En$oplasmic reticulum
!olgi apparatus
.ysosome
&rganelles* /acuoles
Mitochon$ria
"hloroplast
Peroxisome
En$osymbiotic theory
Figure Question Answer
3.20
What are the two most common shapes of bacteria?
3.21
Why would aquatic microbes need maximal surface
area?
3.22
Why would aquatic microbes need maximal surface
area?
3.23
How does the function of the cytoplasmic membrane
difer from that of the cell wall?
3.24
Which part of the membrane is hydrophobic?
3.25
What might happen in part (a) if the cell wall were
weakened?
3.26
Which part of the membrane is hydrophobic?
3.27
Why is proton motive force a form of energy?
3.28
What types of molecules do prokaryotic cells bring
in?
3.29
Why is facilitated difusion relatively uncommon in
prokaryotes?
3.30
Why would a cell secrete enymes rather than bring
intact macromolecules into the cell?
3.31
Why is peptidoglycan medically important?
3.32
What connects the glycan chains in peptidoglycan?
3.33
Why is lipopolysaccharide medically signi!cant?
3.34
Would lysoyme or penicillin afect "# pneumoniae?
3.35
What is the function of capsules and slime layers?
3.36
How can $agella afect a microbe%s ability to cause
disease?
3.37
What is the role of $agellin?
3.38
What mechanism causes a cell to tumble?
3.39
Why would magnetotaxis bene!t a cell?
3.40
How does the structure and function of pili compare
to that of $agella?
3.41
What is the gel&like region formed by the
chromosome called?
3.42
What is the function of ribosomes?
3.43
How would storage granules bene!t a cell?
3.44
What is the function of an endospore?
3.45
'pproximately how long does the sporulation process
take?
3.46
Which organelle contains the cell%s genetic
information?
3.47
(he lumen is which part of an organelle?
3.48
How is pinocytosis diferent from phagocytosis?
3.49
What is the role of actin !laments?
3.50
How is the structure of a eukaryotic $agellum
diferent from its prokaryotic counterpart?
3.51
What is the function of nuclear pores?
3.52
What were the !rst pieces of evidence that led
scientists to conclude that mitochondria evolved
from bacterial cells?
3.53
)hloroplasts evolved from which group of bacteria?
3.54
What causes the bumpy appearance of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum?
3.55
How are the modi!ed macromolecules transported
from the *olgi apparatus to other sites?
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#1
Explain why resolin! power is i"portant in "i#ros#opy.
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#2
+xplain why basic dyes are used more
frequently than acidic dyes in staining#
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#3
$es#ri%e what happens at ea#h step in the &ra" stain.
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#4
)ompare and contrast ',) transport systems
with group translocation#
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#5
*ive two reasons why the outer membrane of
*ram&negative bacteria is medically signi!cant#
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#6
Co"pare an' #ontrast peni#illin an' lyso(y"e.
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#7
$es#ri%e how a plas"i' #an help a #ell.
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#8
)ow is an or!an 'i**erent *ro" tiss+e,
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#9
)ow is re#eptor-"e'iate' en'o#ytosis 'i**erent *ro"
pha!o#ytosis,
Chapter 3
Short Answer
#10
Explain how the &ol!i apparat+s #ooperatiely *+n#tions
with the en'oplas"i# reti#+l+".
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #1
Which of the following is most likely to be used
in a typical microbiology laboratory?
a) ,right&!eld microscope
b) )onfocal scanning microscope
c) -hase&contrast microscope
d) .canning electron microscope
e) (ransmission electron microscope
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #2
When a medical technologist wants to
determine if a clinical specimen contains a
"ycobacterium species/ which should be used?
a) 'cid&fast stain b))apsule stain c) +ndospore
stain
d) *ram stain e) .imple stain
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #3
When a medical technologist wants to
determine if a clinical specimen contains a
"ycobacterium species/ which should be used?
a) 'cid&fast stain b))apsule stain
c) +ndospore stain
d) *ram stain
e) .imple stain
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #4
+ndotoxin is associated with
a) *ram&positive bacteria#
b) *ram&negative bacteria#
c) the cytoplasmic membrane#
d) the endospore#
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #5
(he 012345 in the name E. coli 12346H4 refers
to the type of 1 antigen# 7rom this information
you know that +# coli a) has a capsule# b) is a
rod#
c) is a coccus# d) is *ram&positive# e) is *ram&
negative#
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #6
+liminating which structure is always deadly to
cells? a) 7lagella b) )apsule c) )ell wall
d) )ytoplasmic membrane e) 7imbriae
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #7
Which of the following do
bacterial cells use for
attachment? 2#)apsule
8# -ilus 9#)ytoplasmic membrane#
:#-eriplasm 3# -eptidoglycan
a) 2/ 8 b) 8/ 9 c) 9/ : d) :/ 3 e) 2/ 3
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #8
+ndocytosis is associated with a) mitochondria#
b) prokaryotic cells#
c) eukaryotic cells#
d) chloroplasts#
e) ribosomes#
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #9
-rotein synthesis is associated with
2# lysosomes# 8# the cytoplasmic membrane#
9# the *olgi apparatus# :# rough endoplasmic
reticulum# 3# ribosomes#
a) 2/ 8 b) 8/ 9 c) 9/ : d) :/ 3 e) 2/ 3
Chapter 3
.+ltiple
Choi#e #10
/* a e+0aryoti# #ell were treate' with a #he"i#al that
'estroys t+%+lin1 all o* the *ollowin! wo+l' %e 'ire#tly
a**e#te' ex#ept a2 a#tin.
%2 #ilia. #2 e+0aryoti# *la!ella.
'2 "i#rot+%+les. e2 .ore than one o* these.
Chapter 3
Appli#ations
#1
;ou are working in a laboratory producing new
antibiotics for human and veterinary use# 1ne
compound with potential value inhibits the
action of prokaryotic ribosomes# (he
compound/ however/ was shown to inhibit the
growth of animal cells in culture# What is one
possible explanation for its efect on animal
cells?
Chapter 3
Appli#ations
#2
' research laboratory is investigating
environmental factors that inhibit the growth of
archaea# (hey wonder if penicillin would be
efective in controlling their growth# +xplain the
probable results of an experiment in which
penicillin is added to a culture of archaea#
Chapter 3
Criti#al
3hin0in! #1
(his graph shows facilitated difusion of a
compound across a cytoplasmic membrane and
into a cell# 's the external concentration of the
compound is increased/ the rate of uptake
increases until it reaches a point where it slows
and then begins to plateau# (his is not the case
with passive difusion/ where the rate of uptake
continually increases# Why does the rate of
uptake slow and then eventually plateau with
facilitated difusion?
Chapter 3
Criti#al
3hin0in! #2
"ost medically useful antibiotics interfere with
either peptidoglycan synthesis or ribosome
function# Why would the cytoplasmic
membrane be a poor target for antibacterial
medications?