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GRADISTAT

Version 4.0
A Grain Size Distribution and Statistics Package for the Analysis of
Unconsolidated Sediments by Sieving or Laser Granulometer
Developed by Simon Blott
Surface Processes and Modern Environments Research Group
Department of Geology
Royal Holloway
University of London
Egham
Surrey TW20 0EX
E-mail: s.blott@gl.rhul.ac.uk
Tel/Fax: +44 (0)1784 414168

The development of this program was inspired by Dave Thornley and John Jack at
Postgraduate Research Institute for Sedimentology at the University of Reading, UK, and
Department of Geology at Royal Holloway University of London, UK. It is provided in Microsoft
format to allow both spreadsheet and graphical output. The program is best suited to analyse
obtained from sieve or laser granulometer analysis. The user is required to input the mass
percentage of sediment retained on sieves spaced at any intervals, or the percentage of sediment
detected in each bin of a Laser Granulometer. The following sample statistics are then calculated
the Method of Moments in Microsoft Visual Basic programming language: mean, mode(s), sorting
(standard deviation), skewness, kurtosis, D
10
, D
50
, D
90
, D
90
/D
10
, D
90
-D
10
, D
75
/D
25
and D
75
-D
25
. Grain
parameters are calculated arithmetically and geometrically (in microns) and logarithmically (using the
scale) (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938
1
; Table 1). Linear interpolation is also used to calculate statistical
parameters by the Folk and Ward (1957)
2
graphical method and derive physical descriptions (such
“very coarse sand” and “moderately sorted”). The program also provides a physical description
textural group which the sample belongs to and the sediment name (such as “fine gravelly coarse sand”)
after Folk (1954)
3
. Also included is a table giving the percentage of grains falling into each size fraction,
modified from Udden (1914)
4
and Wentworth (1922)
5
(see Table 2). In terms of graphical output,
program provides graphs of the grain size distribution and cumulative distribution of the data in
metric and phi units, and displays the sample grain size on triangular diagrams. Samples may
analysed singularly, or up to 250 samples may be analysed together.

The program is ideal for the rapid analysis of sieve data and is freely available from the author
the above address. Please note that the copyright for the program is held by author, and any distribution
or use of the program should be acknowledged to him.

S. Blott October 2000

1
Krumbein, W.C. and Pettijohn, F.J. (1938) Manual of Sedimentary Petrography. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.


2
Folk, R.L. and Ward, W.C. (1957) Brazos River bar: a study in the significance of grain size parameters. Journal of Sedimentary
Petrology, 27, 3-26.

3
Folk, R.L. (1954) The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. Journal
Geology, 62, 344-359.

4
Udden, J.A. (1914) Mechanical composition of clastic sediments. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 25, 655-744

5
Wentworth, C.K. (1922) A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, 30, 377-392.

Instructions on the Use of the GRADISTAT Program
Single Sample Analysis

1. Switch to the "Single Sample Data Input" sheet if it is not already active. Enter the aperture sizes
the sieves or Laser Granulometer bins used in the analysis into the cells in column B. Sizes may
entered either in ascending or descending numerical order. For convenience, you can click on one
the standard sieve or Laser Granulometer size intervals and GRADISTAT will enter the size classes
you. Any non-standard sieve sizes can be used, although some of the statistics may not be calculated
you have not used sieves with at least whole phi intervals. See the section below if the sample contains
unanalysed sediment, such as material retained in the pan after sieving. At least one size class
than the largest particles in the sample should also be entered. A large area to the right of the
columns is provided for the cut and paste of data from other spreadsheets, such as the import of
Granulometer data.

2. Enter the weight or percentage of sample beside each size class in column C. When you
finished, make sure there are no data further down the spreadsheet which could cause an error.
program will accept data down to row 230.

3. Enter the sample identity, analyst, date and initial sample weight (optional) at the top of the "Single
Sample Data Input" sheet.

4. Click the "Calculate Statistics" button and wait a few moments for the program to finish running
When the dialog box appears, click "OK".

5. The results are summarised on the "Single Sample Statistics" sheet, which includes a distribution
histogram of the sample. Select "Print..." from the file menu to print the Summary Statistics page
data is also shown on triangular diagrams on the "Gravel Sand Mud" and "Sand Silt Clay" sheets
Further cumulative and distribution plots are given on other sheets.


Multiple Sample Analysis

1. Switch to the "Multiple Sample Data Input" sheet. Enter the aperture sizes of the sieves or
Granulometer bins used in the analysis into the cells in column B. The aperture sizes must be the
for all the samples. Sizes may be entered either in ascending or descending numerical order
convenience, you can click on one of the standard sieve or Laser Granulometer size intervals
GRADISTAT will enter the size classes for you. Any non-standard sieve sizes can be used, although
some of the statistics may not be calculated if you have not used sieves with at least whole phi intervals
See the section below if samples contain unanalysed sediment, such as material retained in the
after sieving. At least one size class larger than the largest particles in the sample should also
entered.

2. Enter the weight or percentage of sample in column C onwards. Make sure there are no data further
down the spreadsheet which could cause an error. The program will accept data down to row 230.

3. Enter the sample identity, analyst, date and initial sample weight (optional) in the green cells above
each sample listing.

4. If you require a Summary Statistics printout for each sample, select a tick in the option box.

5. Click the "Calculate Statistics" button and wait for the program to finish running (this may take several
minutes). GRADISTAT will give a warning if it detects a sample whose combined weight is greater
the given sample weight. Click "OK" when prompted on the dialog boxes.
the given sample weight. Click "OK" when prompted on the dialog boxes.

6. The resulting statistics for all samples are summarised on the "Multiple Sample Statistics" sheet
data for each sample included in the analysis are also shown on triangular diagrams on the "Gravel
Sand Mud" and "Sand Silt Clay" sheets. Cumulative and distribution plots will show the results for
last sample in the analysis. If graphical plots for other samples are required, use separate single sample
analyses (above).


Unanalysed Sediment

Occasionally, samples may contain sediment in a size fraction of unspecified size, such as material
retained in the pan after sieving. Ideally, the whole size range in a sample should be analysed, and
may require further analysis of sediment remaining in the pan after sieving. The larger the quantity
sediment remaining in the pan, the less accurate the calculation of grain size statistics, with statistics
calculated by the Method of Moments being most susceptible. Errors in Folk and Ward parameters
become significant only when more than 5% of the sample is undetermined. If the sample contains
sediment in the pan the user should do one of the following:

1. Enter the weight or percentage of sample in the pan with a class size of zero (or leave the class
blank). GRADISTAT calculates the statistics assuming all sediment in the pan is larger than 10 f (1
The grain size distribution graphs do not however plot the quantity of sediment in the pan.

2. Enter the weight or percentage of sample in the pan with a class size which the user considers
the lower size limit of sediment in the pan. GRADISTAT calculates the statistics assuming all sediment
in the pan is larger than this value and plots this quantity on the grain size distribution graphs.

The above two options are recommended where there is less than 1% of the sample remaining
pan.

3. Do not enter the quantity of sediment in the pan at all. GRADISTAT calculates the statistics ignoring
the sediment in the pan as if it were not present in the sample. This is recommended where there
more than 1% of the sample remaining in the pan.

Samples containing more than 5% of sediment in the pan should ideally be analysed using a different
technique, such as sedimentation or laser granulometry. Great care must however be taken
merging data obtained by different methods.


Graph Scales

The size scale used in graphical plots is dependent upon the range of sizes specified on the sample
input sheets: the first and last values provide the extreme values on the graphs. While one size
larger than the largest particles in the sample should be entered, other size classes outside the
size range of the sample have no influence on the statistical calculations. These classes may be deleted
to narrow the size scale on graphs. Note that unused size classes within the size range of the sample
should also be deleted, otherwise GRADISTAT assumes that zero sample weight was present in
size classes.


© Copyright Simon Blott (2000)
Table 1. Statistical formulae used in the calculation of grain size parameters.
f is the frequency in percent; m is the mid-point of each class interval in metric (m
m
) or
phi (m
f
) units; P
x
and f
x
are grain diameters, in metric or phi units respectively, at the
cumulative percentile value of x.

(a) Arithmetic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
m
a
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
a m
a
x m f - S
s 3
3
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
Sk
s
- S

4
4
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
K
s
- S



(b) Geometric Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
ln
exp =
m
g
m f
x
S

100
) ln (ln
exp =
2
g m
g
x m f - S
s

3
3
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
Sk
s
- S
4
4
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
K
s
- S


Sorting (s
g
) Skewness (Sk
g
) Kurtosis (K
g
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

<
-
1.30
-
1.30 –
-
0.43
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
>
+
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1.70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40


(c) Logarithmic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
f
f
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
f f
f
s
x m f - S

3
3
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
Sk
- S
4
4
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
K
- S


Sorting (s
f
) Skewness (Sk
f
) Kurtosis (K
f
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0. 70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

>
+
1.30
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
-
0.43 –
-
1.30
<
-
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1. 70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40



Table 1. Statistical formulae used in the calculation of grain size parameters.
f is the frequency in percent; m is the mid-point of each class interval in metric (m
m
) or
phi (m
f
) units; P
x
and f
x
are grain diameters, in metric or phi units respectively, at the
cumulative percentile value of x.

(a) Arithmetic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
m
a
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
a m
a
x m f - S
s 3
3
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
Sk
s
- S

4
4
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
K
s
- S



(b) Geometric Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
ln
exp =
m
g
m f
x
S

100
) ln (ln
exp =
2
g m
g
x m f - S
s

3
3
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
Sk
s
- S
4
4
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
K
s
- S


Sorting (s
g
) Skewness (Sk
g
) Kurtosis (K
g
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

<
-
1.30
-
1.30 –
-
0.43
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
>
+
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1.70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40


(c) Logarithmic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
f
f
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
f f
f
s
x m f - S

3
3
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
Sk
- S
4
4
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
K
- S


Sorting (s
f
) Skewness (Sk
f
) Kurtosis (K
f
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0. 70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

>
+
1.30
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
-
0.43 –
-
1.30
<
-
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1. 70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40


(d) Logarithmic (Original) Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
3
84 50 16
f f f + +
=
Z
M
6 . 6 4
5 95 16 84
f f f f
s
-
+
-
=
I

( )
16 84
50 84 16
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
=
I
Sk

( )
5 95
50 95 5
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
+

( )
25 75
5 95
44 . 2 f f
f f
-
-
=
G
K

Sorting (s
I
) Skewness (Sk
I
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0.70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

+
0.3 to
+
1.0
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.1 to
-
0.1
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.3 to
-
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


(e) Geometric Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation
3
ln ln ln
exp
84 50 16
P P P
M
G
+ +
=
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ -
+
-
=
6 . 6
ln ln
4
ln ln
exp
95 5 84 16
P P P P
G
s


Skewness Kurtosis
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 25
50 95 5
16 84
50 84 16
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
P P
P P P
P P
P P P
Sk
G
-
- +
+
-
- +
=

( )
75 25
95 5
ln ln 44 . 2
ln ln
P P
P P
K
G
-
-
=

Sorting (s
G
)
Skewness (Sk
G
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

-
0.3 to
-
1.0
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.1 to
+
0.1
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.3 to
+
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


Table 2. Size scale adopted in the GRADISTAT program, modified from Udden
(1914) and Wentworth (1922).


Grain Size
phi mm
Descriptive term


Very Large
-10 1024
Large
-9 512
Medium
-8 256
Small
-7 128
Very small




Boulder
-6 64
Very coarse
-5 32
Coarse
-4 16
Medium
-3 8
Fine
-2 4
Very fine
Gravel
-1 2
Very coarse
0 1
microns Coarse
1 500
Medium
2 250
Fine
3 125
Very fine




Sand
4 63
Very coarse
5 31
Coarse
6 16
Medium
7 8
Fine
8 4
Very fine




Silt
9 2
Clay


(d) Logarithmic (Original) Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
3
84 50 16
f f f + +
=
Z
M
6 . 6 4
5 95 16 84
f f f f
s
-
+
-
=
I

( )
16 84
50 84 16
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
=
I
Sk

( )
5 95
50 95 5
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
+

( )
25 75
5 95
44 . 2 f f
f f
-
-
=
G
K

Sorting (s
I
) Skewness (Sk
I
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0.70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

+
0.3 to
+
1.0
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.1 to
-
0.1
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.3 to
-
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


(e) Geometric Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation
3
ln ln ln
exp
84 50 16
P P P
M
G
+ +
=
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ -
+
-
=
6 . 6
ln ln
4
ln ln
exp
95 5 84 16
P P P P
G
s


Skewness Kurtosis
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 25
50 95 5
16 84
50 84 16
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
P P
P P P
P P
P P P
Sk
G
-
- +
+
-
- +
=

( )
75 25
95 5
ln ln 44 . 2
ln ln
P P
P P
K
G
-
-
=

Sorting (s
G
)
Skewness (Sk
G
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

-
0.3 to
-
1.0
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.1 to
+
0.1
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.3 to
+
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


Table 2. Size scale adopted in the GRADISTAT program, modified from Udden
(1914) and Wentworth (1922).


Grain Size
phi mm
Descriptive term


Very Large
-10 1024
Large
-9 512
Medium
-8 256
Small
-7 128
Very small




Boulder
-6 64
Very coarse
-5 32
Coarse
-4 16
Medium
-3 8
Fine
-2 4
Very fine
Gravel
-1 2
Very coarse
0 1
microns Coarse
1 500
Medium
2 250
Fine
3 125
Very fine




Sand
4 63
Very coarse
5 31
Coarse
6 16
Medium
7 8
Fine
8 4
Very fine




Silt
9 2
Clay


Jack at the
and the
Microsoft Excel
analyse data
mass or
sediment
calculated using
mode(s), sorting
Grain size
(using the phi
statistical
(such as
description of the
coarse sand”)
size fraction,
output, the
data in both
Samples may be
author at
distribution
Sedimentary
Journal of
655-744.
aperture sizes of
Sizes may be
on one of
classes for
calculated if
contains
class larger
the data
of Laser
you have
error. The
the "Single
running.
distribution
page. The
Clay" sheets.
or Laser
the same
order. For
intervals and
although
intervals.
in the pan
should also be
data further
230.
cells above
take several
greater than
sheet. The
the "Gravel
results for the
single sample
material
analysed, and this
quantity of
statistics
parameters
contains
class size
f (1 mm).
considers to be
sediment
remaining in the
statistics ignoring
where there is
different
taken when
the sample
size class
the grain
be deleted
the sample
present in those
Table 1. Statistical formulae used in the calculation of grain size parameters.
f is the frequency in percent; m is the mid-point of each class interval in metric (m
m
) or
phi (m
f
) units; P
x
and f
x
are grain diameters, in metric or phi units respectively, at the
cumulative percentile value of x.

(a) Arithmetic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
m
a
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
a m
a
x m f - S
s 3
3
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
Sk
s
- S

4
4
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
K
s
- S



(b) Geometric Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
ln
exp =
m
g
m f
x
S

100
) ln (ln
exp =
2
g m
g
x m f - S
s

3
3
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
Sk
s
- S
4
4
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
K
s
- S


Sorting (s
g
) Skewness (Sk
g
) Kurtosis (K
g
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

<
-
1.30
-
1.30 –
-
0.43
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
>
+
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1.70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40


(c) Logarithmic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
f
f
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
f f
f
s
x m f - S

3
3
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
Sk
- S
4
4
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
K
- S


Sorting (s
f
) Skewness (Sk
f
) Kurtosis (K
f
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0. 70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

>
+
1.30
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
-
0.43 –
-
1.30
<
-
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1. 70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40



Table 1. Statistical formulae used in the calculation of grain size parameters.
f is the frequency in percent; m is the mid-point of each class interval in metric (m
m
) or
phi (m
f
) units; P
x
and f
x
are grain diameters, in metric or phi units respectively, at the
cumulative percentile value of x.

(a) Arithmetic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
m
a
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
a m
a
x m f - S
s 3
3
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
Sk
s
- S

4
4
100
) (
=
a
a m
a
x m f
K
s
- S



(b) Geometric Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
ln
exp =
m
g
m f
x
S

100
) ln (ln
exp =
2
g m
g
x m f - S
s

3
3
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
Sk
s
- S
4
4
ln 100
) ln (ln
=
g
g m
g
x m f
K
s
- S


Sorting (s
g
) Skewness (Sk
g
) Kurtosis (K
g
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

<
-
1.30
-
1.30 –
-
0.43
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
>
+
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1.70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40


(c) Logarithmic Method of Moments
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
100
=
f
f
fm
x
S

100
) (
=
2
f f
f
s
x m f - S

3
3
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
Sk
- S
4
4
100
) (
=
f
f f
f
s
x m f
K
- S


Sorting (s
f
) Skewness (Sk
f
) Kurtosis (K
f
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0. 70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

>
+
1.30
+
0.43 –
+
1.30
-
0.43 –
+
0.43
-
0.43 –
-
1.30
<
-
1.30

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic


< 1.70
1. 70 – 2.55
2.55 – 3.70
3.70 – 7.40
> 7.40


(d) Logarithmic (Original) Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
3
84 50 16
f f f + +
=
Z
M
6 . 6 4
5 95 16 84
f f f f
s
-
+
-
=
I

( )
16 84
50 84 16
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
=
I
Sk

( )
5 95
50 95 5
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
+

( )
25 75
5 95
44 . 2 f f
f f
-
-
=
G
K

Sorting (s
I
) Skewness (Sk
I
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0.70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

+
0.3 to
+
1.0
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.1 to
-
0.1
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.3 to
-
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


(e) Geometric Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation
3
ln ln ln
exp
84 50 16
P P P
M
G
+ +
=
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ -
+
-
=
6 . 6
ln ln
4
ln ln
exp
95 5 84 16
P P P P
G
s


Skewness Kurtosis
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 25
50 95 5
16 84
50 84 16
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
P P
P P P
P P
P P P
Sk
G
-
- +
+
-
- +
=

( )
75 25
95 5
ln ln 44 . 2
ln ln
P P
P P
K
G
-
-
=

Sorting (s
G
)
Skewness (Sk
G
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

-
0.3 to
-
1.0
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.1 to
+
0.1
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.3 to
+
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


Table 2. Size scale adopted in the GRADISTAT program, modified from Udden
(1914) and Wentworth (1922).


Grain Size
phi mm
Descriptive term


Very Large
-10 1024
Large
-9 512
Medium
-8 256
Small
-7 128
Very small




Boulder
-6 64
Very coarse
-5 32
Coarse
-4 16
Medium
-3 8
Fine
-2 4
Very fine
Gravel
-1 2
Very coarse
0 1
microns Coarse
1 500
Medium
2 250
Fine
3 125
Very fine




Sand
4 63
Very coarse
5 31
Coarse
6 16
Medium
7 8
Fine
8 4
Very fine




Silt
9 2
Clay


(d) Logarithmic (Original) Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
3
84 50 16
f f f + +
=
Z
M
6 . 6 4
5 95 16 84
f f f f
s
-
+
-
=
I

( )
16 84
50 84 16
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
=
I
Sk

( )
5 95
50 95 5
2
2
f f
f f f
-
- +
+

( )
25 75
5 95
44 . 2 f f
f f
-
-
=
G
K

Sorting (s
I
) Skewness (Sk
I
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 0.35
0.35 – 0.50
0.50 – 0.70
0.70 – 1.00
1.00 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
> 4.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

+
0.3 to
+
1.0
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.1 to
-
0.1
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.3 to
-
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


(e) Geometric Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures
Mean Standard Deviation
3
ln ln ln
exp
84 50 16
P P P
M
G
+ +
=
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ -
+
-
=
6 . 6
ln ln
4
ln ln
exp
95 5 84 16
P P P P
G
s


Skewness Kurtosis
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 25
50 95 5
16 84
50 84 16
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
ln ln 2
ln 2 ln ln
P P
P P P
P P
P P P
Sk
G
-
- +
+
-
- +
=

( )
75 25
95 5
ln ln 44 . 2
ln ln
P P
P P
K
G
-
-
=

Sorting (s
G
)
Skewness (Sk
G
) Kurtosis (K
G
)

Very well sorted
Well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately sorted
Poorly sorted
Very poorly sorted
Extremely poorly sorted


< 1.27
1.27 – 1.41
1.41 – 1.62
1.62 – 2.00
2.00 – 4.00
4.00 – 16.00
> 16.00

Very fine skewed
Fine skewed
Symmetrical
Coarse skewed
Very coarse skewed

-
0.3 to
-
1.0
-
0.1 to
-
0.3
-
0.1 to
+
0.1
+
0.1 to
+
0.3
+
0.3 to
+
1.0

Very platykurtic
Platykurtic
Mesokurtic
Leptokurtic
Very leptokurtic
Extremely
leptokurtic

< 0.67
0.67 – 0.90
0.90 – 1.11
1.11 – 1.50
1.50 – 3.00
> 3.00


Table 2. Size scale adopted in the GRADISTAT program, modified from Udden
(1914) and Wentworth (1922).


Grain Size
phi mm
Descriptive term


Very Large
-10 1024
Large
-9 512
Medium
-8 256
Small
-7 128
Very small




Boulder
-6 64
Very coarse
-5 32
Coarse
-4 16
Medium
-3 8
Fine
-2 4
Very fine
Gravel
-1 2
Very coarse
0 1
microns Coarse
1 500
Medium
2 250
Fine
3 125
Very fine




Sand
4 63
Very coarse
5 31
Coarse
6 16
Medium
7 8
Fine
8 4
Very fine




Silt
9 2
Clay


Single Sample Data Input Screen Enter your data in the columns below, and then click the "Calculate
Statistics" button. See the "Information" sheet for more information.
Sample Identity: VF-74-103
Analyst:
Date: Auto. add
Initial Sample Weight: (optional) apertures
at:
Aperture Class Weight
(microns) Retained (g or %)
2000 6.1970
1000 2.6600
500 6.8418
250 1.3150
100 5.0753
50 0.1088
20 0.12123
5 0.07942
2 0.02336
0.5 0.10104
Enter your data in the columns below, and then click the "Calculate
Statistics" button. See the "Information" sheet for more information.
SAMPLE STATISTICS
SAMPLE IDENTITY: VF-74-103 ANALYST & DATE: ,
SAMPLE TYPE: Bimodal, Poorly Sorted TEXTURAL GROUP: Sand
SEDIMENT NAME: Poorly Sorted Very Coarse Sand
GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION
MODE 1: GRAVEL: COARSE SAND: 30.4%
MODE 2: SAND: MEDIUM SAND: 5.8%
MODE 3: MUD: FINE SAND: 17.0%
D
10
: V FINE SAND: 5.8%
MEDIAN or D
50
: V COARSE GRAVEL: V COARSE SILT: 0.4%
D
90
: COARSE GRAVEL: COARSE SILT: 0.3%
(D
90
/ D
10
): MEDIUM GRAVEL: MEDIUM SILT: 0.2%
(D
90
- D
10
): FINE GRAVEL: FINE SILT: 0.1%
(D
75
/ D
25
): V FINE GRAVEL: V FINE SILT: 0.1%
(D
75
- D
25
): V COARSE SAND: CLAY: 0.4%
Logarithmic

MEAN : 0.902
SORTING (s ): 1.377
SKEWNESS (Sk ): 2.148
KURTOSIS (K): 11.65
483.5
4130.6
METHOD OF MOMENTS

0.500
2.661
30.75
-2.094
0.351
0.901
2.780
  m
750.0
175.0
138.9
783.8
4269.4
2.816
-1.360
4.942
Geometric
  m
79.99
Arithmetic
  m
466.9
7.043
0.484
17.07
-0.761
1.828
2.417
-0.536
0.484 Very Platykurtic
Description
Coarse Sand
Poorly Sorted
39.3%
Geometric Logarithmic
Very Fine Skewed

0.536
FOLK & WARD METHOD
0.0%
98.4%
1.6%
0.0%
0.0%
1610.7
-2.099
2.848
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
592.4 0.755
1.273
  m
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
-2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
C
l
a
s
s

W
e
i
g
h
t

(
%
)

Particle Diameter (f)
1 10 100 1000
Particle Diameter (mm)
) ( x
Multiple Sample Data Input Screen Enter your data in the columns below, and then click the
"Calculate Statistics" button. Enter Sample Info in the green cells.
Aperture Class Weight Retained (g or %) in Different Samples
(microns)
Sample Identity: GU/S-COI 12/1/96 - Average GU/S AF 13/11/03 - Average GU/S AF 17/12/03 - Average GU/S COI 25/11/94 - Average GU/S COI 1500-68 - Average
Analyst:
Date:
Initial Sample Weight:
2000
1400
1000 0 0 0 0 0
710 0 0 0 0 0
500 0 0 0 0 0
355 0.004014 4.675681 0 0.166187 0
250 0.098238 12.99385 0 2.363564 0
180 0.076329 17.273932 1.20501 5.030106 0
125 0.430358 15.738308 4.639825 7.028166 3.987615
90 3.035325 11.668246 8.123842 7.742225 11.953984
63 6.565712 8.669724 11.566525 7.740544 16.974026
44 10.052864 6.974656 14.529959 7.761027 17.514639
31 12.489373 5.337089 15.974208 7.953405 14.464243
22 13.148105 3.518258 14.819778 8.11849 10.116833
15.6 12.150551 2.175727 11.21269 8.095567 6.474093
11 10.123945 1.638512 6.764591 7.763282 4.220675
7.8 7.809071 1.602272 3.311222 7.045425 3.069594
5.5 5.718063 1.604948 1.53618 5.917719 2.45906
3.9 4.191694 1.466198 1.004309 4.608086 2.035881
2.76 3.313934 1.25158 0.977263 3.45722 1.691093
1.95 2.848277 1.035399 0.993582 2.61212 1.393471
1.38 2.515149 0.845574 0.940187 2.05931 1.147202
0.98 2.06598 0.64693 0.818224 1.618779 0.911418
0.69 1.569905 0.461032 0.685058 1.261867 0.711995
0.49 1.153072 0.313739 0.561466 0.993002 0.557877
0.35 0.612441 0.108344 0.330773 0.577167 0.31154
0.24 0.0276 0 0.005306 0.086743 0.004761
0.17
Print summary sheets for each sample?
Auto. add
apertures
at:
Enter your data in the columns below, and then click the
"Calculate Statistics" button. Enter Sample Info in the green cells.
GU/S COI 1500-68 b - Average GU/S 1116 - Average GU/S AF-2 12/1/75 b - Average GU/S AF-1 12/1/75 - Average GU/S 1501-68 - Average GU/S 1501-68 b - Average
0 0 0 0 0 0.159655
0 0 0 0 0.02729 0.911598
0 0 0 0.124762 2.092459 3.649185
0 0 0 3.062886 7.077386 7.105325
0 0 0.065557 6.489483 9.012115 8.595659
0 0 1.767711 8.054194 7.541572 7.411983
3.604557 3.160243 4.100812 7.931425 5.285283 5.330171
11.495766 13.149202 6.172086 6.775624 4.468872 4.419444
16.642773 24.071202 7.420751 5.610307 5.21201 5.014277
17.477981 26.930851 7.861467 5.060921 6.274257 6.003723
14.714564 18.736395 7.967071 5.094733 6.777713 6.499957
10.473305 7.467365 8.131159 5.423187 6.690072 6.437459
6.748492 1.27392 8.417578 5.839905 6.346932 6.128438
4.344437 0.043211 8.565385 6.167096 5.933774 5.742582
3.083241 0.602259 8.259365 6.232338 5.433718 5.263824
2.438432 0.921616 7.325703 5.886676 4.762462 4.61913
2.033051 0.743472 6.012912 5.231523 4.019686 3.90446
1.717682 0.534033 4.765061 4.503152 3.382727 3.288541
1.435813 0.506627 3.774262 3.77232 2.856974 2.781564
1.18958 0.55053 3.041448 3.059401 2.377375 2.326399
0.946728 0.511933 2.368833 2.284067 1.817072 1.795226
0.740848 0.400658 1.785294 1.603087 1.282018 1.279635
0.581399 0.289489 1.344274 1.128058 0.882235 0.884398
0.326333 0.106993 0.749643 0.595343 0.439634 0.440971
0.005017 0 0.103629 0.069511 0.006364 0.006397
GU/S-COI 30/11/98 - Average
0
0
0
0.529458
0.854595
0.455526
0.747293
2.632942
5.928417
9.435427
11.869631
12.536753
11.572834
9.647779
7.543366
5.736241
4.467094
3.7471
3.327422
2.95619
2.398056
1.764383
1.23028
0.610376
0.008838
SAMPLE STATISTICS
ANALYST AND DATE:
SIEVING ERROR:
SAMPLE TYPE:
TEXTURAL GROUP:
SEDIMENT NAME:
METHOD OF MEAN
MOMENTS SORTING
Arithmetic (  m) SKEWNESS
KURTOSIS
METHOD OF MEAN
MOMENTS SORTING
Geometric (  m) SKEWNESS
KURTOSIS
METHOD OF MEAN
MOMENTS SORTING
Logarithmic ( ) SKEWNESS
KURTOSIS
FOLK AND MEAN
WARD METHOD SORTING
(  m) SKEWNESS
KURTOSIS
FOLK AND MEAN
WARD METHOD SORTING
( ) SKEWNESS
KURTOSIS
FOLK AND MEAN:
WARD METHOD SORTING:
(Description) SKEWNESS:
KURTOSIS:
MODE 1 (  m):
MODE 2 (  m):
MODE 3 (  m):
MODE 1 ( ):
MODE 2 ( ):
MODE 3 ( ):
D
10
(  m):
D
50
(  m):
D
90
(  m):
(D
90
/ D
10
) (  m):
(D
90
- D
10
) (  m):
(D
75
/ D
25
) (  m):
(D
75
- D
25
) (  m):
D
10
( ):
D
50
( ):
D
90
( ):
(D
90
/ D
10
) ( ):
(D
90
- D
10
) ( ):
(D
75
/ D
25
) ( ):
(D
75
- D
25
) ( ):
: ) (
a
s
: ) (
a
x
: ) (
a
Sk
: ) (
a
K
: ) (
g
x
: ) (
g
s
: ) (
g
Sk
: ) (
g
K
: ) (
f
x
: ) (
f
s
: )
f
Sk (
: ) (
f
K
: ) (
Z
M
: ) (
I
s
: ) (
I
Sk
: ) (
G
K
: ) (
G
K
: ) (
G
M
: ) (
G
s
: ) (
G
Sk
% GRAVEL:
% SAND:
% MUD:
% V COARSE GRAVEL:
% COARSE GRAVEL:
% MEDIUM GRAVEL:
% FINE GRAVEL:
% V FINE GRAVEL:
% V COARSE SAND:
% COARSE SAND:
% MEDIUM SAND:
% FINE SAND:
% V FINE SAND:
% V COARSE SILT:
% COARSE SILT:
% MEDIUM SILT:
% FINE SILT:
% V FINE SILT:
% CLAY:
Triangular Diagram
Sand Mud
Gravel
80%
30%
5%
Trace
1:1 1:9 9:1
Sand:Mud Ratio
Gravel %
Gravel
Muddy Gravel Muddy Sandy
Gravel
Gravelly Mud Gravelly Muddy Sand
Slightly
Gravelly
Mud
Slightly Gravelly
Sandy Mud
Slightly Gravelly
Muddy Sand
Mud Sandy Mud Muddy Sand
Sand
Slightly
Gravelly
Sand
Gravelly
Sand
Sandy
Gravel
Gravel:
Sand:
Mud:
0.0%
98.4%
1.6%
Coarse Gravel:
Medium Gravel:
Fine Gravel:
Coarse Sand:
Medium Sand:
Fine Sand:
Very Fine Sand:
Very Coarse Silt:
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
30.4%
17.0%
5.8%
0.4%
5.8%
Very Coarse Gravel: 0.0%
Very Coarse Sand:
Coarse Silt:
Clay:
Fine Silt:
Very Fine Gravel:
39.3%
0.0%
Medium Silt:
Very Fine Silt:
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
VF-74-103
TEXTURAL GROUP:
SEDIMENT NAME:
Sand
Poorly Sorted Very Coarse Sand
SAMPLE IDENTITY:
Triangular Diagram
Silt Clay
Sand
90%
50%
10%
1:2 2:1
Silt:Clay Ratio
Sand %
Sand
Clayey Sand Muddy Sand
Sandy Clay Sandy Silt Sandy Mud
Clay Mud Silt
Silty Sand
NOTE
Gravel is also
present in
this sample
VF-74-103
TEXTURAL GROUP:
IGNORING GRAVEL
FRACTION

SAMPLE IDENTITY:
Gravel:
Sand:
Mud:
0.0%
98.4%
1.6%
Coarse Gravel:
Medium Gravel:
Fine Gravel:
Coarse Sand:
Medium Sand:
Fine Sand:
Very Fine Sand:
Very Coarse Silt:
Very Coarse Gravel:
Very Coarse Sand:
Coarse Silt:
Clay:
Fine Silt:
Very Fine Gravel:
Medium Silt:
Very Fine Silt:
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
30.4%
17.0%
5.8%
0.4%
5.8%
0.0%
39.3%
0.0%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
Frequency Distribution Histogram
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
-2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
C
l
a
s
s

w
e
i
g
h
t

(
%
)

Particle diameter (f)
Cumulative Frequency Curve
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
-1.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
a
s
s

r
e
t
a
i
n
e
d

(
%
)

Particle diameter (f)
Frequency Distribution Curve
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0
C
l
a
s
s

w
e
i
g
h
t

(
%
)

Particle diameter (mm)
Cumulative Frequency Curve
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
a
s
s

r
e
t
a
i
n
e
d

(
%
)

Particle diameter (mm)