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Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
Design a moment connection using a bolted
flange-plate
Connect a W18x50 beam to the flange of a
W14x99 column
Use 50 ksi wide-flanges and 36 ksi plates
• 7/8 inch A325-N bolts and E70 electrodes
R
=
45.0 kips
M
=
250 ft-kips
u
u
1
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Connection geometry
2
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Shapes
– W18x50
3
db
==
18.0
in.
7.50 in.
Z
=
101 in.
f
x
t
=
0.355 in.
t
=
0.570 in.
w
f
– W14x99
db
==
14.2
in.
14.6 in.
k
=
1.38 in.
f
des
ttT
=
0.485 in.
==
0.780 in.
10 in.
w
f
3
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Proportion of members – hole reductions
– if
F A
< YF A
u
fn
t
y
fg
F
y
Where
Y
=
1.0 for
0.8
(A992, A36)
t
F
= 1.1 otherwise
u
– then
F A
u
fn
M
=
S
n
x
A
fg
– otherwise use full strength
4
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• With two holes per row,
F A
=
(65)(3.13)
=
204 kips
u
fn
YF A
=
(
1.0 (50)(4.28)
)
=
214 kips
t
y
fg
since
F A
< YF A
u
fn
t
y
fg
⎛ ( 65 ) 3 13 ⎞
.
⎛ 88 9 ⎞
.
M
=
= 352 ft-kips
n
4.28
12
φ=
M
0.9 352
(
)
=
317 ft-kips > 250 ft-kips
ok
n
5
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
Single-plate web connection
• bolt shear
45.0
N ==∴
2.08
use 3 bolts
21.6
so try a PL 5/16 x 9
f
or
b
ear ng, t
i
h
e p ate (t p =
l
0 3125 i
.
n.) w
ill b
e more
critical than the 0.355 in. web
6
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Bearing on the plate
(
(
7
)(
5
))
(2)(2.4)(58)
+
8
16
R
= ⎢
⎥ = 98.6 kips
n
1
(
7
1
1.2
1.5
+
)
(
5
)(
)
58
8
16
16
⎣⎝ ⎢
2
⎠ ⎦ ⎥
φ= R
0.75 (98.6 )
=
73.9 kips
>
45.0 kips
ok
n
7
Bolt Limit State
When the clear end distance or the clear bolt spacing is
greater than or equal to 2 bolt diameters, bearing strength
will control
When the clear end distance or the clear bolt spacing is less
than 2 bolt diameters, tear out strength will control
Generally, bolt spacing and end distances are standardized.
A standard bolt spacing of 3 inches is common. Thus,
for all bolts of 7/8 inch diameter or less, only the end
bolt will need to be checked for tear out. Interior bolt
strength will be controlled by bearing.
8
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Plate shear yielding
=
(
5
R
(0.6)(36)(9)
)
=
60.9 kips
n
16
φ=
R
1.0 60.8
(
)
=
60.8 kips
>
45.0 kips
ok
n
9
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Plate shear rupture
7
1
5
R
=
(0.6)(58) ( 9
−+
3
(
))(
)
=
65.3 kips
n
8
8
16
φ
R
=
0.75 65.3
(
)
=
49.0 kips
>∴
45.0 kips
ok
n
• Block shear of plate
– shear rupture/tension rupture
φ= R
54.3 kips
>
45.0 kips
n
7.5 in.
ok
1.5 in.
10
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Determine required weld size between plate and
column flange.
– No eccentricity
R
u
9.0 in.
D
=
min
2(1.392 kips/in) l
45.0
=
=→
1.80
2 sixteenths
2(1.392)(9)
– Based on the plate thickness, (between ¼ and ½ in.)
use 2 - 3/16 welds (minimum weld size based on thinner
part)
11
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Design tension flange plate
– determine flange force
M
250(12)
u
P
==
= 167 kips
uf
d
18.0
– consider bolt shear
P
167
uf
N ==
=
7.78
use 8 bolts
φ r
21.6
n
12
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Try PL 3/4x7 in.
– Check bearing on beam flange, which is more
critical than plate, for one bolt
7
R ==
2.4
F dt
(2.4)(65)
(
)(
0.570
)
=
77.8 kips
n
u
8
– For 8 bolts
R
=
8
(
77.8
)
=
622 kips
n
φ=
R
0.75 622
(
)
=
467 kips
>
167.0 kips
ok
n
13
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Check tension yielding of flange plate
R
=
(36)(7)(3/ 4)
=
189 kips
n
φ=
R
0.9 189
(
)
=
170 kips
>
167 kips
ok
n
• Check tension rupture of flange plate
(
7
1
⎤ 3
R
=
(58)
7
−+
2
)
=
218
n
884
φ=
R
0.75 218
(
)
=
164 kips
<
167 kips
no good
n
14
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Consider a 7.25 in. flange plate
=
(
−+
(
7
1
3
R
(58) 7.25
2
=
228 kips
n
884 ))
φ=
R
0.75
(
228
)
=
171 kips
>
167 kips
ok
n
15
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Check block shear of flange plate
– consider two possible failure patterns
7.25 in.
4.0 in.
4.0 in.
A
B
10.5 in.
10.5 in.
– Based on the tension area, failure pattern B will be critical
for the plate. Pattern B in the beam flange is critical for this
case and will be checked.
16
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Determine shear yield and shear rupture
0.6
F A
=
0.6 50
(
) (
10.5
) (
0.570
)[
2
]
=
359 kips
y
g
0.6
F A
=
0.6(65) 10.5
−+
3.5
(
7
1
)
0.570 2
[
]
=
311 kips
u
nv
8
8
• Determine tension rupture, b f = 7.5 in.
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Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
Block shear for pattern B with shear rupture the
controlling term
R
=+
(
311
92.6
)
=
404 kips
n
φ=
R
0.75 404
(
)
=
303 kips
>
167 kips
ok
n
Determine weld size, top and bottom of plate
167
D
=
=→
5.52
6 sixteenths
min
2(1.5)(1.392)(7.25)
• use a 3/8 fillet weld which is greater then the
minimum
18
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Moment Connection
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Check the compression flange plate
– The plate will be checked as a column with a
length of 2.0 inches and K = 0.65
– The length comes from the end distance of 1.5
inches and the spacing of the beam to the column
of 0.5 inches
– The K-factor is the recommended value for a
fixed/fixed column
19
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Compression flange plate
3
bh
2
2
h
0.75
12
r == I
A
=
=
= 0.2165 in.
bh
12
12
• From J4.4
KL
0.65
(
2.0
)
=
=
6.00
<
25
r
0.2165
20
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Compression plate strength
F
=
F
= 36.0 ksi
cr
y
R
=
()
36 (7.25) 0.75
(
)
=
196 kips
n
φ=
R
0.9 196
(
)
=
176 kips
n
• Since the plate strength is greater than the
required 167 kips, the compression plate will
be the same as the tension plate.
21
Moment Connection
Moment Connection –– Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate
• Summary
1
– top and bottom plates
PL
31 x 7
x 1'-0
"
44
2
– 8 -7/8 in. A325-N bolts each flange on a 4 inch
gage
– 3/8 in. fillet welds to supporting column flange
• Check column for stiffening requirements
22
Bolted Flange
Bolted
Flange Plate
Plate –– Column
Column Side
Side Limit
Limit States
States
• Tension – flange local bending
(
2
R
=
6.25
tF
)
n
fy
φ=
0.90 (LRFD)
Ω=
1.67 (ASD)
2
R
=
(6.25)(0.78) (50)
=
190 kips
n
φ=
R
0.9 190
(
)
=
171 kips
>
167 kips
ok
n
23
Bolted Flange
Bolted
Flange Plate
Plate –– Column
Column Side
Side Limit
Limit States
States
• Tension – web local yielding
• Compression – web local yielding
– everything is the same as it was for tension
∴ ok
24
Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate –– Column
Column Side
Side Limit
Limit States
States
• Compression - web crippling
1.5
1.50
⎞⎛
0.485
29000(50)(0.780)
2
R
=+
(0.8)(0.485)
1
3
= 332
kips
⎟⎜
n
14.2
⎠⎝
0.780
0. 485
φ=
R
0.75(
332
)
=
24
9 kips
>
167 kips
ok
n
• Compression buckling
– since this is a one sided connection there will not
be compression buckling failure.
25
Bolted
Bolted Flange
Flange Plate
Plate –– Column
Column Side
Side Limit
Limit States
States
• Panel Zone Shear
Without the knowledge of the lateral load on the
structure, this can not be checked; however, the
strength can be determined. Assuming the column
axial load is < 0.4P y
R
=
0.6(50)(14.2)(0.485)
=
207 kips
n
φ=
R
0.9 207
(
)
=
186 kips
n
26
Welded flange plate connection
• no reduction in beam moment strength
• web shear plate design doesn’t change
• flange plate width to accommodate weld to
beam flange along edge of plate
• no rupture of plate or beam flange
• welds sized according to element thickness as
well as strength
27