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Nanotechnology in Building Nanotechnology in Building 

Materials
Matt Schimel
Carbon Nano Tubes Carbon Nano Tubes 
• Cylindrical with a 
diameter of 1 nanometer.
A th ti ll 100 • Are theoretically 100 
times as strong as steel, 
but have only tested to 
bbe 8 times stronger.
• They are 1/6 the density 
of steel of steel.
• Very high thermal 
conductivity along the 
t b i tubes axis.
Why incorporate nanotechnology into building 
materials? 
$ • Construction industry is a $1 
trillion a year industry.
I th t th f • Improves the strength of 
steel and concrete.
• Creates a self cleaning • Creates a self cleaning 
surface.
• Has insulating properties. Has insulating properties.
• Is combined with copper 
Benefits in Steel
nano‐particles.
• This combination improves This combination improves 
the strength and increases 
the melting point the melting point. 
• Allows for increased 
flexibility and increases the 
shine of the steel. shine of the steel.
• Would be very useful in 
b id b f h bridges because of the 
better corosion protection.
High Strength Bolts High Strength Bolts
• Standard High Strength Bolts
• Created through the process of quenching and 
tempering the bolt tempering the bolt.
• Failure is caused by hydrogen interacting with 
the stressed steel to cause them to become 
brittle. brittle.
• High Strength Bolts Enhanced with Nanotechnology
Th di ti l i dd d d i th f i • The vanadium nano‐particle is added during the forging process.
• It improves the steel microstructure and delays the break time.
Benefits in Concrete Benefits in Concrete
Strengthened Concrete Self Healing concrete Strengthened Concrete  Self Healing concrete
•Nano particles only allow small 
cracks to form.
•Carbon nano tubes are added to 
the concrete mixture.
•The particles mend themselves 
when they encounter water.
•The hydrogen in the water helps 
•The finished product has 1% 
CNT’s to the 99% standard 
concrete.
the particles form the broken 
hydrogen bonds.
•Can handle an additional 25 
N/mm.
Strengthened concrete has 500% the 
tensile strength of normal concrete.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090422175336.htm
Cracks will repair themselves 
when water is added.
http://www.aggregateresearch.com/article.aspx?id=19043
Windows Windows
S lf l i TiO t d • Self‐cleaning TiO
2
coated 
glass.
• Improve glass strength 
• The TiO
2
attracts water 
to the window surface 
and allows for the dirt to
p g g
allowing for glass to 
withstand high winds or 
even debris during 
and allows for the dirt to 
be washed away.
g
hurricanes.
• Both strengthened and self 
cleaning glass are currently cleaning glass are currently 
available.
Ex: a window 
with 
BIOCLEAN® 
coating.
• Nano particles  have even 
b d t t fi
Fire and heat protection
been used to create fire 
protective glass.
• A small layer of SiO
2
nano‐
particles are placed  p p
between two layers of 
glass. g
• Other coatings are being 
developed to reduce the developed to reduce the 
the heat transferred from 
one side of the glass to the
This is an example of glass that can 
contain fires The main problem is that one side of the glass to the 
other. 
contain fires. The main problem is that 
it still allows the heat to travel through.
Nanotechnology in Paint Nanotechnology in Paint
•Wi‐Fi blocking paint would create a more secure network by allowing for only 
a certain area to be covered.
•Self cleaning paint. (for use on the outside of buildings)
P i t t i i it th t t •Paint containing nano‐sensors can monitor the temperature.
• UV/IR filtering and 
reflecting  windows for 
control of unwanted solar 
heat.
• Removes the need for • Removes the need for 
window washers.
Lowering the Operating Costs of 
the Buildings
• The stronger concrete and 
steel lowers maintenance steel lowers maintenance 
and repair costs.
Building Safety Building Safety
N i fi • Nano‐concrete is more fire 
resistant than the organic 
polymers that are currently  p y y
added to concrete.
• Researchers are currently 
l ki i looking into nano‐sensors 
that can warn of fires, 
structural problems, or if  p ,
the air is dangerous to 
breathe.
N l • Nano‐sensors are currently 
used to monitor cells in the 
human body. y
Health Concerns Health Concerns
C b d t • Can be dangerous to 
human health if the 
particles become  p
airborne.
• Most current uses of 
nanotechnology in nanotechnology in 
buildings have proven to 
be safe.
• Such small amounts are 
used, mostly coatings for 
other materials the other materials, the 
chance of them affecting 
a person is very low.
Examples of Uses Examples of Uses
Nanotechnology used to produce an image on a clear glass surface. a o ec o ogy used o p oduce a age o a c ea g ass su ace
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cxj‐a1lkZ‐k
Self Cleaning Glass g
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5EVzi7U9yQ&NR=1
Bibliography Bibliography
•http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=88
•http://www.ravensbyglass.co.uk/self_cleaning_glass.cfm
•http://theconstructor.org/concrete/application‐of‐nanotechnology‐in‐civil‐
engineering/5255/
h // k / l h / d h •http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1007.php
•http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090422175336.htm