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PEOPLE vs MANANTAN | G.R. No.14129 (5 SCRA 684)
Republic of the Philippines
SUPREME COURT
Manila
EN BANC
G.R. No. 14129 July 1! 1962
PEOPLE O" T#E P#$L$PP$NES! %l&'()'**+&%%,ll&()!
vs.
G-$LLERMO MANANTAN! .,*,(.&()+&%%,ll,,.
Office of the Solicitor General for plaintiff-appellant.
Pailla !a" Office for efenant-appellee.
REGA!A# $.%
This is an appeal of the Solicitor General fro& the orer of the Court of 'irst (nstance of Pan)asinan is&issin) the infor&ation
a)ainst the efenant.
The recors sho" that the state&ent of the case an the facts# as recite in the brief of plaintiff-appellant# is co&plete an
accurate. The sa&e is# conse*uentl+# here aopte# to "it%
(n an infor&ation file b+ the Pro,incial 'iscal of Pan)asinan in the Court of 'irst (nstance of that Pro,ince# efenant Guiller&o
Manantan "as char)e "ith a ,iolation Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe. A preli&inar+ in,esti)ation conucte b+ sai
court resulte in the finin) a probable cause that the cri&e char)e as co&&itte b+ efenant. Thereafter# the trial starte
upon efenant/s plea of not )uilt+# the efense &o,e to is&iss the infor&ation on the )roun that as 0ustice of the peace the
efenant is one of the officers enu&erate in Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe. The lo"er court enie the &otion to
is&iss holin) that a 0ustice of the peace is "ithin the pur,ie" Section -.. A secon &otion "as file b+ efense counsel "ho
cite in support thereof the ecision of the Court of Appeals in People ,s. Macarae)# 1CA-G.R. No. 2-324-R# -. Off. Ga5.# pp.
2674-738 "here it "as hel that a 0ustice of the peace is e9clue fro& the prohibition of Section -. of the Re,ise Election
Coe. Actin) on this secon &otion to is&iss# the ans"er of the prosecution# the repl+ of the efense# an the opposition of
the prosecution# the lo"er court is&isse the infor&ation a)ainst the accuse upon the authorit+ of the rulin) in the case cite
b+ the efense.
Both parties are sub&ittin) this case upon the eter&ination of this sin)le *uestion of la"% (s a 0ustice the peace inclue in the
prohibition of Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe:
Section -. of the sai Coe reas%
No 0ustice# 0u)e# fiscal# treasurer# or assessor of an+ pro,ince# no officer or e&plo+ee of the Ar&+# no &e&ber of the national#
pro,incial# cit+# &unicipal or rural police force an no classifie ci,il ser,ice officer or e&plo+ee shall ai an+ caniate# or e9ert
an+ influence in an+ &anner in a election or ta;e part therein# e9cept to ,ote# if entitle thereto# or to preser,e public peace# if
he is a peace officer.
<efenant-appellee ar)ues that a 0ustice of the peace is not co&prehene a&on) the officers enu&erate in Section -. of the
Re,ise Election Coe. =e sub&its the aforecite section "as ta;en fro& Section ..> of the Re,ise A&inistrati,e Coe#
"hich pro,ie the follo"in)%
SEC. ..>. Persons prohibite fro& influencin) elections. ? No 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance# 0ustice of the peace# or treasurer#
fiscal or assessor of an+ pro,ince an no officer or e&plo+ee of the Philippine Constabular+# or an+ Bureau or e&plo+ee of the
classifie ci,il ser,ice# shall ai an+ caniate or e9ert influence in an+ &anner in an+ election or ta;e part therein other"ise
than e9ercisin) the ri)ht to ,ote.
@hen# therefore# section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe o&itte the "ors A0ustice of the peace#A the o&ission re,eale the
intention of the !e)islature to e9clue 0ustices of the peace fro& its operation.
VIII. LATIN MAXIMS | CASSUS OMISSUS PRO OMISSO HABENDUS EST | STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION |
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PEOPLE vs MANANTAN | G.R. No.14129 (5 SCRA 684)
The abo,e ar)u&ent o,erloo;s one funa&ental fact. (t is to be note that uner Section ..> of the Re,ise A&inistrati,e
Coe# the "or A0u)eA "as &oifie or *ualifie b+ the phrase Aof 'irst instanceA# "hile uner Section -. of the Re,ise
Election Coe# no such &oification e9ists. (n other "ors# 0ustices of the peace "ere e9pressl+ inclue in Section ..> of the
Re,ise A&inistrati,e Coe because the ;ins of 0u)es therein "ere specifie# i.e.# 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance an 0ustice of
the peace. (n Section -.# ho"e,er# there "as no necessit+ therefore to inclue 0ustices of the peace in the enu&eration
because the le)islature ha a,aile itself of the &ore )eneric an broaer ter&# A0u)e.A (t "as a ter& not &oifie b+ an+ "or
or phrase an "as intene to co&prehen all ;ins of 0u)es# li;e 0u)es of the courts of 'irst (nstance# $u)es of the courts
of A)rarian Relations# 0u)es of the courts of (nustrial Relations# an 0ustices of the peace.
(t is a "ell ;no"n fact that a 0ustice of the peace is so&eti&es aresse as A0u)eA in this 0urisiction. (t is because a 0ustice of
the peace is inee a 0u)e. A A0u)eA is a public officer# "ho# b+ ,irtue of his office# is clothe "ith 0uicial authorit+ 1U.S. ,.
Clar;# B- 'e. Cas. ..2# .BB8. Accorin) to Bou,ier !a" <ictionar+# Aa 0u)e is a public officer la"full+ appointe to ecie
liti)ate *uestions accorin) to la". (n its &ost e9tensi,e sense the ter& inclues all officers appointe to ecie liti)ate
*uestions "hile actin) in that capacit+# incluin) 0ustices of the peace# an e,en 0urors# it is sai# "ho are 0u)es of facts.A
A re,ie" of the histor+ of the Re,ise Election Coe "ill help to 0ustif+ an clarif+ the abo,e conclusion.
The first election la" in the Philippines "as Act 2-6B enacte b+ the Philippine Co&&ission in 2>C7# an "hich "as later
a&ene b+ Act. Nos. 233># 27C># 27B3 an 2736. 1Of these . a&en&ents# ho"e,er# onl+ Act No. 27C> has a relation to the
iscussion of the instant case as shall be sho"n later.8 Act No. 2-6B# "ith its subse*uent . a&en&ents "ere later on
incorporate Chapter 26 of the A&inistrati,e Coe. Uner the Philippine !e)islature# se,eral a&en&ents "ere &ae throu)h
the passa)e of Acts Nos. B42C# 4443 an 4467. 1A)ain# of these last 4 a&en&ents# onl+ Act No. 4-67 has pertinent to the
case at bar as shall be seen later.8 <urin) the ti&e of the Co&&on"ealth# the National Asse&bl+ passe Co&&on"ealth Act
No. B4 an later on enacte Co&&on"ealth Act No. 4-7# "hich "as the la" enforce until $une 2>.7# "hen the Re,ise
Election Coe "as appro,e. (nclue as its basic pro,isions are the pro,isions of Co&&on"ealth Acts Nos. B44# 4-7# 3C-#
333# 3-7. The present Coe "as further a&ene b+ Republic Acts Nos. ->># 637# BB.B an a)ain# urin) the session of
Con)ress in 2>3C# a&ene b+ Rep. Acts Nos. 4C43 an 4C46. (n the histor+ of our election la"# the follo"in) shoul be note%
Uner Act 2-6B# Section B># it "as pro,ie%
No public officer shall offer hi&self as a caniate for elections# nor shall he be eli)ible urin) the ti&e that he hols sai public
office to election at an+ &unicipal# pro,incial or Asse&bl+ election# e9cept for reelection to the position "hich he &a+ be
holin)# an no 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance# 0ustice of the peace# pro,incial fiscal# or officer or e&plo+ee of the Philippine
Constabular+ or of the Bureau of Eucation shall ai an+ caniate or influence in an+ &anner or ta;e part in an+ &unicipal#
pro,incial# or Asse&bl+ election uner the penalt+ of bein) epri,e of his office an bein) is*ualifie to hol an+ public office
"hatsoe,er for a ter& of - +ear% Pro,ie# ho"e,er# That the fore)oin) pro,isions shall not be construe to epri,e an+ person
other"ise *ualifie of the ri)ht to ,ote it an+ election.A 1Enacte $anuar+ ># 2>C7D Too; effect on $anuar+ 2-# 2>C7.8
Then# in Act 27C># Sec. 3# it "as li;e"ise pro,ie%
. . . No 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance# $ustice of the peace pro,incial fiscal or officer or e&plo+ee of the Bureau of Constabular+ or
of the Bureau of Eucation shall ai an+ caniate or influence in an+ &anner to ta;e part in an+ &unicipal pro,incial or
Asse&bl+ election. An+ person ,iolatin) the pro,isions of this section shall be epri,e of his office or e&plo+&ent an shall be
is*ualifie to hol an+ public office or e&plo+&ent "hate,er for a ter& of - +ears# Pro,ie# ho"e,er# that the fore)oin)
pro,isions shall not be construe to epri,e an+ person other"ise *ualifie of the ri)ht to ,ote at an+ election. 1Enacte on
Au)ust 42# 2>C7D Too; effect on Septe&ber 2-# 2>C7.8
A)ain# "hen the e9istin) election la"s "ere incorporate in the A&inistrati,e Coe on March 2C# 2>27# the pro,isions in
*uestion rea%
SEC. ..>. Persons prohibite fro& influencin) elections. ? No 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance# 0ustice of the peace# or treasurer#
fiscal or assessor of an+ pro,ince an no officer or e&plo+ee of the Philippine Constabular+ or an+ Bureau or e&plo+ee of the
classifie ci,il ser,ice# shall ai an+ caniate or e9ert influence in an+ &anner in an+ election or ta;e part therein other"ise
than e9ercisin) the ri)ht to ,ote. 1E&phasis supplie8
VIII. LATIN MAXIMS | CASSUS OMISSUS PRO OMISSO HABENDUS EST | STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION |
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PEOPLE vs MANANTAN | G.R. No.14129 (5 SCRA 684)
After the A&inistrati,e Coe# the ne9t pertinent le)islation "as Act No. 4467. This Act reas%
SEC. B343. Officers an e&plo+ees &elin) "ith the election. ? An+ 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance# 0ustice of the peace#
treasurer# fiscal or assessor of an+ pro,ince# an+ officer or e&plo+ee of the Philippine Constabular+ or of the police of an+
&unicipalit+# or an+ officer or e&plo+ee of an+ Bureau of the classifie ci,il ser,ice# "ho ais an+ caniate or ,iolate in an+
&anner the pro,isions of this section or ta;es part in an+ election other"ise b+ e9ercisin) the ri)ht to ,ote# shall be punishe b+
a fine of not less than P2CC.CC nor &ore than PB#CCC.CC# or b+ i&prison&ent for not less than B &onths nor &ore than B +ears#
an in all cases b+ is*ualification fro& public office an epri,ation of the ri)ht of suffra)e for a perio of - +ears. 1Appro,e
<ece&ber 4# 2>B7.8 1E&phasis supplie.8
Subse*uentl+# ho"e,er# Co&&on"ealth Act No. 4-7 "as enacte on Au)ust BB# 2>46. This la" pro,ie in Section .6%
SEC. .6. Acti,e (nter,entation of Public Officers an E&plo+ees. ? No 0ustice# 0u)e# fiscal# treasurer or assessor of an+
pro,ince# no officer or e&plo+ee of the Ar&+# the Constabular+ of the national# pro,incial# &unicipal or rural police# an no
classifie ci,il ser,ice officer or e&plo+ee shall ai an+ caniate# nor e9ert influence in an+ &anner in an+ election nor ta;e
part therein# e9cept to ,ote# if entitle thereto# or to preser,e public peace# if he is a peace officer.
This last la" "as the le)islation fro& "hich Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe "as ta;en.
(t "ill thus be obser,e fro& the fore)oin) narration of the le)islati,e e,elop&ent or histor+ of Section -. of the Re,ise
Election Coe that the first o&ission of the "or A0ustice of the peaceA "as effecte in Section .6 of Co&&on"ealth Act No.
4-7 an not in the present coe as a,erre b+ efenant-appellee. Note carefull+# ho"e,er# that in the t"o instances "hen the
"ors A0ustice of the peaceA "ere o&itte 1in Co&. Act No. 4-7 an Rep. Act No. 26C8# the "or A0u)eA "hich precee in the
enu&eration i not carr+ the *ualification Aof the 'irst (nstance.A (n other "ors# "hene,er the "or A0u)eA "as *ualifie b+
the phrase Aof the 'irst (nstanceA# the "ors A0ustice of the peaceA "oul follo"D ho"e,er# if the la" si&pl+ sai A0u)e#A the
"ors A0ustice of the peaceA "ere o&itte.
The abo,e-&entione pattern of con)ressional phraseolo)+ "oul see& to 0ustif+ the conclusion that "hen the le)islature
o&itte the "ors A0ustice of the peaceA in Rep. Act No. 26C# it i not inten to e9e&pt the sai officer fro& its operation.
Rather# it ha consiere the sai officer as alrea+ co&prehene in the broaer ter& A0u)eA.
(t is unfortunate an re)rettable that the last @orl @ar ha estro+e con)ressional recors "hich &i)ht ha,e offere so&e
e9planation of the iscussion of Co&. Act No. 4-7 "hich le)islation# as inicate abo,e# has eli&inate for the first ti&e the
"ors A0ustice of the peace.A =a,in) been co&pletel+ estro+e# all efforts to see; eeper an aitional clarifications fro&
these recors pro,e futile. Ne,ertheless# the conclusions ra"n fro& the historical bac;)roun of Rep. Act No. 26C is
sufficientl+ borne out b+ reason hi e*uit+.
<efenant further ar)ues that he cannot possibl+ be a&on) the officers enu&erate in Section -. inas&uch as uner that sai
section# the "or A0u)eA is &oifie or *ualifie b+ the phrase Aof an+ pro,ince.A The last &entione phrase# efenant
sub&its# cannot then refer to a 0ustice of the peace since the latter is not an officer of a pro,ince but of a &unicipalit+.
<efenant/s ar)u&ent in that respect is too straine. (f it is true that the phrase Aof an+ pro,inceA necessaril+ re&o,es 0ustices
of the peace fro& the enu&eration for the reason that the+ are &unicipal an not pro,incial officials# then the sa&e thin) &a+
be sai of the $ustices of the Supre&e Court an of the Court of Appeals. The+ are national officials. Eet# can there be an+
oubt that $ustices of the Supre&e Court an of the Court of Appeals are not inclue in the prohibition: The &ore sensible
an lo)ical interpretation of the sai phrase is that it *ualifies fiscals# treasurers an assessors "ho are )enerall+ ;no"n as
pro,incial officers.
The rule of Acasus o&isus pro o&isso habenus estA is li;e"ise in,o;e b+ the efenant-appellee. Uner the sai rule# a
person# ob0ect or thin) o&itte fro& an enu&eration &ust be hel to ha,e been o&itte intentionall+. (f that rule is applicable to
the present# then inee# 0ustices of the peace &ust be hel to ha,e been intentionall+ an eliberatel+ e9e&pte fro& the
operation of Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe.
VIII. LATIN MAXIMS | CASSUS OMISSUS PRO OMISSO HABENDUS EST | STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION |
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PEOPLE vs MANANTAN | G.R. No.14129 (5 SCRA 684)
The rule has no applicabilit+ to the case at bar. The &a9i& Acasus o&isusA can operate an appl+ onl+ if an "hen the
o&ission has been clearl+ establishe. (n the case uner consieration# it has alrea+ been sho"n that the le)islature i not
e9clue or o&it 0ustices of the peace fro& the enu&eration of officers preclue fro& en)a)in) in partisan political acti,ities.
Rather# the+ "ere &erel+ calle b+ another ter&. (n the ne" la"# or Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe# 0ustices of the
peace "ere 0ust calle A0u)es.A
(n insistin) on the application of the rule of Acasus o&isusA to this case# efenant-appellee cites authorities to the effect that
the sai rule# bein) restricti,e in nature# has &ore particular application to statutes that shoul be strictl+ construe. (t is pointe
out that Section -. &ust be strictl+ construe a)ainst the )o,ern&ent since proceein)s uner it are cri&inal in nature an the
0urispruence is settle that penal statutes shoul be strictl+ interprete a)ainst the state.
A&plif+in) on the abo,e ar)u&ent re)arin) strict interpretation of penal statutes# efenant asserts that the spirit of fair pla+
an ue process e&an such strict construction in orer to )i,e Afair "arnin) of "hat the la" intens to o# if a certain line is
passe# in lan)ua)e that the co&&on "orl "ill unerstan.A 1$ustice =ol&es# in McBo+le ,. U.S.# B64 U.S. B-# !. E. 6238.
The application of the rule of Acasus o&isusA oes not procee fro& the &ere fact that a case is cri&inal in nature# but rather
fro& a reasonable certaint+ that a particular person# ob0ect or thin) has been o&itte fro& a le)islati,e enu&eration. (n the
present case# an for reasons alrea+ &entione# there has been no such o&ission. There has onl+ been a substitution of
ter&s.
The rule that penal statutes are )i,en a strict construction is not the onl+ factor controllin) the interpretation of such la"sD
instea# the rule &erel+ ser,es as an aitional# sin)le factor to be consiere as an ai in eter&inin) the &eanin) of penal
la"s. This has been reco)ni5e ti&e an a)ain b+ ecisions of ,arious courts. 14 Sutherlan# Statutor+ Construction# p. -3.8
Thus# cases "ill fre*uentl+ be foun enunciatin) the principle that the intent of the le)islature "ill )o,ern 1U.S. ,s. Corbet# B2-
U.S. B448. (t is to be note that a strict construction shoul not be per&itte to efeat the polic+ an purposes of the statute
1Ash Sheep Co. ,. U.S.# B-B U.S. 2->8. The court &a+ consier the spirit an reason of a statute# as in this particular instance#
"here a literal &eanin) "oul lea to absurit+# contraiction# in0ustice# or "oul efeat the clear purpose of the la" &a;ers
1Cra"for# (nterpretation of !a"s# Sec. 76# p. B>.8. A 'eeral <istrict court in the U.S. has "ell sai%
The strict construction of a cri&inal statute oes not &ean such construction of it as to epri,e it of the &eanin) intene.
Penal statutes &ust be construe in the sense "hich best har&oni5es "ith their intent an purpose. 1U.S. ,. Betteri)e .4 '.
Supp. -4# -3# cite in 4 Sutherlan Statutor+ Construction -3.8
As "ell state b+ the Supre&e Court of the Unite States# the lan)ua)e of cri&inal statutes# fre*uentl+# has been narro"e
"here the letter inclues situations inconsistent "ith the le)islati,e plan 1U.S. ,. Fat5# B72 U.S. 4-.D See also Ernest Brunchen#
(nterpretation of the @ritten !a" 12>2-8 B- Eale !.$. 2B>.8
Another reason in support of the conclusion reache herein is the fact that the purpose of the statute is to enlar)e the officers
"ithin its pur,ie". $ustices of the Supre&e Court# the Court of Appeals# an ,arious 0u)es# such as the 0u)es of the Court of
(nustrial Relations# 0u)es of the Court of A)rarian Relations# etc.# "ho "ere not inclue in the prohibition uner the ol
statute# are no" "ithin its enco&pass. (f such "ere the e,ient purpose# can the le)islature inten to eli&inate the 0ustice of the
peace "ithin its orbit: Certainl+ not. This point is full+ e9plaine in the brief of the Solicitor General# to "it%
On the other han# "hen the le)islature eli&inate the phrases A$u)e of 'irst (nstanceA an 0ustice of the peaceA# foun in
Section ..> of the Re,ise A&inistrati,e Coe# an use A0u)eA in lieu thereof# the ob,ious intention "as to inclue in the
scope of the ter& not 0ust one class of 0u)es but all 0u)es# "hether of first (nstance 0ustices of the peace or special courts#
such as 0u)es of the Court of (nustrial Relations. . . . .
The "ea;est lin; in our 0uicial s+ste& is the 0ustice of the peace court# an to so construe the la" as to allo" a 0u)e thereof to
en)a)e in partisan political acti,ities "oul "ea;en rather than stren)then the 0uiciar+. On the other han# there are co)ent
reasons foun in the Re,ise Election Coe itself "h+ 0ustices of the peace shoul be prohibite fro& electioneerin). Alon)
"ith $ustices of the appellate courts an 0u)es of the Court of 'irst (nstance# the+ are )i,en authorit+ an 0urisiction o,er
certain election cases 1See Secs. 2C4# 2C.# 227-2B48. $ustices of the peace are authori5e to hear an ecie inclusion an
e9clusion cases# an if the+ are per&itte to ca&pai)n for caniates for an electi,e office the i&partialit+ of their ecisions in
VIII. LATIN MAXIMS | CASSUS OMISSUS PRO OMISSO HABENDUS EST | STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION |
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PEOPLE vs MANANTAN | G.R. No.14129 (5 SCRA 684)
election cases "oul be open to serious oubt. @e o not belie,e that the le)islature ha# in Section -. of the Re,ise Election
Coe# intene to create such an unfortunate situation. 1pp. 7C6# Appellant/s Brief.8
Another factor "hich fortifies the conclusion reache herein is the fact that the a&inistrati,e or e9ecuti,e epart&ent has
re)are 0ustices of the peace "ithin the pur,ie" of Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe.
(n Tran*uilino O. Calo# $r. ,. The E9ecuti,e Secretar+# the Secretar+ of $ustice# etc. 1G.R. No. !-2B3C28# this Court i not )i,e
ue course to the petition for certiorari an prohibition "ith preli&inar+ in0unction a)ainst the responents# for not settin) asie#
a&on) others# A&inistrati,e Orer No. B47# ate March 42# 2>-7# of the Presient of the Philippines# is&issin) the
petitioner as 0ustice of the peace of Car&en# A)usan. (t is "orth+ of note that one of the causes of the separation of the
petitioner "as the fact that he "as foun )uilt+ in en)a)in) in electioneerin)# contrar+ to the pro,isions of the Election Coe.
<efenant-appellee calls the attention of this Court to =ouse Bill No. B373# "hich "as file on $anuar+ B-# 2>--. (n that
propose le)islation# uner Section -3# 0ustices of the peace are alrea+ e9pressl+ inclue a&on) the officers en0oine fro&
acti,e political participation. The ar)u&ent is that "ith the filin) of the sai =ouse Bill# Con)ress i&pliel+ ac;no"le)e that
e9istin) la"s o not prohibit 0ustices of the peace fro& partisan political acti,ities.
The ar)u&ent is unacceptable. To be)in "ith# =ouse Bill No. B373 "as a propose a&en&ent to Rep. Act No. 26C as a "hole
an not &erel+ to section -. of sai Rep. Act No. 26C. (n other "ors# =ouse Bill No. B373 "as a propose re-coification of
the e9istin) election la"s at the ti&e that it "as file. Besies# the propose a&en&ent# until it has beco&e a la"# cannot be
consiere to contain or &anifest an+ le)islati,e intent. (f the &oti,es# opinions# an the reasons e9presse b+ the ini,iual
&e&bers of the le)islature e,en in ebates# cannot be properl+ ta;en into consieration in ascertainin) the &eanin) of a
statute 1Cra"for# Statutor+ Construction# Sec. B24# pp. 47--4738# a fortiori "hat "ei)ht can @e )i,e to a &ere raft of a bill.
On la" reason an public polic+# efenant-appellee/s contention that 0ustices of the peace are not co,ere b+ the in0unction of
Section -. &ust be re0ecte. To accept it is to rener ineffecti,e a polic+ so clearl+ an e&phaticall+ lai o"n b+ the
le)islature.
Our la"-&a;in) bo+ has consistentl+ prohibite 0ustices of the peace fro& participatin) in partisan politics. The+ "ere
prohibite uner the ol Election !a" since 2>C7 1Act No. 2-6B an Act No. 27C>8. !i;e"ise# the+ "ere so en0oine b+ the
Re,ise A&inistrati,e Coe. Another "hich e9presse the prohibition to the& "as Act No. 4467# an later# Co&. Act No. 4-7.
!astl+# it is obser,e that both the Court of Appeals an the trial court applie the rule of Ae9pressio unius# est e9clusion
alteriusA in arri,in) at the conclusion that 0ustices of the peace are not co,ere b+ Section -.. Sai the Court of Appeals%
AAn+"a+# )uie b+ the rule of e9clusion# other"ise ;no"n as e9pressio unius est e9clusion alterius# it "oul not be be+on
reason to infer that there "as an intention of o&ittin) the ter& A0ustice of the peace fro& Section -. of the Re,ise Election
Coe. . . .A
The rule has no application. (f the le)islature ha intene to e9clue a 0ustice of the peace fro& the pur,ie" of Section -.#
neither the trial court nor the Court of Appeals has )i,en the reason for the e9clusion. (nee# there appears no reason for the
alle)e chan)e. =ence# the rule of e9pressio unius est e9clusion alterius has been erroneousl+ applie. 1Appellant/s Brief# p. 3.8
@here a statute appears on its face to li&it the operation of its pro,isions to particular persons or thin)s b+ enu&eratin) the&#
but no reason e9ists "h+ other persons or thin)s not so enu&erate shoul not ha,e been inclue# an &anifest in0ustice "ill
follo" b+ not so incluin) the&# the &a9i& e9pressio unius est e9clusion alterius# shoul not be in,o;e. 1Ble,ins ,. Mullall+
24- p. 4C7# BB Cal. App. -2>.8 .
'OR T=E ABOGE REASONS# the orer of is&issal entere b+ the trial court shoul be set asie an this case is re&ane
for trial on the &erits.
Ben)5on# C.$.# Bautista An)elo# !abraor# Concepcion# Barrera an Ma;alintal# $$.# concur.
Pailla an <i5on# $$.# too; no part.
Re+es# $.B.!.# $.# is on lea,e.
VIII. LATIN MAXIMS | CASSUS OMISSUS PRO OMISSO HABENDUS EST | STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION |
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PEOPLE vs MANANTAN | G.R. No.14129 (5 SCRA 684)
"ACTS%
This is an appeal of the Solicitor General fro& the orer of the Court of 'irst (nstance of Pan)asinan is&issin) the
infor&ation a)ainst the efenant.
The efenant "as char)e "ith the ,iolation of Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe. A preli&inar+ in,esti)ation
conucte b+ sai court resulte in the finin) of a probable cause that the cri&e char)e "as co&&itte b+ the
efenant.
Both parties "ere sub&ittin) this case upon the er&ination of this sin)le *uestion of la"% (s a 0ustice of the peace
inclue in the prohibition of Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe:
Section -. of the Re,ise Election Coe# pro,ies%
H No 0ustice# fiscal# treasurer# assessor of an+ pro,ince# no officer or e&plo+ee of the Ar&+# no &e&ber of the national#
pro,incial# cit+# &unicipal or rural police force# an no classifie ci,il ser,ice officer or e&plo+ee shall ai an+ caniate# or e9ert
an+ influence in an+ &anner in an+ election or ta;e part therein# if he is a peace officer#I
The efenant ar)ue that the 0ustice of the peace "as not co&prehene a&on) the officers enu&erate in Section
-. of the Re,ise Election Coe. That the "or H0ustice of peace H "as o&itte# an the o&ission re,eale the
intention of the le)islature to e9clue 0ustice of the peace fro& its operation. (n,o;in) the rule of H casus o&isus pro
o&isso habenus est#I uner the sai rule# a person# ob0ect or thin) o&itte fro& an enu&eration &ust be hel to
ha,e been o&itte intentionall+.
Section ..> of the Re,ise A&inistrati,e Coe# "hich pro,ie the follo"in)%
HSec. ..>- Persons prohibite fro& influencin) elections.- No 0u)e of the 'irst (nstance# 0ustice of the peace# or treasurer#
fiscal or assessor of an+ pro,ince an no officer of e&plo+ee of the Phippine Constabular+# or an+ Bureau or e&plo+ee of the
classifie ci,il ser,ice# shall ai an+ caniate or e9ert influence in an+ &anner in an+ election or ta;e part therein other"ise
than e9ercisin) the ri)ht to ,ote.I
The court of appeals an the trial court applie the rule of He9pression unius est e9clusion alterius#I "hich &eans# the
e9press &ention of one person# thin) or conse*uence i&plies the e9clusion of all the others# in arri,in) at the
conclusion that the 0ustices of the peace "as co,ere b+ Section -..
$ssu,%
@hether or not the 0ustice of peace "as e9clue in the pro,ision of Section -. of thte Re,ise Election Coe #thereb+# the la"
"as construe in the rule of casus o&isus pro o&isso habenus est:
/,0's'o(%
The orer of is&issal entere b+ the trial court shoul be set asie an the case "as re&ane for trial on the &erits.
R,&so( *o1 )2, .,0's'o(%
The rule has no applicabilit+ to the case at bar. The &a9i& Hcasus o&isusI can operate an appl+ onl+ if an "hen the
o&ission has been clearl+ establishe. (n the case uner consieration# it has alrea+ been sho"n that the le)islature i not
e9clue or o&it 0ustices of the peace fro& the enu&eration of officers preclue fro& en)a)in) in partisan political acti,ities# (n
the ne" la"# or Section -. or the Re,ise Election Coe# 0ustices of the peace "ere 0ust calle H0u)eI.
VIII. LATIN MAXIMS | CASSUS OMISSUS PRO OMISSO HABENDUS EST | STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION |