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Scheduling: J ob Sequencing

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Scheduling
Material availability.
Capacity availability (worker or machine).
Bottleneck vs. nonbottleneck operations.
J ob priorities.
Queue of work before each work station.
Critical Factors of Scheduling
Decision
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Scheduling Systems Scheduling Systems
1. Flow shop: high-volume system
2. Intermediate-volume system
3. J ob shop: low-volume system
Flow Pattern of J obs
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1. High-Volume Systems
Flow system: High-volume system with
standardized equipment and activities
Flow-shop scheduling: Scheduling
for high-volume flow system
Work Center #1 Work Center #2
Output
Major aspect in flow system design
is line balancing.
1. High-Volume Success Factors
Process and product design
Preventive maintenance
Rapid repair when breakdown occurs
Optimal product mixes
Minimization of quality problems
Reliability and timing of supplies
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2. Intermediate-Volume Systems
Outputs are between standardized high-
volume systems and made-to-order job
shops
Three basic issues:
Run size
Timing
Sequence of jobs
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3. Scheduling Low-Volume Systems
J ob-shop scheduling: Scheduling for low-
volume systems with many variations in
requirements
Two basic issues:
Loading - assignment of jobs to process
centers
Sequencing - determining the order in which
jobs will be processed
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Strategic Implications of Short-Term
Scheduling
By scheduling effectively, companies
use assets more effectively and create
greater capacity per rupee invested,
which, in turn, lowers cost
This added capacity and related
flexibility provides faster delivery and
therefore better customer service
Good scheduling is a competitive
advantage which contributes to
dependable delivery
Deals with timing of operations
Short run focus: Hourly, daily, weekly
Types
Today Today Due Date
B B E E
Forward Scheduling Forward Scheduling
Today Today Due Date
B B E E
Backward Scheduling Backward Scheduling
Short-Term Scheduling
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Forward and Backward Scheduling
Forward scheduling: begins the schedule as
soon as the requirements are known
jobs performed to customer order
schedule can be accomplished even if due date
is missed
often causes buildup of WIP
Backward scheduling: begins with the due
date of the final operation; schedules jobs
in reverse order
used in many manufacturing environments,
catering, scheduling surgery
Forward scheduling brings with it certain advantages.
By always planning to start jobs at the first opportunity the
utilization of the processes will be high.
This approach also means that the future schedule has
spare capacity in it, because work is not put off until a later
date.
As soon as tasks are scheduled for later dates then the
capacity required to fulfill them is obviously unavailable for
other work which might occur.
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Backward scheduling also possesses certain advantages.
By delaying the start of the work until the latest possible
time the schedule is also putting off committing the cash of
the organization until absolutely necessary.
The operation is also giving the customers time to solidify
their ideas, and any resulting changes will probably be
easier to accommodate than under the forward scheduling
regime.
There is also the perhaps less obvious merit that the
schedule focuses the operation upon customer due dates.
A student has three assignments issued this week. The details
are shown in Table 1.1.
The student estimates that the work involved in each
assignment is as in Table 1.2.
The student also calculates that he can only undertake
reading and analyzing or writing for one assignment at any
one time.
For example, he cannot perform reading and analyzing for
operations in parallel with reading and analyzing for either
marketing or finance.
In addition, he can only work on the assignments for five days
per week.
Adopting forward scheduling principles leads to the following
schedule.
Example
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Week 6 Day 3 Finance
Week 7 Day 2 Marketing
Week 9 Day 1 Operations
Date due Date issued Topic
1 day 1 week 1 week Finance
2 days 1 week 2 week Marketing
3 days 3 week 1 week Operations
Writing
answer
Reading &
analyzing
Gathering
information
Table 1.1
Table 1.2
Estimates of the work involved
Note: Ops=Operations; M=Marketing; F=Finance
F M Ops Write
F M Ops Ops Ops Reading &
analyze
F M M Ops Gather
informatio
n
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Week
Note: Ops=Operations; M=Marketing; F=Finance
Ops M F Write
Ops Ops M F Ops Reading &
analyze
M F M Ops Gather
informatio
n
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Week
Backward Scheduling
Forward Scheduling
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J ob A (due at hrs 8); 2 hrs in m/c1; 3 hrs in m/c2; 1 hr in
m/c1
J ob B (due in hrs 8): 2 hrs in m/c1; 3 hr in m/c2
Both the jobs should be ready in the next eight hours and
both the machines are to start processing from now
onwards.
Develop schedules for both the jobs using forward and
backward scheduling.
Note: the sequence m/c1, m/c2, m/c1 must be followed.
B B B A A A M/c2
A B B A A M/c1
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Time
B A A A B B M/c2
A A A B B M/c1
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Time
Forward Scheduling
Backward Scheduling
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Organization Managers Must Schedule
Operating room use
Patient admission
Nursing, security, maintenance staffs
Outpatient treatments
Classrooms and audiovisual equipment
Student and instructor schedules
Graduate and undergraduate courses
Production of goods
Purchase of materials
Workers
Scheduling Decisions
Hospital
College/University
Factory
Organization Managers Must Schedule
Chefs, waiters,bartenders
Delivery of fresh foods
Entertainers
Opening of dining areas
Maintenance of aircraft
Departure timetables
Flight crews, catering, gate, and ticketing
personnel
Scheduling Decisions
Hotel/Cafe
Airlines
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Capacity Planning, Aggregate Scheduling, Master
Schedule, and Short-Term Scheduling
Capacity Planning
1. Facility size
2. Equipment procurement
Aggregate Scheduling
1. Facility utilization
2. Personnel needs
3. Subcontracting
Master Schedule
1. MRP
2. Disaggregation of master plan
Long-term
Intermediate-term
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Short-term Scheduling
1. Work center loading
2. Job sequencing
The Goals of Short-Term Scheduling
Minimize completion time
Maximize utilization (make effective
use of personnel and equipment)
Minimize WIP inventory (keep
inventory levels low)
Minimize customer wait time
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Qualitative factors
Number and variety of jobs
Complexity of jobs
Nature of operations
Quantitative criteria
Average completion time
Utilization (% of time facility is used)
WIP inventory (average # jobs in system)
Customer waiting time (average lateness)
Choosing a Scheduling Method
Level Use
Methods
Repetitive-
Focused
Product-
Focused
Process-
Focused
Variety of
Methods
Scheduling Methods Differ by
Process
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High variety, low volume systems
Products made to order
Products need different materials and
processing
Complex production planning and control
Production planning aspects
Shop loading
J ob sequencing
Process-Focused Work Centers
Requirements for Scheduling Process-
Focused Work Centers
Schedule incoming orders without violating
capacity constraints of individual work centers
Check availability of tools and materials before
releasing an order to a department
Establish due dates for each job and check
progress against need dates and order lead times
Check work-in-progress as jobs move through the
shop
Provide feedback on plant and production
activities
Provide work-efficiency statistics and monitor
operator times for payroll and labor distribution
analyses
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Process-Focused Planning System
Forecast &
Firm Orders
Material
Requirements
Planning
Aggregate
Production
Planning
Resource
Availability
Master
Production
Scheduling
Shop
Floor
Schedules
Capacity
Requirements
Planning
Realistic?
Yes
No, modify CRP, MRP, or MPS
Assigning jobs to work centers
Considerations
J ob priority (e.g., due date)
Capacity
Work center hours available
Hours needed for job
Approaches
Gantt charts (load & scheduling) -
capacity
Assignment method - job to specific
work center
Loading J obs in Work Centers
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Options for Managing Facility Work Flow
Correcting performance
Increasing capacity
Increasing or reducing input to the work
center by:
routing work to or from other work centers
increasing or decreasing subcontracting
producing less (or more)
Job Shop Scheduling Job Shop Scheduling
-- -- Gantt Chart Gantt Chart
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Gantt Chart
Gantt chart – A chart used as a visual
aid for loading and scheduling
Gantt Chart – Load Chart
Load chart – A Gantt chart that shows
the loading the idle times for a group
of machines.
Work
Center
Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri.
1 J ob 3 J ob 4
2 J ob 3 J ob 7
3 J ob 1 J ob 6 J ob 7
4 J ob 10
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Shows relative workload in facility
Disadvantages
Does not account for unexpected events
Must be updated regularly
Work Center M T W Th F
Metal Works Job 349 Job 350
Mechanical Job D Job G
Electronics Job B Job H
Painting Job C Job E Job I
Gantt Load Chart
Gantt Chart – Schedule Chart
Schedule chart – A Gantt chart that
shows the orders or jobs in progress
and whether they are on schedule.
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Job Shop Scheduling Job Shop Scheduling
-- -- Sequencing Sequencing
Production Control Production
Which job do
I run next?
Dispatch List
Order Part Due Qty
XYZ 6014 123 100
ABC 6020 124 50
Job Packet
Job XYZ
Order
release
Sequencing Challenge
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Sequencing
Sequencing: Determine the order in
which jobs at a work center will be
processed.
Workstation: An area where one
person works, usually with special
equipment, on a specialized job.
Sequencing
Priority rules: Simple heuristics used to select the
order in which jobs will be processed.
FCFS - first come, first served
SPT - shortest processing time
EDD - earliest due date
Rush – emergency
J ob time: Time needed for setup and processing of a
job.
Makespan: The total time needed to complete a group
of jobs.
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Specifies order jobs will be worked
Sequencing rules
First come, first served (FCFS)
Shortest processing time (SPT)
Earliest due date (EDD)
J ohnson’s rule
Sequencing
Priority Rules for Dispatching J obs
First come, first served
The first job to arrive at a work center is processed
first
Earliest due date
The job with the earliest due date is processed first
Shortest processing time
The job with the shortest processing time is
processed first
FCFS
EDD
SPT
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Process first job to arrive at a work
center first
Average performance on most
scheduling criteria
Appears ‘fair’ & reasonable to
customers
Important for service organizations
Example: Restaurants
First Come, First Served Rule
Shortest Processing Time Rule
Process job with shortest processing
time first.
Usually best at minimizing job flow and
minimizing the number of jobs in the
system
Major disadvantage is that long jobs
may be continuously pushed back in the
queue.
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Process job with earliest due date first
Widely used by many companies
If due dates important
If MRP used
Due dates updated by each MRP run
Performs poorly on many scheduling
criteria
Earliest Due Date Rule
Schedule Evaluation Criteria
Standard measures of schedule
performance used to evaluate priority
rules:
Meeting due dates of customers or
downstream operations.
Minimizing flow time (throughput or cycle
time) that the job spends in the shop.
Minimizing work in process.
Minimizing idle time of machines and workers
i.e. maximize % utilization
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Criteria to Evaluate Priority Rules
Jobs #
times ΣFlow
time completion Average =
times Flow
times Process
n Utilizatio
Σ
Σ
=
times Process
times Flow
system the in jobs of number Average
Σ
Σ
=
jobs of Number
times Late
lateness job Average
Σ
=
Scheduling n J obs on One
Machine
J ob (in order
of arrival
Processing
Time (days)
Due Date
(days hence)
A 3 5
B 4 6
C 2 7
D 6 9
E 1 2
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Scheduling n J obs on One Machine
J ob (in order
of arrival
Processing
Time (days)
Due Date
(days hence) Start J ob Time Finish
A 3 5 0 + 3 3
B 4 6 3 + 4 7
C 2 7 7 + 2 9
D 6 9 9 + 6 15
E 1 2 15 + 1 16
FCFS Schedule
Total flow time =3+7+9+15+16 =50 days
Mean flow time =50/5 =10 days
Scheduling n J obs on One Machine
Total flow time =1+3+6+10+16 =36 days
Mean flow time =36/5 =7.2 days
Job
Processi ng
Ti me (days)
Due Date
(days)
E 1 2 0 + 1 = 1
C 2 7 1 + 2 = 3
A 3 5 3 + 3 = 6
B 4 6 6 + 4 = 10
D 6 9 10 + 6 = 16
Fl ow Time
(days)
SPT Schedule
Scheduling: J ob Sequencing
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Scheduling n J obs on One Machine
Total flow time =1+4+8+10+16 =39 days
Mean flow time =39/5 =7.8 days
Job
Processing
Time (days)
Due Date
(days)
E 1 2 0 + 1 = 1
A 3 5 1 + 3 = 4
B 4 6 4 + 4 = 8
C 2 7 8 + 2 = 10
D 6 9 10 + 6 = 16
Flow Time
(days)
DDATE Schedule
J ob Sequencing Example
23 9 E
15 3 D
18 8 C
6 2 B
8 6 A
J ob Due
Date (day)
J ob Work
Processing
time in days
J ob
Calculate: Avg. completion time; Utilization; Avg. # of jobs in the system; Avg.
job lateness
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FCFS
Value Parameter
2.2 days Average job
lateness
2.75 jobs Average
number of
jobs in the
system
36.4% Utilization
15.4 days Average
completion
time
E
D
C
B
A
Sequence
SPT
Value Parameter
1.8 days Average job
lateness
2.32 jobs Average
number of
jobs in the
system
43.1% Utilization
13 days Average
completion
time
E
C
A
D
B
Sequence
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EDD
Value Parameter
1.2 days Average job
lateness
2.43 jobs Average
number of
jobs in the
system
41.2% Utilization
13.6 days Average
completion
time
E
C
D
A
B
Sequence
Summary
Average
Lateness
(Days)
Average
Number of
J obs in the
System
Utilizatio
n (%)
Average
Completion
Time
(days)
Rule
1.2 2.43 41.2 13.6 EDD
1.8 2.32 43.1 13.0 SPT
2.2 2.75 36.4 15.4 FCFS
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Job Shop Scheduling Job Shop Scheduling
-- -- 2 Work Center Sequencing 2 Work Center Sequencing
Used to sequence N jobs through 2
machines in the same order
Saw Drill
Job A Job A
Job B Job B
Job C Job C
Jobs (N = 3)
J ohnson’s Rule
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Two Work Center Sequencing
J ohnson’s Rule: technique for
minimizing completion time for a group of
jobs to be processed on two machines or at
two work centers.
Minimizes total idle time
Several conditions must be satisfied
J ohnson's Rule - Scheduling N J obs on
Two Machines
All jobs are to be listed, and the time each
requires on a machine shown.
Select the job with the shortest activity
time. If the shortest time lies with the
first machine, the job is scheduled first; if
with the second machine, the job is
scheduled last.
Once a job is scheduled, eliminate it.
Apply steps 2-3 to the remaining jobs,
working toward the center of the
sequence.
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List jobs &
activity times
Select job with
shortest time
Machine?
Schedule
FIRST
Schedule
LAST
Eliminate job
from list
Jobs left?
Break
arbitrarily
Ties?
Yes Yes
1 1
2 2
Yes Yes
Stop
No No
No No
J ohnson’s Rule Steps
Example: Two Work Center
J ob
Work
center 1
A 5 5
B 4 3
C 8 9
D 2 7
E 6 8
F 12 15
Work
center 2
Processing time
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Example: Two Work Center
J ob
Lowest
Work
center 1
A 5 5
B 4 3
C 8 9
D 2 7
E 6 8
F 12 15
Work
center 2
@ work center 1
D
Example: Two Work Center
cont.
J ob
Lowes
t
Work
center 1
A 5 5
B 4 3
C 8 9
D 2 7
E 6 8
F 12 15
Work
center 2
@ work station 2
D B
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Example: Two Work Center
cont.
J ob
Lowes
t
Work
center 1
A 5 5
B 4 3
C 8 9
D 2 7
E 6 8
F 12 15
Work
center 2
Tie: pick arbitrarily
D B A
Example: Two Work Center
cont.
J ob
Lowes
t
Work
center 1
A 5 5
B 4 3
C 8 9
D 2 7
E 6 8
F 12 15
Work
center 2
@ work station
1
D B AE A
Scheduling: J ob Sequencing
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Example: Two Work Center
cont.
J ob
Lowes
t
Work
center 1
A 5 5
B 4 3
C 8 9
D 2 7
E 6 8
F 12 15
Work
center 2
@ work station
1
D B AE A C
D B AE A C F
Final
sequence
Example: Two Work Center
cont.
Work station 1
D B E A C F
0 2 8 16 28 33 37
D B E A C F
2 9 17 26 28 43 48 51
Work station 2
Makespan = 51
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J ohnson’s Rule Conditions
J ob time must be known and constant
J ob times must be independent of sequence
J obs must follow same two-step sequence
J ob priorities cannot be used
All units must be completed at the first
work center before moving to second
J ohnson’s Rule - Example
7 10 D
12 7 E
4 8 C
6 3 B
2 5 A
Work Center 2
(Lathe)
Work Center 1
(Drill Press)
J ob
Scheduling: J ob Sequencing
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J ohnson’s Rule - Example
A Step 1
A B Step 2
A C B Step 3
A C D B Step 4
A C D E B Step 5
Graphical Depiction of J ob Flow
A
C A D E B
C D E B
Work
center 1
Work
center 2
0 3 10 20 28 33
0 3 9 10 20 22 28 29 33 35 Time =>
Time =>
B E D C A
= Job completed
= Idle
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Limitations of Rule-Based Dispatching
Systems
Scheduling is dynamic; therefore, rules
need to be revised to adjust to changes
in process, equipment, product mix, etc.
Rules do not look upstream or
downstream; idle resources and
bottleneck resources in other
departments may not be recognized
Rules do not look beyond due dates
Scheduling Work - Work Loading
Infinite loading:
Ignores capacity
constraints, but helps
identify bottlenecks in
a proposed schedule
to enable proactive
management
Finite loading:
Allows only as much
work to be assigned
as can be done with
available capacity –
but doesn’t prepare
for inevitable slippage
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Challenges Challenges
Scheduling Difficulties
Variability in
Setup times
Processing times
Interruptions
Changes in the set of jobs
No method for identifying optimal schedule
Scheduling is not an exact science
Ongoing task for a manager
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Minimizing Scheduling Difficulties
Set realistic due dates
Focus on bottleneck operations
Try to increase the capacity of the
bottleneck
Schedule the bottleneck operations first
Then schedule nonbottleneck
Consider lot splitting of large jobs
large differences in job times
Scheduling in Service Scheduling in Service
Scheduling: J ob Sequencing
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Scheduling Service Operations
Appointment systems
Controls customer arrivals for service
Reservation systems
Estimates demand for service
Scheduling the workforce
Manages capacity for service
Scheduling multiple resources
Coordinates use of more than one resource
Cyclical Scheduling
Hospitals, police/fire departments,
restaurants, supermarkets
Rotating schedules
Set a scheduling horizon
Identify the work pattern
Develop a basic employee schedule
Assign employees to the schedule
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Service Operation Problems
Cannot store or inventory services
Customer service requests are
random
Scheduling service involves
Customers
Workforce
Equipment
Recap
Scheduling
Critical factors of scheduling
Flow shop scheduling
Flow system
Intermediate-volume scheduling
3 basic issues
J ob shop scheduling
Gantt chart
• Loading chart
• Sequencing chart
Loading
• Assignment method
Sequencing
• Priority rules
• Makespan
• J ohnson’s rule
Scheduling: J ob Sequencing
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Scheduling for Services
Appointment systems - doctor’s office
Reservations systems - restaurant, car
rental
First come, first served - restaurants
Most critical first - hospital trauma room
Questions ?